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# Electricity

N Bronks
Basic ideas
Electric current is when electrons start to flow around a
circuit. We use an _________ to measure it and it is
measured in ____.

## Potential difference (also called _______) is

how big the push on the electrons is. We use a
________ to measure it and it is measured in
______, a unit named after Volta.

## Resistance is anything that resists an electric current. It is

measured in _____.

## Words: volts, amps, ohms, voltage, ammeter, voltmeter

Electrons are flowing from the
negative to positive side of the
battery through the wires

## Note current moves

from positive to
negative, however
electrons are actually
are moving in the
opposite direction!
Current
Flow of electrons

## Current Charge Passed a point

time

I Q
t
Current and Charge
Since one Ampere flows when one coulomb of charge passes a
given point in a circuit each second,
Coulomb
Amp =
second

Charge (C) Q
Current (A) = or I=
time (s) t

Also

## Charge (C) = no. of electrons x charge of one electron

Example 1:
How many electrons are there in 20 Coulombs ?

## No. of electrons = total charge / charge of one electron

No. of electrons = 20 / 1.6x10-19
No. of electrons = 1.25 x1020 electrons

Example 2:
The current in a circuit is 5A. What is the charge flowing in :
a. 1 second ? 5 Coulomb
b. 10 seconds ?
50 Coulomb
Summary Question

## 1. a. The current in a certain wire is 0.35A. Calculate the charge

passing a point in the wire i. in 10 s, ii in 10 min.
b. Calculate the average current in a wire through which a
charge of 15C passes in i. 5s, ii 100s

Ans:
a. i. I = 0.35A t = 10s
Q = It Q = 0.35 x 10 = 3.5 C

## ii. I = 0.35A t = 10 min = 600s

Q = It Q = 0.35 x 600 = 210 C
b. i. Q = 15C t = 5s
I = Q/t I = 15/5 = 3A
ii. Q = 15C t = 100s
I = Q/t I = 15/100 = 0.15A
Summary Questions page 47

## 2. Calculate the number of electrons passing a point in the wire in

10 minutes when the current is a. 1.0A b. 5.0A

Ans:
a. I = 1.0A t= 10min = 600s
Q = It = 1x10-6 x 600 = 6x10-4 C
No. of electrons = total charge / charge of one electron
No. of electrons = 6x10-4 / 1.6x10-19 = 3.75x1015 electrons

I = 5A t= 10min = 600s
Q = It = 5 x 600 = 3000 C
No. of electrons = total charge / charge of one electron
No. of electrons = 3000 / 1.6x10-19 = 1.88x1022 electrons
Summary Questions page 47

## 3. In an electron beam experiment, the beam current is 1.2mA.

Calculate
a. The charge flowing along the beam each minute
b. The number of electrons that pass along the beam each
minute
Ans:
a. I = 1.2x10-3 A t= 1min = 60s
Q = It = 1.2x10-3 x60 = 0.072 C

## b. no. of electrons = total charge /charge of one electron

no. of electrons = 0.072/1.6x10-19 = 4.5x1017 electrons
Summary Questions page 47

## A certain type of rechargeable battery is capable of delivering a

current of 0.2A for 4000s before its voltage drops and it
needs to be recharged.
Calculate:
a. The total charge the battery can deliver before it needs to be
recharged.
b. The maximum time it could be used for without being
recharged if the current through it was i. 0.5A, ii. 0.1A

Ans:
a. I = 0.2A t = 4000s
Q = It = 0.2 x 4000 = 800C
b. i. Q = 800C I = 0.5A
t = Q/I = 800/0.5 = 1600s
ii. Q = 800C I = 0.1A
t = Q/I = 800/0.1 = 8000s
Quiz
Current and charge quiz

## 1. Calculate the charge passing through a lamp

in three minutes when a steady current of 0.4 A
is flowing.

Q
I=
t

Q=It
Q = 0.4 x 3 x 60 = 72 Coulomb
Current and charge quiz

## 2. Calculate the number of electrons flowing

through a resistor when a current of 2.3 flows
for 5 minutes

Q
I=
t
Q=Ixt
Q = 2.3 x 5 x 60 = 690 Coulomb
no. of electrons = 690 /1.6x10-19 = 4.31x1021
Current and charge quiz

## 3. What is the current in a circuit if 2.5x10 20

electrons pass a given point every 8 seconds

## Charge (C) = 2.5x1020 x 1.6x10-19 = 40 Coulombs

Q
I=
t
Current = 40/8 = 5 Amps
Current and charge quiz

## 4. How long does it take for a current of 0.3A to

supply a charge of 48C?

Q
I=
t
t = Q/I
t = 48/0.3 = 160 seconds
Current and charge quiz

## 5. How many electrons pass a point when a

current of 0.4A flows for 900 seconds?

Q
I=
t
Q=Ixt = 0.4 x 900 = 360 Coulomb

## no. of electrons = 360 / 1.6 x 10-19 = 2.25 x 1021

Current and charge quiz

## 6. A torch bulb passes a current of 120 mA.

How many coulombs of charge flow through the lamp in 1
minute?

## Q=Ixt = 120x10-3 x 60 = 7.2 Coulomb

Current and charge quiz

## 7. A car battery is rated as 36 A h.

In principle this means it could pass a current of 1 A for 36 h
before it runs down. How much charge passes through the
battery if it is completely run down?

## Q=Ixt = 1 x 36 x 60 x 60 = 129600 Coulomb

H/W

2004 HL Q4
More basic ideas
Another battery
means more current
as there is a
greater push on the
electrons

The extra
resistance from the
extra bulb means
less current
Current in a series circuit
If the current The
here is 2 current
amps here will
be 2A

## The current And the

here will current
be here will
2A
be
2A

## In other words, the current in a series

circuit is THE SAME at any point
Current in a parallel circuit
A PARALLEL circuit is one where the current has a choice
of routes

## Half of the current

will go down here
(assuming the bulbs
are the same)

## And the rest will

go down here
Current in a parallel circuit

If the
current
here is 6 And the
amps current here
will be 6A

The current
here will be
2A
The current
The current here will be
here will be
2A
2A
Voltage in a series circuit
Voltmeter
always in
If the voltage V
across the parallel
battery is 6V

and these
bulbs are all
identical

## what will the V V

voltage across
each bulb be? 2V
Voltage in a series circuit

If the voltage V
across the
battery is 6V

## what will the

V
voltage across
two bulbs be? 4V
Voltage in a parallel circuit

## If the voltage across

the batteries is 4V

What is the
voltage here? 4V
V

And here?
4V
V
Summary
In a SERIES circuit:
Current is THE SAME at any point
Voltage SPLITS UP over each component

In a PARALLEL circuit:
Current SPLITS UP down each strand
Voltage is THE SAME across eachstrand
An example question:

6V
A3
3A
A1

V1

A2

V2 V3
Advantages of parallel circuits

There are two main reasons why parallel circuits are used
more commonly than series circuits:
1) Extra appliances (like bulbs) can be added without
affecting the output of the others

2) When one
breaks they
dont all fail
Resistance
Resistance is anything that will
RESIST a current. It is measured
in Ohms, a unit named after me.
That makes me so happy
Georg Simon Ohm
1789-1854
The resistance of a component can be
calculated using Ohms Law:

V
Resistance = Voltage (in V)
(in ) Current (in A)
I R
An example question:
Ammeter
A

## What is the resistance across this bulb?

V As R = volts / current = 10/2 = 5
Assuming all the bulbs are the same what is
the total resistance in this circuit?
Total R = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15
Voltmeter
More examples

3A
6V

12V

3A

2A
What is the
4V resistance of
2V these bulbs?
1A
Practice with Ohms Law

## Ohms Volts Amps

4 100 25
15 150 10
2 30 15
9 45 5
6 48 8
VARIATION OF CURRENT (I) WITH P.D.
( V)

A
Nichrome
+ wire
6V V
-
Method

## 1. Set up the circuit as shown and set

the voltage supply at 6 V d.c.
2.Adjust the by moving the slider of the
potential divider to obtain different
values for the voltage V and hence for
the current I.
3.Obtain at least six values for V and I
using the voltmeter and the ammeter.
4.Plot a graph of V against I
Variations

## (a) A METALLIC CONDUCTOR

With a wire
(b) A FILAMENT BULB
(c) COPPER SULFATE SOLUTION
WITH COPPER ELECTRODES
(d) SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE
Done both ways with a milli-Ammeter and the
a micro Ammeter
Current-voltage graphs
I I

I
V V

V
1. Resistor 3. Diode

## Current A diode only

increases in 2. Bulb lets current go
proportion As voltage increases in one direction
to voltage the bulb gets hotter
and resistance
increases
Factors affecting
Resistance of a conductor
Resistance depends on
Temperature
Material of conductor
Length
Cross-sectional area
Temperature
The resistance of a metallic
conductor increases as the
temperature increases e.g.
copper
The resistance of a
semiconductor/insulator
decreases as the temperature
increases e.g. thermistor.
VARIATION OF THE RESISTANCE OF A
METALLIC CONDUCTOR WITH TEMPERATURE
10 C
10C

Digital
thermometer

## Water Wire wound

on frame
Glycerol

Heat source
Method
1. Set up as shown.
2. Use the thermometer to note the temperature
of the glycerol, which is also the temperature of the
coil.
3. Record the resistance of the coil of wire using
the ohmmeter.
4. Heat the beaker.
5. For each 10 C rise in temperature record the
resistance and temperature using the ohmmeter and
the thermometer.
6. Plot a graph of resistance against temperature.
Graph and Precautions

Precautions
- Heat the water slowly so temperature does not
rise at end of experiment
-Wait until glycerol is the same temperature as
water before taking a reading.
Factors affecting Resistance of
a conductor
Length
Resistance of a uniform
conductor is directly
proportional to its
length.
i.e. R L
Cross-sectional area
Resistance of a uniform
conductor is inversely
proportional to its cross-
sectional area.
i.e. R 1
A
Factors affecting
Resistance of a conductor

Material
The material also affects the resistance of a conductor
by a fixed amount for different materials. This is known
as resistivity ( ).

R = L = Resistivity
A Unit: ohm meter m
RESISTIVITY OF THE MATERIAL OF A
WIRE

Micrometer Nichrome
Crocodile clips
wire
l

Metre stick

Bench Stand
clamp
Method
1. Note the resistance of the leads when the crocodile clips are
connected together. Could also be precaution.
2. Stretch the wire enough to remove any kinks or slack in the
wire.
3.Read the resistance of the leads plus the resistance of wire
between the crocodile clips from the ohmmeter. Subtract the
resistance of the leads to get R.
4.Measure the length l of the wire between the crocodile clips,
with the metre stick.
5.Increase the distance between the crocodile clips. Measure the
new values of R and l and tabulate the results.
6.Make a note of the zero error on the micrometer. Find the
average value of the diameter d.
R
1. Calculate the resistivity A,
d 2
l
where A =
4

## Precautions Ensure wire is straight

and has no kinks like ....
Take the diameter of the wire at
different angles
H/W

2004 HL Q4
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1

V1 VT V1 V2 V3
I1 R2

I T I1 I 2 I 3
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1

V1 VT V1 V2 V3
I1 R2
IRT IR1 IR2 IR3

RT R1 R2 R3
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1

V1 I T I1 I 2 I 3
V V V V I1 R2

R T R1 R 2 R 3
1 1 1 1

RT R1 R2 R3
H/W

2005 HL Q9
Wheatstone Bridge
Uses
Temperature control
Fail-Safe Device (switch
circuit off)
B Measure an unknown resistance
r2
r1

## A C R1 = R3 (When its balanced

R2 R4 Galvanometer reads
r3
zero)
r4

I D Metre Bridge
R1 = R2 (|AB|)
|BC|
Effects of an Electric Current

Heat
Chemical
Magnetic
Chemical Effects of an
Electric Current
Electrolysis is the chemical effect of an
electric current

## Voltameter consists of electrodes, an

electrolyte and a container

## Inactive electrodes are electrodes that

dont take part in the chemical reaction e.g.
platinum in H2SO4

## Active electrodes are electrodes that

take part in the chemical reaction e.g.
copper in CuSO4
Chemical Effects
Ion is an atom or molecule that
has lost or gained 1 or more
electrons
Charge Carriers in an electrolyte
are + and ions

Uses
Electroplating to make metal
look better, prevent corrosion
Purifying metals
Making electrolytic
capacitors
Current-voltage graphs
I I

V V

Electrodes

## e.g. Copper in e.g. Platinum in

Copper Sulphate Water
Current Carriers

Medium Carrier

## Gas Electrons and Ions

Resistance in Semiconductors
1) Normal conductor like 2) Thermistor resistance
metal resistance increases DECREASES when
as vibrating atoms slow temperature INCREASES
the flow of electrons Due to more charge carriers
being liberated by heat

Resistance Resistance

Temperature Temperature
Fuse Safety device
Fuses are designed to melt 2A
5A
when too large a current
tries to pass through them
to protect devices.
Prevent Fires
Modern fuse boxes contain
MCB (Miniature circuit
breakers) that trip when
too much current flows to
protect the circuit
Which Fuse
A i-pod charge uses 200W and is
plugged into the mains at 230v. What
fuse is in the plug?
P=I.V
200=I.230
I = 200/230 = 0.87A is current used
So the most the fuse should be is a 1A
Other safety devices
1) Insulation and double insulation
In some parts of Europe they have
no earth wire just two layer of
insulating material the sign is

## 2) Residual Current Circuit Breaker

An RCCB (RCB) detects any difference in
current between the live and neutral
connectors and the earth it switches off
the current when needed. They can also
be easily reset.
Electrical Safety Fuse on live wire !!

## A combination of fuse and Earth

The casing touches the bare wire and it becomes live

That
Hurts!

A.C. Supply

## The fuse will melt to

prevent electrocution
and the electricity is
carried to earth
Wiring a plug

1. Earth 4. Live
wire wire

5. Fuse
2. Neutral
wire

6. Cable
3. Insulation grip
Capacitors
A device for storing charge.
A pair of metal plates are
separated by a narrow gap
electrons
- +
- +
- - - -
- +
- +
- +
- +
capacitor charge
charged capacitor
capacitor discharge

electrons
Charge & Discharge
Capacitor Construction
Two metal plates
Separated by insulating
material
Sandwich construction
Swiss roll structure
Capacitance set by...

A
C
d
Uses of
Capacitors
Storing charge for quick
release Camera Flash
Charging and discharging
at fixed intervals
Hazard Lights
Smoothing rectified
current See
Semiconductors
Smoothing

variable capacitor
smoothing capacitors
Parallel Plate Capacitors
The size of the capacitor depends on
1. The Distance the plates are apart d

- +

- +

- +
d
Parallel Plate Capacitors
2 /.The area of overlap A

- +
- + A
- +
Parallel Plate Capacitors
3/.The material between ()

- +
- +
- +
- +
- + High material
- +
- +
Called a
DIELECTRIC
Finding Capacitance

Vs
capacitance
VA
Equations
For the parallel plate capacitor
Capacitance Permitivity in

C = A Area
d In m2
Distance in
meters
Example 1
The common area of the plates of an air
capacitor is 400cm2 if the distance between the
plates is 1cm and 0=8.5x10-12Fm-1.

C = 0 A
d
8.5x10-12Fm-1x 0.04m2 =3.4x10-11F.
C=
0.01m
Capacitance experiment on the i
nternet
Equations
Capacitance on any conductor
Capacitance Charge in

C = Q
V
Potential
Difference
in volts
Placing a charge of 35C on a conductor
raises it's potential by 100 V. Calculate
the capacitance of the conductor.

## Info Q = 35C and V = 100V find C=?

Using Q=VC or C = Q/V
= 35 x 10-6/100
= 35 x 10-8 Farads
Equations
Energy stored on a capacitor
Capacitance
Energy
Stored

## Work Done = C (V) 2

Voltage
Squared
Example 3
Find the capacitance and energy stored of a parallel
plate capacitor with 2mm between the plates and
150cm2 overlap area and a dielectric of relative
Permittivity of 3. The potential across the plates
is 150V.
A = 150cm2=0.015m2, d = 2x10-3m,
= 3x0 = 27x10-12Fm-1
As C = 0A/d = 27x10-12 x 0.015/0.002 = 2.025x10-9 F
Energy stored = C V2 = x 2.025x10-9x (150)2
= 2.28x10-5 Joules
Types of Batteries
Type of Battery Contains Uses

rechargeable

## Dry cell Nickel, cadmium, Mobile phones,

rechargeable lithium power tools

## Dry cell non- Zinc, carbon, Torches, clocks,

rechargeable manganese, hearing aids
lithium

## Why use rechargeable batteries? Why use standard batteries?

Long long-term expense No need for charger
Can be used many times Less expensive
Less energy to produce Rechargeables contain
carcinogens
There are 2 types of currents:

## Direct Current (DC) Where

electrons flow in the same
direction in a wire.
There are 2 types of currents:
Alternating Current (AC)
electrons flow in different
directions in a wire
DC and AC
V

## DC stands for Direct

Current the current only
flows in one direction:
Time
AC stands for Alternating
Current the current
changes direction 50 times 1/50th s
every second (frequency =
50Hz) 240V
Find Root Mean Square of
voltage by T
Vrms= Vpeak/ 2

V
The National Grid

## Step up Step down

Power station Homes
transformer transformer

## If electricity companies transmitted electricity at

240 volts through overhead power lines there
would be too much energy lost by the time
electricity reached our homes.
This is explained by JOULES LAW
The National Grid

## Step up Step down

Power station Homes
transformer transformer

## Power Transmitted is = P = V.I

JOULES LAW gives us the power turned into heat
Power Lost = I2R
So if we have a high voltage we only need a small
current. We loss much less energy
Power loss in Transmission lines
A power company wants to send 100000w of
power by a line with a resistance of 12
ohms. If it uses 100A as the current
Power transmitted = V . I
100000 = V . 100
So V=1000Volts
But the loss is from Joules law = I2R
= (100)2.12 = 120000watts
Power loss in Transmission lines
If we want the same power but use only 1A
as the current
Power transmitted = V . I
100000 = V . 1
So V=100000Volts
But the loss is from Joules law = I2R
= (1)2.12 = 12watts
10000 times less!
Joules law
10C

Lid
Digital
thermometer
Calorimeter Water

## Heating coil Lagging

Method
1. Put sufficient water in a calorimeter to cover the
heating coil. Set up the circuit as shown.
2. Note the temperature.
3. Switch on the power and simultaneously start the
stopwatch. Allow a current of 0.5 A to flow for five
minutes. Make sure the current stays constant
throughout; adjust the rheostat if necessary.
4. Note the current, using the ammeter.
5. Note the time for which the current flowed.
6. Stir and note the highest temperature.
Calculate the change in temperature .
Calculation and Graph

## Repeat the above procedure for increasing

values of current I, taking care not to exceed
the current rating marked on the rheostat or
the power supply. Take at least six readings.
I2
Plot a graph of (Y-axis) against I 2 (X-axis).

## A straight-line graph through the origin verifies that

I 2 i.e. Joules law.

## Electrical Power lost as Heat P I2 is Joules law

The power lost (Rate at which heat is produced) is
proportional to the square of the current.
H/W

2006 HL Q 4
Experiment to Show shape of
Electric Field

## The electrodes connected to high voltage

source is placed in the shallow glass dish
containing a mixture of semolina and castor
oil. The semolina aligns itself along the lines
of the electric field.
The Electroscope

- - - -

The + +
+
electroscope +
detects charge
The Gold leaf
and post repel
each other
H/W

2006 HL Q9
Electric and Magnetic Fields
Electric Field- region of space where a
charged particle feels a electrostatic
force.
Magnetic field region where a magnet
feels a force other than gravity.

## Field lines are the path a positive charge

or north pole would travel
Coulomb's Law
Force between two charged bodies

Q1 d Q2

Force = f Q1.Q2

d2
Put this as a sentence to get a law!
Coulomb Calculations

Force =f Q1.Q2

d2
We replace the proportional with a
equals and a constant to get an
equation
Force = f = Q1.Q2

4d2
= permitivity as in capacitors
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies

2C d=2m 4mC

Force = f = Q1.Q2

4d2

= 3.4 x 10-11
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies

2C d=2m 4mC

Force = f = 2 x 0.004

4 x3.4 x 10-11x 22
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies

2C d=2m 4mC

## Force = f = 7.49 x 10-15 N

Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies

2C d=2m 4mC

## Electric Field Strength =

E = 7.49 x 10-15 N /2C
= 3.75 x 10-15 N /C
Precipitator

Carbon and
ash - can be
removed
from waste
gases with
the use of
electrostatic
precipitators
Precipitator

Dirt
particles are
charged
stick to
oppositely
charged
plates
Photocopier
Charging:
Exposure:
Developing:
Transfer:
Fusing:
Cleaning:
Potential Difference (V)

## Potential difference is the work done

per unit charge to transfer a charge
from one point to another (also Voltage)
i.e V=W
Q
Potential Difference (V)

V=W
Q
Unit Volt V or J C-1
Volt is the p.d. between two points if one joule of
work is done bringing one coulomb from one point to
the other
Potential at a point is the p.d. between a point and
the Earth, where the Earth is at zero potential
Current in a Magnetic Field

N S N S
Current in a Magnetic Field
A conductor carrying a current in a
magnetic field will always feel a force

Current

N S Magnetic
Field

Force
The force is perpendicular to the current and the
field. This is THE MOTOR EFFECT
Flemings Left Hand Rule
I used my left hand to show
the direction the wire would
move
The Size of the Force
Force = F = B.I.l
Where B = Magnetic Field Density in Tesla (T)
I= Current in Amps (A)
L = length if the conductor in metres

## Example What is the force acting on a conductor of

length 80cm carrying a current of 3A in a 4.5T
magnetic field?
Using Force = F = B.I.l
= 4.5x3x0.8
= 10.8N
Two Parallel Wires
Wires also produce magnetic fields when a
current flows

Attraction
Two Parallel Wires
The fields act like magnets when the
current flows

Repulsion
The Ampere
Basic unit of electricity

1m

F=2x10-7N/m

## The current flowing is 1A when the force between

two infinitely long conductors 1m apart in a vacuum
is 2x10-7N Per metre of length.
Demo

## OHP and coils and compass

Moving Charge
When any charged particle moves it is like a small
current of electricity
It feels the same force
The crosses show a magnetic field into the screen

e- Velocity
e -

e- Velo
c ity
Force
For
ce e-
Fo
rc Ve
e lo
e- cit
Moving Charge
A positive will move the other way
All charged
particles moving
in magnetic
+ fields always
have a force at
right angles to
their velocity
e- so follow a
Velocity circular path
due to FLH Rule
Force
See particles motion
Force 0n a Particle
Force = F = B.q.v
Where B = Magnetic Field Density in Tesla (T)
q=charge on the particle (C)

## Example What is the force acting on a particle

travelling at 80m/s carrying a charge of 0.1C in a
10T magnetic field?
Using Force = F = B.q.v
= 10x.1x80
= 80N
Demo

## CRT and magnet

Induction
is where changes in the current flow in a
circuit are caused by changes in an
external field.
Moving Magnet
N

Circuit
turning
off and
on
Electromagnetic
induction
The direction of the induced current is
reversed if
1) The magnet is moved in the opposite
direction
2) The other pole is inserted first

## The size of the induced current can be

increased by:
1) Increasing the speed of movement
2) Increasing the magnet strength
3) Increasing the number of turns on
the coil
Demo

## Coils and spot galvo

Internet
Generators (dynamos)

## Induced current can be

increased in 4 ways:
1) Increasing the speed of
movement
2) Increasing the magnetic
field strength
3) Increasing the number of
turns on the coil
4) Increasing the area of the
coil
Electric motor
Basically
1. More turns (N) more EMF
2. Faster movement more EMF
Rate of change of FLUX DENSITY is
proportional to induced EMF

## Induced EMF = E = - Nd ( =B.A)

dt
Lenzs Law
The induced EMF always opposes the current/Motion
You get ought for nought
A version of Newton III and of energy conversion
The induction always tries to stop the motion or
change in the field.
The ring
moves away
as the
induced
Aluminum current is
Ring preventing
more
induction
Mutual induction

## Induction in a second circuit

caused by changes in a first
circuit
Main use in a transformer
As the current changes the field
changes giving a EMF in the
second circuit.
Transformers
This how A.C.
changes
voltage up or
down

V In Turns 2
=
V Out Turns 1
Self Induction
property whereby an electromotive
force (EMF) is induced in a circuit by
a variation of current in the circuit
its self

Back
EMF

## Another example on LENZS LAW

Flux Density
Magnetic flux, represented by the Greek
letter (phi), total magnetism produced by
an object. The SI unit of magnetic flux is
the Weber
Magnetic field (B) is the flux through a
square meter (the unit of magnetic field is
the Weber per square meter, or Tesla.)
As the flux
expands the
density through
any square meter
decreases