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Tag:

• Data Interpretation /

In caselets data are given in the form of paragraph. No charts/graphs are provided with the data. Caselets

vary considerably in length, in the amount of information contained, in different sentences and paragraph.

While reading a caselets it s always advisable to underline the important fact and figures and if necessary

make your own table/chart/graphs for solving the questions.

In CAT Caselets can be asked either/both in Quants and Data Interpretation section and it s similar to the

Reading Comprehension part in English Usage section. The best way to mastery caslets is to practice

Example 1:

Directions for Q. 1 to 5: Refer to the following information and the answer the following questions.

People Power Corporation presently employs three Managers (A, B and C) and five recruitment agents (D,

E, F, G and H). The company is planning to open a new office in San Jose to manage placement of software

professionals in the US. It is planning to relocate two of the three managers and three of the five recruitment

agents to the office at San Jose. As it is an organization which is

highly people oriented the management wants to ensure that the individuals who do not function well

together should not be made as a part of the team going to the US.

The following information was available to the HR department of People Power Corporation.

• Managers A and C are at each others throat and therefore cannot be sent as a team to the new

office.

• C and E are excellent performers in their own right. However, they do not function together as a

team. They should be separated.

• D and G have had a major misunderstanding during the last office picnic. After the picnic these two

have not been in speaking terms and should therefore not be sent as a team.

• D and F are competing for a promotion that is due in another 3 months. They should not be a team.

Q1. If D goes to the new office which of the following is (are) true?

I. C cannot go II. A cannot go III. H must also go

(a) I only

(b) II and III only

(c) I and III only

(d) I, II and III

2. If A is to be moved as one of the Managers, which of the following cannot be a possible working unit?

(a) ABDEH

(b) ABFGH

(c) ABEGH

(d) ABDGH

3. If C and F are moved to the new office, how many combinations are possible?

(a) 4

(b) 1

(c) 3

(d) 5

4. Given the group dynamics of the Managers and the recruitment agents, which of the following is sure to

find a berth in the San Jose office?

(a) B

(b) H

(c) G

(d) E

5. If C is sent to the San Jose office which member of the staff cannot go with C?

(a) B

(b) D

(c) G

(d) F

Example 2

Ghosh Babu took voluntary retirement in Dec. 1991 and received a certain amount of money as retirement

benefits. On Jan 1, 1992, he invested the entire amount in shares. At the end of the month, he sold all his

shares and realised 25% profit. On Feb 1, he reinvested the entire amount in shares which he sold at the

end of the month at a loss of 20%. Again, he invested the entire amount on Mar 1 in a new company. At the

end of the month, he sold the new company to a friend and realised a profit of 20% in the process. He

invested the entire amount in shares on Apr 1, which he sold at the end of the month for Rs. 1,08,000

incurring a loss of 10%.

a) Rs. 1,08,000

b) Rs. 1,25,000

c) Rs. 1,20,000

d) Rs. 1,00,000

2. The percentage profit received by Ghosh Babu between Jan 1 and Apr 30 is:

a) 8.00%

b) 15.00%

c) - 10.00%

d) None of these

3. The amount of loss incurred by Ghosh Babu based on his operation in Apr 1992 is:

a) Rs. 25,000

b) Rs. 12,000

c) Rs. 20,000

d) Rs. 8,000

4. The maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu in any one month was in:

a) January

b) February

c) March

d) April

Answers:

1. d Let the amount received by Ghosh Babu in Dec. 1991 be Rs. x, as retirement benefits:

Therefore, investment in the month of Jan 1992 = 100

Profit of 25% at the end of Jan 1992.

Hence, investment in the month of Feb 1992 = 125

Loss of 20% at the end of Feb 1992

Hence, investment in the month of March 1992 = 100

Profit of 20% at the end of March 1992

Hence, investment in the month of April 1992 = 120

Loss of 10% at the end of April 1992

Therefore the amount left at the end of April 1992 = 108

Amount at the end of April 1002 = Rs. 1,08,000

Therefore, simply equating figures, he would have started with Rs 1,00,000

2. a % Profit between Jan 1 and Apr 30 = (1.08x - x/x) X 100

Amount received at end of April = Rs. 1,08,000

Therefore, Loss = Rs. 12,000

4. b Maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu is in the month of February = Rs. 1,25,000

exactly gives n. E.g. for n=12: Φ (1) + Φ (2) + Φ (3) + Φ (4) + Φ (6) + Φ (12) = 1 + 1

+2

+ 2 + 2 + 4 = 12

2. if GCD(a,n) = 1, then aΦ(n) = 1 (mod n). For example, Φ (12)=4, so if gcd(a,12) = 1,

then a4 = 1 (mod 12).

3. Φ (m1m2) = Φ (m1) Φ (m2) for co prime m1 and m2R eferen ce 1.

http://www.cat4mba.com/node/3359#comment- http://cat4mba.com/files/Euler.png

1355

4. From Nishit's comment @http://w w w .cat4mba. com/nod e/3359?pag e= 4

Euler's Function for number N

e(N) = N(1 - 1/p1)(1 - 1/p2)(1 - 1/p3). . . . . .

Where p1, p2, p3, . . . , pn are prime factors of N.

60 = 22 x 31 x 51

i.e if N = Xa Yb Zc

then e(N) = Xa-1(X-1) Yb-1(Y-1) Zc-1(Z-1)

Fermat's little Theorem

If p is a prime then for any integer a we have

ap = a modulo p.

Example : 7 is a prime so n7 – n is divisible by 7 .

For n = 2 : 2 7 – 2 = 128 – 2 = 126 is divisible by 7

Questions

Q1 : what is the reminder when 1139 is divided by 19

Q2. Find the reminder when 591 is divided by 91

Q3. Find the following reminders

a.757575 is divided by 37

b. 2100 is divided by 101

c.20 5197 is divided by 17

Corollary :

nq – n is divisible by q where q is a prime number or product of

two prime numbers.

Important Points:

1. If P be a prime number such that ap – bp is divisible by p, then it is also divisible

by p2

2. If an integer n is greater than 2, then the equation an + bn = cn has no

solutions

in non-zero integers a, b, and c. (Fermat’s Last Theorem)

3. If p be prime and a is prime to p, then a(p-1) – 1 is multiple of p.

Submitted bypraveen_84 on Fri, 2008-02-01 01:02.

•

commented on: Fri, 2008-02-01 14:31

OSO points: 76

Location:

Comments : 14

Q1 answer

As per fermat's little theorem (1119 - 11)/19 = k

=> 1119 - 11 = 19k

=> 1119 = 19k + 11 (squaring it )

Others

a. (any number x + 1)N when divided by x gives reminder 1.

b. (any number x )N when divided by (x + 1) gives reminder 1 when N is even

and reminder x when N is odd.

c. xn + anis exactly divisible by (x + a)

if n is odd, but not if n is even

d. xn - an is divisible by (x + a)

if n is even but not if n is odd

ex n - a n is always divisible by (x - a)

2. The percentage profit received by Ghosh Babu between Jan 1 and Apr 30 is:

a) 8.00%

b) 15.00%

c) - 10.00%

d) None of these

3. The amount of loss incurred by Ghosh Babu based on his operation in Apr 1992 is:

a) Rs. 25,000

b) Rs. 12,000

c) Rs. 20,000

d) Rs. 8,000

4. The maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu in any one month was in:

a) January

b) February

c) March

d) April

Answers:

1. d Let the amount received by Ghosh Babu in Dec. 1991 be Rs. x, as retirement

benefits:

Therefore, investment in the month of Jan 1992 = 100

Profit of 25% at the end of Jan 1992.

Hence, investment in the month of Feb 1992 = 125

Loss of 20% at the end of Feb 1992

Hence, investment in the month of March 1992 = 100

Profit of 20% at the end of March 1992

Hence, investment in the month of April 1992 = 120

Loss of 10% at the end of April 1992

Therefore the amount left at the end of April 1992 = 108

Amount at the end of April 1002 = Rs. 1,08,000

Therefore, simply equating figures, he would have started with Rs 1,00,000

2. a % Profit between Jan 1 and Apr 30 = (1.08x - x/x) X 100

3. b Investment in the month of April = Rs. 1,20,000

Amount received at end of April = Rs. 1,08,000

Therefore, Loss = Rs. 12,000

4. b Maximum amount invested by Ghosh Babu is in the month of February = Rs.

1,25,000

Reminder Theory

This chapter is incomplete

1.B a s i c Concepts

2.F e r m a t ’ s Theorems

3.E u l e r ’ s Theorems

4.C h i n e s e Remainder Theorem

5.D i s c r e t e

Logarithms

Examples :

1 . What is the remainder of (7777...upto56 digits)/19 ?

Froum post :http://w w w .cat4mba. com/nod e/2971#com ment- 1378

The basic funda is

Any number a repeated N times is divisible by P where P is a prime number and N is

the recurring decimal of P

For example:

Recurring decimal of 7 is 6 since 1/7 = 0.142857 ( Repeats after six digits)

So111111 (6 times) is divisible by 7

222222 (6 times) is divisible by 7

555555(6 times) is divisible by 7

Similarly for 19 the recurring decimal is 18

So111111,111111,111111 (18 times) is divisible by 19

And777777,777777,777777 (18 times) is divisible by 19

=>7777(54 times) is divisible by 19

Now7777( 56 times) =7777( 54 times) 0 0 + 77

=>required reminder = reminder of 77 divided by 19 = 1

Now Big Question

How to find the recurring decimal for a prime number?

From my experience I found the number P-1 is always a multiple of recurring decimal

and this information is enough to solve most of the questions.

For example 11 , 1/11 = .0909 ; recurring decimal =2 and p-1=10 is a multiple of 2

13, 1/13 = 0.0769230; recurring decimal = 6 and p-1=12 is a multiple of 6.

Notes:

1. I have never tried to search/prove the above.

2. There are few exception like number 3 and 5 and I would love to know that if there

z any

more

==================================

Chinese Remainder Theorem is used to find integersx that simultaneously solve the

following equation

x = a1 (mod m1)

x = a2 (mod m2)

. . . . .

x = an (mod mn)

For example : A number when divided by 4 gives a reminder 3, when divided by 3

gives a reminder 2 and when divided by 5 gives a reminder 4. Find the number

METHOD1 (Simple Logic)

x =3 (mod 4 )- -- --- - (eq1) x =2 (mod 3)- --- -- -- (eq2) x = 4 (mod 5)- -- --- - (eq3)

The values of x which satisfy equation 1 are 7, 11, 15 and etc. Our first target is to

find the value of x from this series which is divisible by both 3 and 5 (i.e by 15) The first number in the series

that is divisible by 15 is 15. So lets take n1 = 15. Now we‘ll follow the same process for eq (2)

The series is 5, 8, 11, 14. . . . . The first number which is divisible by both 4 and 5

(4. 5 = 20) and gives a reminder 2 when divided by 3 is 20 (n2).

Now we‘ll follow the same process for eq (3)

The series is 9, 14, 19. . . . . The first number which is divisible by both 4 and 3 (4. 3

= 12) and gives a reminder 4 when divided by 5 is 24 (n3).

Now the number which satisfy all the above three equation is

N = n1 + n1 + n3 = 15 + 20 + 24 = 59.

N = 59 + (4 * 3 * 5)p

where p is any number

METHOD2 (Stepwise Calculation)

Let

x = a1 (mod m1)

x = a2 (mod m2)

. . . . .

x = an (mod mn)

Step 1:

Calculate M = m1 x m2 x m3. . . . . x mn

Step 2:

Calculate Z1 = M/m1

Z2 = M/m2

Z3 = M/m3

. . . . . . . . . .. . . ..

Zn = M/mn

Step 3:

Calculate Y1 where Z1Y1 = 1 (mod m1)

Y2 where Z2Y2 = 1 (mod m2)

. . . . . . . . . .. . . ..

Yn where ZnYn = 1 (mod mn)

Step 4:

Calculate x where x = a1 y1 z1 + a2 y2 z2 + a3 y3 z3+. . . . . . .

Example:

x =3 (mod 4 )- -- --- - (eq1)

x =2 (mod 3)- --- -- -- (eq2)

x = 4 (mod 5)- -- --- -- (eq3)

Step 1:

Calculate M = m1 x m2 x m3. . . . . x mn

= 60

Step 2:

Calculate Z1 = M/m1 = 15

Z2 = M/m2 = 20

Z3 = M/m3 = 12

. . . . . . . . . .. . . ..

Zn = M/mn

Step 3:

Calculate Y1 where Z1Y1 = 1 (mod m1)

15Y1 = 1 (mod 4)

Calculate it by trial and error method

For Y1= 1 ; 15 = 3 (mod 4)

For Y1= 2 ; 30 = 2 (mod 4)

For Y1= 3 ; 35 = 1 (mod 4)

So Y1=3 satisfy the condition

Similarly Calculate Y2

where Z2Y2 = 1 (mod m2)

20Y2 = 1 (mod 3)

=> Y2 = 2

. . . . . . . . .

Calculate Y3 where Z3Y3 = 1 (mod m3)

12Y3 = 1 (mod 5)

=> Y3 = 3

.. . . ..

Yn where ZnYn = 1 (mod mn)

Step 4:

Calculate x where x = a1 y1 z1 + a2 y2 z2 + a3 y3 z3+. . . . . . .

X = 3 * 3 * 15 + 2 * 2 *20 + 4 * 3 *12 = 135 + 80 + 144 = 359

359 = 59 mod (60)

And the number in generalized form = 59 + 60P

EXAMPLES

1. find out the last non zero digit of37!

ANSWER:

From the posthttp://w w w .cat4mba. com/nod e/5310

I have come across this question many times in many places so thought of writing a

detail solution.

Please go through it carefully and revert back if you have any problem at any step.

Initially it might seem lengthy but once you have the expertise it wont take more

than couple of minutes.

STEP1Find out the prime factors in the factorial

37! = 234 x 58 x 317 x 75 x 113 x 132 x 172 x 19 x 23 x 29 x 31 x 37

STEP2

37! Contains 8 zeros at the end as we have 8 fives in 37!. So we can get the first

non-zero digit by dividing 37! With 109 but that is not an easy.

In stead of doing that we ‘ll first divide 37! With 108 and then we ‘ll try to find out

the reminder of the new number when divided by 10.

(Try to clearly understand what is the difference between above two)

STEP3

37!/108 = ( 234 x 58 x 317 x 75 x 113 x 132 x 172 x 19 x 23 x 29 x 31 x 37 )/108

= 226 x 317 x 75 x 113 x 132 x 172 x 19 x 23 x 29 x 31 x 37 = N

STEP4

We ‘ll find the reminder of N divided by 10.

2 26 = 2 x 2 25 = 2 x 2 5 = 2 x 2 = 4

3 17 = 3 x 3 16 = 3 x 3 4 = 3 x 1 = 3

75 = 7 x 492 = 7 x (-1)2 = 7 x 1 = 7

113 = 1

132 = 9

172 = 72 = 9

So reminder of N divided by 10 reduces to

4 x 3 x 7 x 1 x 9 x 9 x 19 x 23 x 29 x 31 x 37

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