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UNEF IndustryandEnvironment


Textile Wei


AWorkbooklor Trainers


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Cleaner Production
8 iD Textile Wei
1 A Workbook for Trainers 1

First Edition .March 1996

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TEL: (33)0144371450
FAX: (33)0144 3714 74
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!t'À) Ind~stryand Cleaner Production-) -'

"~ Env~ronment
in TextileWei Processing
Envlronmental .
Training Unit A Workbookfor Tramers
UNEF This packageis oneof a seriesthatprovidespracticalsupportmaterialto
teachersandtrainerswishingto commenceor enrich their curriculum with
up-to-dateapproachesin environmentalmanagement.

It is basedon extendedexperiencewith training workshopsby UNEP and

otheragencies,and is now beingmadeavailablefor wider use in ail regions


The flfst version of this trainers workbook was prepared in
March 1996 by Dr Prasad Modak for UNEP lE and later
edited by Fritz Balkau.
It was subsequently trialled in workshops and courses in
several places, leading to subsequent revis ions to produce
this current document.

UNE? wou Id like to thank the many individuals and

organizations who contributed ideas and materials, or who
assisted in reviews and redrafting.

Copyright If:) UNEP 1996

Ali rightsreserved.No part ofthis publicationmay be produced,storedin
a retrieval systemor transmittedin any fonn or anymeans:electronic. )
otherwise,without pennissionin writing from the copyrightholder.

First edition March 1996

The designationsemployedand the presentationof the materialin this
publicationdo not imply the expressionof any opinionwhatsoeveron the
part of the United Nations EnvironmentProgrammeconcemingthe legal
statusof any country,territory, city or areaor of ilS authorities,or
concemingdelimitation of ilS frontiersor boundaries.Moreover,the
views expresseddo not necessarilyrepresentthe decisionor the stated
policy of the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme,nor doesciting of
tradenamesor commercialprocessesconstituteendorsement.

1 ISB~ 92-807-1608-5 1

Table 01 Contents
Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing
Evaluation Form i
Users Guide """.".'..".""""""""""""""""""""'."""'."'.".""""".'.'...""""""""" iii
Glossary v

Part 1 Introduction Part V Environmental Aspects of the Dyeing Process

1.1 This package 1:4 5.1 Dyeing v:3

1.2 Contents ofthis package [:4 5.2 Dyes and their applicability v:4

Part Il Organizing Effective Training Activities 5.3 Dyeing machineries v:6

2.1 Introduction 11:3 5.4 Dyeing pollutionalloads v:9

2.2 Notes on interactive 5.5 Exercises V: II
workshop organization 11:4 5.6 Solutions V 17

8 2.3 Some.ideas for m~re .Part VI Environmental Aspects of the Printing

effective commurncatlon 11:9 and Finishing Processes
2.4 Some personal suggestions 6.1 Printing vI:3
for effective training Il: 10 2 F
6 .mIs .. h1
ng , V I .,4
2.5 Resource persons guide Il: II 6.3 Printing and finishing pollution
2.6 Suggestions for self study Il: 13 loads , vI:7

Part III Introduction to Current Environmental 6.4 Exercises vI:8

Issues and Aspects of 6.5 Solutions v[:9

Textile Wet Processing Part VII Application of Environmental Audit to

3.1 Introduction 1113 identify Cleaner Production Measures

3.2 Understanding 7.1 Achieving cleaner production VII:3

environmental problems 1II4 7.2 Cleaner Production audit VII: 5

3.3 Env!ronmental. as~ects of the 7.3 Conducting a waste audit VII:6 .

textIle processmg mdustry 1II:6
3 4 :Exercises 1II9 7' 45' Ph ase 1 P re-assessmen t VII 7
Ph 2 l~ t .
..ase JVJa erla 1 ba1an ce:
3.5 Solutions III: II process inputs and outputs VII: 9

Part IV Environmental Aspects of 7.6 Economic and environmental

Preparatory Processing evaluation VII: 24

8 4.1 Sizi~~ (slashing) lv3 7.7 Solutions VII:29

4.2 Deslzmg Iv:4 Part VIII References

4.3 Scouring Iv:6 8.1 Some background documents

4.4 Bleaching Iv8 on the environment VIII:3

45M " IvlO ..
.ercerlzmg 8.2 Audlovlsuals VIII: 5
4.6 Exercises [V 12

4.7 Questions , IV 15
4.8 Solutions [v: 17

Annexes ..3
Il1 Data
A Compilation
related to Pollution
of the Best Issues
mcludmg Practices
Health and
in Safety
Textile Aspects
WeI Processing 13

1 S . D t fi th ' s Package 3
11 Listupportmg
of Training ocumen
Resource s or Packages
1 available from UNEF lE 5

/II About UNEF Industry and Environment 7

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Users Guide
T his is a trainers support package, not a problem-solving. Such work needs to be guided
reference book. It does flot give a by a rotor who is a recognized expert in the field.
systematic, comprehensive overview This method allows the full complexity of real
(there is flot enough room to do fuis); rallier, it decision-making to be explored.
focuses on some selected aspects that are central Where calculations are required, the exercises
to the subject. The structure of the document are more oriented towards throwing light on
allows further sections to be easily developed and useful approachesor managementdecisions than
added as additional modules. simply fmding the 'correct' answer. Trainers are
The package is written for trainers to provide strongly urged flot to seethis package merely as a
them with support material and ideas. It bas flot set of arithmetic exercises.
8 been intended as a study book for students. The ln some instances,answers are indicated. The
average trainee will only ever see a few pages or 'correct' answer often depends on the context of
exercises reproduced from this document. the question. It is here that a tutor or extemal
One of the purposes ofthis package is to resource expert is useful.
provide some case studies and situation scenarios Many trainers find fuis disturbing. They should
that can be used as a basis for interactive training remember that real decision-making depends on
and simulated decision-making. The exercises the wider circumstances surrounding the
only explore a small part of the potential of the problem, and that a numerical answer which is
case studies, and trainers are strongly encouraged politically or socially unacceptable, or
to develop further exercises or tasks. administratively unworkable (even though
The package is oriented at developing insights accurate), is flot in effect 'correct'.
and decision-making ski Ils. It is not particularly The simulation of reallife situations and
suited to teaching the factual knowledge base of decision-making that is the basis ofthis package
the subject. For this, trainers are referred to the makes it most suitable for senior students and
reading lists in the bibliography. trainees,and especially for professional training
Work exercises are predominantly based on (or retraining) courses.
interactive groupwork and a team approach to

8 Do flot forget to also refer to the package on Cleaner Production

for teaching the underlying concepts and approaches in this workbook.

Finally, we must stress again that fuis package does flot cover ail aspects of the subject. Its prime
purpose is to lead trainers into this field, and to help and encouragethem to develop their own material,
appropriately tailored to their specific leaming situation. UNEP is prepared to work further with trainers
who wish to extend this package into new directions, or go into greater depths on some subjects.

8 -- A Workbookfor rrainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

iv United Nations Environment Programme elndustry and Environment

How 10sian a Iraining aclivitv )

based on Ibis workbook

1 Remember that this is a starters kit, not a 3 Refresh Jour memory by reading some of the
complete recipe book. Remember also that the background papers and studying the overhead
workbook aims to develop insights and decision- transparencies. Write your own notes in the
making skills, not to convey knowledge or facts. spaces provided.
2 Understand the needs ofyour trainees. What 4 Identify some expert resource persans who
insights or skills do you intend to develop? cou Id be invited as rotors to help you in
Define your learning objectives. discussion sessions.

5 Select some of the exercises you wish to 7 DeveloP other exercises or questions
present to trainees. yourself. "
6 Examine carefully tire case study or 8 Develop Jour own local case study if you can, )

scenario on which they are based. Be sure and use this instead of the one in the package.
that you have at least one solution to the exercise 9 prepare some background questions and
that you can explain and defend. preliminary exercises for train ers to carry out
before they start the workshop/course.

1 Q In session, summarize tire issues for a rotor. Discuss and compare results. Be open
trainees using the overheads given, and to ideas and experiences from trainees, and
others you may have. Discuss the problems and discuss these.
difficulties decision-makers face. Discuss where 12 Return to tire learning objectives, and
factual information can be round to help in check that they have been achieved.

decision-making. 13 Consider how to follow up and reinforce

Il Commence tire work sessions, preferably the learning experience by establishing
in small groups, and preferably guided by some ongoing projects, or periodic reunions.

Refer also to other packages and workbooks, where useful addition al teaclring material is found.

To facilitate using this workbook, the header of odd-numbered pages describes the contents ofthat
particular section. This information is also repeated in the footer of even-numbered pages. You can track
your progress through the workbook by referring to the calibrations on the bar across the bottom of odd-

numbered pages:

The shading shows your current position in the text.


Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers


T his glossary contains some tenns which are used in the background papers and exercises, or
which you may corne across when gathering infonnation about the topic. You may want to add
some tenns to this list.

These tenns have been taken from the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the Assessmentand
Management ofContaminated Sites,the Code of Practicefor the Investigation and Mitigation of
Possible Petroleum-Based Land Contamination, the UNIDO training course on Ecologically
Sustainable Development, some US EPA publications, and some UNEP lE publications.

8 Absorptivity The ability to absorb matter in bulk level(s): i.e. where the site specific assessment
(e.g. water, dissolved chemicals, gases). deems that a responseis required to protect
Aquifer An underground rock fonnation health or the environment.
composed of materials such as sand, soil or Cradle-to-graveTenn used to imply the whole
gravel that tan store and supply ground water to life cycle of a product, from raw material to
wells and springs. final disposai.
Background levels Levels of substancesor End-of-pipe treatment Treating pollutants at the
chemicals that are commonly found in the local end ofa process (by, for example, filters,
environment. catalysts and scrubbers) instead ofpreventing
Bioaccumulation The retention and concentration their occurrence.
of a substanceby an organism. Environmentalauditing The management tool
Biodegradation Decomposition of substancesinto comprising a systematic, documented, periodic
more elementary compounds by the action of and objective evaluation ofhow weil
micro-organisms. environmental organization, management and
Biomagnification The serial accumulation of a equipment are perfonning. The aim is to help to
chemical by organisms in the food chain, with safeguardthe environment by: (i) facilitating
higher concentrations of the substancein each managementcontrol of environmental practice;
succeeding trophic level. and (ii) assessingcompliance with company
8 Biological monitoring Measurement of a policies, which would include regulatory
contaminant or metabolite in body tissue or requirements.
fluid. Environmental impact assessment An analysis to
Clean-up The removal, treatment or containment detennine whether an action would
ofsoil contaminated with chemicals at significantly affect the environment.
unacceptable concentrations. Environmental risk assessmentThe process of
Cleaner production The continuous application of estimating the potential impact of a chemical or
an integrated preventive strategy to processes physical agent on a specified ecological system
and products, in order to reduce environmental under a specific set of conditions.
risks and impacts. Exposure Contact with a chemical, physical or
Contaminated A condition or state which biological agent.
represents or potentially represents an adverse Exposure assessmentThe estimation (qualitative
health or environmental impact becauseof the or quantitative) of the magnitude, frequency,
presence of potentially hazardous substances. duration, route and extent (for example, number
Contaminated site A site where the level(s) of of organisms) of exposure to a chemical
hazardous substancesis (are) above response substanceor contaminant.

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

vi United Nations Environment Programme olndustryandEnvironment

Hazard The capacity to produce a particular type of Pollution Degradation or impairment of the purity )
adverse health or environrnental effect: e.g. one of the environrnent by causing a condition
hazard associated with benzene is leukemia. which is hazardous to public health, safety,
Health risk assessment The process of evaluating aesthetics or welfare, or to animais, birds,
the potential impact of a chemical or physical wildlife, fish or aquatic life, or to plants.
agent on a specified human population system Porosity Property of a solid which contains many
under a specific set of conditions. small channels or open spaces.
Hydrology The science dealing with the Preliminary assessment The process of collecting
properties, movement, and effects ofwater on and reviewing available information about a
the earth's surface, in the soil and rocks below, known or a suspected hazardous waste site or
and in the atmosphere. release. If further study is needed, a site
Incineration Buming of certain types of solid, inspection is undertaken.
liquid, or gaseousmaterials under controlled Receptor An organism, plant or physical structure
conditions to destroy hazardous waste. that receives, may receive or bas received
Indicator analytes Readily measured chemicals environrnental exposure to a chemical.
that can indicate the probable presence of RemediationThe clean-up or mitigation of
certain classes of chemicals or substances. pollution/contamination of soil by various ..
Investigation level The concentration level of a methods. )
contaminant above which further appropriate Response level Response levels apply to a
investigation and evaluation will be required. specific site and site assessmentand are levels
ln-situ ln the original place or location. at which some form ofresponse to protect
Leachate A contaminated liquid resulting when public health and/or the environment with a
water percolates, or trickles, through waste wide margin of safety is required.
materials and collects components ofthose Risk The probability that an adverse outcome will
wastes. occur in a person, a group, or an ecological
Life cycle analysis A quantitative assessmentof system that is exposed to a particular dose or
the total environrnental impacts caused by a concentration of a hazardous agent: i.e. it
particular process or product, from resource depends on both the level of toxicity of
consumption to contamination, from the cradle hazardous agent and the level of exposure.
to the grave. Risk managementThe process whereby decisions
Mass/material balance A precise account of ail the are made to accept a known or assessedrisk
inputs and outputs of a process, based on the and/or the implementation of actions to reduce
law of conservation of mass. the consequencesor probabilities of occurrence.
Metabolite A substance produced or modified by Site inspection A technical phase that follows a
metabolism in an organism. preliminary assessmentdesigned to collect )
Mobility The ability of particles and substancesto more extensive information on a '

move, either by random motion or under the contaminated site.

influence of field forces. Sustainable development Meeting the needs of
Monitoring wells Special wells drilled at specific the present generation without compromising
locations on or off a hazardous waste site where the ability of future generations to meet
groundwater can be sampied at selected depths their needs.
and studied to determine such things as the Technology assessment An analytical tool used
direction in which groundwater flows and the to help understand the likely impact of the use
types and amountsof contaminants present. of a new technology by an industry or society.
Persistence The ability of a substanceto remain Toxicity The quality or degree ofbeing
unaltered for prolonged periods. poisonous or harmful to plants, animais
Phytotoxicity Toxicity ofa substance for plants. or humans.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbookfor Trainers


~.c~, ~


Part 1
1ntrad u cti 0 n

1.1 This package , 1:4

1.2 Contents of this package 1:4

A Workbookfor Trainers: Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng


1 Introduction

M anyteachinginstitutionsand ln 1993,in responseto thesefindings,UNEP,

individualtrainershavedifficulty in WHO,andILO jointly initiatedthe programme
following the rapid evolutionof on TrainingApproachesfor Environmental
environmentalissuesthatare relevantto their Managementin Indust!)'.The programmeaimsto
courses. enhancethe capacityof nationalinstitutionsto
This is particularlytrue whenteachingsubjects offer localtraining on topicsconcemedwith the
8 suchas pollution and environmentalmanage- preventionof industrialpollution.
ment.And yet it is importantthat newgraduates ln this context,trainers'packageshave been
havea goodknowledgeof issuesin which they preparedon differentareasof environmental
may eventuallyprovide consultingservicesor management. Thesepackagesare intendedto
policy adviceto govemmentsand industry. helpeducatorsand trainersto developtheir own
The fact that developmentand environmentare workshopsor curricula,or to integratesomeof
interrelatedmeansthat it is more vital thanever the ideasand informationinto alreadyexisting
that: teachingprogrammes.
.ail professionalshavea basicenvironmental /t is important to keepin mind that
literacy that helpsthemto incorporate thesetraining resourcepackagesmerely
environmentalpriorities into their specialized pro videafirst orientation to the topic.
work, whatevertheir profession;
.specializedenvironmentalcoursesare relevant ln no waydoesthepackageconstitute
to today's environmentalagenda. a 'course' in ils own right.

8 .iiP:"""i"
~" .A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng
1:4 United Nations Environment Programme' IndustryandEnvironment

1.1 Tbis package l

T his packageis a workbookthatcomplements

the trainer's packageon 'Cleaner
balancedcurriculum in responseto the needsof
his/heraudience.Any missingelementsmay be
Production'. For bestresults,bothshouldbe used found in one of the otherUNEP manuals,to be
together.ln manycases,it would be usefulto use convertedinto training formatbasedon the case
the CleanerProductionmaterialas an studiesandscenarioincludedhere.
introductionto anycurriculum-basedmaterialin Thus,the packageis not static.
this workbook. As feedbackis receivedfrom usersand
The workbookis balancedbetweencurriculum- technicalspecialists,the materialwill be
basedcontent(usefulfor technicians)anda more modified andenriched.
managementsystemsapproach(usefulfor Usersareencouraged to report on their
supervisorsandmanagers).ln practice,both will experiencesin usingthis package,andto send in
be needed,andthe traineris urgedto developa suggestionsfor improvements.

12 Contents oltbis package

T his packageis conceivedprincipallyto
helptrainerspreparea seminar,
.work exercisesandquestions;
workshop,or extendedcourse.It is not a informationto supportsomework exercises;
courseper se. .appendices with further information about
The packagecontains: UNEP and its programmes.
.suggestions andhints for effectivetraining; Trainersareencouragedto extendthe packageby
.a short backgroundto the subject,drawnfrom addingtheir own casestudiesand exercises,and
otherexistingpublications; expandingthe subjectcoverageinto newtopics.
.overhead transparenciesto introduceand For example,trainersin environmentalhealthmay
illustratethe main ideas; wishto add somemoduleson occupationalsafety
.case studiesand situationreportsandscenarios and ecotoxicityby building onthe chemical
drawn from actualexperience; informationalreadypresented. )

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook

for Trainers }
Part 1 .Introduction



~ Iff
"" ~

~~ ;;;::


Part 2
Organizing Effective
! Training Activities

2.1 Introduction """"""""""'" II:3

2.2 Notes on interactive workshop organization II:4

2.3 Some ideas for more effective communication II:5


2.4 Some personal suggestions for effective training 11:6

2.5 Resource persons guide II:7

2.6 Suggestions for self study 11:9

, C A Warkbaak for Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing


2 Organizing Effective
Training Activities

2.1 Introduction

C ommunication and organizational skiIls
are just as important as a technical
Accordingly, this package relies on interactive
teaching methods, using working exercises, case
appreciation of the subject. Professional studies,and groupwork problem-solving, rather
educators already understand this point, but than on lecture format.
teaching is a very individual matter, and Interactive techniques are more complex to
interactive teaching can be very demanding on a organize than simple lecture-giving, but they give
busy person. better results. ln particular, interactive methods
Here, we recall some of the key aspects of the are more likely to provide students with practical
leaming process. skills. This is important where skill development
This text contains suggestions about: rather than factual knowledge is the objective.
.how to ensure maximum effectivenessas a Lectures are better at providing factual
trainer knowledge than at developing skills.
.how to organize effective training activities and For example, a workshop format is very
presentations. effective in providing training on the effective
We have provided this advice before use of managementtools such as Environmental
consideration of the technical material, so that Impact Assessment(ElA), or audits. For high
readers can remind themselves of the importance level environmental management, both
of the advice when choosing work exercises and knowledge and skiIls are required, so the
8 training projects, later in this package. appropriate mixture of techniques should be used.
The notes in this Part are based on the
Adults learn best wl,en tl,ey are actively experiencesofUNEP lE and WHO in organizing
engaged. They remember 20% ofwhat they hear, workshops and other training sessions.
40% of what they see,and 80% of what they Personaladvice on how to be an effective trainer
d. fi h l is also given by several experienced trainers, who
lscover or t emse ves.
ail use interactive training approaches.

A Workbookfor Trainers: Cleaner Production ln Textile Wet Processlng
Il:4 United Nations EnvironmentProgramme' Industry

2.2 Notes on interactive workshop organization )

2.2.1 Workshops
W or~hoPs provide a stimulatinglearning .pre~~tion of a countryreportby each
enVIronment wherepeoplewith a wide partIcIpantbeforethe workshop
range of experiencesandskills canjoin together .short introductoryor overviewlectureson key
to addresspracticalproblemsbeyondthe ability issues
of an individual to resolve. .practical problem-solvingwork exerciseson
Interactiveworkshopsusea combinationof casestudies
severaltechniquesto bring abouta deeperand .feedback by expertsanddiscussionson
more pragmaticlearningexperiencethan is workshopexercises
possiblewith a lecture-styleformat. .panel sessions(that is, question-answer
Workshopsalsoprovide excellentopportunities dialogues)with experts
for exchangingpersonalexperiences, problem- .individual study sessions,computerquizzes,
solving throughpanelsessionsand direct andso on.
consultationswith experts,anddiscussingsome .structured oral presentationsof countryreports l
of the complexsituationswhich surroundmost leadingto a regionaloverview
environmentalproblems. .audiovisuals suchasvideos, films, and slides
The UNEP/WHO workshopformat .field visits whereappropriate
incorporatesthe following elements: .personal actionplanningby participantsfor
.sending out pre-workshopreadingmaterial, follow-up activity.
with somesimpleexercises

2.2.2 Preparation
Sessions needto be carefullyprepared,with
participantsknowing in advancewhatthey It cannotbe overstressedhow important it is
will do or see.A profonna reportform for that participants should be thorouglrlyprepared
countryreportsgivesa commonformatto these for the workshops,and tllat ail tl,epre-
sessions.Countryreportsshouldalso try to link workshopactivitiesI,avebeen completed.
the issueswith othersessions.
-~~=.._~ l
2.2.3 Organization ',f
T he organization ofworking groupsessions
also requirescare.Groupsshouldfirst meet
The foIe ofresourceexpertsasadvisorsis
crucial. Theyshouldhave sufficient experienceto
infonnally, electtheir own chairman,and thenact assistin ail sessionsandprovide generaladvice
as a pennanentteam in variousworkshop on ail subjectsin workshops,discussionor panel
sessions.Theyare guided,but DOtinstructed,by sessions.Theyshouldnot, however,dominatethe
technicalexperts. workshops.
It is usefulto finish the workshopby preparing The five clayfonnat is ideal for covering ail
personalactionplans.Participantsshoulddevelop theserequirements.If lessthan five daysis taken,
and presenttheir proposaIsfor what they can you canbe surethat importantissueswill be left
initiate immediatelyon their retumhome. Such out. If moretime is available,considerincluding
actionincludes: socialeventsandprivate study sessions,along
.what they canachieveunassisted,and with moreextensiveprojectwork for the
.what elsetheycould achieveif someassistance students.
were available.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook

for Trainers )
Part 2 .OrganizingEffectiveTrainingActivities
ïij'rJ Il:5

2.3 Someideas lor more enective communication
I f the training is to be successful,effective .trainees who aretraditionallyusedto lectures
communicationis essential- from recognition are suddenlyrequiredto take part in discussion
of the training needto the fmal evaluationof the groups,which might feel aliento them.
event. Mostofthese issuescanbe anticipatedand
Without good communication,ail manDerof overcomeby good communicationbetweenthe
things cango wrong: coursedesigners,writers,and eventorganizers
.the training is too early-or too late -to make andpresenterson the one side,andthe students
any impacton performance and their organizationson the other.
.trainees do not know whatthe training is about Somesimple communicationconsiderationswill
or whatto expect helpto improveoutputsin training andavoid
.the courseis plannedfor a localpublic holiday disasters.

8 Before the learning event

Find out:
.how the learners have been taught in the past
.the real needs and situation of the learners
.whether the facilities are adequatefor the envisagedtraining
.whether the training has the support of senior people
.how successwill be measured.
Make a project plan for the organizers,giving details ofhow
the eventwill beorganized.Sendtheplan to them,with details
ofthe keydatesand needs.

During the learning

.find out how relevant the topics are to the work situation of the
.start with the familiar ail can -not a video of an oi 1
spill disaster
.communicate using topics, themes and issues in the
local press
8 .store unansweredquestions, and remember to answer
them before the end
.keep notes for participants to bullet-point fonTlat
.ensure the participants keep notes for future reference -few
read essays,or even articles
.if you are working in a foreign language,at leasttranslate the

After the learning event

.always communicate your thanks and best wishes
.infonTl participants on follow-up study procedures, and how the
instructor can help to analyze the evaluations and infonTl the
organizers of the results
.communicate to colleaguesthe results of the training and what
can be learned from these results.

8 1_!lill:1itim: A Workbook
for Tra;ners
: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processlng

._-~""_. "." "__h~.~,",~,,,,",.."'--

Il:6 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

2A Some personal suggestions )

for enective training

T he following
suggestions corne from four teachers with long experience in training.
in character, and therefore in teaching approaches. However, they aIl believe in an
They are ail

enthusiasm for the subject which is critical when teaching students.

To be an effective educator/teacher: The outstanding educator/teacher:

.Provide an enjoyable learning situation that expands .Is fully acquainted with, and believes iD, the
ail of the participants' network. educational merit of the subject matter.
.Model courses and teaching styles on examples that .Utilizes clear and graphic illustrations to inform
you think are outstanding. Ask yourself about the and motivate the students to leam. )
qualities of a good instructor or a good course, and .Utilizes leaming approaches including multi-
follow the answers you corne up with. media, projects, interviews, questionnaires,
.Allow the subject matter to be discussed and debates, and similar interactive approaches to
discovered by students -not hammered in. ensure full involvement of the students.
.Make courses relevant and interesting by .Reacts positively to ail questions -there are no
understanding your audience. Ask them what they Stupid Questions, only Stupid Answers.
already know, and then plan for their needs, .Remembers that positive reinforcement is a
Incorporate ideas trom the group in the course. better motivational approach than criticism.
.Remember that no amount of style will substitute for .Is available for private discussions with
a jack of substance. individual students or groups of students.
Deborah Hanlon. Environmental Scientist Don Huisingh, EnvironmentalConsultantand Professorat
Office of Environmental Engineering ErasmusUniversity in Rotterdam
and Technology Demonstration. US EPA the Nelherlands

To be efficient ('doing things right~, and The best educatorlteacher:

effective ('doing tire right things~: .Likes the learners, and has a true understanding of
.Think about helping people to leam, rather than how they learn.
teaching them. .Has the ability to communicate. )
.Seek leamer feedback, and measure leaming .Will change the training programme and the
achieved with objective tests. approach if necessary.
.Set leaming time limits. .Is stilileaming, and has recent applied experience of
.Seek conscious and unconscious leaming. the subject being taught.
.Seek leaming that endures, based on .Has the ability to organise events and to manage
understanding and skills. things.
Bob Boland, EnvironmentalConsultant,France Colin Sutherland, Educational Consultant, Franœ

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )

Part 2 .Organizing Effective Training Activities

m. Il:7
8 2.5 Resource persons guide

A s this package relies heavily on interactive groupwork sessions,here are some guidelines on how
to be an effective resource persan.
ln a case study-based training approach,the resource persan servesmore as a:
.facilitator of the group learning process
.technical adviser as needed,
and a
.catalyst of learning
rather than a:
Here are some guidelines on how to be an effective resource person.

1 Be sure that you have read and understood and respective organizations, etc., which
thoroughly the participant's notes before you should have been done on the flrst day anyway.
meet your group. There's nothing like being .then ask if the objectives and pur pose of the
prepared and more familiar with the case study exercise,which have been previously discussed
scenario than the participants are! in the plenary session,are clear to them.
2 Before every group work session,take time Sample objectives are:
to visit your assigned meeting room and -identify and understand the options that SMEs
check the: tan employ in their pollution prevention
.seating arrangements There should be a large program
enough table surrounded by enough chairs for -evaluate the feasibility and suitability of these
the participants and yourself options in view oftechnical, environmental,
.equipment and supplies such as flipcharts, financial, organizational, and social criteria
flipchart papers, marker pens, whitelblack and constraints.
8 board, board eraser,masking tape, transparency lt will be useful to know whether the majority
sheets,writing pads, ballpen/pencils, calculator, of the group members have actually read the text
etc. provided, which statesthe background and the
.physical conditions of the room There should problem.
be sufficient lighting, the room temperature lfthey have not, then you will need to direct
should be comfortable, noise should be as low them to focus their attention first on what needs
as possible, etc. to be accomplished by the end of each part.
3 During the initial group meeting, it is
important to set an informai andfriendly
4 lfYOUr group gets involved in.diverse issues,
try to steer them back on the nght track by
atmosphere. lt is suggested that you: asking relevant questions, rather than telling
.introduce yourselj; preferably asking everyone them what to do.
to cali you by your first name, and then let 5 Give technical assistance and
everybody introduce himself/herself in a similar supplementary information as needed,
manner. Do not waste lime stating positions

8 lIrfJ'
"" 'in ,;, TextiléWet Processing
Il:8 United Nations Environment Programme. Industryand Environment

without 'spoon-feeding' the participants. persons need to be duly advised on the )
However, do not lecture or dominate the group particular question.

discussion process.
AlthOUgh you need not star with your group
g see to it that you compare notes, exchange
hints, and share strategies with other
for 100% of the time, it is expected that you: resource persons so that you can assist one
.spend at least 80% afthe rime with them during another, as weil as gauge your group's progress
regular sessions.The crucial times are at the in comparison with the others.
beginning, middle, and near the end of each
groupwork session.
10 If tension or heated argument arises
among your group members, try rOUf
.Ifthey decide to work beyond the prescribed best (with a sense ofhumor) to defuse it.
regular time, just make sure that they are on the
right track; your presenceduring overtime is
Il ln the case of absenteeism, approach the
person/persons in question and encourage

7 not mandatory, but voluntary.

There will be critical parts during the
identification of options, followed by
them to participate.
12 If one or two group members are
dominating the discussions or doing ail
technical, environmental, and economic the work, intervene and encourage everyone to
evaluation, where your technical advice will be gel involved. ln order to do this effectively, you ,
most needed by your group. need to be attuned to your group's 'culture' and )
The best way to assist the participants is by trend of discussion.
giving only the advantagesand disadvantages of
the options in question. Let them weigh these
13 Although division of labor is a time
saving group work strategy, you must
pros and cons and decide for themselves whether ensure that it is not done to the extent that there is
to take or drop the option. no peer learning and discussion occurring. It is
8 If you encounter any question about the counter-productive for group members to work
technical content of the material that you individually on these exercises.
have not been briefed on, discuss it with the
Team Leader and agree on how to tackle the
14 The most productive, meaningful and
fulfilling group work is when they get to
situation. It may weil be that the other resource accomplish what they have to do as a team -and
have fun in the process!

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbookfor Tra;ners )

Part 2 .Organizing Effective Training Activities
511~. Il:9

8 2.6 Suggestions for self studv

A lthOUgh this package was designed

to provide resources for trainers,
supplemented by further reading and additional
training materials listed in the Appendices, and
the potential for self-study should perhaps by site visits and discussions with
Dot be ignored. professionals.
The package does Dot constitute a complete The following approach is suggested for
course on cleaner production in leather tanning, individual study.
but can be seenas an introduction to be

8 .Read the introduction, but avoid any sections on organizing training events.

.Seek out the section containing background papers or subject content. Read through
the whole section as narrative.
.Work through the pagesoffered to the trainer for overhead projection, and ensure
you can relate the key points of eachoverheadto the text you have read.
.Look at the section on exercises. Identify those which lend themselvesto individual
work, and tackle them. Those exercises clearly constructed for teamwork, or
requiring research, may not be appropriate.
.Refer back to the narrative text as and when you need to, to complete the exercises.
.Check rOUf answers against those given in this resourcepack. Where there are
discrepancies, check through your own working to understandwhy the
8 .Use the Appendices to plan rOUf own further development.

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

" "'-~._-"_." "' l ,.",.., ,.,--

Bi11 111:7
to Current Environmental Issues and Environmental Aspects of Textile WeI Processing

8 Table 3.2 and Table 3.3 below show impacts of raw material production to health and the environrnent
of natural and synthetic fibres in the textile industry.

Table 32 Impactsof rawmaterialproductionof

naturalfibresfrom plantson humanhealthandthe environment

Process Desired Area of application Chemicalsemployed Possible impacts on health

effect and the environment
Cultivation Pesticides Naturalfibres: .Aldrin .acute toxicity(oral
.cotton .Chlordane and dermal)
.bast (flax,jute, .DDT .local, acute effects
hemp,ramie) .Dieldrin .short-term toxicity
.Endrin .long-term toxicity
.HCH (including .carcinogenicity
8 Lindane) .mutagenicity
.pCP .reproduction toxicity
.Toxa hene .neurotoxici
Harvesting Defoliation Naturalfibres: .2, 4-d see above
.cotton .2, 4, 5-t
.bast (flax,jute, (agentorange)

Table 3.3 Impactsof rawmaterialproductionof

syntheticfibreson humanhealthandthe environment

Process Desired Area of application Chemicals employed Possible impacts on health

effect and environment
8 Raw Fibre material Regenerated .Solvents
material cellulosefibres: .Other substances
synthesis .viscose
Raw Fibre material Syntheticfibres: .Fossil fuels .Non-renewableenergy
material .polyamide resource
synthesis .polyester
.01 vin Ichlorine
e.g. Catalysisof Polyester Heavymetals .Toxic effectsto
Polyester polymerisation containingcatalysts: humanhealth
synthesis .antimony trioxide
.antimony pentoxide
.ermanium dioxide

8 A Warkbaak for ila;ners : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

111:8 United Nations Environment Programme' IndustryandEnvironment

A h . 1. h b . :'k

more complex,a comprehensive integrated treatmentstrategy.If pollution avoidance,
approachis requiredto tacklethe problemof recyclingand treatmentare carefully chosen,then
pollution control. Avoidanceof wastegeneration thereshouldbe little residuerequiring treatment
and reductionwheneverand whereverpossible anddisposaI.Nevertheless, fuis mustbe carried
shouldbecomethe strategyof first priority. This out,keepingin mind the possibleenvironmental
would imply that utilization of aIl types of impactsas weIl as safetyto the workersand
resources-water, chemicals,heat,and so on-neighbouring community.
shouldbe optimal. This couId be done in many Nowadays,textile products-in particular,
instancesby the implementationof simple garments-have attaineda significant
measures,suchasgood housekeepingor reuseof environmentalfocus. Garmentsrepresent
resources. protection,but their contactwith the skin can
ln a few situations,a review of the existing causeirritation or evendisease,deriving from the
processtechnologymay alsobe neededwith following principalcauses:
respectto the choiceof process,processing .content of metals
sequenceandequipment.Examplesof such .content of organicsubstancesor chemical
optionsinclude: elements
.water conservationby counter-current washing .pH. )
.recovery of chemicalssuchas size,caustic, This beingthe case,the first stepstowards
dyesand grease establishingstandardsfor textileshave beenmade
.substitution of low BOD (BiochemicalOxygen in Europewith the MST standards,Eco-Tex,
Demand)chemicalsfor high BaD oDes which serveasworldwide referencesand arethe
.heat recoveryfrom effluents,etc. only premisesof intemationallegislation.
Textile equipmentmanufacturersarebecoming Moreover,newman-made'ecological' fibres
more and more awareof the needto conserve (suchasTencel,Lyocell, Newcell, etc.)have
water,chemicalsandenergy. ln fact, manynew recentlycorneontothe market. Their
productiontechnologieshave (at leastin part) 'ecological' characteris derivedpartly from their
beenspawnedby that awareness, andhavethus manufacture,which doesDotinvolve any
influencedthe designof textile manufacturing chemicalreaction,and partly from the total
equipmentwithout impairingthe productquality. recoveryof the solventsusedin manufacture.
Examplesof suchprocessand equipmentchanges ParaIlei to this, a new subsidiarymarketwith
includemodificationsin equipmentfor washing an immensepotentialis developing,basedon
and drying and for dyeingand printing offabric. ecologicaldisposaiofwaste textiles, suchasre-
Having exploredthe productionprocessesso as use,recyclinganddestruction.
to generateonly the smallestpossibleamountof ;

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook

for Trainers )
Part 3 .Introduction to Current Environmentallssuesand Aspects ofTextile WetProcessing

14a~ 111:9
10Currenl Environmenlal Issuesand EnvironmenlalAspects of Textile Wei Processing

3A Exercises
,,'. 1 (i) Which of the impacts mentioned earlier are the most important to the textile
"'1' industry overall? Why are they the most important?

(ü) Which are most important to local people? Try to rank them in order:

(iü) Which issuesare addressedin a typical factory permit? How are the others

(iv) What does the textile associationdo to addressthese issues?

8 "A Textile Wet Processing

~...~- ""
111:10 United Nations Environment Programme' Industry and Environment

.Ii.~ 2 Listedin Table3.4areseveraldifferentgroupsof chemicals/products

generally )
1 LI 1 encounteredin the textile wet processingindustry.Thesegroupsmay be
characterizedin termsof the difficultY in treatment/controlaccordingto the
following categories:
1 Relatively
2 Moderateta high organic load (in terms of BOD)
3 Difficult ta biodegrade
4 Nat suitablefor biological treatment
Assignthe appropriatepollution categoryagainst eachchemicaVproduct

of chemicals
usedin thechemical processing
of textiles
.Difficulty of
Formaldehyde N-methylolresins .
Chlorinatedsolventsand carriers Cationicretardersand softeners )
Biocides Sequesteringagents
Heavymetal salis

Waalgrease Dyesand brighteners

Polyacrylatesize such as polyvinylalcohol
Polymer finishes

Starchsize Biodegradablesurfactant
Organicacids Reducingagents

Alkalis Mineraiacids .)
Neutra!salis Oxidizingagents " C

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers )

Part 3 .Introductionto CurrentEnvironmental
r;: i"'.ÎDI~~~§Qn III:Il
10 Current Environmentallssuesand EnvironmentalAspects of Textile WeiProcessing

8 3.5 Solutions
Question 1 (i) The most important impacts are the depletion and contamination ofwater
resources and the impacts of energy consumption. Issues of contamination of soit,
water and natural ecosystemsare also important from a long term global scale, but are
difficult to isolate and quantify.

(ü) At the locallevel, the order of impacts could be:

.depletion and contamination of water resources
.impacts due to energy consumption (including associated air pollution)
.impacts on the health of facto!)' workers due to air emissions and noise.

(iii) Typically, a facto!)' permit addressesissues such as water and energy

consumption during licensing, wastewaterand air emissions released during permits
from the environment department, worker safety and health issues in terms of noise
insulation, ventilation and work spaceduring safety related and architecturaVdesign
related clearances. Additional issuesare addressedthrough the process of
8 Environmental Impact Assessment,if needed,depending on the size and location of
the textile facto!)'.

Question 2
.Difficulty of
Formaldehyde N-methylolresins Not suitable
Chlorinatedsolventsand carriers Cationicretardersand softeners for
Biocides Sequesteringagents bio/ogical
Heavymetal salts treatment

Wooigrease Dyesand brighteners Difficult to

Polyacrylatesile such as polyvinylalcohol biodegrade

Starchsile Biodegradablesurfactant Moderate to

Organicacids Reducingagents high organic
8 load (in
terms of
Alkalis Mineraiacids Relatively
Neutralsalts Oxidizingagents harmless

8 ,:'~i~J..;"IG;\1_1i1;"",llifi
A Workbookfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

---~""' .."~.""."

6 Environmental Aspects
of the Printing and
Finishing processes

8 6.1 Printing
W aShing the fabric after printing results
in coloured effluents which carry the
Some approachesto eliminate or replace urea in
cellulose printing have been suggested:
unfixed print paste with its .adoption of two-phase flash printing
ingredients. Some of the hard-to-treat printing .complete or partial substitution ofurea with an
wastes include colour residues,phosphate and alternative chemical Metaxyl FN- T
nitrogen-containing chemicals, and non- and
biodegradable organic materials such as .the mechanical application ofmoisture to
surfactants and solvents. These products can printed fabric prior to entering the steamer.
resist effluent treatments, causing subsequent ln the flash-ageing process, highly reactive dyes
environmental problems. are printed from a paste free of alkali and urea,
Nowadays alkylphenol-ethylene oxide products and then overpadded with high concentrations of
are being replaced by eco-friendly surfactants and caustic soda and electrolyte followed by flash-
white spirit, with water emulsion thickening by steaming. However, it is observed that adoption
aqueous thickeners in pigment printing. More ofthis technique may Dot solve effluent
serious problems arise in printing with reactive problems, becausethe flash-age process involves
8 dyes where large quantities ofurea are used to use ofhigh salt and high pH liquors.
swell cellulosic fibres, bringing about the Moisture spraying systems have been round to be
disaggregation of dyes, an increased solubility of useful in conditioning viscose fabrics after printing
dyes, retarded evaporation of water during and drying but before steaming. These systems
drying, and increased condensationof water on eliminate the use of urea totally by printing from a
prints during steaming. urea-free print pastefollowed by applying
moisture ofup to 30% prior to steaming.

8 A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

VI:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industryand Environment

6.2 Finishing ')

T he finishing process imparts the final aesthetic, chemical and mechanical properties to the fabric as
per the end use requirements. Several fmishing methods have been developed to improve the feel,
drape, antistatic, antisoiling, anti shrinking, anti-crease, water repelling and flame retardancy properties
of the fabric.
The fmishing can be broadly classified into two categories: mechanical fmishing and chemical
fmishing. ln the case of mechanical fmishing, the effect is produced mechanically, while for chemical
finishing, chemicals are used.
The fmishes can be further classified as permanent and nondurable finishes.

6.2.1 Resin finishing
he main objectives ofresin fmishing are
to improve dry and wet creaserecovery
batched in wet conditions and left to react under
rotation for 10 to 16 bourg, depending on the
and sharp crease retention of the fabric. amount of catalyst used. ')
This fmish is largely applied to cotton and its Durable press treatment is based on different
blends with manmade fibres. requirements. It gives high wrinkle recovery.
There are three main types of resin finishing However, in certain types of garments (such as
treatments: men's suiting and shirts), creasesare introduced
.anti-crease finishing deliberately. The creasesshould last as long as
.wash and wear finishing possible and should survive normallaunderings,
.durable press treatment. whilst at the same time, the rest of the garment
Though the anti-crease finish and wash and should be wrinkle free.
wear finish methods are basically the same,the Different methods, such as the post-cure
difference lies only in the type and level of crease process and garment treatment, are used for
recovery. ln anti-crease finishing, a dry-crease durable press treatment. Ofthese, the post-cure
recovery of about 230 (warp and weft) is and pre-cure process are mainly used.
regardedas satisfactory. However, in wash and ln the post-cure process,the fabric is
wear fabrics, it is DOtonly the dry creaserecovery impregnated with a solution containing
which is important but also the wet crease thermosetting resin, acidic catalyst, softener etc.,
recovery. Dry and wet crease recovery of about and dried under conditions which do Dot cause a
240 (warp and weft) each cao be considered as complete reaction between the cotton and the )
satisfactory for wash and wear fabrics. cross-linking agent. At this stage,the fabric is said
For anti-crease and 'wash and wear' finishing, to be 'sensitised'. Garments are stitched from the
two processesare mainly used: pad-dry-cure and 'sensitised fabric, lightly ironed to their proper
wet cross linking. ln the case of the pad-dry-cure shape,and then cured in a garment curing aven. ln
method, the fabric is padded with the resin, dried the pre-cure process, however, after the usual pad-
on the stenter and cured in polymeriser. After dry-cure afterwash technique, the garment is
curing, the fabric is washed with soapand soda ash manufactured from the crease resistant fabric. The
to remove decomposed products from the cured creasesare then heat-processed after local
fabric, whereas in the wet cross linking process, application of a small amounts of cross-linking
the chemical reaction is allowed to take place agent, together with an acidic solution and an
between a cross linkingagent and cellulose in an acidic catalyst. ln the durable press treatment to
acidic wet condition. The fabric is padded with cotton fabrics, the combination ofhigh resin
(80% pick-up) a solution containing thermosetting content and prolonged curing at high temperatures
resin with a highly acidic or alkaline catalyst and causessevere strength losses and reduces abrasion
thermoplastic resin. After padding, the fabric is resistance below acceptable limits.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbookfor Trainers .)

Part 6 .Environmental Aspectsa/the Printing and Finishing Processes

P.~: VI:5
8 6.2.2 Anti-shrinkfinishing
T he main objective of ibis fmish is to overcome
the problem of shrinkage of cotton and
mechanically shrunk between a drum and a rubber
belt. The sanforising machine consists of an entry
cotton-blended fabric during washing. The process roll, a cloth damping unit, a small clip stenter to
was originally patented and treated fabric was adjust the width of the fabric, a cloth shrinking
known as 'Sanforised' fabric. The cloth is unit, and a felt palmer unit to impart the felt finish.

6.2.3 Stenterfinishing
T he main function of the stenter is to impart
dimensional stability to the fabric. Fabric
.the use offormaldehyde scavengersduring
application and storage of resin fmished goods.
structure is stabilized by controlling the A wide variety of products is used in textile
longitudinal and transverse tension and heat finishing, depending on the characteristics to be
setting the fabric in tension. Length is controlled imparted to the consultant fabric. Most ofthese
by positive overfeeding, whereas width is products are either polymeric in nature or
controlled by mounting the fabric on parallel anionic, cationic or non-ionic compounds. ln
8 running chains. Stentering is a critical process, several cases,catalysts are used along with these
and determines the dimension stability of the products to bring about a chemical reaction
fabric and shrinkage during use. between them and the fibre substanceto make
These machines normally fUn at around them more durable during use. Precise
0-150m/min., depending on the type of machine, information is DOtreadily available regarding
the process used, and the fabric. Overfeeding can biodegradability and toxicity of these products; it
be carried out between -15% and +60%. Heat is therefore difficult to evaluate their impact on
setting is clone in a long closed chamber, where receiving streams.
the fabric is dried at a high temperature by means ln order to overcome the problems connected
of hot air. with non-ecofriendly products used in the chemical
Amongst the different products used in the finishing of textiles, researchis DOWconcentrated
finishing of textiles, the most eco-friendly products in the mechanical finishing of textiles whereby
are formaldehyde-based cross-linking agents desired properties -namely softness, stiffness,
which are applied to cellulosic textiles to impart bulk, drape, smoothness,handle etc. -can be
crease-resistanceand dimensional stability. imparted to textiles by changing the morphology or
} During their application, the evolution offree surface characteristics of the fabrics by mechanical
formaldehyde can arise due to unreacted means. ln turn, this completely obviates the use of
8 formaldehyde in the product, liberation of chemical products, thereby reducing considerably
formaldehyde during the cross-linking reaction, the problems oftoxicity and stream pollution.
and slow generation offormaldehyde during the Vacuum extraction bas been utilized in many
storage ofresin-finished fabrics and garments. capacities. The technology bas been used for lint
Various countries have prescribed tolerance limits removal, water removal, chemical finishing,
for free formaldehyde, depending on the end use of dyeing, washing, and removal and recovery of
the treated fabrics and garments. The presenceof chemicals. Vacuum extraction lint removal
formaldehyde in the atmosphere and in wastewater systems remove lint from fabric prior to printing,
streams is considered as highly objectionable. eliminating a potential unprinted spot where lint
Two different approacheshave been adopted to is attached to the fabric. ln addition, by removing
minimize the problems connected with free the lint prior to the printing process, lint does DOt
formaldehyde in textile wet processing: become attachedto the printing screen, thereby
.the development offormaldehyde-free cross- resulting in repeatedunprinted spots along the
linking agents for cellulosic textiles and length of the printed fabric. By removing lint
formaldehyde-free dye-fixing agents before the fabric is printed, the quality,

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

C"," .,.
VI:6 United Nations EnvironmentProgramme' Industry

consistency,and appearance of the printedfabric usinga squeezeroll. Vacuumextraction
is improved. equipmentis spaceefficient,tan be addedto
One of the most commonand simplestusesof existing systems,andrequiresrelatively low
vacuumextractionis for waterremovalprior to capitaloutlay.
drying. Moisture removalbeforedrying saves Applicationsofthese systemsinclude water
energyin the drying process,increases removalprior to drying fabric and chemical
productionspeedby decreasingthe overalldrying application,and asa meansof improving the
time, and assistsin washingthe fabric. washingprocess.Someof the benefitsofremoving
ln wet processing,it is critical thatthe fabric waterprior to the drying of fabric include
basthe correctmoisturelevelto preventbath increaseddrying andprocessspeed,reduced
dilution from fabric which is too wet. Vacuum energyrequirementsfor drying, a reductionoflint
contrai is crucialto maintainconsistentextraction accumulationon rails and dry cans,and
ratesfor evenchemicalapplication.By applying eliminationof a drying processfor wet-on-wet
reactivechemicalson wet fabric asopposedto chemicalfmishing. Waterremovalbefore chemical
dry fabric, savingsare not only realized applicationremovesfabric contaminantsand
chemically,but drying is eliminated.Theperiod assuresuniform wet pick-up prior to chemical
of retum on investmentis extremelyshort. application.The washingprocessis improved by
Utilizing vacuumextractiontechnologyin vacuumingout, not squeezingin, contaminants, )
washing significantlyincreasesthe contaminant andallows controlledcounterflowand filtering of
removalfrom fabric comparedto waterremoval waterin the washline.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook

for Trainers j
Part 6. EnvironmentalAspects ofthe Printing and Finishing Processes

~,- ..
liai VI:7

8 6.3 Printing and linishing pollution loads

Table 6.1 Pollutionloadsfor printingandfinishingoperations(50/50polyester/cotton)

Process pH BOD TDS

kgper 1000kgofproduct
Pigment(wovengoods) 6-8 1.26 5.0 0.13 2.5
8 Pigment(knotgoods) 6-8 1.26 5.0 0.13 2.5
Vatdye (wovengoods) 10.0 21.5 86 25 34
Vatdye (knit goods) 10.0 21.5 86 25 35
Resinfinishing 6-8 22
(woven goods)
Resinfinishingflat curing 6-8 6.32 25 12 17.3

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner

.",," _.
VI:8 United Nations EnvironmentProgramme' Industry

BA Exercises )

" 1& 1 processes?
Whatarethe localenVlfonmentallmpllcatlons?

2 Whatarethe environmentalproblemsofusing:
[a] kerosenein pigmentprinting?

[b] ureain the printing paste?


[c] formaldehydein finishing?

, ..
Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Trainers )
Part 6 .Environmental Aspects ofthe Printing and Finishing Processes

I~; VI:9

8 6.5 Solutions

Question 2 [a] At elevated temperatures,kerosenecan lead to the release ofhydrocarbons,

which in turn leads to the generation of carcinogenic compounds and affects the health
of workers.
[b] When washed-out or wasted, printing paste containing urea can reach the water
bodies nearby. The escapeof urea into water bodies can lead to an increase in nutrients
promoting the growth of algae and subsequentlyeutrophication.
[ci When on the fabric, free formaldehyde can react with perspiration or
rubbing skin, and can lead to skin diseasesdepending on skin sensitivity
(especially in caseof children).

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

-'.""'AU"'" ""',.

! ~..c'<" ~

~~ ~
~.. III


Part 8

8.1 Some background documents on the environment VIII:3

8.2 Audiovisuals vffi:5

) ::;Q!~~
A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing


8 References

8.1 Some background

documents on the environment

Saving Our Planet: challenges and hopes [1992] Beyond the Limits: global collapse or a
M.K. Tolba (ExecutiveDirectorof UNEP). sustainable future? [1992]D.H, Meadows;
ISBN0412473704. D.L. Meadows;J. Randers.ISBN 185383131 X.
8 This book analyses the changes that have Using World 3, a computer model, to project
occurred in the environment in the past two the future, and by varying the basic global policy
decades. It focuses not only on the state of the assumptions,a range of possible outcomes is
environment, but also on the interactions between described. It is shown that a sustainable society is
development activities and the environment. It technically and economically feasible, if growth
highlights the main responsessince 1972to if material consumption and population are
protect the environment. ceaseddown and there is an increase in the
Published by: Chapman & Hall, efficiency of our use of materials and energy.
2-6 Boundary Row, London SEI 8HN, UK. Published by: Earthscan Publications Ltd.,
Environmental Data Report 1993.1994[1993] 120 Pentonville Road, London NI 9JN, UK.
United NationsEnvironmentProgramme. Changing Course: a global business perspective
ISBN 0 63119043O. on developmentand the environment [1992]
This report is updated biennially and provides S. Schmidheiny.ISBN0262691531.
the best available data and information on a wide This book provides an analysis of how the
range of environmental topics, including business community tan adapt and contribute to
pollution, health, natural resources, population the crucial goal of sustainable development,
and settlements, energy, wastes and disasters. combining the objectives of environmental
8 Published by: Blackwell Publishers, protection and economic growth.
108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 IJF, UK. Published by: MassachusettsInstitute of
Chemical Pollution: a global overview [1992] Technology (MIT) Press,Cambridge,
United NationsEnvironmentProgramme. Massachusetts02142, USA.
This book overviews the origins and impacts of Blueprint for Green Management:creating your
pollution around the world, caused by selected company's own environmental action plan [1995]
chemical pollutants and wastes. G. Winter.ISBN 0 07 7090152.
Publishedby: UNEP, Nairobi. This book is a handbook ofindustrial ecology
The Earth Summit's Agenda for Change: a plain with numerous checklists for practical use and a
language version of Agenda 21 and the other Rio concrete example of the lntegrated System of
Agreements [1993]M. Keating,ISBN 2 94007000 8. Environmentalist Business Management (the so-
This publication is aimed at facilitating access called Winter Model), supported by the
to the very important material contained in Commission of the European Communities.
Agenda 21. Published by: McGraw-Hill Book Company
Published by: The Centre for Our Common Future, (UK) Ltd.
52 rue des Paquis, 1201 Geneva, Switzerland.

8 :i

A Workbook for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

,.."" .c ..,"" .c.."" ""","",,,

VIII:4 United Nations Environment Programme' Industryand Enviranment

Life Cycle Assessment: what it is and how to do it The second part of the volume, Life Cycle )
[1996]UNEPlE Assessment: how ta use il, examines the severnl
This report is in two parts. The flfSt, Life Cycle steps involved in making an LCA in a simplified
Assessment: what il is, is concemed with the concep but systematic manDer. It illustt-ates the problems
ofLCA, how it is currently practised and how it is involved and the kind ofresults that tan be
expected to develop. It also places LCA in the produced by working thrOUgha real LCA that bas
broader perspective of other tools for environmental been used to assessthe environmental impact of
analysis such as environmental impact assessment, different low fat spreads.
risk analysis and technology assessment. Further information: UNEP lE, Paris, France.


Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaakfor Trainers)

Part 8 .References

~..".. , ~",,","
jgi~:ill', :~::iBif.iri"~~

8 8.2 Audiovisuals
IChemEhasan internationalreputation
for providing
andcomputer-basedtechniques.Wedrawon expertsthroughout industry,
bodies,thelegalprofessionandacademia to ensurethatour

PackageEO2Understanding is thekeyto effective PackageEO4Trainees leamhowto makeauditsmore
environmental improvements -bath throughcertified effective.ln clearlydefinedsections, thepackage explains
standards andeffectivepolicyimplementation. Thispackage howto go aboutauditinga site,fromdefiningthescopeand
givesa thoroughgrounding in environmental awareness. The objectives throughon-siteactivities to reporting
casestudiesGaver:environmentallaw; globalissues; work.Thirteencasestudiesandexercises, supportedbyover
corporate issues;andwasteminimization. 120slides,include:settingupan EMS;auditingfor waste
AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS disposai, duediligenœandeffluence compliance; reporting
Volume 1: awareness and treatment strategies auditfindings;anddiscussion ofphotographs ofbadpractice.
8 PackageEO1Engineers leamhowto assessanddealwith ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
effluentproblems; seniormanagement gaina soundtechnical PackageEO51f youalreadyhaveanenvironmental
andlegalgrounding; andoperators learnwhycompliance is management system,thispackage willhelpyougain
important. Sevencasestudiesdemonstrate howeffective commitment fromyourstaff.Ifyouarejustdeveloping a
treatment strategies savemoneywhilstbenefiting the system,notonlywillyoubenefitfromthetraining,butalso
environment.Andthetechnicalguidance covers: benchmarking fromthedetailedcasestudieswillsaveyou
characterisation ofeffluents;treatment strategy; safety;unit time.Andif youhavestillnotdecidedwhichsystemto gofor
operations; androsIs. (ifany),thispackage willhelpyoumakean informed decision.
Volume 2: measurement and monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
PackageEO13Traineeslearnhowto measure andmonitor PackageEO6Thistrainingpackagegivesyoua thorough
effluents,ensuringcompliance andreducingtreatment costs. grounding in theElAprocessandtechniques. Produced in
AIR EMISSIONS conjunction withtheInstituteofEnvironmental Assessment,
Volume 1: key issues thepackageprovides aneffectivemeansoftrainingail staff
PackageEO3Thispackageprovidescomprehensive concerned withEIAs.
coverageofgenericair pollutionissuesandtechnologies, Thereareninecasestudiesprovided by leadingenvironmental
backedupwithdetailedsections on sourœsandtypesof consultancies. Theseintroduce thepracticalaspectsofthe ElA
emissions, atmospheric chemistry, standards andlegislation processbyexamining projectsinvolving a foodprocessing plant,
(UKandEuropean). a sewagetreatment works,a coastaldefenœscheme,a pipeline
Volume 2: monitoring and control proposai, anail refineryanda powerstation.
PackageEO12Thispackage followsonfromAEVol.1: key WASTEMIN IMllA TION
8 issues,andprovidesdetailedinformation on measurement PackageEO7Approaches in thepackagevaryfromgood
andmonitoring andcontraitechniques, illustrated
with housekeeping to complex techniques suchas lifecycle
comprehensive casestudies.Sections on ambient monitoring, analysis.Thistrainingpackage showshowto go aboutil, from
meteorology andairdispersion modelling helpto providea defininga strategythroughto makingsureit happens.
thoroughgrounding in thetechnicalissuesassociated withair CONTAMINA TED LAND
emissions. PackageEOBTrainees learnwhycontaminated landis
ENERGY MANAGEMENT important, howandwhya company shouldavoid
PackageEO11Energyefficiency affectsthebottomline. contamination, andtheprosandconsofthekeyremediation
Traineeslearnthebasictoolsandtechniques foreffective techniques. Youwillalsolearnhowto usethisknowledge to
energymanagement. gelthe mostoutoftheconsultants youuse.
Fororderformcontact: MarkSmith
SafetyHealthand EnvironmentDepartment.Institution of ChemicalEngineers
165-189RailwayTerrace.Rugby CV21 3HQ,UK
Tel +441788 578214' Fax +441788560833

8 A Warkbaakfor Trainers: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

_.~. ,.,


~~ },,

~~~ JJ1



1 Supporting Documentsfor this Package 3

II List of Training ResourcePackagesavailable from UNEP lE 5
III About UNEP Industry and Environment 7

A Warkbaak for Trainers : Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing


Appendix 1
Supporting Documents for tbis Package

During trials, the following documents were shawn to be of great use in supporting the use ofthis
package. They fOnD an integral part of the package.

8 The TextileIndustry and the Environment [1993]UNEP.

Audit and ReductionManualfor Industrial Emissionsand Wastes[1991]
Energy Efficiency and Climate Change[1991]UNEP/IPIECA.

-8 A Warkbaakfor Tra;ners: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing


Appendix II
List of Training Resource Packages
available trom UNEPlE

T he following training resourcepackageshavebeendevelopedby UNEP lE. They ail use

interactivetraining methodologiesto explainthe subject,andareaimedat educatorswho,
althoughtechnicallyskilled, may DOthavespecializedknowledgein this particulararea.
The packagesareavailablefrom UNEP lE.
Sometrainers' packagesare still underdevelopment,
to assistUNEP to
8 bring theseto a fmal stageof publication.

Due to the costofprinting of the packages(between100and 400 pages),the completeddocuments

areoffered for saleto mostusers.However,a limited numberof draft packagesarefree of chargeto
userspreparedto contributeto their further development
thrOUghreview,field testingandadding
material.Assistancewith translationwould alsobe welcome.

CleanerProduction: a Training Resource exercises.110pages.Price$120. This package

Package[1996] First Edition. Contains alsohelpsto explainthe APELL programme.
backgroundreading,transparencies, Risk ManagementofContaminatedIndustrial
bibliography,and work exercises.110pages. Land: a TrainingResourcePackage[1996]
Price $120(English,Spanish).This package FirstEdition.Containsbackgroundreading,
caobe usedwith the workbooksbelow. casestudiesand work exercises.110pages.
Trainer's Workbookon CleanerProductionin Price$120. English,Spanish.
Leather Tanning [1996] First Edition. Contains HazardousWaste,PoliciesandStrategies:a
backgroundreading,casestudies,work TrainingManual [December1991]TRIO.
8 exercisesandanswers.120pages.Price$120. Containsbackgroundreading,casestudies,
Trainer's Workbookon CleanerProduction in work exercises,referencetablesand
the Brewing Industry [1996] FirstEdition. bibliography.250 pages.Price$120. English,
Containsbackgroundreading,casestudies, French,Spanish.
work exercisesandanswers.75 pages. Landfill of HazardousIndustrial Wastes:a
Price$100. TrainingResourcePackage[March 1994]
Trainer's Workbookon CleanerProduction in TRI7. Containsbackgroundreading,case
Textile WetProcessing[August 1995]First studies,work exercises,referencetablesand
Edition. Containsbackgroundreading,case bibliography.315pages.Price$120.
studies,work exercises,answers,references. Environmentaland TechnologicalIssues
140pages.Price$120. relatedto Lead-AcidBatteryRecycling:
Management of Industrial Accident Prevention TrainersWorbook[1996] First Edition.
and Preparedness:a TrainingResource Containsbackgroundreading,transparencies,
Package[1996] First Edition. Contains bibliographyandwork exercises.130pages.
backgroundreading,casestudiesand work Price$120.

A Warkbaak
: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing

"_.~."'..".. ,.",
6 United Nations Environment Programme. Industry and Enviranment

Environmental Management ofMining Sites: a Training Manual on Chillers and Refrigerant )

Training Manua/ [1995]UNEP/DDSMS. Management[1994]Price FF425/us$85for
Containsbackgroundreading,transparencies, developedcountries.
casestudies,work exercisesandanswers. Training Manual on GoodPractices in
200 pages.Price$160. Refrigeration [1994]PriceFF400/us$80for
Environmental ManagementSystems:Training developedcountries.
ResourceKit [1995]UNEP/ICC/FIDIC. EnvironmentalImpactAssessment:a training
Containsbackgroundreading,transparencies, resourcemanual[1996]Preliminaryversion.
casestudies,work exercises,bibliography. Availablefrom UNEP Environmentand
492 pages.Price$190. EconomicsDepartment,UNEP, Nairobi.
Aerosol ConversionTechnologyHandbook [1994]
Price FF225/us$45for developedcountries.


Enquiries UNEP lE
Tour Mirabeau
39-43 quaiAndré Citroën
75739Paris Cedex15
Tel " 33 (1) 44 37 1450
Fax 33 (1) 44 37 1474
Emai/ "

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak

for Trainers ?
, 7


Appendix III
About UNEPIndustrv and Environment

I ndustry and Environment was establishedby UNEP in 1975 to bring

industry and government together to promote environmentally sound
industrial development.

8 UNEP lE is locatedin Parisand its goalsareto: the transferof infonnationandthe sharingof

1 encouragethe incorporationof environmental knowledgeand experience,UNEP lE bas
criteria in industrialand developmentplans; developedthreecomplementarytools:
2 facilitate the irnplementationof proceduresand .technical reviewsandguidelines;
principles for the protectionof the environment; .Industry andEnvironment:a quarterlyreview;
3 promotethe use of safeandcleantechnologies; .a technica1query-response service.
4 stimu1atethe exchangeof infonnationand ln keepingwith its emphasisontechnica1
experiencethroUghouttheworld. cooperation,UNEP lE faci1itatestechnology
UNEP lE providesaccessto practical transferandthe irnp1ementation of practicesto
infonnationanddevelopsco-operativeon-site safeguardthe environmentthroughpromoting
actionand infonnationexchangebackedby awareness and interaction,training anddiagnostic
regularfoIlow-up andassessment. To promote studies.

Some relevant UNEP lE publications

Referta Appendix II for trainers.packages.For completelist, refer ta publicationscatalogue.
Industry and Environment [quarterly]dealswith Energy, EfflciencyandClimate Change[1991]
8 issuesrelevantto industrialdevelopment,such UNEP/IPIECA.95pp.
as auditing,wastemanagement, industry- Hazard Identification and Evaluation in a Local
specific problems,and environmentalnews. Community: TechnicalReportNo. 12 [1992]
GovernmentStrategiesand Policiesfor Cleaner 86pp.
Production [1994]32pp. Health Aspectsof ChemicalAccidents:
CleanerProduction WorldwideVol. 1and Il guidanceon chemicalaccidentawareness,
[1995]48pp. preparednessand response for health
Life CycleAssessment:what it is and how to do professionalsand emergencyresponders
it [1996]92pp. TechnicalReportNo. 19 [1994] A joint
Audit and Reduction ofIndustrial Emissions IPCS/OECD/UNEP/WHO publication: OECD
and Wastes:TechnicalReportNo. 7 [1991] EnvironmentMonographNo. 81. 47pp.
UNEP/UNIDO. 127pp. EnvironmentalAspects ofIndustrial Wood
Monitoring of Industrial Emissionsand Wastes: Preservation:a technicalguide Technical
TechnicalReportNo. 27 [1996] ReportNo.20 [1994] IO5pp.
UNEP/UNIDO. 188pp. The TextileIndustry and the Environment
TechnicalReportNo. 16 [1994] 120pp.

8 A Warkbaak
for Trainers
: Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing
8 United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Enviranment

Environmental Managementin the Brewing CompanyEnvironmentalReporting Technical ')

Industry TechnicalReportNo.33 [1995] 120pps. ReportNo. 24 [1994] 118pp.
Storage of HazardousMaterials Technical From Regulationsto Industry Compliance:
ReportNo. 3 [1990] Building Institutional Capabilities Technical
CompaniesOrganizationand Public ReportNo. 11 [1992]62pp.
Communicationon EnvironmentalIssues
TechnicalReportNo. 6 [1991]130pp.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Warkbaak for Tra;ners



Evaluation Form
Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing
A s part of the continuingreviewofthis trainerspackage,we would appreciateyour cooperationin
answeringthe following questions.Pleaseretumthe completedevaluationform to:

UNEP lE, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43quai André Citro~n, 75739Paris Cedex15, France
Fax 33 (1) 44371474.

1 Do you have any suggestions for improvement of the trainers package? How could we
improve its readability, contents, practical use, and so on?

2 How was the package useful in preparing your own training activity?

8 3 Did the background infonnation and transparencyset provide you with enough
infonnation? What was missing?


8 A Workbook
for Trainers
: CleanerProduction in Textile Wet Processlng

,'""' " -~'""."

ü United Nations Environment Programme olndustry and Environment

4 What resource infonnation was useful to you? What else should be included? )

5 What are your experiences with the exercises?What worked, and what didn 't?

6 Do you have training material which could be incorporated into this workbook?

7 What additional topics related to cleaner production would you want to be included in the
final version of this workbook? )

Thankyoufor taking therime to completethis evaluationform.Pleasereturn the completedformto

UNEP lE, Tour Mirabeau,39-43 quai André Citroën, 75739Paris Cedex15,France.

Cleaner Production in Textile Wet Processing : A Workbook for Trainers