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GRAMMAR BOOK
A WINTER
WONDERLAND!
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Grammar Book Table Of Contents

Introduction.....pg.3

About the Author....pg. 3

1. Parts of speech..pg. 4-19


2. Phrasespg. 20-22
3. Clauses ..pg. 23-25
4. Sentencespg. 26-29
5. Paragraphs..pg.30-32
6. Essays...pg.33-34
7. Capitalization.pg. 35-37
8. Punctuationpg. 38-39
9. Commonly Confused Wordspg. 40
10. Quizzes (1-10) Answer Key..pg.41-43
11. Glossary..pg. 44-45
12. Works Cited Page..pg.46
13. Back Cover Dedication...pg. 47

INTRODUCTION

Welcome to the grammatical winter wonderland! This Grammar Book based on a very jolly

holiday season will explain the usage of correct grammar and its mechanics. Once you finish

reading you will have a better understanding of grammar and its many, different areas used in
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our writing. You will also have the advantage of learning about a season which either you may

love or you may hate because of its terrible coldness.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Lets start out by saying, grammar and writing are not my best friends. But hey! We shouldnt let

our weaknesses put us down, theyre here to make us stronger and to help us improve. Writing

hasnt been my strongest area but I have improved over the years, throughout elementary,

middle school, and now high school. Although, writing may not be my strongest, I never let it put

me down, I always strive to better myself and hopefully will continue thriving on improving.

Grammar Book Section 1


Parts Of Speech

I. NOUNS
A. Types of nouns:

1. Common Nouns: name a class of people, places, things, or


idea.
Ex.: Big Bear, snow, Christmas, mittens, gingerbread man, hot chocolate.
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2. Proper Nouns: give the name or title of a particular person,


place, thing, or idea (must be capitalized).
Ex.: Santa Claus, December, January, New Years.
3. Compound Nouns: consist of words used together to form a
single noun.
Ex.: gingerbread, snowman, fireplace, pinecone, frostbite.
4. Concrete nouns: refer to material things, to people, or to
places.
Ex.: scarf, heater, sled, boots, blanket.
5. Abstract Nouns: name ideas, quality, emotions or attitudes.
Ex.: joy, cold, comfort, warmth.

B. Noun identifiers:

1. Noun endings:
- coldness - arrangement - reindeer - adventure
- gratitude - glory - florist - charity
- sister - favoritism - patience
- celebration -assistance - childhood

2. Following a noun marker (NM): a, all, an, both, each, every,


her, his, my, our, several, some, that, their, these, this, those, one, two, three,
etc. Emboldened words are pronouns that function as noun markers only when
they act as adjectives, i.e., Some boxes are square. (Some acts as an
adjective, so its a noun marker). Some are square. (Some acts as a noun so
its not a noun marker).
NM N NM N
Those mittens are small. Those red, small mittens dont fit me anymore.

3. Plural form: for example: candles or mittens

4. Possessive form: for example: candles scent or candles


scent

5. Following a preposition:
NM N ADV V PREP NM ADJ N
The snowflakes steadily fell down the square shaped window. (preposition)
These are some common prepositions: aboard, about, above, according to,
across, across from, after, against, along, alongside, alongside of, along with,
amid, among, apart from, around, as, as far as, aside from, at, away from, back
of, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but
(except), by, by means of, concerning, despite, down, down from, except, except
for, excluding, for, from, from among, from between, from under, in, in addition to,
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in behalf of, including, in front of, in place of, in regard to, inside, inside of, in
spite of, instead of, into, like, near, near to, notwithstanding, of, off, on, on
account of, on behalf of, onto, on top of, opposite, out, out of, outside, outside of,
over, over to, owing to, past, prior to, to, toward, under, underneath, until, unto,
up, upon, up to, versus, via, with, within, without.

Note: Sometimes the above words are used as adverbs.

Santa Clauss mittens fell down. (adverb)

C. Functions (How nouns are used):

N-V 1. Subject (comes before the verb)


S V
Grandma cooked hot chocolate.
S V
Grandma pleasantly cooked her famous Christmas hot chocolate.

N-V-N 2. Direct Object (comes after the verb and answer what or whom)
S V DO IO
My mom wrapped the presents for my siblings. (wrapped what?)
S V DO IO
My little brother and I helped my dad set up a huge pine tree in our living room
as
a tradition of the holidays. (who helped?)

N - V- N - N 3. Indirect Object (answers to who or to whom)


S V DO IO
Santa Claus gave out presents to the children.
S V DO IO
Santa Claus gave out presents to the innocent children at the charity
foundation
on Christmas Eve.

N-V-N 4. Adverbial Object (comes after the verb and answers when)
S V AO
The children open their presents on Christmas mornings. (open when?)

S V AO
The children open their presents on Christmas mornings which has always
been a tradition in most families during the holidays. (open when?)
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Prep - N 5. Object of the Preposition (follows a preposition)


S V Prep OPrep
Mike went to the ice rink to practice his ice skating techniques. (to the what?)
S V Prep OPrep
Mike went to the ice rink to practice his ice skating techniques for his
upcoming
winter tournament.
N - LV - N 6. Subject Complement (following a linking verb)
S LV SC
Felix is the snowman I created in my front yard. (snowman renames Felix)
S LV SC
Felix is the snowman I created with a strong base in my front yard. (SC can
also be an adjective. Strong describes Felix)

N-V-N-N 7. Object Complement (follows a direct object and renames it)


S Adj V DO OC
The neighborhood children communally chose Alex as the captain of their
snowball team.
S Adj V DO OC
The neighborhood children communally chose Alex to be the captain of their
team for their annual winter snowball fight.

N, N 8. Appositives (rename nouns, separated by commas)


S APP V Adj
Mr. Williams, my coach, showed me some various, helpful ice skating
techniques.
S APP V Adj
Mr. Williams, my coach showed me various, helpful ice skating techniques
which
will help me improve for my next hockey game.

N-N 9. Adjectival (describes noun following it)


S Adj V Adjvl
The cocoa powder messily spilled all over the kitchen table.

I can no longer make my grandmas hot chocolate recipe because the cocoa
S Adj V Adjvl
powder messily spilled all over the kitchen table.

N, N or N, N 10. Noun In Direct Address


N
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Santa Claus, are you bringing me presents this year?


N
Ive behaved really good this year, Santa Claus, a reward would be a nice,
friendly gesture.

Gerund - N 11. Object of the gerund (noun that follows a gerund)


G OG
Winning the snowball fight made my team happy. (winning what?)
G OG
Winning the snowball fight made my team very happy because that meant
we
won the neighborhood snowball trophe. (winning what?)

Participle - N 12. Object of the participle (noun that follows a participle)


Part OPart
After the sled race, Henry felt ecstatically accomplished.
Part OPart
After the snowball fight, Rob felt ecstatically accomplished because he was
now the new champion.

Infinitive - N 13. Object of the infinitive (noun that follows an infinitive)


_Inf_ Olnf
Nate wanted to win the schools sled race. (to win what?)
_Inf_ Olnf
Nate fearlessly wanted to win the schools sled race because the winner
gets
an opportunity to race in the winter olympics.

II. Pronouns
1. Personal:
Nominative (subjects) Objective (objects)
I/we me/us
you/you you/you
He, she, it, one/they him, her, it, one/them

- We sat around the fireplace, when the swooping avalanche behind


our house knocked over our hot chocolate, spilling it all over the table.

Possessive

My, mine our/ours


Your, yours your, yours
His, her, hers, its, ones their, theirs
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- My grandmas special Christmas hot chocolate and peppermint


cake is my familys favorite to make because theyve been one of my familys
holiday traditions for years.

2. Relative:
Nominative Objective Possessive
who whom whose
That that of that
those/this

- Its important to know to know the forecast in the winter because


the weather can get very cold and snowfall can occur.
- Santa Claus, whose house is located in the north pole, brings
children presents on Christmas

3. Interrogative:
who, which, what, whatever, whoever
- Who found the mitten, that I was looking for after misplacing it?
- What can occur to the cities streets if a heavy amount of snowfall
occurs?

4. Reflexive: (personal pronouns plus the suffix -self or -selves)


Used only:
A. When the action verb is directed toward the subject of the
construction:
-I. Mike all by himself constructed Felix the snowman in his front yard.
B. To intensify a point:
-I. The group themselves worked extremely hard winning first place in the sled
races.

5. Demonstrative:
this, these that, those
- These different holiday food recipes are all thanks to my grandma
for being a great traditional cook.
- That red coat is my favorite coat to wear during the holidays.

6. Indefinite:
all, another, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone,
everything, everywhere, few, many, much, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing,
other, several, somebody, someone, such.
- During the winter break, many people hang out with their friends
and few people focus on their homework.
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- All Nate wanted to do this winter break is to have nothing but an


icy blast visiting an igloo.

III. Verbs

A. How verbs are identified:


1.Verb Ending: (-s, -ed, -ing)
- talks, cooks, shivers cooked, talked, shivered cooking, talking, shivering

2. Tense: verbs indicate time via tenses:

1. simple past (took)- talked, cooked, shivered


2. past (took)- talked, cooked, shivered
3. past perfect (had been taking) - had talked, cooked, shivered
4. past progressive (had taken)- were talking, cooking, shivering
5. simple present (take)- we talk, cook, shiver
6. present (take)- we talk, cook, shiver
7. present perfect (has been taking)-we have talked, cooked, shivered
8. present progressive (has taken)- we are talking, cooking, shivering
9. present perfect progressive (am taking)- we have been talking, cooking, shivering

10. future (will take)- i will talk, cook, shiver


11. future perfect (will be taking)- i will be talking, cooking, shivering

3. Forms:
a. Forms of to be: am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being (These
verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs. When used as main verb,
they are always linking verbs - true linking verbs = all forms of be, become,
and seem).

b. Forms of to do: do, does, did, done, doing (These verbs can
be used as helping verbs or main verbs).
c. Forms of to have: have, had, has, having (These verbs can be
used as helping verbs or main verbs).

4. Types: There are at least eleven (11) types of verbs:


a. Auxiliary verbs (helping verbs)-might, must, be, do, have
b. Linking verbs (verbs that do not describe action, but connect the
subject of a sentence to other parts of the sentence - usually the predicate)- is, is
being, are, are being, was, was being, were, has, has been, are being, might
have been
c. Lexical verbs (main verbs)- arrive, see, jogged, do
d. Dynamic verbs (indicate action) -abandon, ask, beg, eat, walk,
talk, run, become
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e. Stative verbs (describe a condition) -prefer, like, satisfy,


understand, love, hate, know
f. Finitive verbs (indicate tense)- promised, wanted, promised, went
g. Nonfinitive verbs (infinitives or participles) -to follow, to believe, to
wonder, to love
h. Regular verbs (weak verbs)- believe, discuss, argue
i. Irregular verbs (strong verbs) -understood, become, sung
j. Transitive verbs (verbs followed by a direct object)- bring, send,
write, eat, clean
k. Intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take direct objects) -promise,
want, show, run, refuse

5. Voice: Voice is the form of the verb that indicates how it relates or interacts with the
action. The english language has two voices:
a. Active- I will wrap gifts on Saturday.
b. Passive- The gifts will be wrapped on Saturday.

6. Verbals: (VERB FORMS NOT USED AS VERBS)


a. Gerund: word ending in ing used as a noun.
i. The children have an icy blast making snowmans.

b. Participle: word ending in ing or ed used as an adjective


i. As we opened to door to the room the bell jingled.
ii. The children think wisely about what they will write in their Christmas lists.

c. Infinitive: verb preceded by the word to (to go, to jump) used as nouns,
adjectives, or adverbs.
i. I like to sleigh in the snow.
(noun: direct object - likes what?)
ii. I have ice skates I use to ride around the frozen lake.
(adjective: modifies ice skates - what ice skates?)

IV. Adjectives
- Adjectives modify, describe, limit, and identify nouns and
pronouns.
1. Kinds:
- Demonstrative adjectives: point out nouns
(this mitten, that snowflake, these ice skates)
- Common adjectives: describes a noun in a general way
(freezing weather, cloudy skies, warm gloves
- Proper adjectives: are derived from a proper noun and are
capitalized
(American traditions, Winter snow, Alaskan weather)
2. Endings:
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- -al = typical
- -ary = rosary
- -ful = wonderful
- -ic = terrific
- -ical = geographical
- -ish = selfish
- -less = priceless
- -like= icelike
- -ly= chilly
- -ous= fabulous
- -y = windy
3. Conversions:
- adverb to adjective : remove the ending suffix, -ly (amazingly to
amazing)
- noun to adjective: When a noun is used to describe another noun,
the first noun acts as an adjective (arctic snowstorm)
- verb to adjective : add an ending; suffix (sled to sledding)
4. Articles:
- Articles are adjectives, that describe the nouns that they come
before of. There are only three articles: the, a, and an, and they are used only in
specific circumstances.
(the reindeer, a holiday, an season)
5. Comparatives/Superlatives:
- A comparative adjective is used when comparing two things.
- The Christmas tree is taller than the door.
- The snowstorm was stronger than yesterday's.
- Yesterdays weather was colder than todays.
- A superlative adjective is used when comparing three or more
things.
- That Christmas tree is the tallest of them all.
- My snowman was the strongest of the
neighborhood.
- This years winter has been the coldest recorded.
V. Adverbs
- Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
a. Endings:
- -ly : annually, cheerfully, faithfully, joyfully
- -wards : afterwards, homewards, eastwards
- -wise : clockwise, otherwise
b. Conversions:
- A verb can become an adverb by adding ending -ly.
- An adjective becomes an adverb with ending -ed or -ing.
- EX: - Anxious to anxiously
- Homeward to homewards
- Length to lengthwise
c. Types: Manner, Frequency, Degree, Place, Time
d. Conjunctive:
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- A conjunctive adverb can join two main clauses, however, you


need a semicolon to connect the two clauses.
- They are also used to show sequence, contrast, cause and effect,
and other relationships.
- EX.: - I ate Santa's cookies; therefore, I got no presents.
-I completed the sled race; however, I didnt win first place.

e. Intensifiers:
- Those that show emphasis and amplify the action of adverbs.
- They are words that modify or change the meaning of an adverb.
- Examples:
- On Christmas morning i opened the presents that,
obviously Santa Claus brought me.
- I would really like to make my mom a cozy, festive
Christmas sweater but I dont know how to knit.
- Christmas is certainly the holiday filled with the
most joy.
f. Comparatives/Superlatives:
- The comparative form of an adjective or adverb compares two
things.
- My holiday cookies were sweeter than my moms
original recipe.
- Our winter formal food was way better than last
years.
- The superlative form of an adjective or adverb compares three or
more things.
- Our Christmas lights were the brightest in the
whole neighborhood.
- I won the longest sled race in the championship
this season.
Example Types:
- Manner:
- (basic) My siblings opened their presents on
Christmas morning rapidly.
(How did they open their presents?)
- advanced) My siblings opened their presents on
Christmas morning so rapidly they had already finished by the time I
opened my first gift.
- Time:
- (basic) My mom came home immediately after her
work meeting for our Christmas party. (When did she come home?)
- (advanced) My mom came home immediately
after her work meeting for our Christmas party, we were having to
celebrate the holidays.
- Place:
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- (basic) Everywhere we go we see Christmas lights


during the holidays. (Where are the lights?)
- (advanced) Everywhere we go during the holidays
we see Christmas lights and Santa Claus arrangements.
- Degree:
- (basic) The holidays can get extremely cold and
windy. (How cold?)
- (advanced) The holidays can get extremely cold
and windy therefore you must wear a cozy sweater.
- Frequency:
- (basic) During the holiday season, my mom is
constantly buying presents. (How often is my mom buying presents?)
- (advanced) During the holiday season, my mom is
constantly buying presents for our family and close friends.

VI. Conjunctions
A. Coordinating: (FANBOYS) for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
- (basic) Christmas is a holiday that should be celebrated by all yet
theres people who still have to work that day.
- (advanced) Christmas is a holiday that should be celebrated by all
yet theres people who still have to work that day, which is honestly not fair.

B. Correlative: Either/or: neither/nor; not only/ but also; both/and; wether/or; as/so
- (basic) Neither did my sister or I bake Santas cookies this year.
- (advanced) Neither did my sister or I bake Santas cookies this
year which i hope Santa didnt mind.
C. Subordinate: after, though as if, as long as, as though, because, before, if, in
order that, provided that, since, so, so that, that, though, till, unless, when, where,
whereas, while.
- (basic) I lost the sled race whereas my unfair opponent won but
cheated his way through.
- (advanced) On Christmas morning my family and I opened our
presents while watching traditional Christmas movies.
D. Relative pronouns: who (refers to people), which (refers to non living object or
animals), that (may refer to animals or non living objects)
- (basic) Christmas is a very joyful holiday that is enjoyed and
celebrated by many people.
- (advanced) Santa Claus who is loved by many children leaves
presents under our trees for us to open impatiently on Christmas morning.

VII. Prepositions
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Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of the sentence.
Prepositions are NEVER followed by verbs. There are one-word prepositions and
complex prepositions.
These are some common prepositions: aboard, about, above, according to, across,
across from, after, against, along, alongside, alongside of, along with, amid, among,
apart from, around, as, as far as, aside from, at, away from, back of, because of, before,
behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but (except), by, by means of,
concerning, despite, down, down from, except, except excluding, for, from, from among,
from between, from under, in, in addition to, in behalf of, including, in front of, in place of,
in regard to, inside, inside of, in spite of, instead of, into, like, near, enar to,
notwithstanding, of, off, on, on account of, on behalf of, onto, on top of, opposite, out, out
of, outside, outside of, over, over to, owing to, past, prior to, to, toward, under,
underneath, until, unto, up, upon, up to, versus, with, within, without.

- In behalf of the Christmas season, I created a traditional


snowman in front of my house which aside from being the best in my block was
beyond wonderful with a red hat on top of his head.
- Before my sled race which was held alongside a huge snowy
mountain, I put on my protective gear on versus my opponents who like to risk
themselves.
- Underneath my Christmas tree in place of presents there was a
trail that led to the back of my house where there stood along our garden Santa
Claus himself with a bag of presents behind him.
VIII. Interjections
Interjections are the final part of speech. Express/convey strong emotions.
- A. aha, ahem, ahh, ahoy, alas, arg, aw
- B. bam, bingo, blah, boo, bravo, brrr
- C. cheers, congratulations
- D. dang, drat, darn, duh
- E. eek, eh, encore, eureka
- F. fiddlesticks
- G. gadzooks, gee, gee whiz, golly, goodbye, goodness, good grief, gosh
- H. ha-ha, hallelujah, hello, hey, hmm, holy buckets, holy cow, huh?, humph,
hurray
- O. oh, oh dear, oh my, oh well, oops, ouch, ow
- P. phew, phooey, pooh, pow
- R. rats
- S. shh, shoo
- T. thanks, there, tut-tut
- U. uh-huh, uh-oh, ugh
- W. wahoo, well, whoa, whoops, wow
- Y. yeah, yes, yikes, yippee, yo, yuck
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- Dang! That snowstorm from last night hit really hard and
completely covered my car disabling us from driving anywhere, including school
hurray!
- My goodness, how will I ever thank my gear which is such an
important aspect in winning any sled race?
- Hey, congratulations on winning the snowman building contest
there is every year in our city, well done.

Key Associated Term to Know For Parts of Speech:

VIII. Antecedents: An expression, word, phrase, clause, that gives its meaning to a
pronoun. (the word for which the pronoun stands)
- The boy threw a snowball across the yard and hit the snowman he
had just built.
- The pronoun he refers to the boy. The boy is the
antecedent for the pronoun he.
IX. Complements: a word, phrase or clause that is necessary to complete the meaning
of a given expression. (a noun or a verb)
- Christmas was an avalanche this season, there were so many
family and friends.
- The noun avalanche describes/tells us about
Christmas (subject).
X. Objects : (Direct and Indirect)
A. Direct Object: a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a
verb or shows the result of the action.
- The neighborhood streets were illuminated by the Christmas
lights.
B. Indirect Object: An indirect object is a prepositional phrase in
which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood.
- My sister gave me a Christmas gift that she made herself.
XI. Modifiers: words, phrases, or clauses, especially an adjective or noun used to make
partial or minor changes to something.
- My little sister stepped on and broke our new Christmas lights
while my mom and I finished setting up the rest of our Christmas decorations.
XII. Transitions:

Size Transitions

The largest Larger than The smallest The small-sized The tallest
The next largest Equal to The next smallest The medium-sized The shortest
The smallest Smaller than The largest The largest-sized
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
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Time Transitions

First, Now At the beginning of Thereafter, By this time Before


Then, Soon In the middle of Presently, At the same time In the meantime
Next, Then At the end of After a short time, At that instant Meanwhile
At last, Later Soon thereafter, Immediately, During
Simultaneously, Afterwards

First, In the morning, Yesterday, The first


Second, Before noon, Today, A more recent
Third, In the afternoon, Tomorrow The most recent
Finally, In the evening, The day after tomorrow,

In the past, The next day, This year, The earliest


In the present, Two weeks later, Next year, The next earliest
In the future, Six months later, In the next few years The most recent
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___

Space Transitions

behind on the edge of beside in front of west of high


over toward around facing east of against
under throughout near in back of north of alongside
below to the right of side by side in the center south of ahead of
beneath to the left of close to inside at the here
low down on top of next to outside in there
on the bottom at the top down at the end of on beyond
on the corner by up between above farther on
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___

Importance Transitions

The best The most important The first The best


The next best Equally important More important than The next best
The least best The next important Most important The worst
The least important
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
___
Chain-Link Transitions

On the one hand, One example of In the first place, In other words, The first
On the other hand, For instance, In the second place, In fact, The second
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Another example In the third place, Also, The third


Again, A further example
Besides, For another example,
Moreover, For example, One Because First,
Another Since Second,
Still another A further As Third,
In addition, Further, Still, Specifically
In the same way, Furthermore, While More specifically
In fact, Instead In particular,
The opposite of _is_ Additionally,
On the contrary side Lastly, The last Indeed, As a result,
To the contrary, Similar to _is_ Last Although Consequently,
In contrast, Another similar _is_ Even though Naturally
In spite of Likewise, Nevertheless, Even if After all,
Despite the Similarly, Nonetheless,
A dissimilar _is_
______________________________________________________________________________________

Concluding Transitions

To conclude In sum, To sum up As you can see,


In conclusion, In brief, To summarize, As a result,
In summary, In short, Therefore, Finally,

XIII. Expletives: words or phrases that do not add any structural or grammatical
meaning to the sentence. These words and phrases are often referred to as empty
words, meaningless. (begin with words like there, here, or it)
- It was the snowman I built that got destroyed by the neighbors.
XIV. Agreements: Subject-Verb & Noun-Pronoun:should agree in number within a
sentence.
1. Subject-Verb: When the subject of a sentence is composed of
two or more nouns or pronouns connected by and, use a plural verb.
S V
- My mom and teacher were discussing and sharing with each other
their different family Christmas traditions.
2. Noun-Pronoun: Pronouns must agree with antecedents for
person, number, or gender.
N P
- Santa Claus and his elfs work extremely hard during the year to
prepare the shipment of all the presents.
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SECTION 1 QUIZ

1. Select the noun type in the following sentence...


Santa Claus gave out presents to the children.
a.) common noun
b.) proper noun
c.) compound noun
d.) concrete noun

2. What type of function is represented in the following sentence...


My mom wrapped up Christmas presents for my siblings.
a.) subject
b.) indirect object
c.) direct object
d.) appositives
Hint: (wrapped what?)
3. All of the following are possessive pronouns except, which one?
a.) my
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b.) yours
c.) ours
d.) us
4. All of the following are verb endings except, which one?
a.) -wards
b.) -ed
c.) -s
d.) -ing
5. Which of the following are examples of a linking verb?
a.) might, must, be, do
b.) prefer, like, satisfy, love
c.) is, is being, are, has been
d.) believe, discuss, argue
6. Identify the adjective in the following sentence
Christmas is the most wonderful time of the year because we get to be with our loved
ones, eat lots of food, and open gifts.
a.) Christmas
b.) because
c.) wonderful
d.) open
7. Which of the following is not an adverb ending?
a.) -wise
b.) -wards
c.) -ly
d.) -ed
8. FANBOYS defines which particular type of conjunction?
a.) correlative
b.) coordinating
c.) subordinate
d.) relative pronouns
Hint: (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
9. Thanks, well, bam, cheer, yippee are all examples of Interjections.
a.)True
b.)False

10. The following sentence is an example of Noun-Pronoun agreement.


My mom and teacher were discussing and sharing with each other their different family
Christmas traditions.
a.) True
b.) False
Hint: = underlining
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Grammar Book Section 2


Phrases

Phrases
a. Prepositional: A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a
noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb.
preposition noun
1. Under my moms perfectly woven and warm blanket.
preposition noun
2. Among these, is our favorite holiday recipe cookbook.
b. Appositive: A group of words that include all the words or phrases that modify an
appositive.
noun appositive
1. Our Christmas tree, the biggest Christmas arrangement in my
house, delivers a fresh, vibrant aroma.
noun appositive
2. Peter, the big white snowman in my backyard, has a orange carrot
nose and a warm, soft scarf around its neck.
c. Verbal: a group of words that begin with a verbal and ends with a noun.
I. Gerund: word ending in ing used as a noun.
21

i. Waiting for Christmas agitated my impatient siblings and I all year long.
(Waiting for Christmas is the subject of the verb agitated)
ii. My neighbor denied knowing her little brother, who is such a trouble maker,
destroying all of our snowmans. (knowing her little brother is object of the verb
"denied")
II. Participle: word ending in ing or ed used as an adjective.
i. Opening my gifts quickly, is my preference on Christmas morning.
ii. The Christmas carolers walked all across town singing The twelve days of
Christmas.
III. Infinitive: verb preceded by the word to (to go, to jump) used as noun, adjectives,
or adverbs
i.In order to donate Christmas presents for the homeless shelter we traveled all
across town.
ii. This year in order to see my family we didnt have to travel anywhere because
this time they came to our home for our annual Christmas gathering.

SECTION 2 QUIZ

Answer the following.

1.) Which of the following is a type of phrase?


a. Prepositional
b. Appositive
c. Verbal
d. All of the above
2.) Which of the three types of phrases contains another three types?
a. Prepositional
b. Appositive
c. Verbal
d. None of the above
3.) A group of words that include all the words or phrases that modify an
appositive is which of the following?
a. Prepositional
b. Appositive
c. Verbal
d. None of the above
4.) A word ending in ing used as a noun is which of the following.
a. Gerund
22

b. Particle
c. Infinitive
d. Appositive
5.) Groups of words that function as a part of speech are..
a. Clauses
b. Phrases
c. Conjunctions
d. prepositions
6.) In order to donate Christmas presents for the homeless shelter we traveled
all across town. Is an example of a Verbal phrase.
a. True
b. False
7.) What does a participle end in?
a. ing
b. ed
c. ly
d. Ing or ed

8.) Both participles and gerunds can end in the ending ing.
a. True
b. False

9.) Prepositional phrases end with a noun and is used as an adjective or an


adverb.
a. True
b. False
10.) Gerund, participle, and infinitive all belong in which of the following
phrase.
a. Prepositional
b. Appositive
c. Verbal
d. All of the above
23

Grammar Book Section 3


Clauses

3. Clauses: are a group of words with a subject and a verb.


a. INDEPENDENT: CAN stand alone as a complete sentence, known as a simple
sentence pattern.
- Christmas is a holiday that most families celebrate.
- Snowmen consist of dedication and celebration toward the holiday season.

b. SUBORDINATE: (Dependent)- CANNOT stand alone as a complete sentence


and MUST begin with a SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION.

i. Noun Clause: Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a
predicate noun,
a direct object, an object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive.

a. Where she grew up, is where she spent most of her favorite
Christmas memories occurred. [Subject]

b. My mother kindly gave whoever came to the charity a christmas


present. [Indirect obj.]
c. That snowman fell apart after the terrible, windy snow storm.
[subject]
24

d. Santa Claus rapidly checked what presents he had for the


children. [Direct obj.]
e. Joyfully unwrapping presents on Christmas morning is what my
siblings enjoy the most. [Predicate noun]
f. My mom lets us pick whichever Christmas tree we wanted to
purchase and set up this year. [ Indirect obj.]
g. Santa hopes that every child will have a jolly holiday every year.
[appositive]

ii. Adjective Clause: Used to modify a noun in an independent clause.


A. Some adjective clauses begin with an introductory word:
a. This is the season where families join together to
celebrate. (where is an intro. word)
b. There is the season that I absolutely love.
c. The present that I wanted is absolutely going to be
under my Christmas tree.
B. Some adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns:
a. Snowmen are obviously the ones who get the most
love from children throughout this time. (ONE is the antecedent of WHO
and is modified by the adjective clause.)
b. There goes Santa whose sleigh is always led by
reindeers. (SANTA is the antecedent of WHO and is modified by the
adjective clause.)
c. Christmas is the only holiday where we open
presents that all the children enjoy.
d. NOTE: The relative pronoun has two functions. It
introduces the clause and it is used as a sentence-part within the clause.
i. Is this the barbie you passionately want? (that is the direct object
of want)
ii. Santa is the person whom we all look up to as children. (whom
is
the direct object of asked.)
iii. The white, wonderful snow to which you refer as lovely has
sadly stopped falling. (which is the object of the preposition to)
iv. Michael is a snowman who easily melts off any heat exposure.
(who is the subject of melts)
iii. Adverb Clause: Used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent
clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to
indicate
time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or
concession.
a. Modifying verbs:
i.There unfortunately was a hidden sign where a few could see it, preventing
cars
25

from entering a very snowy dangerous road. (place)


ii.When the clock struck midnight everyone ran inside to open presents as soon
as possible. (time)
iii.We sluggishly climb out of bed because its extremely cold in the morning.
(purpose)
iv.It snows and hails uncontrolably as if the sky was falling apart. (condition)
b. Modifying adjectives:
i.Winter joyfully seems twice as long as it used to be. (how much)
ii.Children almost love halloween as much as they love Christmas. (to what
extent)
c. Modifying adverbs:
i.It snowed harder today than it usually does around this time. (condition)
iv. Relative Clauses: Dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun.
a. When skiing, I keep my eyes on the ice for control and balance.
v. Elliptical Clauses: Adverb clauses in which part of the clause is omitted.
a. When skiing, I keep my eyes on the ice for control and balance.
vi. Essential Clauses: Clauses necessary to the meaning of the sentence.
a. The holiday that most interests children is Christmas.
vii. Nonessential Clauses: Clauses that are NOT necessary to the meaning of the
Sentence.
a. My brothers skiing lessons, which began a few months ago, really
helped him become a better athlete.

SECTION 3 QUIZ

Match the following to its corresponding Clause. You may choose the same answer more
than once.

1. That snowman fell apart after the terrible, windy snow storm.___
2. The present that I wanted is absolutely going to be under my Christmas tree.___
3. When skiing, I keep my eyes on the ice for control and balance.___
4. It snows and hails uncontrollably as if the sky was falling apart.___
5. My brothers skiing lessons, which began a few months ago, really helped him
become a better athlete___
6. Christmas is a holiday that most families celebrate.___
7. Where she grew up, is where she spent most of her favorite Christmas memories
occurred.____
8. It snowed harder today than it usually does around this time.___
9. When the clock struck midnight everyone ran inside to open presents as soon as
possible.___
26

10. When skiing, I keep my eyes on the ice for control and balance.___

A. Independent
B. Noun clause
C. Adjective clause
D. Adverb clause
E. Relative clauses
F. Elliptical clauses
G. Nonessential clauses

Grammar Book Section 4


Sentences

A. Sentence Parts (2)


i. Subject (3) : what or whom the sentence is about
1. Complete : contains a subject and a verb predicate
adj. n v adv. v
Basic- My beautiful grandma is the greatest for delightfully knitting me a warm
scarf.
adj. n v v
Adv.- My jolly grandma is extraordinary for taking time off her busy schedule to
adv. v n
delightfully knit me a warm, cozy scarf for the winter season.
2. Simple : contains only one clause
n adj. v adv. n
Basic- My brother happily opened his gifts delicately on Christmas morning.
n adj. v adv. n
Adv.- My brother happily opened his gifts eagerly on Christmas morning which he
27

adv.
was patiently waiting for all year long.
3. Compound : contains 2 independent clauses
v adj.
Basic- It rained extremely hard, there was a lot of hail.
adj
Adv.- It rained extremely hard last night, the next morning there was a lot of hail
on
the ground.
ii. Predicate : the part containing a verb in a sentence, tells something about the subject.
1. Complete:
n v adj.
Basic- Rebecca ran rapidly to the mall for last minute presents.
n v adj.
Adv.- My cousin Rebecca who is visiting ran rapidly to the mall for last minute
presents and groceries for making dinner later that night.
2. Simple:
n adj. v
Basic- Santa safely returned to the north pole.
N v adj.
Adv.- Santa Claus returned to the north pole safely to create more presents for
the
children.

3. Compound:
v n v
Basic- We biked to the northern lake and skied all along it.
n adj. v
Adv.-My siblings and I got home extremely tired after biking to the northern lake
v
and skiing all along it.
B. Sentence Types (4)
1. Declarative: statement ends with a period.
n v adj
Basic- Winter can get surprisingly warm in Los Angeles.
n n
Adv.- The temperature in Los Angeles is quite normal, therefore winter
can get either really warm or really cold.

2. Interrogative: asks a direct question and always ends in a question mark.


n v
Basic- Do you know how cold its going to be tomorrow?
28

n v
Adv.- Do you think your going to receive what you asked for Christmas this year?

3. Imperative: gives a direct demand


v n
Basic- Pass me my sweater please.
v V n
Adv.- Take out the ingredients we will need to make your grandmas holiday pie.

4. Exclamatory: makes a statement, conveys excitement or emotion, and ends with


an
exclamation mark.
v adj. n
Basic- Keep your cozy sweater on!
v adv. v
Adv.- Stop running around the frozen lake, you might break the ice and fall in!
C. Sentence Errors
1. Run-on/Rambling: two or more independent clauses are connected improperly.
Error: She loves the cold weather because its really cold.
Correction:Because she enjoys the cold weather, she loves winter.

2. Fused: two independent clauses are joined without any punctuation or


connection
between them.
Error: Christmas is my favorite holiday. We receive gifts from our family, friends, and
Santa.
Correction:We receive gifts from our family, friends, and Santa therefore Christmas is my
favorite holiday.
3. Fragment: doesnt contain a main clause
Error: After we opened our presents.
Correction: After we opened our presents, we gave thanks and ate breakfast.
4. Misplaced Modifier: word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the
word it
modifies/describes.
Error: My mom said on Christmas eve Santa comes to deliver presents.
Correction: My mom said Santa came on Christmas eve to deliver gifts.
5. Double Negative: a grammatical construction occurring when two forms of
negation are
used in the same sentence.
Error:
Correction:
6. Comma Splice: two independent clauses are connected with only a comma.
29

Error:
Correction:

D. Sentence Patterns
i. Simple: A sentence that is just one independent clause.
ii.Complex: A sentence with multiple independent clauses, but no dependent clauses.
iii. Compound : A compound sentence is a sentence with multiple independent clauses,
but no dependent clauses.
iv. Complex/Compound: A complex/compound sentence has multiple independent
clauses
and dependent clauses.
v. Loose sentence : A loose sentence is a sentence that contains an independent clause
plus a subordinate construction (either a clause or a phrase).
vi. Periodic Sentence : A periodic sentence is a sentence in which the independent
clause
is given at the end of the sentence in order to create interest or
generate suspense.
vii. Balanced Sentence: A balanced sentence is a sentence where phrases or clauses
parallel each other by virtue of their likeliness of structure,
meaning, or length.
viii. Parallel Structure: A parallel structure sentence is a sentence using the same pattern
of words to show that two or more words or ideas are of equal
importance and to help the reader comprehend what is being
written.

ix. Chiasmus : A chiasmus sentence is a sentence that includes a repetition of ideas


(words, phrases, or clauses) in inverted (reversed) order.
x. Asyndeton : An asyndeton sentence is a sentence that leaves out conjunctions
between
words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose.
xi. Polysyndeton : A polysyndeton sentence is a sentence that uses multiple conjunctions
in close proximity to each other between words, phrases, or clauses
for
a rhetorical purpose.
xii. Anaphora : A anaphora sentence is a sentence that features the purposeful repetition
of a word, words or a phrase at the beginning of several successive
clauses
in order to place emphasis and draw attention.
xiii. Epistrophe : A epistrophe sentence is a sentence featuring several phrases or
clauses
30

ending with the same word or words.

Activity: Make up your own quiz! SHARE IT WITH FAMILY & FRIENDS :)

SECTION 4 QUIZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Grammar Book Section 5


Paragraphs

1. Introductory Paragraphs (Introductions)


a. Hook (Lead)
I. Anecdotal (Brief story to set the mood and intro the
topic)
31

1. Ex. Amanda is excited because the cold season its


on its way. She planned ahead to recieve her flu shots, which will prevent
herslef and others from getting sick. With the help of her grandmas she
knits a scarf and mittens that will keep her warm throughout the upcoming
coldness. Soon she shall also start preparing her Christmas list for that
special time of the year.
II. Query Based (Question that brings the reader to
the topic)
1. Ex. Is Christmas really the best time of the
year?
b. Thesis Statements (the purpose of a piece of writing - usually one sentence in
length - and something that is arguable)
I. Assertion (claim)
1. Ex. The winter season is approaching.
II. Fact (empirically verifiable)
1. Ex. The winter season can get extremely cold.
III. Opinion (personal position on a topic)
1. Ex. I enjoy the winter season because I love
watching snow falling on Christmas morning from my bedroom window.
IV. Belief (social, religious, or political in nature - an
opinion held by many to be a fact, though it is not necessarily)
1. Ex. If you dont leave Santa cookies and milk next
to the Christmas tree he gets upset and wont leave you any presents.
V. Generalization (uses absolute or statistical
pronouns: all, always, every, never, none, most, half - avoid using this
type of thesis statement)
1. Ex. Christmas is all about building snowmans and
having a great time with our families.
VI. Document Based (cites a specifc source and its
position on a topic)
1. Ex. In the bible, the scriptures tells us about the
birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem, his story and why we have the
Christian celebration of Christmas.
VII. Theory (a statement that can be tested and
potentially proven)
1. Ex. It rains, snows, or hails throughout the cold
winter season.

2. Body Paragraphs (must have echoes of the thesis in each and present
evidence to support or expand on the thesis)
a. Topic Sentences (must specifically indicate the topic of the
paragraph and focus on one subject and area of evidence or support)
I. Ex. There are multiple sources that indicate the
different festivities celebrated during the winter season. (Now every
32

sentence in this paragraph must be related to the connection between the


winter season and christmas.)
b. Evidence from Quotations (quotes should NEVER be used as
individual sentences - quotes should be embedded within sentences)
I. Ex. According to the bible, For God so loved the
world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him
shall not perish but have eternal life (John 3:16).
II. Ex. I will honor Christmas in my heart, and try to
keep it all the year according to an inspiring voice (Charles Dickens).
III. Ex. According to an inspiring voice, My idea of
Christmas, whether old-fashioned or modern, is very simple: loving
others. Come to think of it, why do we have to wait for Christmas to do
that? (Bob Hope)
IV. Ex. According to Aldrich, Christmas Eve was a
night of song that wrapped itself about you like a shawl. But it warmed
more than your body. It warmed your heartfilled it, too, with melody that
would last forever (Song of Years)
V. Ex. According to an inspirational voice, Christmas,
children, is not a date. It is a state of mind (Mary Ellen Chase)
VI. Paraphrase (rewording of a quote into other words
of the same length without quotaion marks, but still citing the source)
1. ORIGINAL QUOTE- My idea of
Christmas, whether old-fashioned or modern, is very simple:
loving others. Come to think of it, why do we have to wait for
Christmas to do that? (Bob Hope)
2. Ex. No matter what time of the year
it is, Christmas or not, we should always demonstrate our love to
others. (Bob Hope)
VII. Summary (condensing larger quotes or sections)
1. ORIGINAL QUOTE- My idea of
Christmas, whether old-fashioned or modern, is very simple:
loving others. Come to think of it, why do we have to wait for
Christmas to do that? (Bob Hope)
2. Ex. The Christmas tradition about
loving should be all year long.
VIII. Abstract Examples (hypothetical, what if
examples - AVOID)
1. Ex. The world would be a much
happier place if we showed our respect, kindness, and love
toward others.
IX. Concrete Examples (actual, reference-able
examples)
1. Ex.
33

c. Closing Sentences (must end the discussion of the topic within the
paragraph with a transitional or culminating word - posssibly an adverb - and
should echo the thesis of the essay)
I. Ex. Definitely, for those who celebrate and believe
in the Christmas holiday agree that its a time of cherishing and loving
those around you and certainly not just during the holiday but throughout
the year.

3. Closing Paragraphs (Conclusions- should not be mere summaries of the


previous paragraphs of your essay)
a. Consequences on Disregarding the Thesis (establishing the
potential consequences of disregarding the implications of the thesis -
CREATING A COUNTERARGUMENT)
I. Ex. If Christmas were truly the best time of the
year, there wouldnt be so many homeless or poor people without the
ability to celebrate it.
b. Statement(s) of Extension (extending the consequences of
disregarding the implications of the thesis - could be one or more sentences)
I. Ex. Therefore, we should all invest in a warm, cozy
sweater for the cold season. We dont want to be sick during the holidays.
c. Establishing the Significance if the Thesis
I. Ex. On that account, we should all be caring and
loving to eachother to demonstrate the true meaning of Christmas and its
traditions.
d. Final Sentence (connects to the hook)
I. Ex. According to the true significance of Christmas,
maybe Amanda shouldnt ask for any objects instead she should ask for
happiness, well being, and love within her family.

Activity: Make up your own quiz! SHARE IT WITH FAMILY & FRIENDS :)

SECTION 5 QUIZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
34

10.

Grammar Book Section 6


Essays

Essays: Explain the purpose and specific features of each type (and subtype) of essay.

a. Types
I. Persuasive (Argumentative): in this type of writing the goal is to
convince others to agree to your facts, to persuade the reader that the writers
facts, values, or opinions are correct on a certain topic. Inorder to build a good
persuasive essay you must establish facts to for ex. Support an argument,
prioritize, edit, and sequence for ex the facts and values in building the argument,
form and state conclusions, and persuading of the audience by for ex writing
agreed on facts and values in the conclusions.
II. Expository (Informative): in this type of writing you inform the
reader about a certain subject, you are either explaing something, telling or
informing about something, or giving directions.
1. This type is usually the first one you learned how to
do. It contains 5 sections: Introductory paragraph, first, second, and third
body paragraph, and lastly the concluding paragraph.
2. Construct your thesis sentence (topic, direction,
and ideas, points, or reasons). Your introduction must include a
interesting first sentence (rhetorical ?, or figurative language) and must
include supporting sentences and thesis sentence. In your three body
paragraphs include the points you should make while constructing your
thesis statement and include strong transitions between the paragraphs.
For your concluding paragraph dont restate any new ideas or the thesis, it
should only sum up what you have said in your paper.
3. Compare in Contrast is used to contruct an
expository essay.
4. Cause and effect is used to constuct an expository
essay.
III. Analytical/Critical: in this type of writing we are analyzes a certain
text. It is not a summary. We are focusing on how something was written, for ex
how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to the story.
1. Evaluative: evaluating and/ or analyzing a piece of
text, writing.
35

2. Interpretive: interpreting what the text is about, its


message, meaning, and purpose.
IV. Narrative (tells a story): in this type of writing we write about a
personal experience, tell a story.
1. Personal anecdote : Your writing about your
personal experiences which can give you a better understanding of
yourself, reveal who you are.
V. Research: in this type of writing you analyze or review other text,
writings and state/ argue about a topic. Good grammar, spelling, and punctuation
are essential.
1. MLA Citation Format: arial or times new roman, 12
pt font, left margin, double space
2. APA Citation Format: double-spaced, 1 margins,
clear font (12 pt, times new roman)
VI. Timed: in this type of writing there will be a certain time limit.
1. Document Based Question (DBQ) : 15 min read,
analyze , and do any prewrting, based on your opinion contsruct a thesis
statement
2. Synthesis
3. Prompt Based: based on a question you will be
given, write a essay based on your opinion, and include experiences
b. Strategies/Planning Tips/Steps
I. Pre- writing/ Prompt analysis/Outlining: gathering concrete details and structuring
them into a paragraph.
Plan bubble-clusters, writing maps, toutlines, brainstorm and
Research, use cornell notes for outlining.
II. Research/ Evaluation of sources: the practice of compiling accurate and
credible supporting evidence.
Plan determine topic question references about topic sentence, evidence,
examples support thesis statement, analyze
c. Work Cited Page
I. MLA Format: usually used to write papers and cite sources, texts.
(for ex. Literary texts)
II. APA Format: usually used to cite sources such as academic
documents such as journal articles and books. (For ex. Social sciences)

SECTION 6 QUIZ

1. Persuasive A. Analyze and argue about a topic


2. Expository B.Based on personal experiences
3. Analytical C. Persuade the reader
36

4. Narrative D. Goes at the end of the essay


5. Research E. used to cite social sciences
6. Timed F. left margin and double space
7. Works cited G. You get 15 min to read and 45 min to prepare
8. MLA Format H.Gather details and structure them into
paragraphs
9. APA Format I. It is not a summary
10. Strategies/Tips J. Informing the reader about something

Grammar Book Section 7


Capitalization

The 25 rules

1. The first letter in a sentence:


- We picked our Christmas tree and happily brought it home.

2. The name of Buildings, Streets, Parks, Statues, Monuments:


- During the holiday season Santa is very busy up in the North Pole.

3. The name of Continents, Countries, Counties, Cities, Towns, Districts:


- My family and I love to go to my grandmothers house in Iowa during the
holidays, to play in the snow.

4. The name of Courts:


- I wonder if the Supreme Court of the U.S takes the day off to celebrate
Christmas with their families.

5. Pronouns:
- Santa Claus is the one person I enjoy and love the most to see during the
holidays.

6. The name of Degrees, Academics:


- During Christmas Eve my sister surprised my parents when she announced she
had finally obtained her Medical Doctorate, M.D.

7. The name of Eras and Historical Periods:


- I remember about the Ice Age era everytime I go snowboarding during the
holiday season.

8. The name of Flags:


37

- My dad never removes The American Flag from the porch during the holidays,
although it snows like crazy.

9. The name of Geographical Terms:


- I enjoy snowboarding and skiing on the big, snowy Bear Mountains at Big Bear.

10. The name of Geographical Words:


- Greenland seems like a nice place to visit during the winter season.

11. Government names:


- I wonder if the State Government take vacations off their busy schedules during
the holidays.
12. The name of Government Departments:
- The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is always ready to protect the
citizens of America especially during the special holiday season.

13. Government Terms:


- Congress should pass a law in which Santa Claus is allowed to come down
more often.

14. Holy Bible (terms):


- Its important to follow and obey the 10 Commandments to be on Santas good
list.

15. Military (terms):


- The greatest present for a child whose parent is in the U.S Military of Navy is
their return for the holidays.

16. Names of Nations & Republics:


- The United Nations (UN) was created to protect their citizens and prevent
conflict amongst each other, therefore we should all have a happy, safe holiday.

17. Names of Organized Groups (bodies):


- The LGBT family and the rest of the families out there showed a huge amount
love toward each other this Christmas.
18. Names of Organizations:
- The LGBT community has already accomplished several of their goals but
complete acceptance from the public would be an amazing Christmas miracle.

19. Poetry:
- Carols sing on Christmas day
Homes are covered in snow
Reindeers fly in the sky
38

In the house Santa goes

20. Piont Form:


Christmas
Santa Claus
Snow angels

21. Quotations:
- Christmas, children, is not a date. It is a state of mind.
-Mary Ellen Chase

22. Name of State &/or Province:


- My family and I traveled to Florida to joyfully spend the holidays with the rest of
our family.

23. Titles (personal):


- Having to call Donald Trump, President Trump shouldnt affect us from having a
happy, jolly holiday season.

24. Titles (others):


- President Obama will have his last jolly holiday this year in the white house.
25. Compass pionts:
- The Northeastern lake always freezes to ice during this coldly season.

Activity: Make up your own quiz! SHARE IT WITH FAMILY & FRIENDS :)

SECTION 7 QUIZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
39

Grammar Book Section 8


Punctuation
8. Punctuation
1. Brackets each of a pair of marks [ ] used to enclose words or figures so as to
separate them from the context.
2. Parenthesis a word, clause, or sentence inserted as an explanation or
afterthought into a passage that is grammatically complete without it, in writing usually
marked off by curved brackets, dashes, or commas.
3. Period a punctuation mark (.) used at the end of a sentence or an abbreviation.
4. Comma a punctuation mark (,) indicating a pause between parts of a sentence.
It is also used to separate items in a list and to mark the place of thousands in a large
numeral.
5. The en-dash a short dash, the width of an en/n, used in punctuation.
6. The em-dash an em-dash is the width of an m. Use an em dash sparingly in
formal writing. In informal writing, em dashes may replace commas, semicolons, colons,
and parenthesis to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of
thought.
7. Colon a punctuation mark (:) indicating when a writer is introducing a quotation
or a list of items and or the separation of two clauses.
8. Semicolon a punctuation mark (;) indicating a pause, typically between two
main clauses, that is more pronounced than that indicate by a comma.
9. Question Mark punctuation mark (?) indicating a question.
10. Exclamation Mark punctuation mark (!) indicating an exclamation.
11. Apostrophe punctuation mark () used to indicate either possession or the
omission of letters or numbers.
12. Quotations a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by
someone other that the original author or speaker.
13. .Ellipse the omission from speech or writing of a word or words that are
superfluous or able to be understood from contextual clues
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Activity: Make up your own quiz! SHARE IT WITH FAMILY & FRIENDS :)

SECTION 8 QUIZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9
10.
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Grammar Book Section 9


Commonly Confused Words

9. Commonly Confused/ Misused Word Choices


a. Connotation/Denotation
b. Who/Whom
c. Their/There/Theyre
d. Lie/Lay
e. Laid/Lain
f. Affect/Effect
g. Accept/Except
h. C/W/Should have vs. C/W/Should of
i. Loath/Loathe
j. Infer/Imply
k. Weary/Wary
l. Proceed/Precede
m. Discrete/Discreet
n. Conscience/Conscious
o. Can/May

Activity: Make up your own quiz! SHARE IT WITH FAMILY & FRIENDS :)
42

SECTION 9 QUIZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10

QUIZZES #1-10 ANSWER KEYS

SECTION 1 QUIZ ANSWER KEY


1. A
2. C
3. D
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. B
9. A
10. B

SECTION 2 QUIZ ANSWER KEY


1.) D
2.) C
3.) B
4.) A
5.) B
6.) A
7.) D
8.) A
9.) A
10.)C

SECTION 3 QUIZ ANSWER KEY


1.B
2.C
3.F
4.D
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5.G
6.A
7.B
8.D
9.D
10.E
SECTION 4 QUIZ ANSWER KEY (MAKE UP YOUR OWN)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

SECTION 5 QUIZ ANSWER KEY (MAKE UP YOUR OWN)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

SECTION 6 QUIZ ANSWER KEY

1.A
2.I
3.C
4.E
5.B
6.G
7.J
8.D
9.F
10.H
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SECTION 7 QUIZ ANSWER KEY (MAKE UP YOUR OWN)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

SECTION 8 QUIZ ANSWER KEY (MAKE UP YOUR OWN)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

SECTION 9 QUIZ ANSWER KEY (MAKE UP YOUR OWN)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
45

Glossary

. Adjective - a word whose main role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more

detail information about the noun or pronoun. For example, "The big dog ran down the

street." The word big is the adjective describing dog.


. Adverb - any word used to modify any part of language other than the noun.

Adverbs usually answers questions such as how? when? or where?


. Apostrophe - a punctuation mark used to mark the omission in one or more

letters or assist in possessives in pronouns or nouns.


. Colon - punctuation mark used when joining two independent clauses without a

conjunction.
. Comma - punctuation mark used to separate a dependent clause from the

independent clause.
. Compound Sentence - two independent clauses joined together to form one

sentence.
. Conjunction - a word that joins two parts of a sentence. For example, words

such as and, but, nor, for, or would be used in a sentence to join another idea.
. Declarative Sentence - a statement that ends in a period or exclamation point

that states an idea. It does not ask a question nor gives a command.
. Direct Quotation - statement from another individual or source usually used to

support facts relating to a given topic.


. Ellipsis - a series of marks, typically three periods in a row, used to indicate a

pause in a speech, thought, or at the end of a sentence.


. Exclamation - an interjection or act of exclaiming when used as a noun.
46

. Exclamation Point - punctuation mark that indicates strong feelings or intended

to show astonishment.
. Fragment - incomplete or unfinished part of a sentence that never finishes the

thought or idea of the sentence.


. Hyphen - punctuation mark used to join words and also separate syllables which

spaces should not be between the words or the hyphen except when using a suspended

hyphen.
. Linking Verb - word that connects the subject of the verb to other information

about the subject and they do not express action.


. Noun - word used to name a person, place, thing or abstract idea.
. Paragraph - two or more sentences dealing with a particular idea or subject.
. Period - punctuation mark placed at the end of a sentence statement after giving

a complete thought of the subject or idea.


. Phrase - group of words operating as one in a given sentence to complete an

idea.
. Predicate - one of two main parts of a sentence which modifies the subject.
. Preposition - words used to connect nouns, phrases, and pronouns in a given

sentence.
. Pronoun - word used to replace a noun or pronoun. For example, the name

Michael could be converted to "he."


. Proper Noun - noun that is the name of a specific object, place, or individual.
. Question Mark - also known as an interrogation point is a punctuation mark that

comes at the end of an interrogative sentence that replaces the period mark.
. Quotation Mark - punctuation marks used in pairs to set off a phrase or a word.
. Semicolon - punctuation mark used to connect two independent clauses into

one sentence.
. Subject - one of two main constituents of a clause which the other constituent is

the predicate. Usually the subject is a noun that comes in the beginning of a sentence.
. Verb - word that usually states action or state of being in a given sentence
47

Works Cited

1. http://www.esldesk.com/grammar/pronouns
2. http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/verb-tenses.html
3. http://www.esldesk.com/grammar/adjectives
4. http://www.grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.htm
5. http://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/sentence-types.html
6. http://www.writtingcenture.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/subjpred.html
48

To all who
prefer the
sweater
weather