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Lecture 7

Evaporation
Definition
Evaporation is performed in evaporators to
concentrate a solution consisting of nonvolatile
solute and volatile solvent
Feed characteristic
Concentration increases, the viscosity, density and boiling point
increase as well, then lower heat coefficient

Heat sensitive materials as pharmaceuticals and foods require


short residence time

Foaming & frothy causes entrainment loss

Scale / deposit formation drastically decreases the heat


coefficient, then leads to shut down for cleaning

Other properties: solubility, specific heat, gas liberation, toxicity


Effects on evaporation rate
Heat rate

Laten heat of water at certain condition

Maximum allowable temperature: higher is better

Operating pressure: lower is better

Solution properties: viscosity, foaming, frothy


Classification
Once through / Circulation

Natural / Forced / Agitated

Falling / Rising

Vertical / Horizontal

Single / Multiple

Internal heater / External heater


Classification
Once through is useful for heat sensitive materials and
adapted to multiple effect, agitated and falling film

Circulation is not for heat sensitive materials and


adapted to single effect, natural / forced and rising film
Classification
Natural circulation with low heat transfer coefficient
= 0.3 1 , relative cheap, poor circulation, for
nonviscous / non deposite scale liquids

Forced circulation with high heat transfer coefficient


= 2 6 , fouling reduction, high pumping cost

Agitated with high heat transfer coefficient, reduce


thermal resistance of liquid, high capital cost and low
capacity
Classification
Falling film is for highly heat sensitive materials which
requires short residence time = 3 10; = 50

Rising film is for foaming and frothy liquid = 3


Classification
Vertical tube is for foaming liquids

Horizontal tube is for low viscosity and non deposit scale


liquids
Classification
Single effect is simple, big temperature difference
between steam and solution, ineffective energy usage
1 1.3 kg of steamkg water evaporation

Multiple effect is more complex and effective energy


usage
Classification
Internal heater with short vertical tube = 1 2

External heater with long vertical tube = 3 10


Classification

Vertical tube Falling film

Natural circulation Vertical tube climbing up

Horizontal tube

Evaporators
Vertical heating
Forced circulation
Horizontal heating
Agitated flim
Open kettle & pan evaporator
Pan

Steam

Boiler

Jacket

Condensate

Concentrate
Open kettle & pan evaporator

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGE
Used for both small scale & large scaleHeat
operation.
economy is less.
Simple in construction and easy to operate.
Not suitable for heat sensitive materials.
Low maintenance & installation cost. Heat decreases on product concentration.
Wide variety of materials. Since, open type so vapor passes to atmosphere.
Once through evaporator

Rising film
Falling film External heater
External heater
Once through evaporator
FEED

STEAM

CONDENSATE

Falling film Rising film


Internal heater Internal heater
CONCENTRATE
Natural circulation evaporator

Rising Rising
External heater Internal heater
Natural circulation evaporator

Horizontal tube Vertical tube


Internal heater Internal heater
Forced circulation evaporator

Falling
Internal heater Rising
Internal heater
Forced circulation evaporator

Falling
External heater Rising
External heater
Forced circulation evaporator

Horizontal tube External heater


Agitated evaporator
Agitated evaporator
Natural circulation Internal heater

Increases the heating surface 10 15 times than


steam jacketed kettle
Advantages Vigorous circulation enhances rate of heat transfer
More units can be joined

Liquid to be maintained above calandria


Complicated and increased installation cost
Disadvantages Pressure has to maintain
Cleaning and maintenance is difficult
Natural circulation External heater
Large area for heat transfer, enhanced heat transfer
Short residence time, suitable for heat sensitive
Advantages liquids
Rising film is for foaming and frothy liquids
Falling film is for viscous and corrosive liquids

Quite complicated, high capital cost


Cleaning and maintenance is difficult
Disadvantages Space required
Rising is not for viscous, salting and scaling liquids
Falling is not for suspension, salting and scaling liquid
Forced circulation

High heat transfer coefficient


Advantages Suitable for high viscous liquids

High capital and operation cost


Disadvantages Not possible for salting and scaling liquids
Once through evaporator

Rising film
Internal heater
Plate external heater
Once through evaporator

Rising film External heater


Once through evaporator

Heat exchanger

Falling film
External heater Separation chamber
Forced circulation evaporator

Falling Rising
External heater External heater
Forced circulation evaporator

Rising External heater


Forced circulation evaporator

Rising External heater


Forced circulation evaporator

Rising External heater


Forced circulation evaporator

Horizontal tube External heater


Single effect with recompression

Mechanical recompression
Single effect with recompression

Mechanical recompression
Single effect with recompression

Mechanical recompression
Single effect with recompression

Mechanical recompression
Single effect with recompression
Thermal recomp. is better than mechanical
recomp. for vacuum operation

However, the efficiency of thermal recompression is lower


Thermal recompression
Multiple effect evaporator

Steam Steam
Solution Solution

Forward feed operation Backward feed operation

Steam
Solution
Mixed feed operation
Parallel feed operation
Multiple effect evaporator
Forward: feed flows naturally (without pump),
low boiling point for heat sensitive concentrate

Backward: pump required, for cold feed and


highly viscous concentrate

Parallel: for feed is almost saturated, solid crystal

Mixed (forwardbackward): for very highly


viscous concentrate
Multiple effect evaporator

Suitable for large scale and continuous process


Advantages Highly economical

Disadvantages Monitoring of evaporators


Multiple effect evaporator

Backward feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator

Parallel feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator

Parallel feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator

Mixed feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator

Forward feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator

Forward feed operation


Multiple effect evaporator
Multiple effect evaporator
Multiple effect evaporator
Performance evaluation
Capacity of an evaporator is amount of water
Capacity vaporized in the evaporator per unit time

Economy of an evaporator is the mass of water


Economy vaporized per unit mass of input steam


=

For single effect, = 0.77 1
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Type Overall coefficient
Vertical tube
Natrural circulation 1000 2500
Forced circulation 2000 5000
Agitated film
1 2000
1 1500
100 600
Raoults law
The partial pressure of each component of an ideal
mixture is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure
component multiplied by its mole fraction.
For nonvolatile solution, there is only solvent evaporized:
=

At given pressure: = =

> >
Boiling point rising / elevation
= (due to concentration)
Raoults law
=
: number of ions produced by each molecule of solute
: constant by solvent
: solute concentration

Solvent Boiling point at 1


Water 100 0.512
Ethanol 78.5 1.22
Acetic acid 117.9 3.07
Benzene 80.1 2.53
Diethyl ether 34.5 2.02
Carbon disulfide 46.2 2.34
Carbon tetrachloride 76.5 5.03
Chloroform 61.7 3.63
Duhrings rule
A linear relationship exists between the temperatures at
which two solutions exert the same vapor pressure. The
rule is often used to compare a pure liquid and a
solution at a given concentration.


= , at given pressure
Duhrings rule
Boiling point of solution

Boiling point of water


Sodium hydroxide Water at atmospheric pressure
Duhrings rule
Boiling point of water

Boiling point of solution


Boiling point of solution

Boiling point of solution

Boiling point of water Boiling point of water


Salt (sodium chloride) Water at atmospheric pressure
Nomograph for boiling point of aqueous solutions
Temperature difference
Vapor

= =
(due to pressure drop)

,
Feed

Steam

Condensate

Concentrate
Temperature difference
1 Vapor

1 = + = ,
1 (pressure drop, concentration)

,
Feed
1
Steam

Condensate

1 Concentrate
Temperature difference
1 Vapor

1 = + = ,

2 = + = ,
2 (pressure drop, concentration,
hydrostatic head & friction loss)
,
Feed
1
Steam

Condensate
2
2 Concentrate
Duhrings rule
1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3

1 2 3

(concentration)
(concentration)

(concentration)
1 2 3

2 = 2 +

3 = 3 +
1 = 1 +


Feed
Steam

1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3
Concentrate
Condensate Condensate Condensate

Concentration
Concentration

Concentration
1 = 1 1 1 2 = 2 2 1 2 3 = 3 3 2 3
1 = 1 1 1 2 = 2 2 1 2 3 = 3 3 2 3
Pressure drop Pressure drop Pressure drop
Forward feed operation
Duhrings rule
1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3

1 2 3

(concentration)
(concentration)

(concentration)
1 2 3

2 = 2 +

3 = 3 +
1 = 1 +


Feed
Steam

1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3
Concentrate
Condensate Condensate Condensate
1 = 1 1 1 2 = 2 2 1 2 3 = 3 3 2 3
= 1 + 2 + 3 = 1 1 1 + 2 2 2 + 3 3 3 = 3

Forward feed operation


Calculation for
single effect evaporator
Process variables
, ,
Vapor

, , , : mass flowrate
: mass fraction of solute
= = : temperature
: pressure
, , , : mass enthalpy of vapor
Feed
, , , : mass enthalpy of liquid
Steam
, , , , ,
Condensate

, ; ,
Concentrate
Process variables
, ,
Vapor
=+
Mass balances
=

Energy balances
+ = +

, , , = =
Feed
, , ,
Steam Heat transfer rate =
, , , , ,
Condensate

, ; ,
Concentrate
Process variables
, ,
Vapor
=+
Mass balances
=

Energy balances
= +

, , , = =
Feed
, , ,
Steam Heat transfer rate =
, , , , ,
Condensate

, ; ,
Concentrate
Calculation for
multiple effect evaporator
Process variables
1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3

1 2 3

,
Feed
1 2 3
Steam

1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3
Concentrate
Condensate Condensate Condensate

Forward feed operation


Process variables
1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3

1 2 3

,
Feed
1 2 3
Steam

1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3
Concentrate
Condensate Condensate Condensate
Concentration, hydrostatic head & friction loss are negligible: =
1 = 1 1 1 1 2 = 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 = 3 3 2 2 3 3

Forward feed operation


Process variables
1 2 3
3

1 2 3

2 3
1

1 ; 1 2 ; 2 3 ; 3
Concentrate
1 2
If = 1 and no heat loss 1 = 2 = 3 = =
and 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then =

Forward feed operation


Process variables
1 2 3
3

1 2 3

2 3
1

3 ; 3
Concentrate
1 2
If = 1 and no heat loss 1 = 2 = 3 = =
and 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then =

Forward feed operation


Process variables
1 + 2 + 3
1 + 2 + 3

1 2 3
=
= 1 + 2 =
+3 2 = 3
=

3 ; 3
Concentrate

If = 1 and no heat loss 1 = 2 = 3 = =


and 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then =
If 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then 1 = 2 = 3 = =
Forward feed operation
Process variables
1 + 2 + 3
1 + 2 + 3

1 2 3
=
= 1 + 2 =
+3 2 = 3
=

3 ; 3
Concentrate

If = 1 and no heat loss 1 = 2 = 3 = = = =


and 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then = =
If 1 = 2 = 3 = = Then 1 = 2 = 3 = = =
Forward feed operation
Comments

Single effect Multiple effect

Capital cost: Capital cost:


Operation cost: 1
Operation cost: