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This question tests your understanding of states of matter and separation of mixtures:

The picture below shows salt mining activity in Thailand. Similar activity used to take place in the
Turks and Caicos and other Caribbean countries. The salt mining is achieved by allowing the sea to run
into some shallow man-made ponds and then allowing the seawater to stand, after some time the salt
which is formed is simply collected.
(a) What type of mixture is seawater? [1]

(b) Suggest what process takes place to leave the salt

behind? [1]

(c) What is the difference in the properties of salt and

water in seawater which makes this method of salt
harvesting/mining possible? [1]

(d) Using small shaded and unshaded circles to represnt sodium and chloride ions, draw a simple
sketch to show the possible arrangement of these particles in
(i) seawater and in
(ii) the solid salt [2]

(e) The water for rainfall is obtained largely from the oceans what processes involving state change
take place during the transition from seawater to fresh water in the form of rain. [2]


The term solvent front refers to

the leading edge of the solvent
which leaves its moisture mark on
the paper

(i) State which dye is the most soluble in ethanol. [1]

(ii) State which dye is not present in food colour [1]

(iii) The term Rf value of a dye is a formula calculated by measuring the distance travelled by the dye
and dividing it by the distance travelled by the solvent front.

Rf value = __ distance travelled by dye_______

Distance travelled by solvent front

Calculate the Rf value for Chad Yellow [2]

Use the diagram of the chromatography of the dyes and food colour above to answer the question


(g) Someone said that Sudan Orange could be a mixture of Chad Yellow and Niger Red. Explain using
the evidence from the experiment carried out whether you agree or disagree with the idea.