N Bronks
Basic ideas
Electric current is when electrons start to flow around a
circuit. We use an _________ to measure it and it is
measured in ____.
I Q
t
Current and Charge
Since one Ampere flows when one coulomb of charge passes a
given point in a circuit each second,
Coulomb
Amp =
second
Charge (C) Q
Current (A) = or I=
time (s) t
Also
Example 2:
The current in a circuit is 5A. What is the charge flowing in :
a. 1 second ? 5 Coulomb
b. 10 seconds ?
50 Coulomb
Summary Question
Ans:
a. i. I = 0.35A t = 10s
Q = It Q = 0.35 x 10 = 3.5 C
Ans:
a. I = 1.0A t= 10min = 600s
Q = It = 1x106 x 600 = 6x104 C
No. of electrons = total charge / charge of one electron
No. of electrons = 6x104 / 1.6x1019 = 3.75x1015 electrons
I = 5A t= 10min = 600s
Q = It = 5 x 600 = 3000 C
No. of electrons = total charge / charge of one electron
No. of electrons = 3000 / 1.6x1019 = 1.88x1022 electrons
Summary Questions page 47
Ans:
a. I = 0.2A t = 4000s
Q = It = 0.2 x 4000 = 800C
b. i. Q = 800C I = 0.5A
t = Q/I = 800/0.5 = 1600s
ii. Q = 800C I = 0.1A
t = Q/I = 800/0.1 = 8000s
Quiz
Current and charge quiz
Q
I=
t
Q=It
Q = 0.4 x 3 x 60 = 72 Coulomb
Current and charge quiz
Q
I=
t
Q=Ixt
Q = 2.3 x 5 x 60 = 690 Coulomb
no. of electrons = 690 /1.6x1019 = 4.31x1021
Current and charge quiz
Q
I=
t
Current = 40/8 = 5 Amps
Current and charge quiz
Q
I=
t
t = Q/I
t = 48/0.3 = 160 seconds
Current and charge quiz
Q
I=
t
Q=Ixt = 0.4 x 900 = 360 Coulomb
2004 HL Q4
More basic ideas
Another battery
means more current
as there is a
greater push on the
electrons
The extra
resistance from the
extra bulb means
less current
Current in a series circuit
If the current The
here is 2 current
amps here will
be 2A
If the
current
here is 6 And the
amps current here
will be 6A
The current
here will be
2A
The current
The current here will be
here will be
2A
2A
Voltage in a series circuit
Voltmeter
always in
If the voltage V
across the parallel
battery is 6V
and these
bulbs are all
identical
If the voltage V
across the
battery is 6V
What is the
voltage here? 4V
V
And here?
4V
V
Summary
In a SERIES circuit:
Current is THE SAME at any point
Voltage SPLITS UP over each component
In a PARALLEL circuit:
Current SPLITS UP down each strand
Voltage is THE SAME across eachstrand
An example question:
6V
A3
3A
A1
V1
A2
V2 V3
Advantages of parallel circuits
There are two main reasons why parallel circuits are used
more commonly than series circuits:
1) Extra appliances (like bulbs) can be added without
affecting the output of the others
2) When one
breaks they
dont all fail
Resistance
Resistance is anything that will
RESIST a current. It is measured
in Ohms, a unit named after me.
That makes me so happy
Georg Simon Ohm
17891854
The resistance of a component can be
calculated using Ohms Law:
V
Resistance = Voltage (in V)
(in ) Current (in A)
I R
An example question:
Ammeter
reads 2A
A
3A
6V
12V
3A
2A
What is the
4V resistance of
2V these bulbs?
1A
Practice with Ohms Law
A
Nichrome
+ wire
6V V

Method
I
V V
V
1. Resistor 3. Diode
Digital
thermometer
Heat source
Method
1. Set up as shown.
2. Use the thermometer to note the temperature
of the glycerol, which is also the temperature of the
coil.
3. Record the resistance of the coil of wire using
the ohmmeter.
4. Heat the beaker.
5. For each 10 C rise in temperature record the
resistance and temperature using the ohmmeter and
the thermometer.
6. Plot a graph of resistance against temperature.
Graph and Precautions
Precautions
 Heat the water slowly so temperature does not
rise at end of experiment
Wait until glycerol is the same temperature as
water before taking a reading.
Factors affecting Resistance of
a conductor
Length
Resistance of a uniform
conductor is directly
proportional to its
length.
i.e. R L
Crosssectional area
Resistance of a uniform
conductor is inversely
proportional to its cross
sectional area.
i.e. R 1
A
Factors affecting
Resistance of a conductor
Material
The material also affects the resistance of a conductor
by a fixed amount for different materials. This is known
as resistivity ( ).
R = L = Resistivity
A Unit: ohm meter m
RESISTIVITY OF THE MATERIAL OF A
WIRE
Micrometer Nichrome
Crocodile clips
wire
l
Metre stick
Bench Stand
clamp
Method
1. Note the resistance of the leads when the crocodile clips are
connected together. Could also be precaution.
2. Stretch the wire enough to remove any kinks or slack in the
wire.
3.Read the resistance of the leads plus the resistance of wire
between the crocodile clips from the ohmmeter. Subtract the
resistance of the leads to get R.
4.Measure the length l of the wire between the crocodile clips,
with the metre stick.
5.Increase the distance between the crocodile clips. Measure the
new values of R and l and tabulate the results.
6.Make a note of the zero error on the micrometer. Find the
average value of the diameter d.
R
1. Calculate the resistivity A,
d 2
l
where A =
4
2004 HL Q4
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1
V1 VT V1 V2 V3
I1 R2
I T I1 I 2 I 3
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1
V1 VT V1 V2 V3
I1 R2
IRT IR1 IR2 IR3
RT R1 R2 R3
Resistors in series and Parallel
I
IT
V
R1 R2 R3
I2 R1
V1 I T I1 I 2 I 3
V V V V I1 R2
R T R1 R 2 R 3
1 1 1 1
RT R1 R2 R3
H/W
2005 HL Q9
Wheatstone Bridge
Uses
Temperature control
FailSafe Device (switch
circuit off)
B Measure an unknown resistance
r2
r1
I D Metre Bridge
R1 = R2 (AB)
BC
Effects of an Electric Current
Heat
Chemical
Magnetic
Chemical Effects of an
Electric Current
Electrolysis is the chemical effect of an
electric current
Uses
Electroplating to make metal
look better, prevent corrosion
Purifying metals
Making electrolytic
capacitors
Currentvoltage graphs
I I
V V
Medium Carrier
Resistance Resistance
Temperature Temperature
Fuse Safety device
Fuses are designed to melt 2A
5A
when too large a current
tries to pass through them
to protect devices.
Prevent Fires
Modern fuse boxes contain
MCB (Miniature circuit
breakers) that trip when
too much current flows to
protect the circuit
Which Fuse
A ipod charge uses 200W and is
plugged into the mains at 230v. What
fuse is in the plug?
P=I.V
200=I.230
I = 200/230 = 0.87A is current used
So the most the fuse should be is a 1A
Other safety devices
1) Insulation and double insulation
In some parts of Europe they have
no earth wire just two layer of
insulating material the sign is
That
Hurts!
A.C. Supply
1. Earth 4. Live
wire wire
5. Fuse
2. Neutral
wire
6. Cable
3. Insulation grip
Capacitors
A device for storing charge.
A pair of metal plates are
separated by a narrow gap
electrons
 +
 +
   
 +
 +
 +
 +
capacitor charge
charged capacitor
capacitor discharge
electrons
Charge & Discharge
Capacitor Construction
Two metal plates
Separated by insulating
material
Sandwich construction
Swiss roll structure
Capacitance set by...
A
C
d
Uses of
Capacitors
Storing charge for quick
release Camera Flash
Charging and discharging
at fixed intervals
Hazard Lights
Smoothing rectified
current See
Semiconductors
Smoothing
Add capacitor
variable capacitor
smoothing capacitors
Parallel Plate Capacitors
The size of the capacitor depends on
1. The Distance the plates are apart d
 +
 +
 +
d
Parallel Plate Capacitors
2 /.The area of overlap A
 +
 + A
 +
Parallel Plate Capacitors
3/.The material between ()
 +
 +
 +
 +
 + High material
 +
 +
Called a
DIELECTRIC
Finding Capacitance
Vs
capacitance
VA
Equations
For the parallel plate capacitor
Capacitance Permitivity in
In Farads Fm1
C = A Area
d In m2
Distance in
meters
Example 1
The common area of the plates of an air
capacitor is 400cm2 if the distance between the
plates is 1cm and 0=8.5x1012Fm1.
C = 0 A
d
8.5x1012Fm1x 0.04m2 =3.4x1011F.
C=
0.01m
Capacitance experiment on the i
nternet
Equations
Capacitance on any conductor
Capacitance Charge in
In Farads Coulombs
C = Q
V
Potential
Difference
in volts
Placing a charge of 35C on a conductor
raises it's potential by 100 V. Calculate
the capacitance of the conductor.
V
The National Grid
Lid
Digital
thermometer
Calorimeter Water
2006 HL Q 4
Experiment to Show shape of
Electric Field
   
The + +
+
electroscope +
detects charge
The Gold leaf
and post repel
each other
H/W
2006 HL Q9
Electric and Magnetic Fields
Electric Field region of space where a
charged particle feels a electrostatic
force.
Magnetic field region where a magnet
feels a force other than gravity.
Q1 d Q2
Force = f Q1.Q2
d2
Put this as a sentence to get a law!
Coulomb Calculations
Force =f Q1.Q2
d2
We replace the proportional with a
equals and a constant to get an
equation
Force = f = Q1.Q2
4d2
= permitivity as in capacitors
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies
2C d=2m 4mC
Force = f = Q1.Q2
4d2
= 3.4 x 1011
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies
2C d=2m 4mC
Force = f = 2 x 0.004
4 x3.4 x 1011x 22
Coulomb's Law Calculations
Force between these bodies
2C d=2m 4mC
2C d=2m 4mC
Carbon and
ash  can be
removed
from waste
gases with
the use of
electrostatic
precipitators
Precipitator
Dirt
particles are
charged
then made to
stick to
oppositely
charged
plates
Photocopier
Charging:
Exposure:
Developing:
Transfer:
Fusing:
Cleaning:
Potential Difference (V)
V=W
Q
Unit Volt V or J C1
Volt is the p.d. between two points if one joule of
work is done bringing one coulomb from one point to
the other
Potential at a point is the p.d. between a point and
the Earth, where the Earth is at zero potential
Current in a Magnetic Field
N S N S
Current in a Magnetic Field
A conductor carrying a current in a
magnetic field will always feel a force
Current
N S Magnetic
Field
Force
The force is perpendicular to the current and the
field. This is THE MOTOR EFFECT
Flemings Left Hand Rule
I used my left hand to show
the direction the wire would
move
The Size of the Force
Force = F = B.I.l
Where B = Magnetic Field Density in Tesla (T)
I= Current in Amps (A)
L = length if the conductor in metres
Attraction
Two Parallel Wires
The fields act like magnets when the
current flows
Repulsion
The Ampere
Basic unit of electricity
1m
F=2x107N/m
e Velocity
e 
e Velo
c ity
Force
For
ce e
Fo
rc Ve
e lo
e cit
Moving Charge
A positive will move the other way
All charged
particles moving
in magnetic
+ fields always
have a force at
right angles to
their velocity
e so follow a
Velocity circular path
due to FLH Rule
Force
See particles motion
Force 0n a Particle
Force = F = B.q.v
Where B = Magnetic Field Density in Tesla (T)
q=charge on the particle (C)
Circuit
turning
off and
on
Electromagnetic
induction
The direction of the induced current is
reversed if
1) The magnet is moved in the opposite
direction
2) The other pole is inserted first
V In Turns 2
=
V Out Turns 1
Self Induction
property whereby an electromotive
force (EMF) is induced in a circuit by
a variation of current in the circuit
its self