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NAME: OSANO CHRISTINE

JANE

REG NO: EN251-2826/2014

COURSE: CIVIL
ENGINEERING

UNIT: HYDRAULICS 1

V-NOTCH
EXPERIMENT
OBJECTIVES

To observe the state of flow over a V-notch


To determine the relationship between the discharge and the head
above the notch.
To compare the theoretical discharge and the actual discharge
To compare the coefficient of discharge obtained by the experiment
with that by British Standard (BS 3680, Part4A)
INTRODUCTION
A V-notch is commonly used for the measurement of small discharges in
an open channel. A V-notch is of the shape of a triangle with its apex down
and base up. A V- notch usually consists of a metal plate with a sharp
crest having a bevel edge on the downstream so that the liquid springs of
the notch with only a line contact. The stream of liquid efect is called
nappe. The nappe should be fully ventilated so that the pressure below it
is atmospheric.
The set-up consists of a large tank erected on a raised platform. The water
is supplied to the tank from a constant-head supply tank by a pipe with
regulating valve. Baffle walls are installed in the tank to stabilise flow and
to reduce the velocity of approach. The baffle walls thus calm the flow and
reduce eddies. A sharp-edged notch plate is fitted at the downstream end
of the tank. A point gauge is used to measure the head over the crest of
the notch. A large measuring tank is used to collect water for
measurement of discharge.
KNOWLEDGE IN RELATIO TO THE EXPERIMENT
1. Theoretical discharge (Qt)
Qt =82g H tan = K H
15
Where: g= gravitational acceleration
H= head above notch
= half angle of notch
K = 82g tan
15

2. Coefficient of discharge (Cd)


Cd = Qa
Qt
Where: Qa represents the actual discharge obtained by the
discharge measurement device (gravimetric method).
3. Conversion of the head into actual discharge
From the above equations, we get;
Qa = Cd.Qt = 8 Cd2g H = Cd K H
15

Replacing 8 Cd2g by K
15
Qa= K H
In the experiment, Qa and H are measured. K can be obtained from the
following equation:
K = Qa
H
When logarithmic scale paper is applied to second last above equation,
K is determined based on a H-Q graph. Applying the logarithmic
operations to it we get,
Log Qa = Log K + 5/2Log H

Therefore, when the experimental data are joined by a straight line


with a gradient of 5/2, the actual discharge corresponding to H = 1m
gives a value of K.

4. Formulae according to British Standard (BS 3680, Part 4A).


According to that standard, the discharge equation for a V- notch with
the angle between 20 and 100 is as
Qa =8 CB2g HB tan
15

Where: CB = Coefficient of discharge varying with the value of Z/B and


H/Z as shown.
HB = Head which allows for the efects of viscosity and surface
tension

Using Kh for the efects,


HB = H + Kh

The value of Kh is a constant value of 0.00085m for a corresponding


range of values of H/Z and Z/B. Since Kh is very small, it is neglected in
the experiment.

APPARATUS
A steady water supply system
An approach channel with a hook gauge
A sharp-edge v-notch
A discharge measurement device (a bucket, a steel container and a
weighing balance)
A stop watch
A thermometer
A steel tape measure

PROCEDURE
1. The width of the approach channel and the height of the crest was
measured with a steel tape measure.
2. The temperature was then measured.
3. The Crest level of the V-notch was measured with the hook gauge. It is
taken after the approach channel is filled up to the crest level with the
water.
4. The operation of steady water supply system is started and the
discharge set small with the gate valve.
5. After the flow was steady, the water level was measured with the hook
gauge
6. The discharge is then measured with the bucket and the weighing
balance.
7. The discharge is increased a little, and procedure 5 and 6 repeated. If
the discharge is so large that the water cannot be collected with the
bucket, the steel container should be used in place of it.
NAME: OSANO CHRISTINE
JANE

REG NO: EN251-2826/2014

COURSE: CIVIL
ENGINEERING

UNIT: HYDRAULICS 1

Broad-crested weir
OBJECTIVES

To observe the change of the state of flow.


To calibrate a laboratory-scale round-nose broad-crested weir.
To compare the coefficient of discharge obtained by the experiment
with that by British Standard (BS 3680, Part 4F)
INTRODUCTION
Rectangular weirs are solid weirs of rectangular cross section, which span
the full width of a channel. The following facts apply:
1. A hump placed on the bed of the channel results in a local increase in
the velocity of flow and a corresponding reduction in the elevation of
the water surface.
2. Given a hump of sufficient height, critical flow will be produced in the
flow over the hump. There is then a direct relationship between Q and
h, i.e., the flow is modular. Long-based weirs are designed for modular
flow.
3. By definition, a rectangular weir is not streamlined. This, in turn,
implies that the streamlines at the upstream end of the weir will not be
parallel since the flow will be accelerating. If frictional resistance is
ignored, then the streamlines will become parallel and the flow become
critical given a sufficient length of crest. It is then possible to derive a
straightforward performance under submerged conditions than other
long-based weirs
KNOWLEDGE IN RELATIO TO THE EXPERIMENT
1. Actual discharge
In this experiment, the actual discharge (Qa) is measured by the V-notch.
It is given as follows:
Qa = Kv Hv

Kv = 8 Cdv 2g tan
15
Where: Hv = head above V-notch
Cdv = coefficient of discharge of V-notch
= Half angle of V-notch
Kv = Coefficient of V-notch
The values of Cdv and Kv have been obtained in the Experiment of V-
notch
2. Specific Gravity
The total head reckoned from the crest level of the broad-crested at
section 1 is as
E = H - Z + V = H - Z + 1 (Qa)
2g 2g (BH)
Where: H = depth at section 1
Z = height of weir
V = Velocity of flow at section 1 (approaching velocity)
B = width of weir
The specific gravity at the weir is equal to the total head (E). There is a
relationship between the specific energy (E) and the depth at the control
section (critical depth Hc) as follows:
E = 3/2 Hc
If the critical depth is measured, it is very easy to calculate the specific
energy and the discharge over the weir. However, it is difficult to find out
the critical section. In this experiment, to determine the coefficient of
discharge of the broad-crested weir, the upstream depth and the
approaching velocity which is calculated as Qa/(BH) are adopted.
3. Discharge Equation
The theoretical discharge over a broad-crested weir (Qt) is given as:
Qt = B H V = 2g/3 B E = 1.70 E
The coefficient of discharge Cd is found as the ratio of the actual
discharge Qa to the theoretical discharge Qt.
Qd = Qa
Qt
According to the British Standard (BS 3680, Part 4F), the coefficient of
discharge is theoretically given as:
Cdt = (1 0.006 L )(1 0.003 L )
B H - Z
Where: Cdt = theoretical coefficient of discharge
L = length of the flat portion of water

Actually, in the field, it is important to find the relationship between the


depth at section 1 (H) and the actual discharge Qa since the water level
is measured in a gauge well-constructed in the upstream of the weir.

4. Froude number
when the actual discharge Qa and the depth H are known, the Froude
number Fr is calculated as follows:
Velocity of flow, v = Qa
BH
Propagation velocity of long waves, u = gH
Froude number, Fr = v = Qa
U BHgH
Flows are classified into three states according to Froude number,
Fr > 1.0 Supercritical flow
Fr = 1.0 Critical flow
Fr < 1.0 Subcritical flow
The control section is located at the point where the critical flow occurs.
PROCEDURE
1. The dimensions of the broad-crested weir were measures and distances
taken from section 2A to section 2B section 2F.
2. The open channel was then set to be horizontal and the temperature of
water measured.
3. The crest level of the broad-crested weir was measured and also the
level of the channel bed with point gauges. Also, the crest level of the
V-notch was then measured with the hook gauge, pouring the water up
to the crest level.
4. The operation of the steady water supply system was started and the
discharge set small. The head above the V-notch after the flow became
steady was then measured.
5. The depth of the flow of the upstream where the weir does not exert
influence of water surface (section 1) was also measured.
6. The change of state of flow by the broad-crested was observed and the
section where the control section occurs found, lettinga drop of water
fall on the surface of flow.
7. The discharge was then increased a little and procedure above
procedures repeated.
8. One flow was selected and the depths of flow at section 2A to section
2F measured.