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foHkkx ^v*

xq.k fodYiklg
1 kkGk % ewynzO;kaph 4 5
2 tknw % jlk;u vfHkfdz;kaph 4 5
3 jlk;u % vkEYk&vkEykjhaps 4 5
4 rst % fotsps 4 5
5 loZdkgh % fo|qr pqacdkfok;h 6 7
6 peRdkj % izdkkkpk Hkkx & 1 7 8
7 peRdkj % izdkkkpk Hkkx & 2 6 7
14 /;kl % Ik;kZoj.kLusgh thoukSyh Hkkx & 1 4 5

frekgh ijh{ksps ?kVd


xq.k fodYiklg
1 kkGk % ewynzO;kaph 4 5
4
4 rst % fotsps 5

lgkekgh ijh{ksps ?kVd


xq.k fodYiklg
1 kkGk % ewynzO;kaph 4 5
2 tknw % jlk;u vfHkfdz;kaph 4 5
4 rst % fotsps 4 5
5 loZdkgh % fo|qr pqacdkfok;h 6 7

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 1
Ikzuif=dk vkjk[kMk

Ikz- 1- v fjdkE;k tkxk Hkjk- & 5 xq.k

ccgqi;kZ;h izu & 5 xq.k

Ikz- 2- 2 xq.kkaps 6 iSdh 5 izu lksMfo.ks- &10 xq.k

Ikz- 3- 3 xq.kkaps 6 iSdh 5 izu lksMfo.ks- &15 xq.k

Ikz- 4- 6 xq.kkaps 2 iSdh 1 izu lksMfo.ks- &5 xq.k

ys[kh ijh{kk & 80 xq.k

izkR;f{kd ijh{kk & 20 xq.k

,dq.k & 100 xq.k

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 2
1 kkGk % eqynzO;kaph
Ikzkphu dkGh Qkj deh eqynzO;s Kkr gksrh R;k dkGh R;kaps oxhZdj.k R;kaP;k xq.k/kekZo:u /kkrw
o v/kkrw ;kae/;s dj.;kr vkys ijarq dkgh eqynzO;s /kkrw o v/kkrw ;k nksUghaps xq.k/keZ nk[kor vlY;kus
R;kauk dks.kR;kgh oxkZr ekaMrk ;sr uOgrs ;klkBh kkL=Kkauh fofo/k ewynzO;kaph jpuk o xq.k/kekZpk
lfoLrj vH;kl dsyk-

Mkscsjk;ujph f=ds %& 1829


Rkhu eqynzO;kaP;k xVkyk f=ds Eg.krkr- R;k ^^f=dkae/khy e/kY;k ewynzO;kaps vuqoLrqeku gs brj
nksu vU; eqynzO;kaP;k vuqoLrqekukaP;k ljkljh brds vlrs-** ;kyk Mkscsjk;ujP;k f=dkapk fu;e
Eg.krkr-
mnkgj.k %
1 fyfFkve Li] lksfMve Na] iksVWfkve K Li, Na, K

2 dWfYkve Ca] LVkWfuve Sr] csfjve Ba Ca, Sr, Ba

3 Dyksfju Cl] czksfeu Br] vk;ksfMu I Cl, Br, I

4 lYQj S] lsfyfu;u Sp] VsY;qfjve Te S, Sp, Te

Okjhy mnkgj.kkr Li, Na, vkf.k K ;k f=dke/;s Naps vuqoLrqekukad 23 gs Li vkf.k


K ;kaP;k vuqoLrqekukadkP;k ljkljh brds vkgs-

U;wyWaMph vVds %& 1864


^^eqynzO;kaph ekaM.kh R;kaP;k vuqoLrqekukaP;k p<R;k dzekus dsyh vlrk izR;sd vkBO;k
ewynzO;kps xq.k/keZ ifgY;k eqynzO;kizek.ks vlrkr-**

H Li Be B C N O
F Na Mg Al Si P S
Cl K Ca Cr TI Mn Fe
U;wyWaMP;k vkorZlkj.khph oSfkVs%&
1- ,dw.k ewynzO;kaiSdh rks dWfYkvei;Zr ewynzO;kaph ekaM.kh d: kdyk-
2- dWfYkveuarj izR;sd vkBO;k eqynzokps xq.k/keZ ifgY;k eqynzO;kizek.ks uOgrs-
3- R;kosGh QDr 56 eqynzO;s vfLrRokr gksrh- ijarq R;kuarj vusd eqynzokaps kks/k ykxys-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 3
4- vfLrRokr vlysY;k eqynzokaiSdh U;wyWMlus nksu fHkUu xq.k/kekZps eqynzO;s ,dkp LFkkuh
ekaMyh-
5- fudzh; ok;qapk kks/k u ykxY;keqGs R;kauk vkoRkZ lkj.khr lekfoB dsys ukgh-
esaMsfyOgph vkorZ lkj.kh %&
esaMsfyOgus eqynzokaps vuqoLrqeku o R;kaP;k HkkSfrd o jklk;fud xq.k/kekZpk rqyukRed vH;kl
dsyk-

esaMsfyOgph vkorhZ fu;e%&


^^eqynzokps HkkSfrd o jklk;fud xq.k/keZ gs R;kaP;k vuqoLrwekukus vko`RrhQy vkgsr**
esMsafyOgus eqynzokaph ekaM.kh vuqoLrwekUkkP;k p<R;k dzekus dsyh- R;kosGh R;kyk vls vk<Gwu
vkys dh] eqynzokaP;k HkkSfrd vkf.k jklk;fud xq.k/kekZaph dkgh fofkB dkGkuarj iqujko`Rrh gksrs -
R;kus ifgY;k eqynzokkh leku xq.k/keZ vlysys eqynzO; lkiMsi;Zar Kku ewynzO;
vuqoLrwekUkkP;k p<R;k dzekus vkMO;k vksGhr ekaM.kh dsyh vkf.k rs eqynzO; ifgY;k eqynzO;k[kkyh
ekaMys-
R;k osGh esafMfyOgus Kkr vlysY;k 63 eqynzO;kaph ifgyh vkorhZ lkj.kh r;kj dsyh- ;k
eqynzO;kaP;k lkj.khyk esaMsfyOgph vFkZlkj.kh vls Eg.krkr-

esaMsfyOgP;k vkorZlkj.khph izeq[k oSfkVks %&


vFkZlkj.khrhy vkMO;k vksGhauk vkorZus vls Eg.krkr- vkh 7 vkorZus gksrh-
eqynzokaph O;OkfLFkr dzeokj ekaM.kh dsyh vlrk fofkV vkorZukl MkohdMwu mtohdMs
eqynzokP;k xq.k/kekZr Js.kh cn~/krk fnlwu ;srs-
vkorZu lkj.khrhy mH;k vksGhauk x.k Eg.krkr- R;kauk brj I rs VII vls dzekad fnys vkf.k
R;kaph A vkf.k B ;k mixVkr foHkkx.kh dsyh vkgs-

esaMsfyOgP;k vFkZlkj.khps xq.k%&


1- esaMsfyOg gk ifgyk kkL=K gksrk dh T;kus loZ eqynzO;kaps ;kLOkhi.ks oxhZdj.k dsys-
2- esaMsfyOgP;k vFkZlkj.khr dkgh fjDr tkxk lksMY;k gksR;k R;k fjDr tkxk T;kapk kks/k ykxyk
uOgrk R;kaP;klkBh gksR;k- kks/k ykx.;kiwohZ R;kaP;k xq.k/kekZlaca/kh R;kus Hkkdhr dsys gksrs-
dkykarjkus gh Hkkdhrs vpwd Bjyh-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 4
Hkkdhr dsysyh eqynzO;s kks/k ykxY;kuarjps eqynzO;
bdk&cksjkWu LdWfUMve
bdk&vWY;qfefuve xWfyve
bdk&flfydkWu tesZfuve

esaMsfyOgP;k vFkZlkj.khrhy nksk %&


1- gk;Mkstu vYdyh /kkrw rlsp gWykstu ;kaP;kkh lkE; nkZforh Eg.kwu vFkZlkj.khr
gk;Mkstuyk fufpr LFkku nsrk vkys ukgh-
2- ,dkp eqynzO;kph fofo/k vuqoLrwekus vlysyh leLFkkfuds vkgsr- Eg.kwu R;krhy izR;sdkyk
Lora= LFkku ns.ks vko;d vkgsr ijarq R;kauk ,dkp LFkkuh LFkku fnys-
3- T;kLr vuqoLrweku vlysY;k dkgh eqynzO;kauk deh vuqoLreku vlysY;k eqynzO;kaP;k
vxksnj LFkku ns.;kr vkY;kps fnlrs- mnk- dksckYVyk fudsy ;k ewynzO;kP;k vxksnj-
4- fofo/k xq.k/kEkZ vlysyh dkgh eqynzO; ,dkp mix.kkr Bso.;kr vkyh vkgsr- mnk- eWaxfut
cjkscj gWykstu-
vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.kh %& nh?kZ vkorZlkj.kh
lu 1913 e/;s gsUjh eksLys ;k fczVhk inkFkZ oSKkfudkus vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.kh kks/kwu dk<yh-
R;kus vuqoLrweku gk eqynzO;kpk ewyHkwr xq.k/keZ vlwu vuqvad gk vkgs vls lkafxrys-

vk/kqfud vkorhZ fu;e %&


^^eqynzO;kps HkkSfrd vkf.k jklk;fud xq.k/keZs gh R;kaP;k vuqvadkps vkorhZQy vkgsr-**

vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.khr eqynzO;kps LFkku%&


1- vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.khr vkMO;k vksGhauk vkorZus rj mH;k LRkaHkkauk x.k Eg.krkr-
2- vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.khr 7 vkorZus o 18 x.k vkgsr-
3- ,dkp vkorZukr vlysY;k eqynzO;kP;k d{kk dzekad vkf.k vkorZ dzekad lkj[ksp vkgsr -
4- izR;sd vkorZukph lq:okr uohu d{ksr bysDVkWu HkjY;kus gksrs-
5- ifgys vkorZu lokZr ygku vlwu R;kr QDr nksu ewynzO; vkgsr- nql;k vkf.k frl;k
vkorZukyk y?kqvkorZus Eg.krkr- R;kr izR;sdh 4 ewynzO;s vkgsr- rlsp pkSF;k o ikpO;k
vkorZukr izR;sdh 18 ewynzO;s vkgsr Eg.kwu R;kauk nh?kZ vkorZus Eg.krkr-
6- lgkos vkorZu lokZr nh?kZ vlwu R;kr ,dw.k 32 ewynzO;s vkgsr vkf.k lkros vkorZu viwjs
vkgs 30 ewynzO;s vlrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 5
7- xq.kkauk 1 rs 18 vls dzekad vkgsr- T;k eqynzO;kaps bysDVkWu Lo:i.k fdaok la;qtk leku
vkgsr vkkauk ,dkp x.kkr LFkku fnys vkgs-
8- leku x.kkrhy ewynzO;s leku jklk;fud xq.k/keZ nk[kforkr-
9- x.k 1 e/;s vYi/kehZ /kkrw nql;k x.kkr vEykjh/kehZ e`nk /kkrw lkrO;k x.kkr gWYkstu rj
vkBjkO;k x.kkr fufdz; ok;w vkgsr-
10- vkorZ lkj.khP;k MkO;k cktwyk /kkrw rj mtO;k cktwyk v/kkrw vkgsr-
11- ,d o nksu x.kkrhy eqynzO; MkO;k cktwyk vkf.k 13 rs 17 ;k x.kkrhy eqynzO;s
vkorZlkj.khP;k mtO;k cktwyk vlwu izlkekU; eqynzO; Eg.krkr- ksoVph ,d d{kk viw.kZ-
12- 3 rs 12 ;k x.kkrhy eqynzO; vkorZlkj.khP;k e/;Hkkxh vlwu R;kauk ladzked ewynzO;s
Eg.krkr- ;kaP;k ckgkre nksu d{kk viw.kZ vlrkr-
13- vkorZ lkj.khP;k mtO;k cktwyk 18 O;k x.kkr th ewynzO;s vkgsr R;kauk fufdz; ok;w
ewynzO;s Eg.krkr- ckgkre d{ksr 8 bysDVkWu vlrkr-
14- vkorZ lkj.khP;k rGkkh vl.kk;k eqynzO;kauk var%ladzked ewynzO;s Eg.krkr- rh yWFksukbZM
o vkWDVhukbZM ;k nksu Js.khe/;s vkgsr-
bysDVkWu la:i.kkP;k vk/kkjs vkorZ lkj.khps pkj [kaM %&
bysDVkWu la:i.kkP;k vk/kkjs vkorZ lkj.khps pkj [kaM iMrkr rs iq<hyizek.ks %
1- ,l- [kaM S-Block
2- ih- [kaM P-Block
3- Mh- [kaM D-Block
4- ,Q- [kaM F-Block
1- ,l- [kaM S-Block
x.k 1 o 2 ;ke/;s ;s.kk;k eqynzO;kauk ,l-[kaM Eg.krkr- ;kaP;k ckgkre d{ksr 1 fdaok
2 bysDVkWu vlrkr- gh loZ ewynzO;s /kkrw vkgsr-
2- ih- [kaM P-Block
13 rs 17 vkf.k kwU; x.k 18 os x.k ;ke/;s vl.kk;k eqynzO;kauk ih- [kaMkrhy
ewynzO; Eg.krkr- ;kaP;k ckgkre d{ksr 3 rs 8 bysDVkWu vlrkr- ;ke/;s /kkrw] v/kkrw o /kkrw
ln`; vkh loZ izdkjph eqynzO;s ;srkr-
3- Mh- [kaM D-Block
3 rs 12 ;k x.kkrhy eqynzO;kauk Mh- [kaMkrhy eqynzO;s Eg.krkr- ;kaukp ldzkaed eqynzO;s
Eg.krkr- ckgkre nksu d{kk viw.kZ vlrkr- ;kr loZ /kkrw ewynzO; vkgsr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 6
4- ,Q- [kaM F-Block
vkorZ lkj.khP;k rGkkh yWFksukbZM o vWfDVukbZM ;k Js.khrhy ewynzO;s vkgsr- ;k lokZauk
,Q- [kaMkrhy ewynzO; Eg.krkr-
;kauk varjladzked ewynzO;s Eg.krkr- R;kaP;k ckgkre 3 d{kk viw.kZ vlrkr-

kwU; x.kkrhy ewynzO;kauk fufdz;k ok;w fdaok jktok;w ewynzO;s dk Eg.krkr\


kwU; x.kkrhy eqynzO;kaP;k ckgkre d{kk iw.kZ vlrkr Eg.kwu R;kauk fufdz; ok;w
ewynzO; fdaok jktok;w ewynzO; Eg.krkr- gh loZ ewynzO;s ok;w:Ik vlrkr-

esaMsfyOgP;k vkoRkZlkj.khis{kk vk/kqfud lkj.khrhy xq.k %&


1- ,dkp eqynzO;kP;k leLFkkfudkauk fofo/k vuqoLrwekus vlwu R;kaP;k vuqvad ,dp vkgs Eg.kwu
vk/kqfud vkorZlkj.khr R;kauk ,dp LFkku fnys-
2- ewynzO;kaph ekaM.kh R;kaP;k vuqvadkizek.ks dsY;kus esaMsfyOgP;k lkj.khrhy eqynzO;kaP;k
tksMkke/khy folaxrh nwj >kyh-
3- dksckYV Co o fudsy Ni pk vuqvad 27 o 28 vkgs Eg.kwu fudsyps vuqoLrweku
tkLr vlys rjh dksckYVps LFkku R;kP;k
4- ewynzO;kaps oxhZdj.k R;kaP;k bysDVkWu Lka:iko:u fofo/k [kaMkr dj.;kr vkys-
vkorhZ xq.k/keZ%&
xq.k o vkorZukP;k xq.k/kekZr dzek% gks.kkjk cny vkf.k Bjkfod vuqdzekadkuarj iqujko`Rrh
vk<Grs ;kykp vkorhZ xq.k/keZ Eg.krkr-

la;qtk%&
eqynzO;kP;k ckgkre d{ksrhy bysDVkWu la[;syk R;k eqynzO;kph la;qtk Eg.krkr- mnk- Na
2] 8] 1 1 0 2]6 la;qtk 2
,dkp x.kkrhy loZ eqynzO;kaph la;qtk lkj[kh vlrs-

v.kwpk vkdkj%&
v.kwP;k f=tso:u v.kwpk vkdkj Bjfoyk tkrks-
iz- 2- vkorZukr v.kwph f=T;k MkohdMwu mtohdMs deh gksrs- dkj.k fygk-
R;kp d{ksr bysDVkWu ok<r tkrkr vkf.k v.kqP;k dsanzkdMwu vf/kd [kspys tkrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 7
iz- 3- x.kkr o:Uk [kkyh ;srkuk v.kwph f=T;k ok<r tkrs- dkj.k
x.kkr o:u [kkyh tkrkuk uohu d{ksph ok< gksrs vkf.k ckgkre d{ksrhy bysDVkWu dsanzkiklwu nwj
tkrkr-

/kkrw xq.k %&


/kkrwe/;s bysDVkWu ns.;kph izo`Rrh vlrs R;kyk /kkrw xq.k Eg.krkr Eg.kwu R;kauk /ku izHkkfjr
Eg.krkr-
v/kkrwe/;s bysDVkWu ?ks.;kph fdaok brj eqynzO;kakh bysDVkWu Hkkxhnkjh dj.;kph izo`Rrh vlrs
Eg.kwu /kkrw _.k izHkkfjr vlrkr-

v/kkrw xq.k %&


1- vkorZukr MkohdMwu mtohdMs /kkrw xq.k deh gksrks o v/kkrw xq.k ok<r tkrks dkj.k v.kqapk
vkdkj deh deh gksr tkrks- R;keqGs bysDVkWu lgti.ks fnys tkrkr-
2- Eg.kwup vkorZlkj.khP;k MkohdMs loZ /kkrw vkgsr o mtohdMs v/kkrw vkgsr-
3- Xk.kke/;s o:u [kkyh /kkrw xq.k ok<r tkrks o v/kkrw xq.k deh gksr tkrks dkj.k bysDVkWu
lgti.ks ?ksrk ;srkr-
4- vkorZlkj.khr dkgh ewynzO;s /kkrw vkf.k v/kkrw ;k nksUghPks xq.k/keZ nk[kforkr ;k ewynzO;kauk
^/kkrw ln`;* fdaok ^vakr% /kkrw* ewynzO; Eg.krkr-
/kkrw ln`;kaph ukos %&
cksjkWu B] flfydkWu Si] tesZfuve Ge] vlsZfud As] VsY;qfjve Te] iksyksfuve
Po-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 8
4 rst % fotsps

fo|qr /kkjk %&


okgdkrwu okg.kkjk bysDVkWupk izokg Eg.kts ^fo|qr /kkjk* gks;-
/kkrq:Ik fo|qr okgdkP;k izR;sd v.kqtoG ,dkis{kk tkLr eqDr bysDVkWu vlrkr- gs bysDVkWu
okgdke/;s ,dk HkkxkdMwu nql;k HkkxkdMs lgti.ks tk kdrkr Eg.ktsp bysDVkWu izHkkjkps ogu
djrkr
Rkkjse/kwu
fo|qr okgd rkjsph Vksds fo|qr ?kVkyk tksMysyh ulrkr rsOgk frP;krhy bysDVkWu eqDri.ks
loZ fnkkauk fQjr vlrkr-ijarq frph Vksds dksjMkk fo|qr ?kVkyk tksMyh tkrkr rsOgk bysDVkWu rkjsP;k
_.k VksdkdMwu /ku VksdkdMs izokfgr gksrkr vkf.k rkjsrqu fo|qr /kkjk okgq ykxrs-
rkaC;kP;k rkjsrwu okg.kk;k bysDVkWuph ljkljh vfu;fer pky vfrk; deh vlrs-
fo|qr/kkjsph ladsrekU; fnkk %&
fo|qr /kkjsph ladsr ekU; fnkk /ku VksdkdMwu _.k VksdkdMs vlrs-
fo|qr/kkjk I ;k v{kjkus nkZfoyh tkrs-
Q
lw= %& I =
T

I& fo|qr /kkjk] Q& okgdkpk dkVNsn] T& dkyko/kh

tj Q ;k okgdkP;k dkVNsnkrwu T ;k dkykok/khr okg.kkjk fo|qr izHkkj vlsy rj fo|qr


Q
/kkjk I gh brdh vlrs-
T

fo|qr izHkkj%&
C
fo|qr izHkkj Si i/nrhrhy ,dd dqykse vkgs- fo|qr /kkjsps ,dd vWfEivj&A
1 vWfEivj tj okgdkrwu ,dk lsdankr 1 dqykse brdk fo|qr izHkkj izokfgr gksr vlsy rj
R;k okgdkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk 1 vWfEivj vkgs vls Eg.krkr-
1 dqykse
1 vWfEivj =
1 lsdan

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 9
vfrlw{e fo|qr/kkjk ekst.;klkBh [kkyhy ifjek.ks okijrkr-
1mA feyh vWfEivj 10&3A

1hA ek;dzks vWfEivj 10&6A

mnk- 1 %& ,dk fo|qr cYcP;k dqaMykrwu 0-2A brdh fo|qr/kkjk lrr 5 fefuVs izokfgr gksr vlsy
rj R;k ifjiFkkrwu izokfgr gks.kkjk fo|qr izHkkj fdrh rs kks/kk-
fnysY;k ckch I 0-2A

T 5 fefuVs 5 x 60s 300 lsdan

Q Ixt
Q 0-2 x 300

Q 60 dqykse
ifjiFkkrwu okg.kkjk fo|qr izHkkj 60 dqykse-
mnk-2 %&,dk ifjiFkkrwu 420 dqykse vrdk fo|qr izHkkj lyx 10 fefuVs okgr vlsy rj R;k
ifjiFkkrwu tk.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk kks/kk-
fnysY;k ckch Q 420C

T 10 fefuVs 10x 60s 600 lsdan


Q
I=
T
420
I=
600
I 0-7A
ifjiFkkrwu okg.kkjk fo|qr /kkjk 0-7 vWfEivj-

fo|qr ifjiFk %&


fo|qr ?kVkyk tksMysY;k okgrkjse/kwu fo|qr /kkjk okgrs= gk fo|qr /kkjk ogukpk tks ekxZ vkgs
R;kyk ^fo|qr ifjiFk* vls Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 10
fo|qr ifjiFkkr bysDVkWu _.k VksddMwu /ku VksdkdMs okgrkr ek= fo|qr /kkjsph fnkk /ku
VksdkdMwu _.k VksdkdMs vlrs-
;klkBh fo|qr ifjiFkkph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

fo|qr ifjiFk fpUgs %&


?kVd fpUgs
fo|qr ?kV
TkksMrkjk Okgdrkjsph
vksykaMwu tk.kk;k okgd rkjk
fotsjh tkLr foHkkokarj iz;qDr dj.ks
fdaok
VWi dG @ Iyx dG m?kM LOkhp
fo|qr izokg can dj.ks-
fdaok
VWi dG @ Iyx dG can LOkhp
fo|qr izokg lq: dj.ks-
fo|qr fnok fo|qr/kkjk rikl.ks
fo|qr jks/k
Pkyjks/k cny.kkjk jks/k
vWehVj fo|qr/kkjk ekst.ks
OgksYVehVj foHkokarj ekst.ks

fo|qr foHko %&


vkdkkkr ped.kk;k fotspk izdkk tkLr foHko vlysY;k <xkdMwu kwU; foHko vlysY;k
tfeuhdMs ;srkuk ikfgyk vlsy Eg.ktsp gk okg.kkjk fo|qr izokg gks;-
;k izfdz;syk fuekZ.k gks.kkjk fo|qr foHko 107 gksYVl~ brdk vlw kdrks-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 11
AOk B gs nksu okgd vlwu A gk tkLr foHko vlysyk t vkf.k D gk deh foHko vlysyk
& ;k fpUgkus nk[korkr gs nksUgh okgdrkjsus tksMys rj fo|qr /kkjspk izokg A VksdkdMwu B VksdkdMs
lq: gksrks vkf.k nksUgh Vksdkrhy foHkokarj kwU; gksbZy rsOgk oht izokg Fkkacys-

foHkokarj %&
okgdkP;k nksu Vksdkrhy fo|qr ikrGhP;k Qjdkyk foHkokarj Eg.krkr-
W
lw= %&V=
Q

W& dk;Z] Q& fo|qrizHkkj

SI i/nrhr foHkkokarjkps ,dd OgksYV V vkgs-


1 OgksYV foHkokarj %&
1 dqykse brdk fo|qr izHkkj ,dk fcanwiklwu nql;k fcanwi;Zar foLFkkfir gksrkuk 1 T;qy brds
dk;Z ?kMr vlsy rj R;k nksu Vksdkrhy foHkokarj 1 OgksYV foHkokarj vkgs vls Eg.krkr-
foHkokarj vfrlw{e ,dds feyhOgksYV vkf.k ek;dzksOgksYV rj Qkj eksBkk fderhph ,dds
fdyksOgksYV vkf.k esxkOgksYV gh ,dds vkgsr-
1mV feyhOgksYV 10&3A

1UV ek;dzksOgksYV 10&6A

1KV fdyksOgksYV 10&3A

1MV esxkOgksYV 10&6A


mnk- 1 %&3 dqykse brD;k fo|qr izHkkjkps 9 OgksYV foHkokarj vlysY;k 2 Vksdke/;s foLFkkiu gksrkuk
?kMwu vkysys dk;Z dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch Q 3 dqykse] V 9 OgksYV
W
V=
Q
W
9=
3

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 12
27 W

?kMwu vkysys dk;Z 27 T;qy J

fo|qr jks/k R %&


fo|qr izokgkl vMFkGk fuekZ.k dj.;kP;k okgdkP;k xq.k/kekZyk jks/k vls Eg.krkr-
fo|qr jks/k R v{kjkus nkZforkr-
V
R=
I
jks/k Eg.ktsp okgdkP;k Vksdkrhy foHkokarj vkf.k okgdkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr /kkjk ;kaps xq.kksRRkj
gks;-
jks/kkps ,dd ^vksge* gs vkgs-

okgd %&
T;k inkFkkZrwu fot fo|qr/kkjk okgrs R;kauk fo|qr okgd Eg.krkr- mnk- pkanh] rkacs] tLr]
vWY;qfefuve b-

folaokgd %&
T;k inkFkkZrwu fo|qr /kkjk okgw kdr ukgh R;kauk folaokgd vls Eg.krkr- mnk- jcj] dkp]
ykdwM] IyWfLVd b-

vksgksepk fu;e %&


okgdkph HkkSfrd fLFkrh dk;e vlrkuk okgdkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk gh okgdkP;k 2
Vksdkrhy foHkokarjkkh lekuqikrh vlrs-

VI
V
=R
I
V = RI
SI i/nrhr jks/kkps R,dd ^vksge* gs vkgs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 13
1 vksgksepk jks/k %&
okgdkP;k nksu Vksdkae/;s 1 OgksYV foHkokarj cy iz;qDr dsys vlrk R;k okgdkrwu tj 1
vWfevj brdh fo|qr/kkjk tkr vlsy rj R;k okgdkpk jks/k 1 vksge vkgs vls Eg.krkr-
1 OgksYV
1 vksge =
1 vWfevj
jks/kdrk %&
okgdkpk jks/k R gk R;k okgdkph ykach l vkf.k R;k dkVNsnkps {ks=QG A ;kaP;koj
voyacwu vlrks-

Rl
l
R
A
1
R = gks fLFkjkad
A

;sFks gk okgdkph jks/kdrk fdaok fofkV jks/k vkgs-


,dd ykach vkf.k ,dd dkVNsnkps {ks=QG vl.kk;k okgdkP;k jks/kkl R;k okgdkph jks/kdrk
Eg.krkr-

jks/kdkps ,dd %&


SI i/nrhr jks/kdrsps ,dd ^vksge* m gs vkgs-

okgd %&
pkan.kh] rkacs] vWY;qfefuve] VaxLVu] fudsy] yks[kaM] dzksfe;e] ikjk] eWaxsfut-

lafeJs %&
uk;dzkse (cu+Mn+Ni), dkWULVUVu (cu+Ni), EkWaxuht (cu+Mn+Ni)

folaokgd %&
dkp] dBh.k] jcj] ,cksukbZV] fgjk] dksjMk dkxn-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 14
mnk- 1 %&fnO;krhy rkjsP;k dqaMykpk jks/k 1000 vksge vkgs- tj 230 V foHkokarjkP;k L=ksrkiklwu
;k fnO;kyk fo|qr/kkjk iqjfoyh tkr vlsy rj rkjsP;k dqaMykrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk fdrh\

R 1000] V 230 OgksYV

I \

I=
R
1000 230
=
230 1000
0.23

I 0.23A

mnk-2 %&okgdkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk 0-24A vlwu R;kaP;k nksu Vksdke/;s 24V brds foHkkokarj
iz;qDr dsys rj R;k okgdkpk jks/k fdrh\

I 0-24A] V 24V

R \
24
= 100
0.24
R 100

R;k okgdkpk jks/k 100

mnk- 3 %&100 jks/k vlysY;k ,dk midj.kkP;k Vksdke/;s 33VfoHkokarj iz;qDr dsys vlrk
midj.kkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk dk<k- 500jks/k vl.kk;k midj.kkrwu rso<hp fo|qr/kkjk tkow fnyh
rj R;kP;k nksu Vksdkae/;s fdrh foHkokarj iz;qDr djkos ykxsy\

R 110] V 33V] I \
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 15
110
I= = = 3.3
R 33
33
= 0.3
110
i) fo|qr/kkjk 0.3A
R 500] I 0-3, V \
V=IxR
V = 500 x 0.3 = 150V
ii) nksu Vksdkae/;s foHkokarj150V iz;qDr djkos ykxsy-

mnk-4 %& ,dk okgd rkjsph ykach50c.m.vlwu frph f=T;k 0-5 fe-eh- vkgs ;k rkjspk jks/k 30
vlsy rj rkjspk jks/k dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch

l 50c.m. = 50 x 10-2eh]

R=0.5 fe-eh- 0.5 x 10-3eh]=5 x 10-2 eh

ijarw =

3.14 (5 10 )
=
50x10
30 3.14 25 10
=
50x10
= 15 3.14 10
= 47.10 10

= 4.71 10 rkjsph jks/kdrk

jks/kkph tksM.kh%&
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 16
fo|qr midj.kke/;s vla[; jks/k osxosxGkk izdkjs ,desdkauk tksMysys vlrkr- jks/kkaph tksM.kh
nksu i/nrhus dsyh tkrs-
1- ,dlj tksM.kh
2- lekarj tksM.kh
jks/kkph ,dlj tksM.kh %&
O;k[;k& tj ifjiFkkae/;sR1,R2, vkf.k R3gs rhu jks/k ,desdkauk ,dk ljG jsksr tksMys
vlrhy rj vkk tksM.khyk ^jks/kkaph ,dlj tksM.kh* Eg.krkr-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-
ojhy vkd`rhr (I)fo|qr/kkjk vlwu Vgs fcanw Co D;kaP;knjE;kups foHkokarj vkgs-

R1,R2, vkf.k R3gs rhu jks/k ifjiFkkr ,dlj tksM.khr tksMys vkgsr- Rsgk ifj.kke jks/k
vlwu V1,V2, vkf.k V3gh vuqdzes R1,R2, vkf.k R3;kaP;k njE;kuph foHkokarjs vkgsr-
ifjiFkkrhy ,dw.k foHkokarj
V = V1 +V2 + V3------------------------- (I)
Ikjarq vksgkseP;k fu;ekuwlkj ,dw.k foHkokarj V = IRs
V1 = IR1, V2 = IR2, V3 =IR3
;k fdaerh leh- (I)e/;s Bsow-

IRs = IR1 + IR2 +IR3


Rs = R1 + R2 +R3
tjn jks/k ,dlj tksM.khr tksMys

Rs = R1 + R2 +R3+R4 + --------------- + Rn

oSfkVks %&
1- ifjiFkkrhy izR;sd Hkkxkrwu leku fo|qr/kkjk okgrs-
2- jks/kkaP;k ,dlj tksM.khpk ifj.kkeh jks/k gk tksM.khr loZ jks/kkaP;k csjtsbrdk vlrks-
3- tksM.khrhy nksu Vksdkae/khy foHkokarj gs izR;sd jks/kkaP;k njE;kuP;k foHkokarjkP;k csjtsbrds
vlrs-
4- ,dlj tksM.khpk ifj.kkeh jks/k gk izR;sd jks/kkis{kk tkLr vlrks-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 17
5- gh tksM.kh ifjiFkkrhy jks/k ok<fo.;klkBh djrkr-
jks/kkph lekarj tksM.kh %&
O;k[;k& tj ifjiFkkae/;s R1, R2, vkf.k R3gs rhu jks/k ,desdkauk lekarj i/nrhus tksMys
vlrhy rj R;k tksM.khyk ^jks/kkaph lekarj tksM.kh* Eg.krkr-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-
R1, R2, vkf.k R3gs rhu jks/k C vkf.k D ;k nksu fcanwP;k njE;ku lekarj tksM.khr
tksMys vkgsr- letk I1, I2,I3gh vuqdzes R1, R2,R3;k jks/kkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk vkgs V gs C
vkf.k D ;k fcanwP;k njE;ku iz;qDr dsysys foHkokarj vkgs-
ifjiFkkrhy ,dw.k fo|qr/kkjk
I = I1 +I2 +I3------------------------- (I)
letk Rp gk ifjiFkkrhy ifj.kkeh jks/k vkgs-
ijarq vksgkseP;k fu;ekuqlkj
V
=
Rp

= ] = ] =

;k fdaerh leh- (I)e/;s Bsow-


V V V V 1 1 1 1
= + + = = + +
Rp R1 R2 R3 Rp R1 R2 R3
tjn jks/k lekarj tksM.khr tksMys vlrhy rj]

= + + + +

oSfkVks %&
1- tksMysY;k loZ jks/kkaP;k O;Lrkadkph csjht gh ifj.kkeh jks/kkP;k O;Lrkbrdh vlrs-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 18
2- izR;sd jks/kkrwu okg.kkjh fo|qr/kkjk gh jks/kkP;k O;Lr izek.kkr cnyrs-
3- izR;sd jks/kkP;k njE;kups foHkokarj leku vlrs-
4- jks/kkaP;k lekarj tksM.khpk ifj.kkeh jks/k gk R;k tksM.khrhy jks/kkaP;k Lora= fderhis{kk deh
vlrks-
5- gh tksM.kh ifjiFkkrhy jks/k deh dj.;klkBh okijrkr-
fo|qr /kkjspk vkSf.kd ifj.kke %&
okgdkrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgr vlrkuk m.krk fuekZ.k gksrs- ;k fdz;syk fo|qr /kkjspk vkSf.kd
ifj.kke Eg.krkr-
tsOgk /kkrw:Ik okgdkrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgw ykxrs rsOgk eqDr bysDVkWu /kkrwP;k deh foHko
VksdkdMwu nql;k VksdkdMs okgw ykxrkr R;kosGh rs bysDVkWu brj v.kqoj vknGrkr vkfk ;k
vk?kkrkosGh R;kaP;k vaxh vlysY;k fLFkrht mtsZps m.krk mtsZr :ikarj gksrs- R;keqGs okgdkps
rkieku gGwgGw ok<w ykxrs-

T;qyP;k fu;ekapk iMrkGk %&


tjRjks/k vlysY;k okgdkP;k nksu Vksdkae/;s foHkokarj V iz;qDr dsys rj vksgkseP;k
fu;ekuqlkj fo|qr/kkjk

fo|qr/kkjk =

gh fo|qr/kkjk ;k dkyko/khlkBh okgr vlsy rj fo|qrizHkkj =

Okkgdkrwu brdk izHkkj okgr vlrkuk ?kMwu vkysys dk;Z W gs iq<hyizek.ks nk[korkr-

dk;Z W = foHkokarj x fo|qr izHkkj


W=VxQ
Ikjarq V=IR vkf.k Q=It
W = IR x It
W = I2Rt = VIt T;qy
m.krk mtkZ ^dWyjh* ;k ,ddkr ekstrkr-

4-18T;qy= 1 dWyjh

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 19
= dWyjh
.

T;qyP;k fu;e%&
Okkgdkrwu okg.kkjh /kkjk I gh t ;k dkyko/khlkBh R jks/k vlysY;k okgdkrwu tkow fnY;kl
r;kj gks.kkjk mek H gk

1- fo|qr /kkjspk oXkZ (I)2


2- okgdkpk jks/k R
3- fo|qr /kkjk okg.;kpk dkyko/kh t
;kP;kkh lekuqikrh vlrks-

mnk- 1 %& tj ifjiFkke/;s 5, 6, vkf.k 8 gs rhu jks/k ,dlj tksMys vkgsr rj ifjiFkkpk
ifj.kkeh jks/k dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch

R1= 5, R2= 6, R3= 8, Rs=?


Rs = R1 + R2 + R3
Rs = 5 + 6 + 8
Rs = 19
ifjiFkkpk ifj.kkeh jks/k = 19

mnk-2 %& tj 15, 20, vkf.k 10 gs rhu jks/k lekarj tksMys vkgsr rj ifjiFkkpk ifj.kkeh
jks/k dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch

R1= 15, R2= 20, R3= 10


1 1 1 1
= + +
Rp R1 R2 R3
1 1 1 1
= + +
Rp 15 20 10

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 20
1 4 3 6
= + +
Rp 60 60 60
1 13
=
Rp 60
60
Rp =
13
Rp = 4.615
ifjiFkkpk ifj.kkeh jks/k = 4.615

fo|qr /kkjsP;k vkSf.kd ifj.kkekps O;kogkfjd mi;ksx %&


fo|qr bL=h] fo|qr vksOgu] fo|qr VksLVj] fo|qr tyrkid fgVj fo|qr fdVyh bR;knh
midj.ks fo|qr /kkjsP;k vkSf.kd ifj.kkekoj pkyrkr-
1- fo|qr fnO;ke/;s mPPk nzo.kkad vlysY;k VaxLVuP;k rkjsps dqaMy vlrs- 3308Oc
tsOgk ;krwu fo|qr/kkjk okgrs rsOgk dqaMy izpaM izek.kkr rkirs vkf.k R;keqGs izdkk
mRlftZr gksrks-
dqaMykph vk;qe;kZnk ok<o.;klkBh fnO;ke/;s vjxkWu o uk;Vkstu ;k fufdz;
ok;waps feJ.k Hkjysys vlrs R;keqGs dqaMykps vkWfDlMsku gksr ukgh-
2- fo|qr bL=he/;s tkLr jks/k vlysY;k rkjsps dqaMy tM vkk /kkrwaP;k BksdGkkae/;s
vHkzdkP;k osB.kkr cloysys vlrs tsOgk dqaMykrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgrs rsOgk dqaMy rkirs
vkf.k fuekZ.k gks.kkjh m.krk /kkrwP;k BksdGkkauk feGY;keqGs bL=hph [kkyph cktw rkirs-
;sFks vHkzd fo|qrjks/kd vlY;kus fo|qr/kkjk /kkrwP;k BksdGkki;Zar iksgpw kdr
ukgh R;keqGs fotsP;k /kDD;kiklwu cpko gksrks-
3- fo|qr /kkjsP;k vkSf.kd ifj.kkekpk vR;ar egRRokpk mi;ksx Eg.kts forGrkj gks;-
dks.kR;kgh fo|qr midj.kkrwu izek.kkckgsj fo|qr/kkjk tkowu R;kps uqdlku gksow u;s Eg.kwu
ifjiFkkr forGrkj okijrkr gh rkj Bjkfod nzo.kkr vlysY;k lfeaJkiklwu cuoysyh
vlrs fkls o dfFky
e;kZnsis{kk tkLr fo|qr /kkjk tkow ykxyh rj rkjsps rkieku ok<rs o rkj forGrs -
R;keqGs ifjiFk [kaMhr gksrks-
4- m|ksx/ka|ke/;s >kydke] tksMdke] drZu] osnu vkf.k fo|qr Hkh ;k lokZaps dk;Z
vkSf.kd ifj.kkekoj pkyrs-
5- kL=fdz;se/;s kjhjkps Luk;w dki.;klkBh xje dsysyh IyWfVeph rkj okijrkr gh
lqjhis{kk rh{.k vlrs-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 21
fo|qrkDrh%&
kDrh Eg.kts dk;Z dj.;kpk nj gks;-
fo|qr tkZ okijkpk nj Eg.kts fo|qr kDrh gks;-
,dd %&SI i/nrhr fo|qr kDrhps ,dd ^oWV* W gs vkgs-
1 oWV kDrh %& tj fo|qr /kkjseqGs 1 lsdankr 1 T;qy brds dk;Z gksr vlsy rj okijY;k
xsysY;k fo|qr kDrhyk 1 oWV kDrh vkgs-
1 T;qy
1 oWV =
1 lsdna
vkS|ksfxd {ks=kr fo|qr kDrh ^fdyks oWV* ;k ,ddkr ekstrkr-

1 fdyks oWV= 1000oWV

fo|qr kDRkhps lw= %&

kDrh dk;Z =

ijarq W = VIt T;qy


VIt
P = = VI
t
kDrh foHkokartjx fo|qr/kkjk

vkS|ksfxd {ks=kr fdyks oWV rkl KWh gs fo|qr kDrhps ,dd okijrkr R;kykp 1
;qfuV Eg.krkr

1 KWh = 3.6 x 106J


1 13
=
Rp 60
60
Rp =
13
Rp = 4.615

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 22
ifjiFkkpk ifj.kkeh jks/k = 4.615

mnk-1 %& ,d fo|qr cYc 250V foHkokarjkP;k fo|qr L=ksrkl tksMyk vlwu R;ke/;wu 027A
brdh fo|qr /kkjk tkr vlsy rj cYc ph kDrh dk<k-

fnysY;k ckch V= 250V, I= 0.27A

P = VI
P = 250 x 0.27
P = 67.5V
cYcph fo|qr kDrh = 67.5V
mnk-2 %& 750 oWV kDrhph fo|qr bL=h njjkst 2 rkl okijyh tkrs tj 1 fdyk oWV rklkpk
Unit nj 3 :- vlsy rj bL=hlkBh 30 fnolkr okijysY;k fo|qr mtsZph fdaer dk<k-

fnysY;k ckch P= 750V, t= 2 rkl izfr fnu

okijysyh ,dq.k fo|qr mtkZ = 750 x 2 30

= 45000 Whr
= 45KWhr
okijysY;k fo|qr mtsZph ,dq.k fdaer = 45 x 3

= 135 :-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 23
2 Tkknw % jklk;fud vfHkf;kaph

HkkSfrd cny %&


tsaOgk vfHkfdz;k dkjdkiklwu ,[kknk ufou inkFkZ mRikfnr r;kj gksr vlsy vkf.k Bjkfod
dkGkus R;k mRikfnrkiklwu eqGpk inkFkZ iqUgk feGr vlsy ;krk ^rkRiqjrk cny* fdaok ^HkkSfrd cny*
Eg.krkr-
mnk- 1- okQsps ik.kh gks.ks] 2- okQsps la?kuu] 3- es.k forG.ks b-

jklk;fud cny %&


tsaOgk vfHkfdz;k dkjdkiklwu ufou inkFkZ feGrks ijarq R;kps iqUgk eqG inkFkkZe/;s :ikarj gksr
ukgh vkk cnykauk ^dk;eLo:ih cny* fdaok ^jklk;fud cny* Eg.krkr-
mnk- 1- yks[kaM xt.ks] 2- QG fid.ks] 3- nq/kkps ngh gks.ks] 4- olufdz;k b-

jklk;fud lehdj.k %&


jklk;fud lw=kapk okij d:u jklk;fud vfHkfdz;kaph laf{kIr :ikr dsysyh ekaM.kh Eg.kts
^jklk;fud lehdj.k* gks;-
mnk- dkWij $ vkWfDltu dkWij vkWDlkbZM
ojhy ekaM.khyk kkCnhd lehdj.k Eg.krkr gsp lehdj.k vtwu vpwd o laf{kIr Lo:ikr
lw=kapk okij d:u iq<hyizek.ks fygrks ;srs-
Cu + O2 = CuO
tsOgk jklk;fud lehdj.kkr ck.kkP;k MkO;k vkf.k mtO;k cktwl vlysY;k v.kwaph la[;k
leku vlrs rsOgk R;kyk ^larqfyr lehdj.k* Eg.krkr

vfHkfdz;kdkjd %&
T;k inkFkkZe/;s jklk;fud vfHkfdz;k ?kMwu ;srs R;kauk ^vfHkfdz;kdkjd* Eg.krkr-
Okjhy vfHkfdz;sr dkWij o vkWfDltu gh vfHkfdz;kdkjds vkgsr-

mRikfnr %&
jklk;fud vfHkfdz;srwu r;kj gks.kk;k uohu inkFkkZauk ^mRikfnr* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 24
ojhy vfHkfdz;sr dkWij vkWDlkbM CuO gs mRikfnr vkgs-

jklk;fud vfHkfdz;sps ys[ku %&


1- lehdj.kkP;k MkO;k cktwl vfHkfdz;kdkjds fyfgrkr-
2- lehdj.kkP;k mtO;k cktwl mRikfnr fyfgrkr-
3- vfHkfdz;kdkjdkdMwu mRikfnrkdMs tk.kkjk ck.k nks?kkae/;s dk<kok-
4- nksu fdaok nksuis{kk tkLr vfHkfdz;kdkjds fdaok mRikfnrs vlrhy rj R;kaP;ke/;s $ fpUg
dk<kos-
5- vfHkfdz;k Bjkfod rkieku] nkc] mRizsjd ;k vVhaoj voyacwu vlsy rj R;k vVh ck.kkoj
fygkO;kr-
mnk- ouLIirh rsy [kk|rsy] gk;Mkstucjkscj fudsyph HkqdVh gk mRiszjd oki:u rkifoys rj
R;kilwu ouLIkirh rwi r;kj gksrs-
m".krk
[kk|rsy +gk;Mkstu ouLirh rwi
fudsy HkqdVh
jklk;fud lehdj.k larqfyr dj.ks %&
SO2 + H2S S + H2O

i) fnysys lehdj.k iqUgk fyfg.ks-

SO2 + H2S S + H2O


lehdj.kkP;k nksUgh cktwrhy v.kwaP;k la[;sph rqyuk dj.ks-
ii) MkohdMs vkWfDltups v.kw 2 vkgsr rso<s mtohdMs d:-

SO2 + H2S S + 2H2O


iii) S o H gs vtqugh larqfyr >kkysys ukghr R;krhy S ;k v.kwaph la[;k ojhyizek.ks lkj[kh
d:-
SO2 + 2H2S S + 2H2O
iv) vkrk QDrSlarqfyr djk;ps vkgs MkohdMs S ps 3 v.kw vkgsr rso<s mtohdMs d:-

SO2 + 2H2S 3S + 2H2O

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 25
rkacs gosP;k lkfu/;kr rkioys vlrk CuOr;kj gksrks-

2Cu + O22CuO
lagr HCL
C H O +H O GH O + C H O
Zn + 2HCL ZnCl + H

2Zn + 2HCL 2ZnCl +


tLr o gk;MksdkcZuph vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk f>ad DyksjkbZM gs mRikfnr feGrs-
bfFkfyuyk mPp rkieku nsowu mPPk nkc fnY;kl ikWfybfFkfyu r;kj gksrs-
mPp rkieku
nCH = CH (-CH2 -CH2 -)n
mPp nkc
bfFkfyu ikWfybfFkfyu

jklk;fud vfHkfdz;kaps izdkj %&


1 la;ksx vfHkfdz;k %&
tsOgk nksu fdaok vf/kd inkFkZ ,d= ;sowu dsoG ,dp mRikfnr feGr vlsy rsOgk R;k
vfHkfdz;syk ^la;ksx vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-

iz;ksxkkGsr yks[kaM o xa/kdkiklwu vk;uZ lYQkbZM r;kj gksrs-


Fe + S FeS
yks[kaM $ xa/kd vk;uZ lYQkbZM

Ik;kZoj.kkrhy Co2ps izek.k ok<Y;koj R;kph gosrhy ckikcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu


vkEYokkZ Acid Rain gksrs-

H2O+ Co2H2Co3dkcksZfud vkEy

Ckka/kdkekP;k fBdk.kh flesaV] jsrh okGw vksys d:u R;kiklwu dkWafdzV cuorkr gs
bekjrhyk etcwr djrs-
3cao.Al2O3 + 6H2O 3cao.Al2O3.6H2O

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 26
Vk;dWfYkve vWY;qfeusV dkWfdzV

IYkWLVj vkWQ iWfjl %&


IyWLVj vkWQ iWfjl ik.;kcjkscj felGys vlrk rkRdkG V.kd inkFkZ fuekZ.k gksrks R;k inkFkkZyk
thILke Eg.krkr vkf.k R;kiklwu flesaV r;kj dsys tkrs-
P.O.P Pks lw= CaSo4.H2O
2CaSo4.H2O + 2H2O 2CaSo4.3H2O + m.krk

P.O.P + ik.kh ftIle

IYkWLVj vkWQ iWfjlps mi;ksx %&


1- oS|dh; eyeih-
2- naroSndkkL=kr lkps r;kj dj.ks-
3- vksrdkekr iqrGs r;kj dj.ks-
4- Nijkaps lqkksfHkdj.k-
5- dzsFkkWUlP;k dkaMkk r;kj dj.ks-
mekxzkgh vfHkfdz;k %&
T;k jklk;fud vfHkfdz;sr m.krk kks/kyh tkrs fryk ^mekxzkgh vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
KNo3iksVWfkve uk;VsVH2O + m.krk KNO3

meknk;h vfHkfdz;k %&


T;k vfHkfdz;se/;s m.krk ckgsj Vkdyh tkrs fryk ^meknk;h vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
NaOH + H2O NaOH + m.krk
lksfMve gk;MkWDlkbZM ik.kh
2 mi?kVu vfHkfdz;k %&
T;k jklk;fud vfHkfdz;se/;s ,dkp vfHkfdz;kdkjdkps nksu fdaok vf/kd inkFkkZae/;s foHkktu
gksr vlsy rj fryk ^vi?kVu vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-

lk[kjsyk m.krk fnyh vlrk dkcZu r;kj gksrks-

C12 H22 m".krk () 12C + 11H2 O


11
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 27
Lkk[kj dkcZu $ ik.kh

dWfYkve dkcksZusVyk 1000Oc (1273K)is{kk tkLr rkiekukyk rkifoys vlrk


dWfYkve vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs o dkcZu Mk;vkWDlkbZM r;kj gksrks-

1000O c
CaCo3 Cao + Co2
1273K
T;k vi?kVu vfHkfdz;sr rh ?kMwu ;s.;klkBh m.krk iqjokoh ykxrs fryk
^vkSf.kd vi?kVu* Eg.krkr-

fQdV fioGkk jaxkps flYOgj czksekbZM lw;Zizdkkkr BsoY;kl rs jk[kkMh jaxkps gksrs-
lw;Zizdk'k
2 2 + Br2
Rklsp flYOgj DyksjkbZM lw;Zizdkkkr Bsoys rj ojhy izek.ks vfHkfdz;k ?kMrs-
lw;Zizdk'k
2 2 + Cl2
ojhy nksUgh vfHkfdz;spk mi;ksx d`.k&/koy Nk;kfp=.kkr Nk;kfp=s cufo.;klkBh
djrkr-
fulxkZr vkiY;k vorhHkksorh vusd fo?kVu vfHkfdz;k gksr vlrkr- lsafnz; dp;kaps
fo?kVu gksowu [kr o tSfod ok;w Bio Gas
3 foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k %&
T;k vfHkfdz;se/;s tkLr fdz;kfky ewynzO;s deh fdz;kkhy eqynzO;kyk dk<wu Vkdrs
foLFkkfir djrs R;k vfHkfdz;syk ^foLFkkfir vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-

dkWijis{kk tLr gs tkLr fdz;kfky vlY;kus dkWij lYQsVe/khy dkWijyk rs dk<wu Vkdrs-

CuSo4 + Zn ZnSo4 + Cu
dkWij lYQsV + tLr@f>ad f>ad lYQsV
CuSo4 + Fe FeSo4 + Cu
Qsjl lYQsV

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 28
nqgsjh foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k %&
T;k vfHkfdz;se/;s vfHkfdz;k dkjdke/khy vk;ukaph vnykcny gksowu vo{ksi r;kj gksrs
vkk vfHkfdz;suk ^nqgsjh foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
I] CuCl2 + 2KI CuI2 + 2KCL
dkWij iksVWfkve D;qfizd iksVWfkve
DyksjkbZM vk;ksMkbZM vk;ksMkbZM DyksjkbZM
vo{ksi

i] AgNo3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNo3


flYOgj lksfMve flYOgj lksfMve
uk;VsV DyksjkbZM DyksjkbZM uk;VsV
ehB vo{ksi
iii] Bas + ZnSo4 BaSo4 + ZnS
Cksfjve f>ad Cksfjve f>ad
lYQkbZM lYQsV lYQsV lYQkbZM
vo{ksi

vkWfDlMhdj.k %&
T;k jklk;fud vfHkfdz;se/;s vkWfDltu fLodkjyk tkrks R;k vfHkfdz;syk ^vkWfDlMhdj.k
vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
1- ;k vfHkfdz;sr gk;Mkstu eqDr dsyk tkrks-
4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
2- /kkrw:ih lksfMveph vYdksgksy cjkscj vfHkfdz;k >kyh vlrk gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr gksrks-
2C2HsOH + 2Na 2C2HsONa + H2

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 29
bfFky /kkrw lksfMve
vYdksgksy bFkkWDlkbZM
{ki.k %&
T;k jklk;fud vfHkfdz;srgk;Mkstu fLodkjyk tkrks R;k vfHkfdz;syk ^{ki.k* vls Eg.krkr-
vkWfDltu dk<wu Vkdyk tkrks-
1- dkCkZuph gk;Mkstu ok;wcjkscj vfHkfdz;k >kyh vlrk feFksu CH4 gk ok;w r;kj gksrks-
C + 2H2 CH4
jsMkWDl vfHkfdz;k %&
fnysY;k jklk;fud vfHkfdz;sr ,dkposGh vkWfDlMhdj.k o {ki.k ;k vfHkfdz;k ?kMwu ;srkr
rsOgk R;k vfHkfdz;syk ^jsMkWDl vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
Redox = Reduction + Oxidation

{ki.k

BaSo4 + 4C BaS + 4ac

vkWfDlMhdj.k
vkWfDlMhdj.k

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 30
2H2S + So2 3S + 2H2O

{ki.k
{kj.k %&
gosrhy vknzZrk o vkEy ;kapk /kkrwaoj ifj.kke gksowu /kkrwaph lkodkk >ht gksrs ;kykp ^{kj.k*
Eg.krkr-
yks[kaMkoj vknzZrspk ifj.kke gksowu R;koj rkacwl jaxkpk Fkj tek gksrks ;kyk yks[kaM xat.ks
Eg.krkr-
jk;klfud lw+= &Fe2O3 . H2O
{kj.kkeqGs vi?kkr gksow kdrkr- bekjrh] iwy] okgus] tgkt] yks[kaMh oLrw /kksD;kr ;sow
kdrkr Eg.kwu {kj.k VkG.;klkBh [kkyhy mik; djkosr-
1- {kj.k VkG.;klkBh xatjks/kd nzko.kkpk okij djkok-
2- T;k oLrwps {kj.k gksrs R;kaP;k i`BHkkxkl jax ns.ks-
3- tLrkpk Fkj nsowu-
4- nql;k /kkrwps foysiu dj.ks-
[koVi.kk %&
tqus [kk|rsy o rwi nh?kZdkG BsoY;kl R;kps vkWfDlMhdj.k gksrs R;keqGs R;kyk [koVi.kk izkIr
gksrks-
gs VkG.;klkBh vkWfDlMhdj.k fojks/kdkpk okij djkok fdaok tj gokcan MC;kr vUUkinkFkZ
BsoY;kl vUukph vkWfDlMhdj.k fdz;k eankors-
mnkfluhdj.k %&
vkEy vkf.k vkEykjh ;kaP;kr vfHkfdz;k gksowu {kkj o ik.kh r;kj gksrs ;k fdz;syk
mnkfluhdj.k Eg.krkr- mnk- rkVkoj iMysys rsykps fioGlj Mkx uarj yky @ dskjh jaxkps gksrkr-
[kk|ysrke/;s vYdksgksy o dkcksZflyhd vkEy vlrkr R;kauk bLVj Eg.krkr- ;kph lkc.k @
fMVtZaVcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu mnkfluhdj.k ?kMrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 31

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 32
5 loZ dkgh % fo|qr pqacdkfok;h

fo|qr pqacd %&


eksBkk yks[kaMh pdrhe/;s fo|qr /kkjsP;k lgk;kus rkRiqjrs pqacdRo fuekZ.k dsys tkrs vkk
pqacdkyk fo|qr pqacd Eg.krkr-
mnk- iksyknkP;k dkj[kkU;ke/;s yks[kaMh oLrw mpy.;klkBh fo|qr dszu okijrkr- frP;k fo|qr
pqacd vlrks-
fo|qr pqacdkP;k lgk;kus dk;Z dj.kkjh dkgh midj.ks iq<hyizek.ks % fotsps jksfg=
VkUlQkWEkZl~] fo|qr csy] /ouh{ksid] fo|qr iai] fo|qr tfu= tujsVj] jsMhvks] VsfyOghtu] vWaVus k
bR;knh-

pqacdh; cyjskk %&


pqacdh; {ks=ke/;s pqacdkP;k nksUgh /kqzokauh yksgfdl vks<wu ?ksrY;kus T;k odz jskk r;kj gksrkr
R;kauk pqacdh; cyjskk Eg.krkr-

xq.k/keZ %&
1- ;k lyx odz jskk vlwu mRrj/kqzokiklwu lq: gksrkr o R;kP;k ksoV nf{k.k/kqzoktoG gksrks-
2- pqacdh; cyjsksojhy dks.kR;kgh fcanwtoG dk<ysyh yacjskk pqacdh; {ks=kph fnkk nk[kors-
3- nksu pqacdh; cyjskk ,desdkauk d/khgh Nsnr ukghr-
4- T;k fBdk.kh pqacdh; {ks= izHkkoh vlrs rsFks cyjskk d/kh toG ;srkr rj deh izHkkoh
{ks=ke/;s cyjskk ,desdkaiklwu nwj tkrkr-
Tkj okgdrkjsrwu fo|qr/kkjk tkow fnyh rj frP;k lHkksorh pqacdh; {ks= fuekZ.k gksrs - gk xq.k/keZ
^vksjLVsM* ;k kkL=Kkus kks/kwu dk<ys-
fo|qr vkf.k pqacdRo gs ijLijkakh lacf/kr vkgsr-

PkqacdlqbZ %&
gk NksVklk ihpqacd vlrks R;kyk nf{k.k vkf.k mRrj vkh nksu Vksds Eg.ktsp /kqzo vlrkr-
nf{k.k Vksdkyk nf{k.k /kzqo rj mRrj Vksdkyk mRrj /kqzo Eg.krkr-
pqacdkr ltkrh; /kqzo ,desdkauk nwj lkjrkr rj fotkrh; /kzqo ,desdkauk vkdfkZr djrkr-

okgdkrwu okg.kk;k fo|qr /kkjseqGs fuekZ.k gks.kkjs pqacdh; {ks= %&


1- pqacdh; {ks= gs okgdkrwu okg.kk;k fo|qr /kkjsP;k izek.kkr vlrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 33
2- okgdkrwu okg.kk;k fo|qr /kkjseqGs fuekZ.k gks.kkjs pqacdh; {ks= gs rkjsiklwups varj ok<r
xsY;kl deh deh gksr tkrs-
mtO;k gkrkP;k vkaxBkkpk fu;e%&
mtO;k gkrkr ,d ljG fo|qr okgd /kjyk vlsy vkf.k vaxBk rkB Bsowu brj cksVs
okgdkHkksorh yisVyh- tj vaxBk fo|qr /kkjsph fnkkk nk[kor vlsr rj okgdkHkksorh yisVysyh cksV
pqacdh; {ks=kph fnkk nk[kforkr-
;kyk mtO;k gkrkP;k vaxBkkpk fu;e Eg.krkr-

ukydqarykeqGs fuekZ.k gks.kkjs pqacdh; {ks= %&


folaokgd osB.k vlysY;k rkaC;kP;k rkjsps vuad Qsjs xqaMkGwu r;kj dsysY;k o`RrfpRrhl
ukydqqary Eg.krkr-
,[kk|k /kkrwP;k nkaMkkoj rkaC;kP;k rkjsps vla[; Qsjs xqaMkGwu ukydqary r;kj djrk ;srs vkf.k
R;kP;k lgk;kus nkaMkke/;s pqacdRo fuekZ.k djrk ;srs-
Tkj nkaMk iksyknh vlsy rj izHkkokkyh pqacdh; {ks= R;kHkksorh vlrs R;krwu dk;eLo:ih
pqacd r;kj gksrks-
dk;e pqacd r;kj dj.;klkBh dkcZu LVhy] dzksfeu LVhy] dksckYV] VaxLVu LVhy rlsp dkgh
lafe{ks okijrkr- vkS|ksfxd {ks=ke/;s okijyh tk.kkjs fuijeWx o vrfudks gh nksu lafeJs vkgsr-
fuijeWx &yks[kaM] fudsy] vWY;qfefuve] Vk;VWfuve
vyfudks & vWY;qfefuve] fudsy] dksckYV
lw{e Jo.kh] /ouho/kZd] fotsoj pky.kkjh ?kMkkGs] vWfeVj] gksYVehVj] LIkhMksehVj ;k
midj.kke/;s dk;e pqacd okijrkr-
vkanh ekjh vWfEivj ;k Qsazp kkL=KkP;k ers] okgdkrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgr vlrkuk
okgdkHkksorh pqacdh; {ks= fuekZ.k djrs vkf.k gs pqacdh; {ks= okgdkP;k lkfu/;kr vlysY;k pqacdkoj
cy iz;qDr djrs-

ysfeaxpk MkO;k gkrkpk fu;e%&


vkiY;k MkO;k gkrkph rtZuh] e/kys cksV o vaxBk ijLIjkauk yac jkgrhy vkh /kjY;kl rtZuh
pqacdh; {ks=kph fnkk nk[kor vlsy vkf.k e/kys cksV fo|qr /kkjsph fnkk nk[kor vlsy rj vaxBk
okgdkP;k xrhph fnkk nk[korks-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 34
pqacdRokpk oSnd {ks=kr okij %&
okgdkrwu fo|qr/kkjk ikBowu okgdkHkksorh pqacdh; {ks= r;kj dsys tkrs ;kpk okij n; vkf.k
esanw vkf.k brj egRokaP;k vo;okaP;k izfrek feGo.;kps ra= fodflr dj.;kr vkys R;kyk eWXusfVd
js>ksuUl beWftax MRIra= vls Eg.krkr-
;k ra=k}kjs foksk d:u n; vkf.k esanwP;k jksxkaps funku dj.ks lksis >kys vkgs-

fo|qr pfy= eksVkj %&


ts midj.k fo|qr mtsZps ;kaf=d mtsZr :ikarj djrs R;kyk fo|qr eksVkj Eg.krkr-
rRo& fo|qr/kkjk okgwu us.kkjk okgd pqacdh; {ks=kkh yac fnksr vlsy rj R;koj cy iz;qDr
gksrs- ;k rRokoj eksVkjps dk;Z pkyrs-
;klkBh fo|qr eksVkj jpuk vH;klyh-
1- vkesZpj dkWbZy %& vkd`rh vH;klY;kizek.ks vk;rkd`rh BksdGkkoj folaokgd osB.k
vlysY;k rkaC;kP;k rkjsps vla[; Qsjs xqaMkGwu vkesZpj dkWbZy r;kj gksrs-
2- kDrhkkyh pqacd %& vkesZpj dkWbZy gh pqacdkP;k nksu /kqzoke/;s e/kkse/k cloysys vlrs-
3- v/kZorZqGkdkj ifjorZd %& /kkrwP;k nksu v/kZorqZGkd`rh fjaxkiklwu ifjorZd curks- ;kyk vkesZpj
dkWbZyph Vksds tksMyh tkrkr- ifjorZd vkesZpj dkWbZye/khy fo|qr /kkjsph fnkk cnyrks-
4- czjksl %& ifjorZdkoj nksUgh cktwyk R;kyk ?k Bso.;klkBh o gs nksu dkcZu czk okijrkr-
5- fotsjh cWVjh %& vkesZpj dkWbZyyk fo|qriqjoBk iqjfors-
fo|qr eksVjps dk;Z %&
1- tsOgk vkesZpj dkWbZye/kwu fo|qr /kkjk tkow fnyh tkrs rsOgk frP;k nksUgh cktwauk cy feGrs -
2- ysfeaxP;k MkO;k gkrkP;k fu;ekuqlkj ojP;k Hkqtsps cy [kkyP;k fnksus o [kkyP;k Hkqtsps
cy ojP;k fnksus vlrs ijarq gs nksUgh cy leku vlrkr-
3- tsaOgk vkesZpj dkWbZy mHks vkgs rsaOgk cykaP;k eqGs rh ?kMkkGkP;k dkVkkP;k fnksus fQjr jkgrs -
4- ;keqGs dkcZu czk o ifjorZd ;kaP;krhy laidZ rqVrks R;keqGs dkWbZypk fo|qr izokg [kafMr
gksrks rsOgk frP;koj dks.krsgh cy fdz;k djr ukgh-
5- ijarq tMRokP;k xq.k/kekZuqlkj dkWbZy fLFkj u jkgrk fQjor jkgrs ;keqGs iqUgk ifjorZd o czk
;kapk laidZ gksowu dkWbZye/kwu fo|qr/kkjk okgrs-
6- vkk izdkjs fo|qr mtsZP;k fnksus dkWbZy lrr fQjr jkgrs-
7- gh DC eksVj gks; ghph dkWbZy ,dkp fnksus fQjrs-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 35
DC eksVjps mi;ksx %&
1- feDlj] fo|qr] joh CysaMlZ] izfkrd jsfQztjsVlZ] /kqykbZ efku-
2- fo|qr ia[kk] gsvjMk;j] VsijsdkWMZ] jsdkWMZ IysvlZ] DyksvlZ Hkkrs
3- fotsoj pky.kkjh] dkj] fo|qr dzsu] mn~okgd fyV] fotsoj pky.kkjh jsYos] jksfyax feYl-
fo|qr pqacdh; izorZu %&
okgdkrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgr vlrkuk pqacdh; {ks= fuekZ.k gksrs o rs okgdkoj fo|qr cyLo:ikr
fdz;k djrs- ijarq okgd pqacdh; {ks=kr fQjr vlsy rj rks fLFkj Bsowu R;kP;k Hkksorkyps pqacdh; {ks=
cnyr vlsy rj R;k}kjs fo|qr/kkjk fuekZ.k gksrs vls loZizFke ek;dsy QWjsMsus lkafxrys-
T;k izfdz;se/;s okgdkrhy cnyR;k pqacdh; {ks=keqGs nql;k okgdke/;s fo|qr /kkjk izofrZr
gksrs R;k izfdz;syk fo|qr pqacdh; izorZu Eg.krkr-

ysfeaxpk mtO;k gkrkpk fu;e %&


vkiY;k mto:k gkrkpk vaxBk] rtZuh] e/kys cksV ,desdkal yac jkgrhy vkh /kjk rj rtZuh
pqacdh; {ks=kph fnkk o vaxBk okgdkP;k xrhP;k fnksr vlsy rj e/kys cksV izofrZr fo|qr /kkjsph
fnkk nk[kors-
ifjiFkke/;s vlysys fo|qr /kkjsps vfLrRo vksG[k.;klkBh xWYVkuksehVj gs midj.k okijrkr-
ek;dsy QWjsMs ;kauh 1821 e/;s fo|qr/kkjseqGs ifjoyu xrh fuekZ.k gksrs gs kks/kwu dk<ys ;kp
rRrkoj fo|qr eksVlZps dk;Z pkyrs-
;kp dYiusrwu fo|qr tujsVjpk tUe >kyk-

fo|qr /kkjsps izdkj %&


fo|qr /kkjk nksu izdkjph vlrs-
1- fnV fo|qr /kkjk (Direct Current)%&
th fo|qr/kkjk ,dkp fnksus okgrs fryk ^fnV fo|qr/kkjk* vls Eg.krkr-
?kjxqrh midj.kkalkBh gh fo|qr/kkjk eksBkk izek.kkoj okijrk ;sr ukgh fryk
nwjoj ikjsfkr djrk ;sr ukgh-
2- izR;korhZ fo|qr /kkjk (Alternative Current) %&
th fo|qr /kkjk Bjkfod dkGkus vkiyh fnkk cnyrs fryk ^izR;korhZ
fo|qr/kkjk* Eg.krkr-
cgqrsd mtkZfufeZrh dsanzke/;s izR;korhZ fo|qr /kkjsph fufeZRkh gksrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 36
vkiY;k nskke/;s ;k fo|qr/kkjsph okjaokjrk lk/kj.kr% 50Hz brdh vkgs-
[kwi ykacP;k varjkoj dks.krkgh ?kV u gksrk gh fo|qr/kkjk okgwu usrk ;srs-
fo|qr tfu= tujsVj %&
ts midj.k ;kaf=d mtsZps fo|qr mtsZr :ikarj djrs R;kyk ^fo|qr tfu=@tujsVj* Eg.krkr-
rRo %&
fo|qr tfu= gs fo|qr pqacdh; izorZukP;k rRokj dk;Z djrs-
tsOgk fo|qr tfu=kph dkWbZy pqacdh; {ks=kr Lor% Hkksorh osxkus fQjrs rsOgk pqacdh; {ks=
dkWbZye/;s fo|qr /kkjk r;kj djrs-

fo|qr tfu=kps izdkj %&


1- AC tfu= %&

Tks tfu= ;kaf=d mtsZps :Ikkarj izR;korhZ (AC) fo|qr /kkjsr djrs R;kyk ^AC
tfu=* Eg.krkr-
2- DC tfu= %&
Tks tfu= ;kaf=d mtsZps :Ikkarj fnV fo|qr /kkjsr djrs R;kyk ^DC tfu=* Eg.krkr-

ACtfu= jpuk o dk;Z %&


jpuk %&
tjusVj [kkyhy eq[; ?kVkdiklwu cuoys tkrs rs Eg.kts]
1 vkesZpj] 2 kfDrkkyh pqacd] firGh fjaxk] dkcZups czk-
vkesZpj dkWbZyph nksu Vksds o R1 ;k R2 nksu firGh fjaxkuk tksMysyh vlrkr R;keqGs R;k
fjaxk vkesZpj dkWbZy cjkscj fQ: kdrs-
dk;Z %&
1- tsaOgk kfDRkkkyh pqqacdke/;s ABCD gh vkesZpj dkWbZy osxkus Lor%Hkksorh fQ: ykxrs-
2- rsaOgk pqacdh; {ks= dkWbZYe/;s fo|qr /kkjk r;kj djrs-
3- ;k fo|qr /kkjsph fnkk ysfeaxP;k mtO;k gkrP;k fu;ekuqlkj Bjoyh tkrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 37
4- B1 ;k czke/kwu fo|qr /kkjk ,dk fnksus v/khZ Qsjh iw.kZ djrs rj B2 ;k czke/kwu fo|qr/kkjk
nql;k fnksus moZfjr v/khZ Qsjh iw.kZ djrs- gh fdz;k iqUgk iqUgk ?kMrs-
5- Eg.kwu AC tujsVj izR;korhZ fo|qr /kkjk (AC) r;kj djrs-

DCtfu= jpuk o dk;Z %&


;k midj.kkyk ^Mk;uWeks* vls Eg.krkr-
jpuk %&
DC tujsVjps eq[; Hkkx [kkyhyizek.ks]
1 vkesZpj dkWbZy] 2 kfDrkkyh pqacd] 3 v/kZorqZGkd`rh ifjorZd] 4 dkcZu czksl] 5
cYc-
cYc %& dkcZu czkuk tksMysY;k ifjiFkke/;s r;kj >kysyh fo|qr/kkjk ^cYc* nk[korks-
dk;Z %&
1-tsaOgk dkWbZy pqacdh; {ks=ke/;s Lor%Hkksorh osxkus fQjrs rsaOgk frP;ke/;s foHkokarj r;kj gksrs-
2-R;keqGs dkWbZye/;s fo|qr /kkjk r;kj gksrs o rh fo|qr/kkjk cYcP;k lgk;kus nk[koyh tkrs-
3-tsaOgk dkWbZy pqacdh; {ks=ke/;s fQjr vlrs rksi;Zar fo|qr/kkjk ,dkp fnksus okgr vlrs-
4-dkj.k ,d dkcZu czk vkesZpkjP;k m/oZ fnksus dk;Zjr vlY;kus dkWbZyP;k laidkZr vlrks rj
nqljk czk vkesZpjP;k [kkyP;k fnksus dk;Zjr vlysY;k HkwtsP;k laidkZr vlrks-
?kjxqrh fo|qr tksM.kh %&
?kjs vkf.k NksVkk dkj[kkU;kauk ohtiqjoBk tfeuhrwu tk.kk;k rkjkaP;k lgk;kkus dsyk tkrks - ;k
rkjk fdaok dscYl 3 izdkjP;k vlrkr-
1- fot;qDr rkj (Phase)
2- rVLFk rkj (Neutral)
3- HkwlaidZ rkj (Earthing)
;k rkjk ?kjkr fdaok djk[kkU;kr vlysY;k ehVjyk tksMY;k tkrkr- fot;qDr rkj vkf.k rVLFk
rkj ;kaP;ke/;s 220 rs 250 brds foHkokarj vlrs- ehVje/kwu ckgsj iM.kkjh fo|qr /kkjk esuLohpyk
fnyh tkrs R;kyk ^esu ;qt* eq[; forGrkj Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 38
forGrkj fot;qDr rkjsP;k ekxkZus tksMysys vlrs- esuLohp e/kwu ckgsj iM.kkjh fo|qr /kkjk
?kjkrhy fofo/k ifjiFkkauk tksMysyh vlrs-

fo|qr okijkP;k osGh ?;ko;kph dkGth %&


1- fo|qr forGrkj %& fo|qr midj.kkaP;k lqjf{krrslkBh okijys tk.kkjs egRRokps midj.k Eg.kts
forGrkj gks;-
2- fotokgdrkjkauk vuokuh ik;kus d/khgh LIkZ d: u;s dkj.k ohtokgd rkjsyk LikZ >kY;kl
vkiY;k kjhjkrwu fo|qr/kkjk okgrs R;keqGs vki.kkl fotspk rhoz /kDdk clrks ;k /kDD;keqGs
dkgh osGk e`R;w gks.;kph kD;rk vlrs-
fotsps dks.krsgh dke djr vlrkuk folaokgd inkFkkZiklwu cuoysys gkreksts ?kkykosr
fdaok jcjh rG vlysys cqV ?kkykosr-
3- Bjkohd dkGkuarj vkiY;k ?kjkrhy ohtokgd rkjkaojhy foloaokgd vkoj.k riklwu igkos-
4- fo|qr fgVj] VksLVj] vksOgu] jsfQztjsVj ;klkj[;k vusd midj.kkauk /kkrwph pkSdV vlrs=
dkghosGk ohtokgd rkjsojhy forGys tkowu fot;qDr rkjspk laidZ midj.kkaP;k /kkrwP;k
pkSdVhkh ;srs vkk midj.kkyk LIkkZ >kyk rj fotspk rhoz /kDdk clrks gs vi?kkr
VkG.;klkBh midj.kkP;k /kkrwaP;k pkSdVhauk HkwlaidZ djkos-
rkaC;kP;k rkjsps ,d Vksd midj.kkP;k pkSdVhyk tksMysys vkf.k nqljs Vksd tfefur
[kksyoj iqjysY;k rkaC;kP;k ihl tksMkos-
/kkrwP;k pkSdVh rkaC;kP;k rkjsus tfeuhr [kksyoj iqjysY;k rkaC;kP;k ihl tksM.ks
Eg.kts HkwlaidZ gks;-
5- vkdkkkr tsaOgk ohtk pedrkr rsaOgk ?kjkrhy loZ fo|qr midj.ks can djkohr- R;keqGs
?kjkrhy gh midj.ks u tGrk lqjf{kr jkgrhy-
y?kqijhiFku vkf.k vfrHkkj %&
1- y?kqifjiFku (Shortcircuting) %&
tj fot;qDr rkj vkf.k rVLFk rkj ,desdhaP;k izR;{k laidkZr vkyk fdaok ,desdhauk
fpdVY;k rj ^y?kqifjiFk* gksrs-
;keqGs ifjiFkkrwu izpaM fo|qr /kkjk okgwu ykxrs ;kpk ifj.kke izpaM izek.kkr m.krk
fuekZ.k gksrs- R;keqGs vkx ykx.;kph kD;rk vlrs-
/ouho/kZd] lw{eJo.kh] fo|qr pfy=] ihpqacd
[kkyhy izukaph mRrjs fygk-
1- okgdkrwu fo|qr /kkjk okgr vlrkuk okgdkHkksorh pqacdh; {ks= dls fuekZ.k gksrs\
2- pqacdh; cykph fnkk dks.kR;k ckchoj voyacwu vlrs\
3- okgdkps fopyu lokZr tkLr dsaOgk gksrs\

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 39

3 jlk;u % vkEy & vkEykjhps

vkEYk %&
ts inkFkZ pohyk vkacV vlrkr- R;kaP;ke/;s vkEy;qDr ?kVd vlrkr vkf.k T;k inkF;kZaP;k
nzko.kke/;s fuGk fyel dkxn yky gksrks vkkauk ^vkEy* Eg.krkr-
yWfVu Hkkksr ^vWflMl* Eg.kts vkacV gks;-

vkEYkkjh %&
ts inkFkZ pohyk rqjV vlrkr- T;kaP;ke/;s vkEykjh;qDr ?kVd vlrkr vkf.k R;kaP;kr yky
fyVel dkxn fuGk gksrks vkk inkFkkZauk ^vkEYkjh* Eg.krkr-

nkZd %&
inkFkkZpk vkEyk fdaok vkEykjh /keZ vksG[k.;klkBh ts inkFkZ okijrkr R;kauk nkZd Eg.krkr-
mnk- fyVel dkxy] feFkhy vkWjsat] fQukWYQFkWfyu] bvksflu-
fyVel dkxnkP;k lgk;kus inkFkkZpkvkEy&vkEykjh /keZ vksG[krk ;srks- vkEyke/;s fuGk
fyVel yky rj vkEykjhe/;s yky fyVel fuGk gksrks-
fyVel dkxn gs yk;dsu ;k ouLirhiklwu feGrkr- yk;dsu & FkWyksQk;Vk foHkkx

nkZdkps izdkj %&


1- uSlfxZd nkZd %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 40
xqykckP;k ikdGkk] gGn] chV b- lkkj[;k uSlfxZd inkFkkZpk nkZd Eg.kwu okij djrk
;srks o R;kauk ^uSlfxZd nkZd* Eg.krkr-

2- lafyV nkZd%&
fQukWYQFkWfyu] fefFky vkWjsat] bvksflu ;klkj[;k jklk;fud nkZdkauk ^lafyV
nkZd* Eg.krkr-
3- oSfod nkZd %&
vusd nkZdkaP;k ,df=r feJ.kkyk ^oSfod nkZd* Eg.krkr-
vkEy&vkEykjhps lagrh %&
oSfod nkZdkP;k lgk;kus nzko.kkpk vkEY/keZ fdaok vkEykjh /keZ vksG[krk ;srs- nzko.kkrhy
gk;Mkstu vk;ukaP;k lagrhuqlkj fofo/k jax feGrkr-
pH lkew ekiuJs.khP;k lgk;kus nzko.kkrhy gkMkstu vk;ukaph lgarh ekstrk ;srs-

;sFks P Eg.kts iksVsU> lagrh H Eg.kts gk;Mkstu vk;u gks;-

pH ekiuJs.kho:u 0 rs 14 vls okpu djrk ;srs- tsaOgk pH ewY; 0 rs 7 P;k njE;ku


;srs rsaOgk nzko.k vkEy/kehZ vlrs vkf.k tj pH ewY; 7 vkys rj rs nzko.k mnkflu vlrs- rj pH
ewY; 7 rs 14 ;k njE;ku vkys rj rs nzko.k vkEykjh/kehZ vlrs-
tsaOgk vkEykps tfy; nzko.k tkLr H+ vk;u nsrs rsOgk R;kyk ^froz vkEy* Eg.krkr-

tsaOgk vkEykps tfy; nzko.k deh H+ vk;u nsrs rsOgk R;kyk ^lkSE; vkEy* Eg.krkr-
vkEy;qDr inkFkZ vkEykjh;qDr inkFkkZr felGY;kl vkEyfiRr fu;af=r djrk ;srs - R;kpizek.ks
Lo;aikdkr fpapscjkscj xqG okijyk tkrks R;keqGs kjhjkpk pH fu;af=r Bso.;kl enr gksrs-
1- yks.kh & C;qfVjhd vkEy
2- fpap & VkVkZfjd vkEy
3- fyacw & lk;fVd vkEy la=h
4- ngh & yWfDVd vkEy nw/k
5- fOgusxkj & vWlsfVd vkEy
6- e/kekkh & QkWLQqfjd vkEy] C;qfVfjd vkEy
vkiY;k kjhjkr o vkiY;k lHkksorkyh pH ps egRRo lkaxk-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 41
1- tsOgk ikolkP;k ik.;kpk pH7 is{kk deh vlrks rsOgk rs vkEy/kehZ vlrs- vls ik.kh unhrwu
okgrs rsaOgk unhP;k ik.;kpk pH deh gksrks- vkk ik.;kpk ifj.kke tythokaoj rlsp gs
ik.kh ouLIrhauh kkskwu ?ksrY;keqGs R;kP;k ok<hoj] Qqykaoj] QGkaoj ifj.kke gksrks-
2- ekuoh kjhj 7-35 rs 7-45 ;k pH e;kZnse/;s dk;Zjr vlrs-
3- vkiys nkr narhu ,uWesy dWfYkve QkWLQsV lkj[;k dBh.k inkFkkZuh cuysys vkgs- tsaOgk
rksaMkrhy thok.kw vUuinkFkkZaps fo?kVu d:u 6 is{kk deh pH ewY; vl.kkjs vkEy r;kj
djrs R;keqGs ;k QkWLQsVps {kj.k gksowu nkrkaph f>t gksrs-
nkrkaph >ht jks[k.;klkBh VqFkisLV okijrkr-
4- tBjkr r;kj gks.kkjs gk;MksDyksfjd vkEy vUukps ipu dj.;kl enr djrs- vkEyfiRr
vipu leL;k fu;af=d dj.;klkBh vkEYfj;qDr inkFkZ okijrkr R;kauk vkEyizfrca/kd
(Antacid)vls Eg.krkr-
yky eqaX;kuk QkEkkZ Eg.krkr ;k eqaX;kaP;k nakke/;s QkWfeZd vkEy vlrs- R;keqGs R;kauh
pkoys rj vkx gksowu [kkt lqVrs rlsp e/kek;k pkoY;kus tGtG gksrs- MkWlsjk ?kVi.khZ gh
ouLIkrh nakdksk vl.kkjh ouLIrh vkgs&usVy gh lq/nk vkgs-

vkEy&vkEykjh ;kaP;k vfHkfdz;k %&


1- vkEykph /kkrwcjkscj vfHkfdz;k %&
fojy HCL vkEykps eWXusfkve ;k /kkrwcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr
gksrks- ;k vfHkfdz;sosGh Q vlk vkokt gksowu H2 ps Toyu gksrs-
Mg + 2HCL MgCl2 + H2
2- tLr ;k /kkrwph gk;MksDyksfjd ;k vkEykcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr
gksrks-
Zn + 2HCL ZnCl2 + H2
vkEy f>ad DYksjkbZM
3- ,dk ijh{kkuGhr fQrhps rqdMw ?ksowu R;kr lksMhve gk;MkWDlkbZM ?kkrys o m;.krk
fnY;kl lksfMve vWfyfeusV-
2Al + 2NaOH2NaAlO2+ H2
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 42
/kkrw $ vkEYkjh lksfMve vWY;qfeusV

vkEYkkph /kkrwps dkcksZusV cjkscj vfHkfdz;k %&


1- vkEykph /kkrwP;k dkcksZusV cjkscj /kq.;kpk lksMk vfHkfdz;k >kY;kl /kkrwps {kkj Co2
vkf.k H2O r;kj gksrs-
Na2Co3 + 2HCL NaCl+ Co2 + H2O
/kq.;kpk lksMk {kkj
2- csfdax ikoMjph [kk.;kpk lksMk fojy HCL cjkscj vfHkfdz;k >kY;kl {kkj Co2
vkf.k H2O r;kj gksrs-
Na2HCo3 + HCL NaCl+ Co2 + H2O
[kk.;kpk lksMk {kkj
/kkrwP;k vkWDlkbZM cjkscj vkEykph vfHkfdz;k %&
1- jsM vkWDlkbZM ?ksowu R;kr fojy HCL ps dkgh Fksac VkY;kl {kkj o ik.kh r;kj gksrs-
CuO + 2HCL CuCl2 + H2O
jsM vkWDlkbZM

vkEy o vkEykph ijLijkakh vfHkfdz;k %&


1- vkEy o vkEykjhph ijLIkjkakh vfHkfdz;k gksowu {kkj o ik.kh r;kj gksrs] vfHkfdz;syk
^mnkfluhdj.k* Eg.krkr-
HCL + NaOHNaCl + H2O
vkEy+vkEykjh {kkj +ik.kh

vYdyh %&
T;k vkEykjh ik.;kr foj?kGrkr R;kauk ^vYdyh* Eg.krkr-
Ikk.;kr foj?kG.kk;k vkEYkkjh Ikk.;kr foj?kG.kk;k vkEYkkjh

NaOH
Mg(OH)2
KOH vYdyh
Ca(OH)2
NH4OH
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 43
vkEy o vkEYkjhps vk;uhHkou%&
ik.;kP;k lkfu/;kr HCL e/khy H+ o CL- vk;u foyx gksrkr- ;k izfdz;sl
vk;uhHkou Eg.krkr-
gk;Mkstu vk;ukauk Lora= vfLrRo ulrs rs usgeh ik.;kkh la;ksx ikowu gk;Mkstu vk;u
+
(H3O ) r;kj djrkr-

vkEykps vk;uhHkou %& HCL + H2OH+ + Cl-


H+ + H2O H3O+
vkEykjhps vk;uhHkou %& NaOH + H2ONa+ + OH-

vkEykrhy H+vk;u o vkEykjhrhy OH-vk;u ;kaph vfHkfdz;k >kY;kl vk;uhHkou u


>kysys ik.kh r;kj gksrs-
H++ OH-H2O ik.kh
Ikzu %& vkEyke/;s ik.kh dk felGw u;s\
dkj.k R;kaph vfHkfdz;k gksowu mek fuekZ.k gksbZy vkf.k feJ.k mlGwu Hkktwu btk gksow kdrs -
gh meknk;h vfHkfdz;k vkgs Eg.kwu vkEykr ik.kh felGw u;s-

{kkj %&
vkEy o vkEykjh ;kaP;k vfHkfdz;srwu ^{kkj* r;kj gksrs- mnk- lk/ks ehB] lkc.k] /kq.;kpk
lksMk] csfdax lksMk] fCyphax ikoMj] POP.
1- Lkk/ks ehB (NaCl) %&
HCL vkEy vkf.k NaOH vkEykjh ;kaP;k vfHkfdz;srwu lksfMve DyksjkbZM
(NaCl) gs {kkj r;kj gksrkr-
vkq/n lksfMve DyksjkbZM rifdjh jaxkps vlwu R;kl ^jkWd lkWYV* Eg.krkr-
kq/n lksfMve DyksjkbZM jaxghu o LQfVdh la;qx vkgs-
mi;ksx & ;kpk mi;ksx Na2Co3 o NaHCo3 bR;knhP;k fufeZrhlkBh dsyk
tkrks-
lksMhve DyksjkbZMP;k nzko.kkrwu fo|qr izokg tkow fnY;kl R;kps vi?kVu gksrs vkf.k
lksfMve gk;MkWDlkbZM gs la;qx r;kj gksrs-
2NaCl + 2H2O 2NaOH + Cl2 + H2
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 44
mPp rkiekukyk ehB rkioys vlrk rs forGrs R;k fLFkrhyk ^lafEefyr voLFkk*
Eg.krkr-
2- lksfMve ck;dkcksZusV [kk.;kpk lksMk %&
js.kwlw= & NaHCO3
jax & ika<jk] vLQfVdh pq.kZ :i-
;kykp csfdax lksMk Eg.krkr-
Ukko & lksMhve gk;Mkstu dkcksZusV fdaok lksfMve ck;dkcksZusV
;kP;k nzko.kke/;s yky fyVel fuGk gksrks Eg.kwu gs vkEykjh /kehZ vkgs-
;kyk rhoz m.krk fnY;kl ;kps vi?kVu gksrs
2NaOH3 Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
lksfMve ck;dkcksZusV lksfMve dkcksZusV
mi;ksx %&
1- iko] dsd] BksdGk gs inkFkZ cuorkuk lfPNnz o gkyds gks.;klkBh ;kpk mi;ksx gksrks-
2- vkEykjh/kehZ vlY;keqGs iksVkrhy vkEyfiRr deh dj.;klkBh ;kpk mi;ksx gksrks-
3- vfXukked ;a=krhy ?kVd Co2 ok;w r;kj dj.;klkBh ;kpk mi;ksx gksrks-
3- fojatd pq.kZ fCyfpax ikoMj %&
js.kwlw= & CaOCl2
vLoPN tfeu tarqfojghr o ik.kh futZarqd dj.;klkBh ;kpk okij djrkr-
ikolkGkkr fofgjhP;k ik.;kyk eksBkk izek.kkr fofkB rhoz okl ;srks rks
?kkyfo.;klkBh gh okiMj okijrkr-
jax %& ika<jk vlwu HkqdVh vlrs Eg.kwu fgyk ^fojatd pq.kZ* Eg.krkr-
ik.;kr ?kkrY;koj ;k ikoMjyk rhoz okl ;srks rks eqDr >kysY;k DyksfjueqGs vlrks-
fojh xsysY;k pq.;kph Dyksfju ok;wcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu fojatd pq.kZ r;kj gksrs-
Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 CaOCl2 + H2O
Fojh xsysyk pq.kZ fojatd pq.kZ
fojatd pq.kkZpk laidZ okrkoj.kkrhy Co2 vkY;kl LFkk;w:Ik CaCO2 dWfYkve
dkcksZusV o Dyksfju ok;w r;kj gksrks-
fojatd pq.kkZyk ^DyksjkbZM vkWQ ykbe* vls Eg.krkr-
mi;ksx %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 45
dkiM m|ksxkr dkilkps o dkxn m|ksxkr dkxnkps yx|kaps fojatu dj.;klkBh
fojatd pq.kZ okjrkr-
jklk;fud vfHkfdz;sr fojatd pq.kZ vWfDlMhdkjd Eg.kwu dk;Z djrs-
Hkwy ns.;klkBh okijY;k tk.kk;k ^DyksjksQkWEkZ* ;k nzkodkP;k fufeZrhlkBh ;kpk mi;ksx
gksrks-
4- lksfMve dkcksZusV /kq.;kpk lksMk %&
js.kwlw= & Na2CO3.1OH2O
jax & ika<jk LQfVdh LFkk;w ik.;kr lgt foj?kGrks-
lksfMve ck;dkcksZusVps vi?kVu lksfMve dkcksZusV r;kj gksrks-
;kaP;k nzko.kkph fyVel cjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh rj yky fyVel fuGk gksrks Eg.kwu gs
vkEykjh/kehZ vkgs-
Na2CO3ph fojy HCLcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu CO2 eqDr gksrks-
Na2CO3 + 2HCL 2NaCl + H2O + Co2

mi;ksx %&
diMs LoPN /kq.;klkBh
viektZds] dkxn] dkp m|ksxke/;s
isVksfyveP;k kqf/ndj.kklkBh
LQfVdh ty %&
{kkjkae/;s ik.;kps js.kw vlrkr R;kyk ^LQfVdh ty* Eg.krkr-
{kkjkyk m.krk fnyh fdaok gosr m?kMs BsoY;kl R;krhy LQfVd ty fu?kwu tkrs o R;kps
:ikarj ika<;k HkqdVhe/;s gksrs R;kyk ^futZy inkFkZ* Eg.krkr-
Lkkc.k %&
Rksy fdaok pjch lksfMve fdaok iksVWfkve gk;MkWDlkbZMP;k (NaOH / NOH) tyh;
nzko.kkcjkscj mdGys vlrk ^dkcksZfDlfyd vkEYkkps* {kkj r;kj gksrs R;kyk ^lkc.k* Eg.krkr- rsy
fdaok pjchP;k vkEykjh;qDr ty vi?kVu izfdz;sl lkc.khdj.k Eg.krkr-
,dk O;fDrl Nkrhe/;s tGtG o rksaMkl vkacV po vkgs\
1- rh O;fDr dks.kR;k vktkjkus fiMhr vkgs\
2- gk vktkj dkkeqGs >kyk vlkok\
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 46
3- ;koj mipkjklkBh dks.krk inkFkZ okijrk ;sbZy\

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 47
6 peRdkj % izdkkkpk Hkkx 1

Ikzdkk %&
n`Vhph laosnuk fuekZ.k dj.kkjh fo|qr pqacdh; izkj.ks Eg.kts ^izdkk* gks;-
;kP;k vfLRkRokeqGs lq;ksZn;] lw;kZLr] banz/kuq; rlsp fookrhy lqanj l`Vh] fuGakkj
vkdkk] ped.kkjs rkjs] d`f=e oLrw ;kaps vfLRkRo vki.k izdkkkeqGs ikgrks-
likV vkjkkeqGs feG.kkjh izfrek vkHkklh izfrek vlrs-

Ikzdkkkps vfHklj.k %&


tsaOgk izdkkfdj.ks ijkorZukuarj ,dk facanwikkh ,d= ;srkr rsOgk R;kyk ^izdkkkps vfHklj.k*
Eg.krkr-
;k izdkjpk izdkk>ksr oki:u; MkW= nkr] dku] MksGs bR;knh vo;okaph rikl.kh djrkr
rlsp vfHklkjhr izdkk L=ksrkapk mi;ksx lkSj midj.kkae/;s dsyk tkrks- mnk- lkSj yWaEi] lw;Z pqy
bR;knh-

Ikzdkkkps vilj.k %&


tsOgk izdkkfdj.ks ijkorZukuarj ,desdkaiklwu nwj tkrkr iljrkr R;kyk ^izdkkkps vilj.k*
Eg.krkr- mnk- jLR;kojhy fnos] Vscy yWEi-

varoZdz vkjkkeqGs izdkkkps vfHklj.k vroZdz vkjkkph ukHkh%&


vkd`rh vH;klyh-

cfgoZdz vkjkkeqGs izdkkkps vilj.k%&


cfgoZdz vkjkkP;k i`BHkkxkoj tkowu iM.kkjh fdj.ks ijkorZukuarj ,desdkaiklwu nwj tkrkr
vkf.k rh ekxs ok<oyh rj vkjkkP;k ekxs eq[; v{kkoj ,d= ;srkr ;kyk ^cfgoZdz vkjkkph ukHkh*
Eg.krkr-

varoZdz vkjkkeqGs feG.kk;k izfrek %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 48
varoZdz vkjkkeqGs feG.kk;k izfresps Lo:Ik] LFkku vkf.k vkdkj oLrwP;k i`BHkkxkiklwu
vl.kk;k varjkoj voyacwu vlrs-
varoZdz vkjkkeqGs feG.kk;k izfrek fdj.kkaP;k lgk;kus nk[kfoyh tkrkr R;kyk ^fdj.kkd`rh
fp=hdj.k* Eg.krkr- R;klkBh okijys tk.kkjs ijkorZukps fu;e %&
1- tj vikrh fdj.k eq[; v{kkyk lekarj vlsy rj ijkorhZr fdj.k eq[; ukHkhrwu tkrs-
2- tj vikrh fdj.k eq[; ukHkhrwu tkr vlsy rj ijkorhZr fdj.k eq[; v{kkyk lekarj
vlrs-
3- tj vikrh fdj.k odzark e/;krwu tkr vlsy rj ijkorhZr fdj.k R;kp ekxkZus ijr tkrs -
vkd`rh vH;klY;ko:u
a) oLrw o vuar varjkoj izfrek & ukHkhoj [kwip ygku
b) oLrw&odzrke/; o vuar varjknjE;ku izfrek ukHkh o odzrke/;s
c) OkLrw&odzrke/;koj izfrek odzrke/;koj
d) oLrw&ukHkh o odzrke/; ;k njE;ku izfrek&odzrk e/;kifydMs
vuar varjkoj
e) oLrw ukHkhoj izfrek & vuar varjkoj

xksyh; vkjkkeqGs gks.kk;k ijjkorZukpk fpUgladsr %&


^dkVsZfkve* fpUg ladsrkuqlkj vkjkkpk /kqzo gk vkjaHkfcanw ekurkr vkf.k eq[; v{k gk
fnysY;k lanHkkZr x v{k ekurkr-
1- oLrw usgeh vkjkkP;k MkOkhdMs Bsokoh-
2- eq[; v{kkyk lekarj vl.kkjh loZ varjs /kqzokiklwu ekstrkr-
3- vkjaHkfcanwP;k mtohdMs ekstysyh varj /ku (+) rj MkohdMhy varjs _.k (-) ekurkr-
4- eq[; v{kkyk ojP;k fnksus ekstysyh varjs /ku (+) vkf.k [kkyP;k fnksus ekstysyh varj
_.k (-) vlrkr-
5- varoZdz vkjkkps ukHkh; varj /ku (+) rj cfgoZdz vkjkkps ukfHk; varj _.k (-)
vlrs-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-

vkjkkps lw= %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 49
oLrwps varj(u)] izfresps varj(v) o xksyh; vkjkkps ukHkh; varj(f) ;kaP;krhy laca/kkyk
^vkjkkps lw=* vls Eg.krkr-

lw= %& + =

fokkyu %&
izfrekaP;k maphkh oLrwP;k maphps ts xq.kksRRkj vlrs R;kyk ^fokkyu* Eg.krkr-
;k}kjs oLrwP;k vkdkjkP;k ekukus lacaf/kr izfrek fdrh izek.kkr eksBh >kyh gs feGrs -
izfresph maph
lw= %& fo'kkyu =
oLrwph maph

= +

fHkax %&
nksu i`BHkkxkauh ;qDr vkk ikjnkZd ek/;ekyk fHkax vls Eg.krkr-
;k fHkaxkps nksUgh i`BHkkx xksyh; o ckgsjP;k cktwus Qqxhj vlrkr R;k fHkaxkyk ^cfgoZdz*
Eg.krkr-
gs fHkax R;kP;k dMsis{kk e/;Hkkxh tkM vlrs-
T;k fHkaxkps nksUgh i`BHkkx vkrY;k cktwus xksyh; vlrkr R;k fHkaxkuk ^varoZdz fHkax
Eg.krkr-
gs fHkax R;kP;k e/;kis{kk dMsyk tkM vlrs-
cfgoZdz fHkax gs vfHklkjh fHkax vkgs-
varoZdz fHkax gs vilkjh fHkax vkgs-
fHkaxklaca/khP;k laKk %&
1- odzrk e/; c %&
fHkax T;k xksykpk Hkkx vlrks R;k xksykP;k dsanzdkl odzZrk e/; Eg.krkr-
fHkaxkyk vkf.k c1 gs c2nksu odzrk e/;s vlrkr-
2- eq[; v{k %&
fHkaxkP;k nksUgh odzrke/;krwu tk.kk;k ljG jsksyk ^eq[; v{k* Eg.krkr-
3- izdkfk; e/; o %&
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 50
fHkaxkP;k e/; fcanwyk fHkaxkpk ^izdkfk; e/;* Eg.krkr-
4- cfgoZdz fHkaxkph eq[; ukHkh F %&
eq[; v{kkyk lekarj vl.kkjh vikrh fdj.ks cfgoZdz fHkaxkoj IkMrkr rsaOgk rh
viorZukuarj eq[; v{kkoj ,dkp fcanwr ,doVrkr R;kyk ^cfgoZdz fHkaxkph ukHkh* Eg.krkr-
5- ukfHk; varj f %&
fHkaxkph eq[; ukHkh o izdkfk; e/; ;kaP;ke/khy varjkyk ^fHkaxkps ukHkh; varj*
Eg.krkr-
cfgoZdz fHkxk}kjs feG.kk;k izfrek %&
fHkaxk}kjs feG.kk;k izfrekaps LFkku] vkdkj vkf.k Lo:I ;kapk vH;kl dj.;klkBh
fdj.kkd`rhaph enr gksrs- cfgoZdz fHkaxkus feG.kk;k izfrekaps fu;e
1- tj vikrh fdj.k eq[; v{kkyk lekarj vlsy rj viorhZrs fdj.k ukHkhrwu tkrs-
2- fHkaxkP;k izdkkh; e/;krwu tk.kkjs izdkkfdj.k vopfyri.ks rlsp iq<s fu?kwu tkrs -
3- rj vkikrh fdj.k ukHkhrwu tkr vlsy rj viorhZr fdj.k eq[; v{kkyk lekarj tkrs-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-

fHkaxkps lw= %&


oLrwps varj (u)] izfresps varj (v)vkf.k ukHkh; varj (f) ;kaP;krhy laca/kkyk ^fHkaxkps
lw=* Eg.krkr-

lw= %& + =

fHkaxkps fokkyu %&


fHkaxkeqGs gks.kkjs fokkyu gs izfresph maph (h1)vkf.k oLrwph maph (h2);kaps vl.kkjs xq.kksRRkj
gks;
izfresph maph
lw= %& fo'kkyu =
oLrwph maph

= +

fHkaxkph kDrh P %&


fHkaxkph kDrh Eg.kts R;kP;k ukHkh; varjkpk xq.kkdkj O;Lrad gks;

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 51
1
lw= %& P=
f ehVj

fHkaxkP;k kDrhps ,dd ^Mk;kWIVj* vkgs-


1
lw= %& 1 Mk;kWIVj =
f ehVj

mnk- 1-%& ,dk 3cmmaphph oLrw vlwu rh 12cmukHkh; varj vl.kk;k vkjkkiklwu 20cm
varjkoj Bsoyh vkgs- lqLiV izfrek feGfo.;klkBh vkjkkiklwu iMNk fdrh varjkoj vlkok\
rlsp izfrespk vkdkj o Lo:Ik fygk-
fnysY;k ckch] oLrwph maph (h) = 3cm] oLrwps varj (u) = 20cm, ukfHk; varj (f) =
12cm
izfresps varj (v) = ? izfresph maph (h) = ?

vkjkkps lw= %& + =

1 1 1
= + =
20 120
1 1 1
=
12 20
1 s 3
=
60 60
s 3
= +
60 60
2
=
60
1 1
=
30
30
v= = 30
1
V=30cm

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 52
vkjkkiklwu iM|kps varj 30cm vlsy
h2 -v
fokkyu &M= +
h1 u

h2 -30
=
31 -20
h 20 = 3(-30)
3 (-30)
h =
-20
9
h =
2
h =4.2cm
izfresph maph 4.5cm vlsy
izfrek myV o eksBh vkgs-

fHkaxkP;k lw=kojhy uequk mnkgj.k %&


,dk mipkjkRed fHkaxkph kDrh+2.5DvlY;kl fHkaxkps ukHkh; varj dk<k-

fHkaxkph kDrh = +2.5D ukHkh; varj (f) = ?


1
=

1
2.5 =

2.5 =1
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 53
1
=
2.5 = 0.4
fHkaxkps ukfHk; varj 40cm.

mnk-2-%&3cmmaphph oLrw 15cmukHkh; varj vl.kk;k cfgoZdz fHkaxkP;k eq[; v{kkoj yac fnksus
Bsoys vkgs- oLrwps izdkfk; e/;kiklwups varj 18cmvkgs rj izfresps Lo:Ik] LFkku o vkdkj lkaxk-
R;kps fokkyu dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch]

oLrwph maph (h1) = 3cm] ukfHk; varj (f) = 15cm, OkLrwps varj (u) = 182cm

izfresps varj (v) = ? izfresph maph (h2) = ? fokkyu (m) = ?

fHkaxkps lw= %& =

1 1 1
= = =

1 1 1
= = +
15 18
1 6 s
= = +
90 90
1 1
= =
20 90
= 90cm
izfresps fHkaxkiklwups varj 90cm.
izfresph maph %
h2 v
fokkyu(M)= +
h1 u

h2 u = H1 v
h2 -18 = 3 90

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 54
270
h 18 =270 =
18
h =-15cm
izfresph maph 15cmvkgs-
v
M =
u
90
M =
18
M= -5
izfrek myV o okLro vkgs-

ekuoh MksGk %&


1- ekuoh MksGkkoj vR;ar ikrG ikjnkZd iVy vkgs R;kyk ^ikjiVy* Eg.krkr-
2- R;kP;krwu izdkk MksGkkr izosk djrks-
3- ;k iVyke/;s xMn ekaly iMnk vlrks R;kyk ^cqcqG* Eg.krkr-
4- osxosxGkk yksdkaP;k cqcqGkps jax osxosxGs vlrs-
5- cqcqGkP;k e/;Hkkxh cnyR;k O;klkps NksVs fNnz vlrs R;kyk MksGkph ^ckgqyh* Eg.krkr-
6- MksGkkr izosk dj.kk;k fdj.kkaps fu;a=.k o R;kaP;k izek.kkps fu;eu ckgqyh djrs-
7- Ikzdkk tkLr rsaOgk ckgqyhps vkdqapu gksrs rj izdkk deh rsOgk ckgqyh :ankors-
Ikzdkkkkh rMtksM dj.;kph ckgqyhph izoRrh Eg.kts uO;k IkfjfLFkrhkh tqGowu ?ks.ks
gks;-
cqcqGkP;k i`BHkkxkoj ikjnkZd iVykpk ikjnkZd QqxoVk r;kj gksrks-
cqcqG xksy vkdkjkps vlwu R;kpk O;kl lqekjs 2-3 lseh vkgs-
MksGkkP;k ckgqyhP;kikBhekxs ikjnkZd f}cfgoZdz fHkax vlrs-
gs fHkax ukfHk; varjkph vnykcny d:u MksGkkP;k vkrhy iM|koj okLro izfrek
r;kj djrs-
MksGkkP;k vkrhy Hkkxke/;s izdkk laosnukhy iMnk vlrks R;kyk n`fViVy
Eg.krkr-
R;kaP;kr izdkk laosnukhy iskh vlrkr R;k izdkkkus mRrsftr gksrkr o iskhr
fo|qr ladsr fuekZ.k djrkr-
MksGkkP;k eTtkrarw}kjs gs ladsr esanwdMs ikBoys tkrkr o esanw ;k ladsrkpk vFkZ
ykorks o oLrwps vkdyu gksrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 55
Ekkuoh MksGkke/;s fHkaxkps dk;Z vR;ar egRRokps vkgs- fHkax ukHkh; varj cnywu
osxosxGkk varjkojhy oLrwkh MksGk lek;kstu djrs- fujksxh MksGkkP;k fHkaxkps ukfHk; varj
2-5 lseh vkgs-
Lkek;kstu kDrh %&
ukHkh; varjkr vko;drsuqlkj cny dj.;kP;k fHkaxkP;k {kersyk ^lek;sktu kDrh*
Eg.krkr-
lqLiV n`Vhps y?kqRRke varj %&
fujksxh MksGkkiklwu T;k dehr&deh varjkoj oLrw vlrkuk lqLIVi.ks o MksGkkoj
rk.k u ;srk fnlw kdrs R;k varjkyk lqLiV n`Vhps y?kqRre varj Eg.krkr-
fujksxh ekuoh MksGkklkBh rs varj lqekjs 25 lseh vkgs-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-
1- nwjP;k oLrwdMwu ;s.kk;k izdkkfdj.kkeGs fHkax piVs gksrs-
2- toGP;k oLrwdMwu ;s.kk;k izdkkfdj.kkeqGs fHkax Qqxhj gksrs-
n`Vhnksk %&
dkgh yksdkauk MksGkkrhy lek;kstu kDrh deh >kY;kus oLrw lqLiV fnlr ukgh
;kyk ^n`Vhnksk* Eg.krkr-
dkj.ks %
1- MksGkkrhy Luk;w vkDr gks.ks-
2- cqcqGKpk vkdkj cny.ks-
3- MksGkkrhy ikjnkZd iVykP;k i`BHkkxkoj vfu;ferrk ;s.ks-
4- MksGkkP;k fHkaxkoj iVy r;kj gks.ks-
n`Vhnkskkps izdkj %&
1- y?kqn`Vh fdaok fudV n`Vhrk %&
;k nksKke/;s ekuoh MksGk toGiklP;k oLrw O;ofLFkr ikgw kdrks i.k nwjP;k
oLrw LiVi.ks fnlr ukghr R;kyk ^fudV n`fVrk* Eg.krkr-
MksGkkrhy fHkaxkikkhps Luk;w iqjsls fkfFky gksr ukghr- R;keqGs fHkaxkph
vfHklkjh kDrh ok<rs-
cqcqG ykacV >kkY;kus fdaok odz >kkY;kus MksGkkrhy fHkax o n`VhiVy
;kaP;krhy varj ok<rs-
gk nksk nwj dj.;klkBh varoZdz fHkaxkpk pek okijkok dkj.k ;k fHkaxkeqGs
izdkkfdj.kkaps vkijl.k gksowu uarj rs MksGkkrhy fHkaxki;Zar iksgksprkr uarj
fHkaxkeqGs vfHklj.k gksowu izfrek MksGkkrhy iM|koj r;kj gksrs-
2- nwjn`Vhrk %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 56
;k nkskke/;s ekuoh MksGk nwjP;k oLrw O;;ofLFkr ikgw kdrks i.k toGP;k oLw
LiVi.ks ikgw kdr ukgh dkj.k toGP;k oLrwph izfrek MksGkkrhy brj n`VhiVykP;k
ekxs r;kj
MksGkrkhy fHkaxkikkhP;k Luk;wP;k vkDr fdz;keqGs fHkaxkph kDrh deh
gksrs-
gk jax cfgoZdz fHkaxkPkk pek oki:u iklwu ;s.kk;k fdj.kkeqGs izFke cfgoZdz
fHkaxkeqGs vfHklj.k gksrs vkf.k uarj MksGkkrhy fHkaxkus vfHklj.k gksowu fdj.ks
MksGkkrhy iM|ki;Zar iMrkr-
3- o`n~/k n`Vhrk %&
ok<R;k o;kuqlkj MksGkkph lek;kstu kdrh deh gksrs- o;Ldj ekulkapk fudV fcanw
ekxs gVrks vkf.k R;kauk pE;kfkok; toGiklP;k oLrw lgti.ks fnl.ks dBh.k gksrs dkj.k
R;kaP;k fHkaxktoGps Luk;w ukfHk; varj cny.;kph {kerk xekorkr Eg.kwu o`n~/k yksdkauk gk
{ksi.k tk.korks-
vkk yksdkauk n`jn`Vhrk o fudVn`fVrk vls nksUgh =kl tk.korkr gk =kl nwj
dj.;klkBh R;kauk gh ukfHk; fHkaxkpk pek okij.;kpk lYyk fnyk tkrks-
vktdky viorZu nkskkps fujkdj.k dj.;klkBh laidZfHkax (Contact Lens)
fdaok kL=fdz;spk okij dsyk tkrks-
varoZdz vkj;kps mi;ksx %&
1- VkWpZ vkf.k gsMykbZV
2- yM ykbZV
3- izkstsDVj yWEie/khy ijkorZd
4- lkSj midj.kke/;s m.krk izkj.ks xksGk dj.;klkBsh mnk- lw;Zpwy] lkSjyWEi-
5- nkaMhps vkjls
6- naroS|kps vkjls
7- lkSjHksh
cfgoZdz fHkaxkps mi;ksx %&
1- lk/kk lq{enkZdke/;s %& ;kus 20 iV eksBh izfrek fnlrs-
2- ?kMkkG nq:Lr dj.kkjs] tokfgjs rikl.kkjs
3- Lka;qDr lq{enkZd %& thok.kw] fokk.kw] iskh] vfrlw{etho bR;knhps fujh{k.kklkBh-
4- nwjnkhZe/;s cfgoZdz fHkax okijrkr- frpk mi;ksx xzg] rkjs bR;knhP:k foLr`r nkZuklkBh
rlsp ikucqMh rlsp i`Fohojhy oLrwapk vH;kl dj.;klkBh-
5- izdkkh; midj.ks mnk- dWesjk] izkstsDVj] o.kZiVnkZd bR;knhe/;s-
6- cfgoZdz fHkaxkpk mi;ksx pes cufo.;klkBh gksrks-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 57
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 58
7 peRdkj % izdkkkpk Hkkx 2
LraHk 1 LraHk 2 LraHk 3
viLdj.k ika<;k izdkkkps R;kP;k ?kVd jaxke/;s foHkktu- lIrjaxh o.kZiDrh
viorZu Ek/;e cnykeqGs izdkkfdj.kkaP;k fnksr gks.kkjk cny- rk;kaps yqdyqd.ks-
nwjn`Vhrk nwjP;k oLrw LiV fnlrkr- cfgoZdz fHkax

IkkjnkZd ek/;ekrwu izdkk ljG jsksr izokl djrks dkp tsaOgk izdkk ,dk ikjnkZd
ek/;ekrwu nql;k ikjnkZd ek/;ekr izosk djrks rsaOgk frjdl ekxkZus tkrks-

Ikzdkkkps viorZu %&


izdkk ,dk ikjnkZd ek/;ekrwu nql;k ikjnkZd ek/;ekrwu tkrkuk fnkk cnyrks ;k fdz;syk
^izdkkkps viorZu* Eg.krkr-

dkpsP;k fpisrwu izdkkkps viorZu %&


vkd`rh vH;klyh-
tsaOgk izdkk gok ;k ek/;ekr izosk djrks rsaOgk N fcanwikkh ifgys viorZu gksrs vkf.k tsaOgk
izdkkfdj.k dkp ;k ek/;ekrwu izosk djrkr rsaOgk M ;k facanwikkh nqljs viorZu gksrs-
izdkkfdj.kkaps fnkk cnykps izek.k leku o fo:/n vlrs R;keqGs fuxZr fdj.k vkikrh
fdj.kkP;k fnksyk lekarj vlrs ijarq rs dkghls MkohdMs xsysys dyysys fnlrs -

viorZukps fu;e %&


1- vkikrh fdj.k o viorhZr fdj.k vkikrh fcanwikkh vl.kk;k LrafHkdsP;k fo:/n cktwl
vlrkr o rs frUgh ,dkp izrykr vlrkr-
2- ek/;ekP;k lanHkkZr vkikrh dksu o viorhZr dksu ;kaps xq.kksRrj fLFkj vlrs-
vkikrh dksu
=fLFkjkad
viorhZr dksu

=fLFkjkad

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 59
viorZukad %&
ifgY;k ek/;ekP;k lanHkkZr nql;k ek/;ekpk vkikrh dksu(r) ;kapk fLFkjkad tks ;srks R;kyk
^viorZukad* Eg.krkr-

ek/;ekpk viorZukad '' U;w us nkZforkr-


mnk- nzoek/;e viorZukad
1- gok & 1-003
2- cQZ & 1-31
3- csaf>u & 1-52
4- [kfut ehB & 1-54
5- fuye jRu & 1-77
6- fgjk & 2-42
fVi %&
1- tsaOgk izdkkfdj.k fojy ek/;ekrwu ?ku ek/;ekr tkrks rsaOgk rks LrafHkdsdMs >qdrks -
mnk- gosrwu dkpsr
2- tsaOgk izdkkfdj.k ?kuek/;ekrwu fojy ek/;ekr tkrks rsaOgk LrafHkdsiklwu nwj >qdrks -
mnk- dkpsrwu gosr
3- tsaOgk izdkkfdj.k nksu ek/;ekaP;k flesoj yac jsksr vlsy rj vfopfyri.ks iq<s tkrs-
rk;kaps yqdyqd.ks %&
rkjs Lo;aizdkfkr vlY;kus R;kaP;k Lo;aizdkkkus jk=h pedrkr- rkjs [kwip nwj varjkoj
vlY;kus rs izdkkkps fcanw:I L=ksr vkgsr-
okrkoj.kkrwu rkjdk izdkkkps viorZu gksrkauk rk;kapk izdkk LrafHkdsdMs >qdY;keqGs rkjk
R;kP;k vkgs R;k fLFkrhis{kk FkksMklk mapkoj vlY;kps Hkklrs-
rk;kaph gh vkHkklh fLFkrh fLFkj ulwu gosr gkypky] rkiekukrhy cny] okrkoj.k fLFkj
ul.ks ;keqGs cnyrs- gospk viorZukad lrr cnyrkr- rsaOgk rkjs tstLoh fnlrkr vkf.k deh izdkk
viorhZr gksrks rsaOgk rkjs ean fnlrkr vkkizdkjs viorZukadkr gks.kk;k cnykaeqGs rkjs jk=h
yqdyqdrkr-

xzg dk yqqdyqdr ukghr%&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 60
dkj.k rk;kaP;k rqyusus xzg i`Fohiklwu deh varjkoj vlrkr- R;keqGs rs dkgh vla[; facanw
L=ksrkaps ,df=dj.k vlrs- R;keqGs ljkljh izdkkkph rhozrk lkj[khp jkgrs R;keqGs xzg yqdyqdrkuk
fnlr ukghr-

lw;kZn;&lw;kZLr %&
osGs vk/kh gks.kkjs lw;ksZn; o mfkjk gks.kkjh lw;kZLr okrkoj.kh; viorZukP;k vk/kkjs LiV
djrk ;srs-
lw;Z f{krhtkoj vkyk dh] fujh{kdkyk fnlyk ikfgts ijarq rks 2 fefuV R;k vk/khp fnlrks
dkj.k lw;Zfdj.ks okrkoj.kkr izosk djrks rsaOgk viorZukeqGs rks odz ekxkZus fujh{kdki;Zar iksgksprks -
fujh{kdkyk vlk Hkkl gksrks dh] fdj.k tsFkwu ;sr vkgsr rsp lw;Z vkgs ijarq izR;{kkr lw;Z f{krhtkoj
;s.;kvkf/kp rsFks fnlrks-
vkkizdkjs lw;kZLr lqn~/kk 2 fefuVs mfkjk gksrkuk Hkklrks-
Eg.kwu osGs vk/kh gks.kkjs lw;ksZn; o mfkjk gks.kkjs lw;kZLr ;keqGs fnolkpk dkyko/kh pkj
fefuVkus ok<rks-

izdkkkps viLdj.k %&


izdkkkps vaxHkwr jaxke/;s foHkDrhdj.k dj.;kP;k uSlfxZd ?kVusyk ^izdkkkps viLdj.k*
Eg.krkr-
izdkkkP;k>ksrkP;k jafxr ?kVd vl.kk;k ikkyk o.kZiaDRkh Eg.krkr-
o.kZiaDrhe/;s lkrjax vlrkr rs Eg.kts]
rk & rkacMk] uk& ukjaxh] fi & fioGk] fg & fgjok
fu & fuGk] ik & ikjok] tk & tkaHkGk
^lj vk;>Wd U;qVkWu* ;kauh loZizFke lw;Zizdkk fdj.k lkrjaxkuh cuys vkgs gs lkax.;klkBh
dkpsP;k fiz>epk mi;ksx dsyk ;k lkr jaxkiSdh yky jax lokZr deh oGrks rj tkaHkGk jax lokZr
vf/kd oGrks-

banz/kuq;fufeZrh %&
banz/kuq; gh fulxkZrhy lqanj ?kVuk vkgs gh fofo/k uSlfxZd ?kVukaps -----------

vki.kkl vkdkk fuGkk jaxkps dk Hkklrs\

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 61
vkdkkkpk fuGk jax okrkoj.kkrwu izdkkkps gks.kk;k fofdj.kkakh lacaf/kr vkgs-
okrkoj.kkrhy gosps js.kw o brj lw{e d.k vkdkjkus [kwi ygku vlrkr- tsaOgk lw;Zizdkk
okrkoj.kkrwu tkrks rsaOgk ;k lw{ed.kkeqGs deh rjax ykachP;k fuGkk izdkkkps tkLrhr tkLr izek.kkr
fofdj.k gksrs vkf.k gk fuGk izdkk vkiY;k MksGkki;Zar iksgksprks Eg.kwu vki.kkl vkdkk fuGkk
jaxkps Hkklrs-

vkarjkGfojkauk vkdkk dkGkk jaxkps dk fnlrs\


dkj.k] tsaOgk vkarjkGohj izpaM maphoj mM~Mku djrkr rsaOgk rso<kk maphoj okrkoj.k ulrs
R;keqGs izdkkkps fofdj.k gksr ukgh Eg.kwu R;kauk vkdkk dkGkk jaxkps fnlrs-

lw;kZsn; fdaok lw;kZLrkosGh vkdkk ykylj fdaok ukjaxh dk fnlrs\


,joh vkdkk fuGs fnlr vlrs rjh izdkkkP;k fofdj.kkeqGs lw;ksZn; fdaok lw;kZLrkosGh lw;Z
f{krhtkP;k toG vlrks vkf.k lw;Zizdkkkyk vkiY;k Ik;Zar iksgksp.;klkBh cjsp varj ikj djkos ykxrs
rsaOgk fuGkk vkf.k tkaHkGkk jaxkps fofdj.k rkacMkk jaxkis{kk tkLrs gksrs- okrkoj.kkph tkMh tkLr
vlY;kus izdkkkP;k ekxkZrwu cktwyk fofdj.k gksrs vkf.k vkiY;ki;Zar tkLrhr tkLr rkacMk o fioGk
jax ;srks- R;keqGs vki.kkl vkdkkkpk jax ykylj fdaok ukjaxh fnlrks-
ifgY;k ek/;ekrhy izdk'kkpk osx
viorZukad =
nql;k ek/;ekrhy izdk'kkpk osx

,dk ek/;ekr izdkkkpk osx 1.5 x 108 eh@lsa vkgs tj gosrhy osx 3 x 108 eh@lsa
vlY;kl R;k ek/;ekpk gosP;k lanHkkZr viorZukad fdrh vlsy\
fnysY;k ckch &

V1 = 1.5 x 108 eh@lsa

V2 = 3 x 108 eh@lsa

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 62
v1 3 10
1 = =
2 1.5 10
1 = 2
R;k ek/;ekpk gosP;k lanHkkZr viorZukad 2 eh @ lsa vkgs-
Tkj fg;kpk kq/n viorZukad 2-4 vkf.k izdkkkpk fuokZr iksdGhrhy osx 3 x 108
eh@lsavlsy rj izdkkk;pk fg;ke/khy osx fdrh\
fnysY;k ckch &

V1 = 3 x 108 eh@lsa

1 = 2.4
v1
1 =
2
3 10
2.4 =
2
3 10
=
2.4
10 1000000000
= =
8 8
= 125000000
V2 = 125 x 106 eh@lsa

fg;ke/kwu izdkkkpk osx125 x 106 eh@lsa vkgs-

Tkj ifgY;k ek/;ekrwu 2 x 108 eh@lsa osxkus tkrkuk nql;k ek/;ekr R;kpk osx 1.25x108
eh@lsa gksr vlsy rj nql;k ek/;ekpk ifgY;k ek/;ekP;k lanHkkZr viorZaukad dk<k-
fnysY;k ckch &

V1 = 2 x 108 eh@lsdan
V2 = 1.25 x 108 eh@lsdan
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 63
v1
1 =
2
2 10
1 =
1. 25 10
200
1 =
125
1 = 1.8
nql;k ek/;ekP;k lanHkkZr viorZukad 1-8vkgs-

14 /;kl % Ik;kZoj.k thoukSyhpk Hkkx & 1

Ikznwk.k %&
Ekkuoh d`rh fdaok dks.kR;kgh uSlfxZd vkiRrheqGs Ik;kZoj.k nwfkr fdaok [kjkc gksrs ;kyk
^iznwk.k* gksrs-
Ik;kZoj.kkrhy gok] ik.kh] e`nk] /ouh o izkj.ks ;k ?kVdkaps iznwk.k gksrs-

Ikznwkds %&
Ikznwk.k dj.kk;k inkFkkZauk ^iznwkds* Eg.krkr-
gh Ik;kZoj.kkr tkLr izek.kkr lksMyh xsY;kl Ik;kZoj.k fokkjh o vukjksX;dkjd curs-

Ikznwk.kkps izdkj %&


Ikznwk.kkps ikp izdkj iMrkr rs [kkyhizek.ks]

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 64
1- gosps iznwk.k
2- ik.;kps iznwk.k
3- Hkwfe o e`nk iznwk.k
4- /ouh iznwk.k
5- fdj.kksRlkjkeqGs ?kM.kkjs iznwk.k

1- gosps Ikznwk.k %&


vk/kqfudhdj.k] vkS|ksfxdhdj.k o izxrh ;kewGs gose/;s ?kkrd fokkjh ok;w] ckjhd d.k:Ik
LFkk;w inkFkZ o nzo inkFkkZps lw{e d.k ;keqGs ekuo o ifjlj ;koj ?kkrd ifj.kke gksrs ;k fLFkrhyk
^gosps iznwk.k* Eg.krkr-
okgrqdhph lk/kus] mtkZfufeZrh dssnz] ?kudpjk tkG.kk;k Hkkk] vkS|ksfxd izfdz;k gs gok
iznwk.kkps izeq[k L=ksr vkgsr- rlsp pqyhe/;s ykdwM fdaok ks.kh tkG.ks] ksrkrhy dpjk tkG.ks]
Tokykeq[khpk mnzsd] o.kos] okGw o gosph oknGs bR;knh gosps iznwk.k gksrs-

gok Ikznwkds %&


1- mxekuqlkj %&
izkFkfed iznwkds %& jk[k] /kwj] /kwG] fdj.kksRlkjh inkFkZ-
nq;e iznwkds %& So3, O3, gk;Mkstu lk;ukbM] fdVksUl
2- inkFkkZP;k voLFksuqlkj %&
ok;w:Ik %&Co, Co2, o lYQj vkf.k uk;Vkstuph vkWDlkbMs-
d.k:Ik %&ygku nofcanw] ?ku:Ik d.kinkFkZ-
3- L=ksrkuqlkj %&
uSlfxZd L=ksr %& Tokykeq[khpk mnzsd] /kwj o /kqGhph oknGs] o.kos-
ekuofufeZr L=ksr %&dkj[kkus] m|ksx/kans] foekus] vkf.od pkp.;k dj.ks o mtkZfufeZrh
dsanz-
gok Ikznwk.kkph dkj.ks %&
1- okgrqdheqGs gks.kkjs gosps iznwk.k %&
50% is{kk tkLr gok iznwk.k okgukeqGs gksrs- okgukaP;k /kqjke/;s d.k:Ik inkFkZ]
gk;MksdkcZu eksukWDlkbZM] uk;Vkstu vkWDlkbM b- ?kkrd inkFkZ vlrkr- rlsp isVksy] Mh>sy]
uSlfxZd ok;w ;kaP;k Toyukrwu Co2 o brj ok;w ckgsj Vkdys tkrkr-
2- dkj[kkU;keqGs gks.kkjs gosps iznwk.k %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 65
jklk;fud dkj[kkus] rsy kqfn~/kdj.k dkj[kkus] vkSf.kd fo|qr dsanzs] dkxn dkj[kkus]
dkiM fxj.;k] flesaV m|ksx bR;knhe/kwu ckgsj IkM.kkjk /kwj o /kwG ;keqGs gosps iznwk.k gksrs-
3- ksrheqGs gks.kkjs gosps iznwk.k %&
m?kMkkoj tkG.kkjk dpjk gs ksrheqGs gks.kk;k iznwk.kkps eq[; dkj.k vkgs rlsp
fdVdukkdke/kwu o [krkae/kwu ckgsj iM.kk;k fokkjh inkFkkZeqGs gosps iznwk.k gksrs-
4- fofo/k izdkjP;k Toyukrwu gks.kkjs gosps iznwk.k %&
dksGkkps Toyu] o.kok] QVkD;kaps Toyu] ?kjxqrh dp;kps Toyu bR;knheqGs gosps
iznwk.k gksrs-

gosP;k iznwk.kkps ekuoh vkjksX;koj gks.kkjs ifj.kke %&


1- RkkRiqjR;k Lo:ikps ifj.kke%&
rksasM] ukd] ?klk] MksGs ;kaph tGtG o nkg-
olufodkj] fueksfu;k-
Mksdsnq[kh] vfuPNk] vWythZ] nE;kpk >Vdk b-
QqQqlkph dk;Z{kerk deh gksrs-
2- nh?kZdkyhu ifj.kke%&
tqukV QqQql jksx
n;jksx
QqQqlkpk ddZjksx
vYie`R;w
3- vkEyokkZ %&
ikolkP;k ik.;kr uk;fVd o lYQqfjd vkEykps ?kkrd izek.k vlY;kl R;kyk
^vkEyokkZ* Eg.krkr-
dksGlk] ykdwM] [kfutrsy b- Toyukrwu lYQj o uk;Vkstu ;kaph vkWDlkbZMs
okrkoj.kkr lksMyh tkrkr o rh ikolkP;k ik.;kr felGrkr R;kiklwu lY;qfjd vkEy o
uk;fVd vkEy r;kj gksrs o ikolkP;k ik.;kcjkscj iMrs ;kykp ^vkEyokkZ* Eg.krkr-
vkEYkokkZeqGs gks.kkjs ifj.kke %&
1- e`nsph o ik.;kP;k lkBkkph vkEyrk ok<rs gs ekls ouLirh o taxykrhy thouklkBh
gkuhdkjd Bjrs-
2- bekjrh] iqrGs] ,sfrgkfld okLrw] iwy] /kkrwP;k ewrhZ] rkjsps dqai.k b- {kj.k gksrs-
3- ksrh o ksrtfefuoj ?kkrd ifj.kke gksrks-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 66
vks>ksu Fkj %&
i`FohP;k i`BHkkxkiklwu 48 fd-eh- maphoj gk Fkj vk<Grks- lw;kZiklwu vkysyh vfrfuy
fdj.ks kkskwu ?ksrks vkf.k izk.kh o ouLirh l`Vhps laj{k.k djrks-

vks>ksu Fkjkph ?kV gks.;kph dkj.ks %&


1- DyksjksY;qjks dkcZu (CCl2F2) ;k ok;qeqGs vks>ksuP;k Fkjkpk ukk gksr vkgs-
2- Bekjrh] xkMkkaph okrkuqdwyu ;a=s] khrx`gs] khr;a=s bR;knhe/;s (CFC) ok;w khrd
Eg.kwu okijrkr-
3- Dkj[kkU;krhy nzkods] ;sjks lksYl] gkWfLiVye/khy tarqukkds] Qkse bR;knhe/;s CFC okijrkr-
gfjrx`g ifj.kke %&
okrkoj.kkrhy vfr izek.kkr lksMys xsysY;k Co2, CH4;kaP;keqGs i`FohHkksorkyps rkieku
fdaok tkxfrd rkieku ok<r vkgs- ;kykp ^gfjrx`g ifj.kke* Eg.krkr-
T;k ok;weqGs gk ifj.kke ?kMwu ;srks R;kauk gfjrx`g ok;w Eg.krkr-
mnk- Co2, CH4, uk;Vl vkWDlkbZM (N2O)] lh-,Q~-lh- (CCl2F2), ,p-lh-,Q-lh-
(HClF2)

2- ty Ikznwk.k %&
rGh] ryko] u|k] leqnz o brj ik.kh lkBkkae/;s fokkjh nzO;s lksMyh xsY;kl rh ik.;kr
foj?kGrkr] lkBwu jkgrkr ;keqGs ik.;kps iznwk.k gksrs-

ty Ikznwkds %&
1- tSfod iznwkds %&
kSoky] thok.kw] fokk.kw o ijtho ltho ;kaeqGs ik.;kps iznwk.k gksrs-
2- vlsafnz; tyiznqkds %&
ckfjd okGw] /kqfyd.k] ekrhps d.k] [kMd rlsp vkjlsfud] dWMfe;e] fkls] pkjk]
pkanh ;kaph la;qxs-
3- lsafnz; tyiznqkds %&
r.kukkds] fdVdukkds] [krs] lkaMik.kh] dkj[kkU;krhy Vkdk inkFkZ-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 67
ty iznqk.kkps L=ksr %&
1- uSlfxZd L=ksr %&
eksBkk ikolkeqGs tfefurhy eqynzO;s] e`r izk.kh] izk.;kaph foBk] o.kO;keqGs r;kj
>kysyh jk[k] jlk;us] Hkqdai] Tokykeq[khpk mnzsd b- eqGs dkgh ?kVd ik.kh iznqk.k djrkr-
2- ekuofufeZr L=ksr %&
?kjxqrh Vkdk inkFkZ] Lo;aikd?kj] LoPNrkx`g] Ugkuh?kj] eksjh] viektZds] /kq.;kph
ikoMj-

3- dkj[kkU;krhy ?kVd %&


vkEy] vkEykjh] fokkjh nzO;] rsy] xzhl] jax] tarwukkds rlsp cka/kdke m|ksxkrwu
flesaV] ftIldke] /kkrw o fokkjh nzods ik.;kr lksMyh tkrkr-
4- fdj.kksRlkjh mRlftZds %&
vkS|ksfxd] oS|dh;] v.kqHkkk ;ke/kwu fdj.kksRlkjh mRlftZds r;kj gksrkr-

iznwk.k fu;a=.k %&


iznwk.kkps ifjlaLFksoj gks.kkjs nqifj.kke dehr deh dj.;klkBh T;k lq/kkj.kk dsY;k tkrkr
R;kauk ^iznwk.k fu;a=.k* Eg.krkr-
Hkkjr ljdkjus iznwk.k fu;a=.kkkh lacaf/kr dkgh dk;ns dsys vkgsr rs iq<hyizek.ks %
1- tyiznwk.k izfrca/k o fu;a=.k vf/kfu;e & 1914-
2- gokiznwk.k izfrca/k o fu;a=.k vf/kfu;e & 1981-
3- i;kZoj.k laj{k.k vf/kfu;e & 1986-
rlsp TkSooS|dh; dpjk /kksdknk;d mRlxZ] ?kudpjk vkf.k /ofu iznwk.k fu;a=.k ;k lokZaP;k
ckcrlqn~/kk dkgh dk;ns o fu;e dj.;kr vkys vkgsr-
dkj[kkus] vkS|ksfxd olkgrh] egkuxj ikfydk] ftYgk ifjkn] iapk;r lfeR;k] xzkeiapk;rh
;k laLFkk}kjs ojhy dk;|kaps ikyu gksrs dh ukgh ;kph ns[kjs[k ^egkjkV iznwk.k fu;ked eaMG* o
^dsanzh; iznwk.k fu;ked eaMG* ;k kkldh; laLFkk djrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 68

8 tk.kw ;k % /kkrw&v/kkrw
vkiY;k lHkksorkyps cgqrsd inkFkZ eqynzO;kaph la;qxs vkrkr rj dkgh IknkFkZ eqynzO;kaP;k :ikr
vk<Grkr- lks;hP;k n`Vhus eqynzO;kaps /kkrw] v/kkrw o /kkrw ln`; ;k rhu xVkr oxhZdj.k dsys tkrs-
/kkrw vkf.k v/kkrw ;kaps oxhZdj.k R;kaP;k HkkSfrd o jklk;fud xq.k/kekZaP;k vk/kkjs dsyk tkrks-

/kkrwaps HkkSfrd xq.k/keZ %&


1- voLFkk %&
/kkrw gs d{k rkiekukyk eq[;r% LFkk;qfLFkrhr vk<Grkr- viokn ^ikjk* vkf.k ^xWfyve* gs
nksu /kkrw nzovoLFksr vk<Grkr-
2- pdkdh %&
/kkrwauk rst pdkdh vlrs- /kkrwpk i`BHkkx ?kklY;kus R;ko:u izdkkkps ijkorZu gksrs-
3- o/kZuh;rk %&
/kkrwyk BksdY;keqGs R;kps ikrG i=kr :ikarj gksrs ;k xq.k/kekZyk ^o/kZuh;rk* vls Eg.krkr-
4- rU;rk %&
/kkrwps ckjhd rkjsr :ikarj djrk ;srs ;k xq.k/kekZyk ^rU;rk* vls Eg.krkr-
Lkksua vkf.k pkanh gs lokZr rU; /kkrw vkgsr- 1 xzWe lksU;kiklwu 2 fd-eh- rkj dk<rk ;srs-
5- m.krkogu%&
/kkrw gs m.krsps lqokgd vlrkr- /kkrawpk nzo.kkad mPPk vlrks-
pkanh vkf.k rkacs lokZr pkaxys m.krkokgd vkgsr rj fkls o ikjk gs lokZr deh
m.krkokgd vkgsr-
6- m.krkogu %&
/kkrw gs fo|qr lqokgd vlrkr- fo|qr okgd rkjk rkaC;kiklwu cuoysY;k vlrkr-
;k rkjkaoj PVC ps vkoj.k vlrs- PVC gs fo|qr nqokZgd vlY;keqGs R;kpk okij
vkoj.kklkBh djrkr-
7- dBh.ki.kk%&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 69
/kkrw gs lk/kkj.ki.ks dBh.k vlrkr- osxosxGkk /kkrwae/;s dBh.ki.kk cnyrks-
lksfMve vkf.k iksVWfkve gs ?kVd T;k /kkrwae/;s vlrkr R;kauk vLd/kkrw Eg.krkr- rs e
vlrkr-
8- nzo.kkad o mRdyokad %&
/kkrwe/;s nzo.kkad vkf.k mRdyukad mPPk vlrks- VaxLVupk nzo.kkad lokZr mPp vlwu; Na
vkf.k K ;k /kkrwapk nzo.kkad lokZr deh vkgs-
9- ukne;rk %&
dBh.k i`BHkkxkoj vk?kkr >kY;keqGs /kkrw /ouh fuekZ.k djrkr- vkk /kkrwauk ^ukne; /kkrw*
Eg.krkr-

v/kkrwaps HkkSfrd xq.k/keZ %&


1- v/kkrw LFkk;w fdaok nzo fLFkrhr vk<Grkr-
viokn& czksfeu nzo voLFksr vlrs-
2- v/kkrwauk pdkdh ulrs-
viokn& vk;ksfMu vkf.k fgjk-
3- v/kkrwe/;s o/kZuh;rk o rU;rk ulrs-
4- v/kkrw dBh.k ulrkr @ fBlwG vlrkr-
viokn& fgjk gk lokZr dBh.k mPp nzo.kkad o mRdyukad vl.kkjk /kkrw vkgs-
5- v/kkrw fo|qr nqokZgd vlrkr-
viokn& xzWQkbZV
6- v/kkrwe/;s ukn;erk ulrs-
/kkrw v/kkrw
1 /kkrw LFkk;w fLFkrhr vk<Grkr- 1 v/kkrw LFkk;w fdaok ok;w fLFkrhr vk<Grkr-
viokn & ikjk vkf.k xWfyve nzo voLFkk viokn & czksfeu nzo Lo:ikr
2 /kkrwauk pdkdh vlrs- 2 v/kkrwauk pdkdh ulrs
viokn & vk;ksfMu o fgjk
3/kkrwae/;s o/kZuh;rk vlrs- 3 v/kkrwae/;s o/kZuh;rk ulrs-
4 /kkrwae/;s pdkdh vlrs- 4 v/kkrwe/;s rU;rk ulrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 70
5 /kkrw dBh.k vlrkr- 5 v/kkrw fBlwG vlrkr-
viokn & ikjk
6 /kkrw fo|qr lqokgd vlrkr- 6 v/kkrw fo|qr nqokZgd vlkrkr-
viokn & xzWQkbZV
7 /kkrwae/;s ukne;rk vlrs- 7 v/kkrwae/;s ukne;rk ulrs-

/kkrwaps jklk;fud xq.k/keZ %&


1 /kkrwaph vkWfDltucjkscj vfHkfdz;k %&
/kkrwaph vkWfDltucjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu /kkrwaph vkWDlkbZM~l r;kj gksrkr-
Na vkf.k K gs lokZf/kd fdz;kfky /kkrw vkgsr-
1- d{krkiekukyk lksfMve /kkrw vkWfDltucjkscj la;ksx ikorks vkf.k ^lksfMve vkWDlkbZM* r;kj
gksrs-
4Na + O2 2Na2O
gosrhy vkWfDltu ckIk vkf.k dkcZuMk;vkWDlkbZM ;kaP;kkh lksfMveph gks.kkjh
vfHkfdz;k jks[k.;klkBh gk /kkrw dk;e dsjksflue/;s cwMowu Bsorkr-
vkEykjh/kehZ vkWDlkbZM %& T;k /kkrwaph vkWDlkbZMs ik.;kr foj?kGrkr R;kauk
^vkEykjh/kehZ vkWDlkbZM~l* Eg.krkr-
Na2O + H2O 2NaOH lksfMve gk;MkWDlkbZM
K2O + H2O 2KOH iksVWfkve gk;MkWDlkbZM
2- eWXusfkveyk iz[kj m.krk fnyh vlrk R;kP;k gosrhy vkWfDltucjkscj la;ksx gksowu rks
iz[kjrsus tGrks o eWXusfkve vkWDlkbZM r;kj gksrks
m".krk
2Mg + O 2MgO eWXusf'kvevkWDlkbM
3- vfrk; rhoz m.krk fnY;kl tLrkps gosr Toyu gksowu f>ad (Zn) vkWDlkbZM r;kj gksrs-
m".krk
2Zn + O 2ZnO f>ad vkWDlkbM
4- yks[kaMkph iwM ?ksowu R;kyk rhoz m.krk fnY;kl vk;uZ vkWDlkbZM r;kj gksrs-
m".krk
3Fe + 2O Fe3 O4 vk;uZ vkWDlkbM
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 71
5- rkacs isV ?ksr ukgh ijarw R;kyk m.krk fnY;kl rIr /kkrwoj dkWij vkWDlkbZMP;k dkGkk jaxkpk
Fkj tek gksrks-
m".krk
2Cu + O 2CuO dkWijvkWDlkbM
6- vWY;qfefuveyk m.krk fnY;kl gosP;k laidkZeqGs vWY;qfefuveoj ikrG Fkj r;kj gksrks-
m".krk
4Al + 3O 2Al vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbM
?kukxzhdj.k izfdz;k %&
;k izfdz;sr vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbMpk Fkj r;kj dsyk tkrks gs vkWDlkbM vWY;qfefuvepk
goskh laidZ vkY;keqGs r;kj gksrks- ;kP;k FkjkeqGs {kj.k >ht jks[kyh tkrs-
;k fdz;sr vWY;qfefuveP;k oLrwapk vWuksM Eg.ku okij djrkr o lY;qfjd vkEykpk
(H2SO4) fo|qr vi?kVuh nzko.k Eg.kwu okij djrkr-
mi;ksx %&
1- Lo;aikd ?kjkrhy okijys tk.kkjs izskj dqdj] HkkaMh] d<bZ] ljdR;k f[kMD;kaP;k QszEl ;kaph
>ht VkG.;klkBh gs ra= okijrkr-
/kkrwaph vkWDlkbZMs eq[;r% vYd/kehZ vlrkr- ijarq dkgh /kkrwaph vkWDlkbZMs mnk-
vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbZM vkf.k f>ad vkWDlkbZM gh vkEy o vkEykjh ;k nksUgh cjkscj
vfHkfdz;k d:u {kkj o ik.kh r;kj djrkr Eg.kwu ;k vkWDlkbM~luk mHk;/kehZ vkWDlkbM~l
Eg.krkr-
Al2O3 + 6HCL 2AlCl3 + 3H2O
gk;MksDyksfjd vkEy vWY;qfefuve DyksjkbZM
Al2O3 + 2NaOH 2NaAl2 + H2O
lksfMve gk;MkWDlkbZM lksfMve vWY;qfeusV
2 /kkrwaph ik.;kcjkscjgks.kkjh vfHkfdz;k %&
1- iksVWfkve vkf.k lksfMveph FkaM ik.;kkh rhoz vfHkfdz;k gksrs-
2- lksfMveph ik.;kkh vfHkfdz;k gksowu gk;Mkstu ok;w ckgsj iMrks o gk ok;w iVdu isV ?ksrks o
eksBkk izek.kkr tkZ ckgsj IkMrs-

2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 +m.krk

2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2 +m.krk

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 72
3- dWfYkveph ik.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k deh rhozrsus gksrs- ckgsj iMysyh m.krk gk;Mkstu ok;w
isV ?ks.;kl iqjskh ulrs R;keqGs gk;Mkstu ok;wps cqMcqMs /kkrwP;k i`BHkkxkoj tek >kY;keqGs
dWfYkve /kkrw ik.;kr rjaxrks-

Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2
4- eWXusfkveph m.k ik.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu eWXusfkve gk;MkWDlkbZM vkf.k gk;Mkstu
ok;w r;kj gksrks-
eWXusfkveP;k i`BHkkxkoj gk;Mkstu ok;wps cqMcqMs tek >kY;kus gk /kkrw rjaxk;yk
ykxrks-

Mg + 2H2O Mg(OH)2 + H2eWXusfkve gk;MkWDlkbZM

5- vWY;qfefuve] yks[kaM(Fe)] tLr(Zn)] ;k /kkrwaph FkaM fdaok m.k ik.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k


gksr ukgh ijarq ik.;kP;k okQskh vfHkfdz;k gksowu /kkrwaps vkWDlkbZM r;kj gksrs o gk;Mkstu
ok;w eqDr gksrks-

2Al + 3H2O Al2O3 + 3H2vWY;qfefuvevkWDlkbZM

3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2vk;uZ vkWDlkbZM


6- lksus] pkanh vkf.k rkacs ;kaph ik.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksr ukgh-
3 /kkrwaph vkEykcjkscjvfHkfdz;k %&
1- /kkrwaph fojy gk;MkWDyksfjd vkEykcjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk /kkraph DyksjkbM~l r;kj
gksrkr o gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr gksrks-

Mg + 2HClMgCl2 + H2gk;MksDyksfjd eWXusfkve DYkksjkbM


vkEy

2Al + 6HCl2AlCl3 +3 H2vWY;qfefuve DyksjkbM

Fe + 2HClFeCl2 + H2vk;uZ DyksjkbM

Zn + 2HClZnCl2 + H2f>ad DyksjkbM

2- rkacs ;k /kkrwoj fojy gk;MksDyksfjd vkEykph vfHkfdz;k gks ukgh-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 73
3- /kkraph lY;qfjd vkEykcjkscj (H2SO4) vfHkfdz;k >kyh vlrk /kkrwps lYQsV r;kj gksrs
o gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr gksrks-

Fe + H2SO4FeSO4 + H2vk;uZ lYQkbM

Zn + H2SO4ZnSO4 + H2f>ad lYQsV

Mg + H2SO4MgSO4 + H2eWXusfkve lYQsV

1- lksfMve (Na)
2- dWfYkve (Ca)
3- eWXusfkve (Ma)
4- vWY;qfefuve (Al)
5- tLr (Zn)
6- yks[kaM (Fe)
/kkrwps uko goscjkscj vfHkfdz;k Ikk.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k vkEykcjkscj vfHkfdz;k

iksVWfkve (K) gosr tyn isV ?ksrks- FkaM ik.;kcjkscj {kksHkdkjd vfHkfdz;k
vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs- vfHkfdz;k gksu H2 gksowu H2 ok;w eqDr
ok;w eqDr gksrks o gksrks o {kkj r;kj gksrs-
gk;MkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs-

dWfYkve(Ca) isV ?ksr ukgh- FkaM ik.;kcjkscj gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDRk


vfHkfdz;spk osx o:Uk vfHkfdz;k deh rhozrsus gksowu {kkj r;kj gksrs-
[kkyh deh deh gksr gksowu H2 ok;wps cqMcqMs
tkrks- /kkrwP;k i`BHkkxkoj
tek gksowu /kkrw rjaxrks-

lksfMve (Na) gosr tyn isV ?ksrks- FkaM ik.;kcjkscj {kksHkdkjd vfHkfdz;k
vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs- vfHkfdz;k gksowu H2 gksowu H2 ok;w eqDr
ok;w eqDr gksrks o gksrks o {kkj r;kj gksrks-
gk;MkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs-

eWXusfkve(Mg) Ikz[kj m.krk fnyh m.k ik.;kcjkscj /kkrwph HCl kh


vlrk gosr iz[kjrsus vfHkfdz;k gksowu vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 74
tGrks o vkWDlkbM gk;MkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs /kkrwaph DyksjkbM~l o
r;kj gksrs- o H2 ok;wps cqMcqMs H2SO4 kh
/kkrwP;k i`BHkkxkoj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
tek gksowu /kkrw rjaxrks- H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks-

vWY;qfefuve(Al) m.krk fnY;kl Ikk.;kP;k okQskh HCl kh vfHkfdz;k


vkWDlkbMpk ikrG Fkj vfHkfdz;k gksowu dsyh vlrk DyksjkbM~l
r;kj gksrks- vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs o o H2SO4 kh
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks- vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
lYQsV r;kj gksrks o
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks-

tLr(Zn) rhoz m.krk fnY;kl Ikk.;kP;k okQskh HCl kh vfHkfdz;k


f>ad vkWDlkbM r;kj vfHkfdz;k gksowu dsyh vlrk DyksjkbM~l
gksrks- vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs o o H2SO4 kh
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks- vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
lYQsV r;kj gksrks o
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks-

yks[kaM(Fe) yks[kaMkP;k iqMsyk rhoz Ik.;kP;k okQskh HCl kh vfHkfdz;k


m.krk fnY;kl vk;uZ vfHkfdz;k gksowu dsyh vlrk DyksjkbM~l
vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs- vkWDlkbM r;kj gksrs o o H2SO4 kh
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks- vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
lYQsV r;kj gksrks o
H2 ok;w eqDr gksrks-
4 /kkrwaph brj /kkrwaP;k {kkj nzko.kkcjkscj gks.kkjh vfHkfdz;k %&
1- dkWij lYQsVP;k nzko.kkr yks[kaMh f[kGk cqMfoY;kl R;koj rkacwl rifdjh jaxkpk Fkj tek
gksrks-
;k vfHkfdz;se/;s tkLr fdz;kkhy yks[kaM nzko.kkrhy deh fdz;kkhy rkaC;kph tkxk
?ksrs Eg.kwu ;k vfHkfdz;syk foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k Eg.krkr-
2- ojhy nzko.kkrhy deh fdz;kkhy /kkrwps rkacs tkLr fdz;kkhy /kkrweqGs yks[kaM foLFkkiu
?kMwu ;srs-

Fe + CuSo4FeSo4 + Cu

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 75
ewynzO;kpk bysDVkWu la:i.k
ewY;nzO; v.kqvad
izdkj K L M N

/kkrw lksfMve (Na) 11 2 8 1 - (2,8,1)

eWXusfkve(Mg) 12 2 8 2 - (2,8,2)

vWY;qfefuve(Al) 13 2 8 3 - (2,8,3)

iksVWfkve (K) 19 2 8 8 1

dWfYkve(Ca) 20 2 8 8 2

v/kkrw Ukk;Vkstu(N) 7 2 5 - -

vkWfDltu (O) 8 2 6 - -

yksfju(F) 9 2 7 - -

QkWLQjl(P) 15 2 8 5 -

lYQj(S) 16 2 8 6 -

Dyksfju(Cl) 17 2 8 7 -

lksfMve DyksjkbMph fufeZrh %&


1- lksfMve gk /kkrw ik.;kkkh la;ksx ikowu gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr >kkY;keqGs Tokyk ckgsj iMrkr-
2- Dyksfju gk v/kkrw fgjoV fioGkk jaxkpk vlwu fokkjh ok;w vkgs-
3- ;k nksu ?kkrd inkFkkZe/;s jklk;fud la;ksx gksowu lksfMve DyksjkbM ehB ;k la;qxkph fufeZrh
gksrs-
4- lksfMve v.kwP;k ckgkre d{ksr ,d 1 bysDVkWu vlrks rks xekoyk rj bysDVkWu ph la[;k
10 gksrs o vVd fLFkrh iw.kZ gksowu lksfMvepk /kuizHkkfjr vk;u (Na+) r;kj gksrks-
5- Dyksjhu v.kqP;k ckgkre d{ksr 7 bysDVkWu vlrkr o vVd fLFkrh izkIr dj.;klkBh ,dk
bysDVkWu ph xjt vlrs gk bysDVkWu ?ksrY;keqGs bysDVkWu ph la[;k 18 gksrs vkf.k Dyksfju
_.kizHkkfjr (Cl-) vk;u r;kj gksrks-
6- ;kr nksu fo:/n izHkkjke/;s ijLij vkdkZ.k fuekZ.k >kY;keqGs R;kaP;ke/;s vk;fud ca/k fdaok
bysDVksOgWVca/k r;kj gksowu lksfMve DyksjkbZM r;kj gksrks-
lksfMve DyksjkbZM fufeZrhph vkd`rh vH;klyh-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 76
vk;fud fdaok bysDVksOgWyaV ca/k %&
bysDVkWuP;k nsok.k?ksok >kY;keqGs r;kj gks.kk;k ca/kkauk ^vk;fud ca/k* Eg.krkr-
vk;fud fdaok bysDVksOgWyaV la;qx %&
/kkrwdMwu v/kkrwdMs bysDVkWu fnys tkowu r;kj>kysY;k la;qxkauk^vk;fud la;qx* Eg.krkr-
lgla;qx la;qxs%&
nksu v.kqaP;k njE;ku bysDVkWu P;k ,d fdaok vusd tksMkkae/;s ijLIkj Hkkxhnkjh gksowu r;kj
gks.kk;k la;qxkauk ^lgla;qx la;qxs* Eg.krkr-
mnk-H2O, veksfu;k (NH4)

vk;fud la;qxkps xq.k/keZ %&


1- /ku vkf.k _.kizHkkfjr vk;uke/;s rhoz vkdkZ.kcy vlY;keqGs gh la;qxs LFkk;w o dBh.k
vlrkr-
2- gh fBlwG vlwu nkc fnY;kl R;kps rqdMs gksrkr-
3- vkdkZ.kcy mPp vlY;keqGs R;kaP;krhy ca/k rksM.;klkBh tkLr tkZ ykxrs Eg.kwu ;kaps
nzo.kkad o mRdyukad mPPk vlrkr-
4- gh la;qxs ik.;kr nzko.kh; vlrkr ijarq dsjkslhu o isVksy e/;s vnzko.kh; vlrkr-
5- LFkk;w:ikr vlrkuk vk;fud la;qxkrwu fo|qr ogu gksr ukgh dkj.k ;k voLFksr cafnLr
jpuseqGs vk;ukaph gkypky kD; ulrs ijarq forGysY;k voLFksr fo|qr ogu gksrs dkj.k
nzko.kkr izHkkfjr d.kkaph gkypky gksrs-
/kkrwpk vk<G %&
/kkrw gs fulxkZRk eqDr rlsp la;qDrkoLFksr vk<Grkr-
Lkksus]pkanh]IyWfVue ;k /kkrwoj gok] ik.kh ;kapk ifj.kke gksr ukgh Eg.kwu gs lokZr vfdz;kkhy
/kkrw vkgsr- gs rhu /kkrw eqDrkoLFksr vk<G.kkjs /kkrw vkgsr- mjysys loZ la;qDrkoLFksr vk<Grkr-

[kfuts %&
/kkrwaph th la;qxs vkqn~/khlg fulxkZr vk<Grkr R;kauk ^[kfuts* Eg.krkr-

/kkrwds %&
T;k [kfutkiklwu lks;hLdj fdaok Qk;nskhjfjR;k /kkrw osxGk djrk ;srks R;k [kfutkauk ^/kkrwds*
Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 77
Ek`nkvkq/nh%&
/kkrwdke/;s /kkrwcjkscj ekrh] okGwps d.k] []kMdkps d.k vlrkr R;kyk ^e`nk vkq/nh*
Eg.krkr-

/kkrw foKku%&
/kkrwdkiklwu /kkrwps kq/n :Ikr fudkZ.k dj.;kP;k fdz;syk ^/kkrw foKku* Eg.krkr-

vfHkfdz;rkkhy Js.kh%&

/kkrwaph R;kaP;k vfHkfdz;kkhyrsP;k mrjR;k dzekus th ekaM.kh dsyh tkrs fryk /kkrwaph
^vfHkfdz;kkhyrk Js.kh* Eg.krkr-

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
vfHkfdz;kfkyrspk mrjrk dze

. lokZr tkLr fdz;kkhy iksVWfkveyk Js.khr lokZr ojps


. LFkku fnys vkgsr rj lokZr deh fdz;kkhy lksus ;kl lokZr
K [kkysps LFkku fnys vkgs-
Na vfHkfdz;kkhyrso:u /kkrwps rhu xV iMrkr-
Ca 1- tkLr vfHkfdz;kkhy /kkrw
Mg 2- e/;e vfHkfdz;kkhy /kkrw
Al 3- deh fdz;kkhy /kkrw
Zn
Fe
fklsPb
Cu
eD;qjhHg
flYOgj Ag
xksYMAu

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 78
tkLr fdz;kkhy /kkrw (Na, K, Ca, Al) gs vi?kVuh {ki.k i/nrhus feGoys tkrkr- gs
/kkrw forGysY;k DyksjkbMP;k vi?kVuk}kjs feGoys tk kdrkr- ;k fdz;sr /kkrw dWFkksMoj tek gksrks
o Dyksfju ok;w vWuksMoj eqDRk gksrks-

vWY;qfefuveps fudkZ.k %&


laKk & Al
jax & :isjh ika<jk
v.kqvad & 13 2] 8] 3
la;qtk & 3
/kkrqd & ckWDlkbZM (Al2O3, H2O)
1- ckWDlkbZm ;k /kkrqdkiklwu vWY;qfefuve gk /kkrw feGoyk tkrks-
2- vY;qfefuve gk /kkrw vfrfdz;kkhy vlY;kus eqDr fLFkrhr vk<Gr ukgh-
3- ckWDlkbZMe/;s 30 rs 70 VDds vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbM (Al2O3) o mjysyk Hkkx e`nk
vkq/nh vlrs-
4- okGw flfydk(SiO2), vk;uZ vkWDlkbM (Fe2O3) gs ?kVd e`nk vkq/nh Eg.kwu okijrkr-
fudk.kkP;k nksu ik;;k %&
1- /kkrwdkps lagrhdj.k
2- vWY;qfefuveps fo|qr vi?kVuh {ki.k
1- /kkrwps lgrhdj.k csvjP;k i/nrhus %&
1- ckWDlkbZMe/;s vk;uZ vkWDlkbM o flfydk ;k vkq/nh vlrkr- ;k csvjP;k i/nrhus
osxGkk dsY;k tkrkr-
2- ;k i/nrhr lokZr vk/kh /kkrwd HkjMys tkrs o uarj mPp nkck[kkyh 2 rs 8 rkl
180Ocrs 150Oc rkiekukoj lkjlaxzkgd e/;s (NaOH) nzko.kkcjkscj rkioys tkrs-
3- vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbM (Al2O3)gs lksfMve gk;MkWDlkbMP;k (NaOH)nzko.kkr
foj?kGrs o tfy; lksfMve vWY;qfeusV r;kj gksrs-
Al2O3 + 2NaOH2NaAlO2 + H2O

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 79
4- e`nk vkq/nhe/khy vk;uZ vkWDlkbM (Fe2O3) gs NaOH e/;s foj?kGr ukgh ijarq
flfydk (SiO2)yfy; NaOHe/;s foj?kGwu lksfM;e flfydsV r;kj gksrs-
5- lksfMve vWY;qfeusV ik.;kr Vkdwu fojy dsys tkrs o uarj 50Oc Ik;Zar FkaM dsys tkrs
rsaOgk vWY;qfefuve gk;MkWDlkbMps vo{ksi.k ?kMwu ;srs-
NaAlO2 + 2H2O NaOH + Al
(OH)3
lksfMve vWY;qfeu;sV vWY;qfefuve gk;MkWDlkbM
6- vo{ksi xkGwu] /kqowu dksjMs djrkr vkf.k uarj 1000Oc rkiekukyk rkioY;kl
vY;qfeuk feGrs-
m".krk
2Al(OH)3 Al O +3H2 O
1000o c 2 3
2- vWY;qfefuveps fo|qr vi?kVuh {ki.k %&
1- ;k i/nrhe/;s kq/n vWY;qfeukps fLVyP;k Vkdhr fo|qr vi?kVu ?kMoys tkrs-
2- VkdhP;k vkrhy cktwyk xzWQkbVpk Fkj vlrks rks _.kkxz dWFkksM Eg.kwu dk;Z djrks-
3- forGysY;k vWY;qfeukP;k feJ.kkr dkcZuP;k dkaMkk cqMfoY;k tkrkr R;k /kukxz vWuksM
Eg.kwu dk;Z djrkr-
4- ;k feJ.kkpk nzo.kkad 1000Oc Ik;Zar deh dj.;klkBh R;ke/;s dzk;ksykbV
(Na3AlF6) o Y;qjksLikj (CaF2) gs inkFkZ felGys
5- feJ.kkrwu fo|qr izokg tk fnY;kl dWFkksMoj vWY;qfefuve tek gksrs o vWuksMoj
vkWfDltuok;w eqDr gksrks o forGysys vWY;qfefuve VkdhP;k rGkkh tek gksrs o rs
vWY;qfefuve Vkdhrwu osGksosGh ckgsj dk<ys tkrs-
bysDVksMojhy vfHkfdz;k %&
/kukxz vWuksM &202- - 4e- O2

_.kkxz dWFkksM &Al3+ + 3e- Al


e/;e vfHkfdz;kkhy /kkrwaps fudkZ.k %&
Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb gs lYQkbM fdaok dkcksZusV /kkrwdkaP;k :ikr vk<Grkr- ;k /kkrwps
fudkZ.k dj.;klkBh Hkkt.ks fdaok fuLrkiu ;k fdz;k okijrkr-
Hkkt.ks %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 80
lYQkbZM] /kkrqds vfrfjDr gose/;s rhozi.ks rkiowu R;kps vkWDlkbMe/;s :ikarj dsys tkrs R;k
izfdz;syk ^Hkkt.ks* vls Eg.krkr-
fuLFkkiu%&
dkcksZusV /kkrqds e;kZfnr gose/;s rhozi.ks rkiowu R;kps vkWDlkbMe/;s :Ikkarj dsys tkrs R;k
izfdz;syk ^fuLFkkiu* vls Eg.krkr-
tLrkP;k /kkrqdkps Hkkt.ks o fuLFkkiu dsys vlrk [kkyhy vfHkfdz;k ?kMwu ;srkr-
Hkkt.ks &
m".krk
2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO +2So2
fuLFkkiu&
m".krk
ZnCo3 ZnO + Co2

FkfeZLV vfHkfdz;k %&


T;k vfHkfdz;sr ckgsj iMysyh m.krk tkLr izek.kkr vlrs R;keqGs /kkrw forGysY;k fLFkrhr
vlrks fryk ^FkfeZLV vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
1- vk;uZ vkWDlkbMph vWY;qfefuvecjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu vk;uZ vkf.k vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbZM
r;kj gksrs o izpaM izek.kkr m.krk ckgsj iMrs-
1Fe2O3 + 2Al 2Fe + Al2O3 + m.krk
vk;uZ vkWDlkbM
2 3MnO2+ 4Al 3Mn + 2Al2O3 + m.krk
eWxuhtMk; vkWDlkbM

deh vfHkfdz;kkhy /kkrwps fudkZ.k %&


Js.khP;k rGkkh vl.kkjs Au, Ag, Cugs eqDRkkoLFksr vk<G.kkjs o deh vfHkfdz;kkhy
/kkrw vkgsr gs lYQkbM fdaok vkWDlkbMP;k /kkrwdkaP;k :ikr vk<Grkr-
1- rkacs gs Cu2SdkWij lYQsV ;k :ikr vk<Grs- ;kyk gosr m.krk fnY;klk rkacs
feGfork ;srs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 81
m".krk
2Cu2 S + 3O2 2Cu2 O +2So2
dkWij vkWDlkbM
m".krk
2Cu2 O + 2Cu2 S 6Cu +So2
2- flUukckj (HgS)gs ik;kps /kkrw vlwu gosr m.krk fnY;kl eD;qjh vkWDlkbM r;kj
gksrs o uarj eD;qjh vkWDlkbMyk rkiowu eD;qjh /kkrw feGrks-
m".krk
2HgS + 3O2 2HgO +2So2
m".krk
2HgO 2Hg +O
/kkrwps kqf/ndj.k dj.;klkBh^fo|qr vi?kVu* ;k izfdz;spk okij dsyk tkrks-

/kkrwaps {kj.k %&


Ik;kZoj.kkrhy ?kVdkeqGs /kkrwph >ht gksrs R;kyk ^{kj.k* Eg.krkr-
1- yks[kaMkph neV goscjkscj vfHkfdzk;k gksowu R;koj rifdjh inkFkkZpk Fkj tek gksrks R;kyk
^xat* vls Eg.krkr-
2- rkaC;kph neV gosrhy Co2 cjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu dkWij dkcksZusVpk fgjok Fkj tek gksrks
R;keqGs R;kph pdkdh ukghkh gksrs-
3- pkanhP;k oLrw gosP;k laidkZr tkLr osG jkfgY;kl dkGkk iMrkr dkj.k gosrhy xa/kdkkh
(S) pkanhph vfHkfdz;k gksowu flYOgj lYQkbMpk Fkj tek gksrks-
4- vWY;qfefuveps gose/;s vkWfDlMhdj.k gksowu vWY;qfefuve vkWDlkbMpk ikrG Fkj r;kj
gksrks ;k FkjkeqGs /kkrwapk vkWfDltu o ik.;kkh laidZ jks[kyk tkrks-
5- vWY;qfefuveps {kj.k VkG.;klkBh /kukxzhdj.k gh izfdz;k okijyh tkrs-
{kj.k izfrca/k %&
/kkrwpk goskh laidZ rksMY;kl /kkrwps {kj.k jks[krk ;srs-
gs izfrca/kkps ekxZ [kkyhyizek.ks %
1- /kkrwoj vkk ,[kk|k inkFkkZpk Fkj |k dh R;keqGs R;kpk gosrhy ckIk o vkWfDltukh
laidZ ;s.kkj ukgh-
2- /kkrwoj jax] rsy] xzhl] okWfuZk ;kapk Fkj |kok-
3- {kj.kdkjh /kkrwoj v{kj.kdkjh /kkrwpk Fkj clok-
1- xWYOguk;f>ax %&
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 82
;k i/nrhr yks[kaM fdaok LVhyps {kj.k jks[k.;klkBh R;koj tLrkpk ikrG Fkj fnyk
tkrks-
mnk- pdkd.kkjs yks[kaMh f[kGs] Vkp.;k-
2- dWfFkyhdj.k %&
;k i/nrhr forGysY;k dfFkypk nql;k /kkrwoj Fkj fnyk tkrks-
mnk-rkaC;kP;k fdaok firGsP;k HkkaMkkoj fgjoV Fkj tek gksrks R;koj dfFkypk Fkj fnyk
tkrks R;kyk ^dYgbZ* Eg.krkr-
3- fo|qr foysi.k %&
fo|qr vi?kVuk}kjs ,dk /kkrwoj nql;k /kkrwpk Fkj fnyk tkrks R;kyk ^fo|qr foysi.k*
Eg.krkr-
mnk- pkanh foysfir peps] lksU;kps peps-
4- lafeJhdj.k %&
nksu fdaok vf/kd /kkrw vkf.k ,d /kkrw o ,d v/kkrw ;kaP;k Bjkfod izek.kkrhy feJ.kkyk
^lafeJs* Eg.krkr-
mnk- firG rkacs $ tLr
czkWa> rkacs $ dfFky

LVsuysl LVhy yks[kaM $ fudsy $ dzksfeve

/kukxzhdj.k %&
rkacs] vWY;qfefuve ;klkj[;k /kkrwoj fo|qr vi?kVuk}kjs R;kaP;k vkWDlkbMpk ikrG] etcwr
ysi fnyk tkrks R;kyk ^/kukxzhdj.k* Eg.krkr-

ikjnlafeJs %&
lafeJke/khy ,d /kkrw ikjk vlY;kl R;kyk ^ikjnlafeJs* Eg.krkr-

9 vn~Hkwr tx % dkcZuh la;qxkaps

lasfnz; la;qx %&


;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 83
izk.kh fadaok ouLirh ;kaP;kiklwu feG.kk;k la;qxkauk ^lsafnz; la;qx* Eg.krkr-

vlasfnz; la;qx %&


[kfutkiklwu feG.kk;k o d`f=efjR;k r;kj dsY;k tk.kk;k la;qxkauk ^vlsafnz; la;qx* Eg.krkr-
mnk- ;qfj;k] IyWfLVd-
teZu jlk;ukkL=K Ogksgyj ;kauh veksfuve lk;usV ;k vlsafnz; la;qxkilwu ;qfj;k r;kj dsys-
loZ la;qxke/;s dkcZu (c) gs ewY; ewynzO; vlrs Eg.kwu lsafnz; jlk;ukkL=yk ^dkcZuh
la;qxkps jlk;ukkL=* Eg.krkr-

gk;MksdkcZu %&
T;k la;qxke/;s gk;Mkstu o dkCkZu gs nksUgh ewynzO;s vlrkr R;kauk ^gk;MksdkcZu* la;qxs
Eg.krkr-
;kauk^ewG la;qxs* vlsgh Eg.krkr-
mnk- Ch4 feFksu]C2H6 bFksu] C3H8 izksisu] C4H10 C;qVsu-
1- feFksu gs lasafnz; la;qx vlwu R;kyk ^ekkZ xWl* Eg.krkr-
2- ;kps js.kwlw= Ch4 vkgs-
3- ;k la;qxkrhy dkcZu v.kw gk 4 gk;Mkstu v.kwakh cafnr >kysyk vlrks-
4- dkcZu v.kw 4 gk;Mkstu v.kwcjkscj Hkkxhnkjh d:u 4 C HdkcZu gk;Mkstu ,dsjh ca/k
r;kj djrks-
5- vkkizdkjs bysDVkWuP;k HkkxhnkjheqGs r;kj >kysY;k nks?kkl ^lgla;qt ca/k* Eg.krkr-
6- feFksups jpuklw=
H
|
H - C - H
|
H
fdaok
7- dkcZupk bysDVkWu o gk;Mkstu bysDVkWu ;k fpUgkus nk[koY;kl jpuklw= [kkyhyizek.ks gksbZy-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 84
H
x
H x C x H
x
H
lgla;qt la;qxkps xq.k/keZ %&
1- ;k la;qxkapk mRdyukad o nzo.kkad deh vlrks-
2- lkekU;r% ik.;kr vnzko.kh; vkf.k lsafnz; nzkodkr nzko.kh; vlrkr-
3- gh la;qxs m.krk vkf.k fo|qr ;kaps deh izek.kkr okgd vlrkr-
vkWfDltu js.kw (O2) %&
vkWfDltupk v.kqdzekad 8 vlwu R;kps bysDVkWu la:i.k 2] 6 vkgs-
ksoVP;k d{ksr 6 bysDVkWu vlY;kus vVd iw.kZ gks.;klkBh 2 bysDVkWuph xjt vlrs
Eg.kwu vkWfDltu v.kw nql;k vkWfDltudMwu nksu bysDVkWu ?ksrks o Hkkxhnkjh djrks ;k Hkkxhnkjhrwu
bysDVkWu P;k nksu tksMkk r;kj gksrkr- vkkizdkjs nksu v.kwe/;s bysDVkWu P;k nksu tksMkk r;kj gksr
vlrhy R;kyk ^nqgsjh lgla;qt ca/k* Eg.krkr-
vkWfDltups js.kwlw= %&

O :: O = O2

Ukk;Vkstu bysDVkWu la:i.k 2] 5 vkgs rj uk;Vkstupk js.kw (N2) dlk r;kj gksbZy-
jpuklw= dk<k-

N :: 1NN = N2

Lkar`Ir gk;MksdkcZu vLkar`Ir gk;MksdkcZu


1 T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s dkcZu&dkcZu vlk QDr 1 T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s dkcZu&dkcZu v.kwe/;s
v.kwe/;s ,dsjh ca/k (C-C) vlrks R;kyk ^lar`Ir nqgjs h fdaok frgsjh ca/k (C=C), (C=C) vlrks
gk;MksdkcZu* Eg.krkr- R;kyk ^vlar`Ir gk;MksdkcZu* Eg.krkr-

2(C-C) vlk QDr ,dsjh ca/k vlrks- 2(C=C), fdaok (C=C) vlk nqgsjh fdaok

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 85
frgsjh ca/k vlrks-

mnk- feFksu (CH4) mnk- bFksu (C2H5), izksihu (C3H8), bFkkbu b-

gk;MksdkcZu
oy;kafdr gk;MksdkcZu
foo`Rr 'k`a[kyk gk;MksdkcZu
mnk- csaf>u (C6H6)

lar`Ir gk;MksdkcZu vlar`Ir gk;MksdkcZu

vYdkbu (CC)
vfYdu (C=C)
vYdsu (C-C) mnk-
mnk-
mnk- feFksu (CH4) bFkkbu (H-CC-H)
bfFku
bFksu (C2H6) izksikbu (CH3-CC-H)
izksisu (C3H8) (CH2=CH2)
jlk;ulw=
C;qVsu (C4H10) izksfiu
(CH3-CH=CH2)

vYdsu (C-C) :-

T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s (C-C)vlk ,dsjh ca/k vlrks R;kyk ^vYdsu* Eg.krkr-


mnk- feFksu (CH4)
bFksu(C2H6)
izksisu(C3H8)
C;qVsu(C4H10)

vfYdu (C=C):-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 86
T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s (C=C)vlk nqgsjh ca/k vlrks R;kyk ^vfYdu* Eg.krkr-
mnk- bfFku (CH2=CH2)
izksfiu(CH3-CH=CH2)

vYdkbu (CC):-

T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s (CC)vlk frgsjh ca/k vlrks R;kyk ^vYdkbu* Eg.krkr-

mnk- bFkkbu (H-CC-H)


izksikbu(CH3-CC-H)
vYdsups lekU; lw= = Cn H2n + 2
vfYdups lekU; lw= = Cn H2n
vYdkbups lekU; lw= = Cn H2n-2

foo`RRk k`a[kyk gk;MksdkcZu %&


T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s dkcZu v.kw ,desdkauk ljG k`a[kyk fdaok kk[kk k`a[kyk ;ke/;s
tksMysys vlrkr R;kauk ^foLr`r k`a[kyk gk;MksdkcZu* Eg.krkr-
mnk-feFksu (CH4), bFksu(C2H6), izksisu(C3H8)

1) -C C- C-

2)
C - C - C - C
| |
C C

oy;kafdr gk;MksdkcZu %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 87
T;k gk;MksdkcZue/;s dkcZu v.kw ,desdkauk oy; Lo:ikr tksMysys vlrkr R;kauk
^oy;kafdr gk;MksdkcZu* Eg.krkr-
mnk-csaf>u(C6H6)

H
|
C
\\
H - C C - H
|| |
H - C C - H
\ //
C
|
H

Ekkfydkca/ku %&
,dkp eqynzO;kP;k v.kwe/;s ijLIkj ca/k fuekZ.k gksowu th ^k`a[kyk* r;kj gksrs R;k xq.k/kekZyk
^ekfydkca/ku* Eg.krkr-
dkcZu v.kw Lor%khp ca/k r;kj d:u ykacypd lk[kGh r;kj d: kdrks-
mnk-
1) C C C C C C
fdaok

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 88
2)
C C C C C C
| |
C C

dkcZukph vi:Iks %&


,dp inkFkZ osxosxGkk HkkSfrd Lo:ikr ijarq leku jklk;fud Lo:ikr vk<Grkr R;kyk R;k
inkFkkZph^vi:is* Eg.krkr-
dkcZuph fgjk o xzWQkbM gh nksu vi:Iks vkgsr-
1- fgjk %&
fgjk dBh.k] lqanj LQfVdh inkFkZ vkgs-
rks V.kd vlwu izR;sd dkcZu v.kw gk kstkjhy pkj dkcZu v.kwkh tksMyk tkrks-
fg;ke/;s eqDr bysDVkWu ulrkr R;keqGs fo|qr ogu gksr ukgh-
mi;ksx %&
nkfx.;kae/;s ekSY;oku [kMk Eg.kwu-
dkp dki.;klkBh Mhy efkue/;s-
2- xzWQkbZM%&
xzWQkbZM e] jk[kkMh dkGkk jaxkps vlrs-
R;kP;ke/khy dkcZuph jpuk kVdksuh vlrs-
eqDr bysDVkWu vlY;keqGs pkaxys fo|qr okgd xzWQkbZM vkgs-
mi;ksx %&
bysDVksM~l vxz] /ku vxz] _.k vxz o dkcZu dkaMkk cufo.;klkBh-
oax.k o fklisafUlye/;s-
xzWQkbZM vkd`rh vH;klyh-
fgjk vkd`rh vH;klyh-

ewG gk;MksdkcZu %&


vYdsu xVkrhy feFksu] bFksu] izksisu] C;qVsu ;kauk ^ewG gk;MksdkcZu* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 89
feFksue/khy dkcZu v.kw 1 us o gk;Mkstu v.kw 2 us ok<foyk rj bFksu (C6H6) feGrs-
;ko:Uk vYdsups lkekU; lw= CnH2n+2 feGrs- ;sFks ^n* Eg.kts dkcZuh v.kwaph la[;k gks;-
[kkyhy rDrk iw.kZ djk-
dkcZu v.kwaph
N Ukko Cn H2 + 2 js.kwlw= jpuklw=
la[;k
C1 H2x 1 +
n=1 1 feFksu CH4
2
C2 H2x 1 +
n=2 2 bFksu C2 H6
2
C3 H2x 3 +
n=3 3 izksisu C3 H8
2
n=4 4 C;qVsu C4 H2x 4+ 2 C4 H10
C5 H2 x 5+
n=5 5 IksUVsu C5 H12
2
C6 H2 x 6+
n=6 6 gsD>su C6 H14
2
C7 H2 x 7+
n=7 7 gsIVsu C7 H16
2

ljGk`a[kyk %&
fnysY;k la;qxkr dkcZups v.kw ijLijkauk ,dk ljG jsksr ca/kkus tksMys vlrhy rj R;kyk
^ljGk`a[kyk* Eg.krkr-
mnk-
| | | | | |

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 90
C C C C C C
| | | | | |

kk[kh; k`[kyk %&


fnysY;k la;qxkr dkcZups v.kw ijLIkjkauk ljG jsksr tksMysys vlrkr ijarq R;krhy dkcZuyk
vk.k[kh dkCkZu foo`RRk k`a[kysr tksMys xsys rj R;kyk^kk[kh; k`a[kyk* Eg.krkr-
mnk-
C C C C C C
| |
C C
| |

le?kVd la;qxs%&
T;k la;qxkaph js.kwlw=s leku vlrkr ijarq jpuklw=s fHkUu vlrkr vkk la;qxkauk^le?kVd la;qxs*
Eg.krkr-
;k xq.k/kEkkZyk ^le?kVuk* Eg.krkr-

dkcZuh la;qxkaps ukedj.k i/nrh %&


dkcZuh la;qxkps ukedj.k dj.;klkBh ^IUPAC* Eg.krkr-
Ukkedj.k djr vlrkuk
1- ewG & dkcZulajpuk o dkCkZups v.kw-
2- izR;; & dkcZuk`a[kyspk izdkj fdaok fdz;kRed xV-
xV

k`a[kyk izR;;

C-C ane u

C=C ene bu

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 91
CC yne

3- milxZ & nql;k izdkjpk fdz;kRed xV vkgs dk c?kkok-

mnk- 1- C2H5OH :-
jpuk
H H
| |
H C C
| |
H H

1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw & 2


2- ewG vYdsu & bFksu
3- ewG & bFk
4- izR;; & 01 vksy
5- uko & bFk 1&vksy
mnk-2- C3H3 C2 C1H3:-
1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw &3
2- ewG vYdsu &Ikzksisu
3- ewG & izksi
4- izR;; &Dyksjks
5- uko &izksi&2&Dyksjks
mnk- 3- C4H3 C3 H2 = C1H2:-
1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw &4
2- ewG vYdhu&C;qVsu
3- ewG & C;qV

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 92
4- izR;; &ene bu
5- uko &C;qV&1&bu
mnk- 4- C4H3 CH3= CH2 - CH3 :-
1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw & 4
2- ewG vYdhu &bFksu C;qVsu
3- ewG &bFk C;qV
4- izR;; &ene
5- uko &2 ene

mnk-5- C3H4 C2H= C1H3

|
Br
1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw &3
2- ewG vYdhu &izksisu
3- ewG &izksi
4- izR;; & czkseks
5- IUPASuko &izksi&2&czkseks @ 2 czkseks&izksisu
mnk-6- H C2 C1 H:-
1- dkcZu k`a[kysr dkcZu v.kw &2
2- ewG vYdsu&bFksu
3- ewG &bFk
4- izR;; &yne
5- IUPAS uko & bFkkWy

dkcZuh la;qxkaps jklk;fud xq.k/keZ %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 93
gk;MksdkcZups gose/;s vkWfDltuP;k lkfu/;kr Toyu gksowu dkcZuMk;vkWDlkbM o ik.kh
feGrs-
gh vfHkfdz;kmeknk;h vlwu eksBkk izek.kkr m.krk ckgsj iMrs-
CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O
feFksuP;k Toyukrwu 2658KJ fdyksT;wy brdh m.krk feGrs-
feFksuoj e;kZfnr gospk iqjoBk dsY;kl dkcZuph dktGh feGrs-
CH4 + O2 C dkcZuph dktGh + 2H2O
xWl vkf.k jkWdsy LVksOg ;kauk iqjskh gok feGkY;kl fuGh T;ksr feGrs rj baftulkBh okij.kkjk
dksGlk o okgukrhy isVksy inkFkZ ;kaP;krhy lYQj o uk;Vkstu ;kaP;k ToyukeqGs Ik;kZoj.kkyk /kksdk
iksgksprks-

la;ksx vfHkfdz;k%&
T;k vfHkfdz;sr nksu fdaok vf/kd js.kwiklwu QDr ,dp mRikfnr feGrs R;kyk ^la;ksx
vfHkfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
gh vfHkfdz;k nqgsjh fdaok frgsjh ca/k vlysY;k la;qxke/;s vk<Grs-

H H H H
| | | |
H C C H + Br Br H C2 C1 H
| |
Br Br
uko % 1]2 Mk;czksehbfFku
bfFkucjkscj gk;Mkstupk la;ksx >kY;kl ^bFksu* r;kj gksrks-
H H H H
| | fuds | |

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 94
y
H C = C H + H H H C C H
| |
H H

foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k %&


T;k vfHkfdz;sr ,d v.kw nql;k v.kwph tkxk ?ksr vlsy rj fryk ^foLFkkiu vfHkfdz;k*
Eg.krkr-
U.V fdj.k
CH4 +Cl CH3 Cl+HCl
gk;Mkstu v.kwps Dyksfju v.kw foLFkkiu djrks-
CH3 CH2 I + KOH CH3 CH2 OH + KI
vk;ksfMu v.kwps OH xVkps foLFkkiu dsys vkgs-

egRokph dkcZuh la;qxs%&


i) bFksukWy bfFkl vYdksgksy %&
bFksukWyyk fLifjV vlsgh Eg.krkr-
js.kwlw= &C2H5OH
ljG jpuk &CH3RH2OH

jpuklw= &
H H
| |
H C C OH
| |
H H

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 95
xq.k/keZ %&
1- jaxghu nzko.k
2- vYgknnk;d lqxa/k
3- mRdyukad 78Oc
4- xksB.kkad -114Oc
5- Toyukhy vlwu fuGkk T;ksrhus tGrs-
jklk;fud vfHkfdz;k %&
1- lksfMve /kkrwcjkscj vfHkfdz;k %
bfFky vYdksgksyP;k laidkZr lksfMve /kkrw vkY;kl gk;Mkstu ok;w eqDr gksrks-
2C2HsOHbFksukWy+ Na 2C2HsONa + H2lksfMve bFkkWDlkbM
2- PCl3cjkscj vfHkfdz;k %
bfFky vYdksgksyph QkWLQjl Vk; DyksjkbM cjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk bFkhy
DyksjkbM feGrs-
3C2HsOH + PCl3 3C2HsCl + H3PO3
bfFky vYdksgksy + QkWLQjl Vk; DyksjkbM bfFky DyksjkbM
ii) bFksukWbd vkEyvWlsfVd vkEYk %
;kyk ^vWlsfVd vkEy* Eg.krkr-
js.kwlw= &C2H4O2
ljG jpuk &CH3COOH
jpuklw= &
H
|
H C COOH
|
H
xq.k/keZ %&
1- gs jaxghu vlwu lkSE; vkEy vkgs-
2- lkekU; rkiekukyk kj.kdkjh nzko.k vkgs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 96
3- ;kpk niZ fr[kV vlrks-
jklk;fud vfHkfdz;k %&
1- gWykstucjkscj vfHkfdz;k %
vWflfVd vkEykph Dyksjhu cjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk eksuks Dyksjks vWflfVd vkEy
feGrs-
CH3HOOH + Cl2CH3COOCleksuks Dyksjks vWflfVd vkEy+ HCl
2- /kkrwcjkscj vfHkfdz;k %
vWflfVd vkEykjh /kkrwcjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk (Na fdaok ZN) gk;Mkstu
ok;w eqDr gksrks
2CH3COOH + 2Na2CH3COONa + H2
3- vYdksgksycjkscj vfHkfdz;k %
vWflfVd vkEykph ZnCl2P;k lkfu/;kr vYdksgksy cjkscj vfHkfdz;k dsyh vlrk
bfFky vWflVsV feGrs R;kykp ^bLVj* vls Eg.krkr-
ZnCl2
CH3COOH + C2HsOH CH3COOCHs + H2O
Lkkc.k vkf.k viektZds %&
Lkkc.kkph ik.;kcjkscj vfHkfdz;k gksowu dkiM fdaok Ropsojhy udks vlysys d.k osxGS gksrkr
o LoPNrk gksrs-
Lkkc.kkph js.kwjpuk v.kqdwphnkj vlrs- lkc.kkph js.kwP;k ,dk Vksdkl gk;MksdkcZul~ph k`a[kyk
vlrs Eg.ktsp rs ik.;kr vnzko.kh; o rsykr nzko.kh; vkgsr rj lkc.kkP;k js.kwP;k nql;k Vksdkl
dkcksZ>k;lsV vk;u vlrkr Eg.ktsp rs ik.;kr nzko.kh; vlwu rsyke/;s vnzko.kh; vlrkr-
lkc.kkP;k js.kwrhy ykac v/kzqozh; yac vl.kkjh Vksds gh i`BHkkxkojhy eG o /kwG kkskw.k
?ks.;kps dk;Z djrkr-
va?kksGhpk lkc.k o diMs /kw.;kP;k lkc.k ;krhy Qjd
va?kksGhpk lkc.k diMs /kq.;kpk lkc.k
1 dPP;k lkexzhr pkaxY;k ntkZps esn vkf.k rsy 1 deh ntkZps esn o rsy okijys tkrs-
okijys tkrs
2 egkxMh lqokflds okijrkr- 2 LoLr lqokflds ikojrkr-
3 Ropsph gkuh VkG.;klkBh vkEykjh ul.;kph 3 diMs LoPNrslkBh eqDr vkEykjh miyC/k

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 97
[kk=h nsrkr- vlrkr-

10 jgL; % varxZr thoukps

thouizfd;k %&
lthokauk tx.;klkBh vko;d vl.kk;k fdz;kauk ^thouizfdz;k* Eg.krkr-
mnk& iksk.k] olu] mRltZu] vfHklj.k] iztuu] laosnukhrk] ok<-
thouizfdz;k iw.kZ gks.;klkBh mtsZph xjt vlrs- gh mtkZ vUukiklwu feGrs Eg.ktsp vUUk gs
loZ lthokauk mtkZ iqjo.kkjs ba/ku vkgs-

iksk.knzO;s %&
vUuke/kwu feG.kk;k ?kVdkauk ^iksk.knzO;s* Eg.krkr-
mnk- fiVe; inkFkZ] esn] izfFkus] thoulRos] [kfuts b-
tkZ & fiVe; inkFkZ] esn-
kjhjcka/k.kh & izfFkus vaMh] ekls] ekal
Lkaj{k.k @ fu;a=.k & thoulRRos o [kfuts

iksk.k%&
iksk.knzO;s kjhjkr ?ksowu R;kapk okij dj.;kP;k lthokaP;k fdz;syk ^iksk.k* vls Eg.krkr-
lthokyk iksk.knzO;krwu tx.;klkBh vko;d vlk dPpk eky feGrks-

Lo;aikskh iksk.k%&
Lktho Lor%ps vUu Lor% r;kj djrks o txrks ;kyk ^Lo;aikskh iksk.k* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 98
mnk- ouLIkrh

ijikskh iksk.k %&


ts ltho Lor%ps vUu Lor% r;kj d: kdr ukghr- vUUklkBh nql;koj voyacwu vlrkr
R;kyk ^ijikskh iksk.k* Eg.krkr-
mnk- izk.kh] dods cqjkh

iksk.kkP;k ik;;k%&
1- varxzZg.k & vUUk kjhjkr ?ks.;kph fdz;k ewy
2- ipu&vUuinkFkkZps fo?kVu dj.ks nkr
3- vokksk.k &ipu >kysys vUu jDrkr kkskys tkrs jDr
4- lkRehdj.k&kkskysY;k vUukps iskhdMs ogu dj.ks o tkZfufeZRkh dj.ks rh
5- cfg%{ksi.k&ipu o kksk.k u >kysys vUUk kjhjkckgsj Vkd.ks-
ekuohiksk.k izfdz;sr ipulaLFkk egRRokph vlwu R;ke/;s vUUufydk o ikpd xzaFkhapk
lekosk gksrks-

ekuoke/khy iksk.k %&


ekuoh ipulaLFkk %&
vUuufydk gh ,d ykac vkf.k Luk;qe; ufydk kgs- rh eq[kkiklwu xqn}kjki;Zar
iljysyh vkgs- frpk O;kl osxosxGk vlrks- vUUk ufydskh lacaf/kr vl.kk;k ikpdxzaFkh
Eg.kts ykGksRiknd xzaFkh] ;d`r] LoknqfiaM] tBj xzaFkh gks;-
ipu laLFksph vkd`rh vH;klyh-
1- eq[k %&
eq[kkiklwu vUUkufydsph lq:okr gkrs- loZ vUu ,dkp ipu ekxkZoj tk.kkj vlrs-
R;klkBh R;k vUukoj fdz;k d:u R;kP;k d.kkaps ygku d.kkae/;s :ikarj djkos ykxrs- ckjhd
dsysys vUu ykGksRiknd xzaFkhauh L=oysY;k ykGseqGs vksys gksrs ;k fdz;seqGs vUu
ipuufydsP;k elj vLrjkrwu lgti.ks tk kdrs- ;k vUukps fodjkaP;k lgk;kus lk/;k
inkFkkZe/;s :ikarj gksrs- ykGsrhy vek;yst ;k fodjkus gksrs-
2- tBj %&
vakr% ipu >kysys vUu] vUuufydsekQZRk tBjkr ;srs- tBj gs baxzth v{kj J ;k
vkdkjkps vlwu mnjkP;k MkO;k cktwl vlrs- Luk;waP;k y;cn~/k vkk vkdqapu izlj.kkeqGs gs vUUk
vUUufydsr iq<g <dyys tkrs- Luk;waP;k ;k vkdqapu izlj.kkl ^ifjpkyu* vls Eg.krkr-
tBjkP;k fHkRrhdse/;s vlysY;k xzaFkh rhu izdkjps TkkBjjl L=korkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 99
1- gk;MksDyksfjd vkEy
2- isIlhu fodj
3- E;wdl
tBjkP;k Luk;we; fHkarh vUUk ?kqlGrkr vkf.k R;kP:kr ;ksX;izdkjs tkBjjl feGrkr-
vUUk Vkd.;kph fdz;k ledqapd Luk;w}kjs fu;af=r dsyh tkrs- gs Luk;w ipu >kysY;k vUUkkpk
FkksMk FkksMk Hkkx ygku vkrMkkadMs ikBorkr-
3- ygku vkrMs %&
ygku vkrMs gk vUUkufydspk lokZr ykac Hkkx vkgs- lk/kkj.ki.ks 5 rs 6 ykachpk gk
Hkkx iksVkr vfrk; deh ykxrs- [kwi nkVhokVhus clysyk vlrks- ygku vkrM;kph ykach
eksBkk vkrMkkis{kk tjh tkLr vlyh rjh R;kapk O;kl eksBk vlrks Eg.kwu R;kyk ^ygku
vkrMs* gs uko iMys vkgs-
izk.kh T;k Ikzdkjps vUuxzg.k djr vlrkr R;kuqlkj ygku vkrMkkph ykach osxosxGh
vlrs- TkBjkrwu vkysY;k vkEYk;qDr vUukps izFke vYdyh;qDr vUUkkr :ikarj djkos ykxrs-
;d`r gh kjhjkrhy lokZr eksBh xzaFkh vkgs- gh fiRrjl L=ors- gk fiRRkkk;kr lkBoyk tkrks-
T;k T;k osGh fiRrkk;krwu ufydsekQZr fiRRk R;kr lksMys tkrs R;k R;k osGh esnd.kkaps
ygk.k d.kkae/;s :ikarj gksrs-
4- LoknqfiaM %&
LoknqfiaM Loknqjlkps L=o.k djrs- R;ke/;s fVIlhu] yk;ist vkfk vek;yst gh fodjs
vlrkr- fiRr vkf.k LOkknqjl lkekbZd ufyds}kjs ygku vkrMkkr izosk djrkr-
Ygku vkrMkkP;k fHkRrhds}kjs fofo/k ikpdjl L=oys tkrkr- ;keqGs ipufdz;k iw.kZ
gksrs- vkrMkkP;k fHkfRrdkauk cksVklkj[ks ygku mapoVs vlrkr- ;k mapoVkkauk eksBkk izek.kkr
jDr okfgU;kapkiqjoBk dsysyk vlrks- ;k jDrokfgU;k ipysys vUu kkskw.k ?ksrkr- ipu
>kysys vUu kjhjkrhy izR;sd iskhdMs ikBoys tkrs-
5- eksBs vkrMs%&
u ipysys vUu vkf.k ipysY;k vUukrhy moZfjr Hkkx eksBkk vkrMkkr lqekjs 1-5
ehVj ykachps ikBoyk tkrks- vUukps ipu iwohZp iw.kZ >kY;keqGs vkrMkkpk gk Hkkx ipukps
dk;Z djr ukgh-
eksBkk vkrMkkP;k vkrhy Hkkxkr cksVklkj[ks mapoVs vlrkr ts cgqrkak ik.kh vkf.k
{kkj kkskw.k ?ksrkr- mjysys inkFkZ xqn}kjkekQZRk kjhjkckgsj Vkdys tkrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 100


ledqapd Luk;w ckgsj VkdY;k tk.kk;k inkFkkZoj fu;a=.k Bsorkr-

ouLirhaps iksk.k %&


fgjO;k ouLirh izdkk&laysk.k fdz;s}kjs vUu r;kj djrkr= gosrhy Co2 ok;w vkf.kik.kh
;kaP;k okijkrwu XyqdkstP;k Lo:ikr vUufufeZrh gksrs-

izdkk laysk.k vfHkfdz;k %


Lk;Zizdkk
6Co2 + 6OH2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

gfjrnzO; Xyqdkst

i.kZja/kzk}kjs Co2 ?ksryk tkrs- eqGkokVs ik.kh kkskys tkrs] ik.;krhy gfjrnzO; lw;Zizdkk
kkskw.k ?ksrks- ;k izdkk tsZeqGs ik.;kps fo?kVu gksowu vWfMuksflu Vk; QkWLQsV(ATP) P;k
Lo:ikr tkZ eqDr gksrs-
izdkk laysk.k gh fdz;k QDr fgjO;k ouLirhae/;sp gksrs o rh ikukae/;s ?kMrs-
vkd`rh vH;klyh-
Co2fkok; izdkk laysk.k gksow kdr ukgh Eg.kwu ;k fdz;slkBh Co2vkf.k ik.kh gs
?Vd egRRokps vlrkr o lw;Zizdkk o gfjnzO;kP;k lgk;kus ouLirh vUu r;kj djrkr o tkZ
feGorkr rlsp kjhjcka/k.khlkBh uk;Vkstu] QkWLQjl] yksg] eWXusfkve ;k ikskdnzO;kaph xjt
vlrs-
olu %&
lkRehdj.k >kysY;k vUukiklwu tkZ eqDr gksrs-
olukps nksu izdkj iMrkr-
1- vkWfDlolu %&
vkWfDltuP;k lkfu/;kr gks.kk;k olukyk ^vkWfDlolu* Eg.krkr-
2- foukWDlh olu %&
vkWfDltufkok; ?kMwu ;s.kk;k olukyk ^foukWDlholu* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 101


oklksPNokl fdaok ckgkolu %&
T;k fdz;seqGs gok QqQqlkr fkls o Co2ps izek.k tklr vlysyh gok QqQqlkckgsj Vkdyh
tkrs R;kyk ^oklksPNokl* Eg.krkr-
;k fdz;sr vkWfDltu;qDr gok vkr ?ksryh tkrs o R;krhy vkWfDltu jDrkr kkskyk
tkrks-
typj izk.;kaps olu %&
izk.;ke/;s jkg.kkjs izk.kh oluklkBh ik.;kr foj?kGysY;k vkWfDltupk okij deh djrkr-
vkWfDltu ik.;ke/;s vfrk; deh izek.kkr foj?kGrks R;keqGs typj izk.;kauk miyC/k vlysY;k
vkWfDltu gosrhy vkWfDltuis{kk deh vlrks-
tfeuhojhy izk.;kaps olu %&
tfeuhojhy izk.kh okrkoj.kkrhy vkWfDltu nsrkr- fofo/k izk.;kae/;s oluklkBh osxosxGs
vo;o vlrkr- ijarq folj.kkph fdz;k lkj[khp vlrs- olu bafnz;s gh uktwd vlY;keqGs
kjhjkP;k vkr vlrkr-
olu ekxZ %&
Ekkuoh oluekxZ ukdiqMkkaiklwu lq: gksrks gh gok lw{e dslkaekQZr xkGyh tkrs rlsp rh
xje vkf.k vksylj gksrs- R;ke/;s vlysys /kqfyd.k ysey Hkkxkl fpdVrkr-
olu ekxkZe/;s ckgk ukdiqMkk] ?klk] daB] olufydk ;kapk lekosk gksrks-
oluh%&
olfudsps nksu Hkkx iMrkr- R;kauk oluh Eg.krk R;kiSdh ,d mtO;k QqQqlkr o ,d
MkO;k QqQqlkr fkjrs-
olu vo;o %&
n;kP;k nksUgh cktwl vlysyh] NkrhP;k iksdGhrhy QqQqls gh olukPkk eq[; vo;o
vkgs-
oluh QqQqlkr fkjy;kuarj frps nksu f}rh;d kk[kkae/;s :ikarj gksowu R;kaps iqUgk ygku
ygku kk[kkr :ikarj gksrs- ;k lokZr ygku kk[kkauk olfudk Eg.krkr-
Okk;qdksk %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 102


olfudkaP;k Vksdkakh QqX;kizek.ks fnl.kkjs Qqxs vlrkr R;kauk ^ok;qdksk* Eg.krkr- ok;qdksk
ok;qaP;k nsok.k?ksok.khklBh i`BHkkx miyC/k d:u nsrkr- ok;wdkskkP;k ikrG fHkRRkhdkaHkksorh
LifkZdkaps tkGs vlrs-
gosrhy vkWfDltu jDrdsfkdkae/;s kkskyk tkrks gh izfdz;k jDrke/khy yksfgr
jDrdf.kdkar vlysyk fgeksXyksfcuekQZr gksrs-
okl %&
Okrkoj.kkrwu gok ukdiqMkkaekQZr QqQqlke/;s izosk djrs R;kyk ^okl* Eg.krkr-
mPNokl %&
QqQqlkrhy gok R;kp ekxkZus ijarq myV fnksus ckgsj Vkdyh tkrs R;kl ^mPNokl* Eg.krkr-
oklksPNoklkph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

ouLirhaps olu %&


ouLirh fLFkj vlrkr Eg.kwu R;kauk tsZph xjt deh vlrs rlsp R;kaph olukph xrh
izk.;kaP;kis{kk deh vlrs- olufdz;sr R;k Co2o O2;k ok;waph nsok.k?ksok.k djrkr-

izdkklaysk.k fdz;srwuO2eqDr dsyk tkrks- i.kZja/kzkaekQZr gok vkr ?ksryh tkrs- ewG] [kksM]
iku olu djrkr-
fnolk ouLirhae/;s izdkklaysk.k o olu fdz;k ,dkp osGh pkyw vlrkr- R;keqGs
vkWfDltu fnolk eksBkk izek.kkr lksMyk tkrks- ijarq jk=h QDr olu fdz;k pkyw vlrs R;keqGs
Co2ok;w ckgsj Vkdyk tkrks-

Xyqdkstps fo?kVu %&


Ikskhe/;sXyqdkst js.kwps ik;:osV js.kwe/;s vkWfDltu u okijrk fo?kVu dsys tkrs R;kyk
^Xyk;dkWfyfll* Eg.krkr-
Ikskholukr r;kj>kysyh tkZ ATPP;k Lo:ikr lkBoyh tkrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 103


ifjogu %&
,dk Hkkxkus kkskwu ?ksrysys inkFkZ nql;k Hkkxki;Zar iksgpo.ks ;kyk ^ifjogu* Eg.krkr-

vfHklj.k %&
izk.;kae/;s inkFkkZps ts ogu gksrs R;kyk ^vfHklj.k* Eg.krkr-
vfHklj.k jDr o yfldsaekQZr gksrs-
jDr gh ekuoke/;s vl.kkjh nzo la;ksth mrh vkgs- rs ifjogukps dke djrs-

n; %&
ekuoh n; gk Luk;we; vo;o vkgs- R;kpk vkdkj izR;sdkP;k Lor%P;k eqBhbrdk vlrks-
otu& 360 xzWe vlrs-
O2vkf.k Co2;kaps ifjogu dj.;klkBh dIis vlrkr-
Mkok dIIkk vkf.k mtok dIik ;keqGs vkWfDltu;qDr vkf.k dkcZuMk;vkWDlkbZM ;qDr jDr
,desdkr felGr ukghr-
MkO;k Hkkxkr vkWfDltu;qDr jDr vlrs o mtO;k Hkkxkr vYivkWfDltu;qDr jDr vlrs-
Mkok vkf.k mtok Hkkx ;kaps iqUgk nksu Hkkx iMrkr- vkkizdkjs n;kyk pkj dIIks vlrkr-
ojP;k Hkkxkauk vfyan o [kkyP;k Hkkxkauk ful; Eg.krkr-

n;krhy jDrkfHklj.k %&


1- n;kps ojhy nksu dIis vfyan Eg.kwu vksG[kys tkrkr-
2- kjhjkP;k fofo/k Hkkxkrwu vYivkWfDltu;qDr jDr egkkhjsekQZRk mtO;k vfyankr vk.kys
tkrs o vkWfDltu;qDr jDr QqQqllkhjkekQZRk MkO;k vfyankr vk.kys tkrs-
3- vfyankaps vkdqapu gksrs rsOgk R;krhy jDr fuy;kr ;srs- Mkos fuy; vkWfDltu;qDr jDrkus
Hkjrs o mtos fuy; vYivkWfDltu;qDr jDrkus Hkjrs-
4- tsOgk fuy; vkdqapu ikorkr rsaOgk MkO;k fuy;ke/khy vkWfDltu;qDr jDr egk/keU;kaekQZr
kjhjkpk loZ HkkxkdMs ikBoys tkrs-
5- mtO;k fuy;krhy vYi vkWfDltu;qDr QqQq/keuhekQZr QqQqlkdMs vkWfDltu;qDr
dj.;kklBh ikBoys tkrs-
6- izR;sd osGk jDr nksu osGk tkrs ;kyk ^nqgsjh vfHklj.k* Eg.krkr-
n;kph vkd`rh vH;klyh-
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 104
jDr jDrokfgU;kaP;k fHkfRrdkaoj tks nkc iz;qDr djrs R;kyk ^jDrnkc* Eg.krkr-
gk nkc fkjkais{kk /keU;kae/;s tkLr vlrks- fuy;kaP;k vkdqapukP;kosGh /keU;krhy jDrkoj
vl.kkjk nkc Eg.kts ojpk jDrnkc- fuy;kaP;k fkfFkydj.kkP;kosGh /keU;krhy jDrkoj vl.kkjk nkc
Eg.kts [kkypk jDrnkc-
CyMizskj LQhXukseWuksehVj ;k midj.kkus ekstrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 105


Xyqdkstps fofo/k ekXkkZuh fo?kVu

bFksukWy + Co2 + 2ATP


fd.ou O2 f'kok;
2 dkcZu v.kwapk js.kw

Xyqdkst is'khnzO;kr ik;:osV


6 dkcZu Xyqdkstps 3 dkcZu ekuoh Luk;wae/;s yWfDVd vkEy + 2ATP
v.kwapk fo?kVu v.kwapk O2 f'kok; 3 dkcZu v.kwapk js.kw
js.kw js.kw

Co2 + H2O +
rarqdf.kZdkae/;s 38ATP
O2 P;k lkfu/;kr
,dk dkcZu v.kwapk js.kw

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 106


jDrokfgU;kaph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

ufydkaps tkGs & jDrokfgU;k %&


1- /keU;k n;kdMwu kjhjkdMs jDrkps ogu djrkr- R;k jDrkoj n;kdMwu tkLr nkc iz;qDr
gksrks- /keU;kaP;k fHkfRrdk tkM o yofpd vlrkr-
2- fkjk kjhjkP;k osxosxGkk HkkxkdMwu jDr xksGk d:u ijr n;kdMs ikBorkr- fHkfRrdk
tkkM ulrkr] fkjkae/;s >Mik vlrkr-
3- /keU;kaP;k vfrk; ygku ufydkauk jDrdksfkdk Eg.krkr-
4- jDrdsfkdk ,d= ;sowu fkjk r;kj gksrkr- fkjkae/khy jDrkpk izokg vo;okdMwu n;kdMs
tk.kkjk vlrks-
uknq:Lr tkGkkph nq:Lrh & jDrfcafcdkaekQZr %&
tsaOgk ,[kknk Hkkx dkiyk tkrks rsaOgk jDrokfgU;kaP;k tkGkkl nq[kkir gksrs - vkk cafnLr
laLFksrhy xGrheqGs jDr okgwu tkrs- gh xGrh Fkkaco.;klkBh t[kesP;k tkxh ^jDrfcfcadk* jDr
xksBorkr-

yfldk %&
T;kosGh jDr jDrdsfkdkae/kwu okgrs R;kosGh jDrnzokrwu ik.;kpk dkgh vak] izfFkus vkf.k
dkgh foj?kGysyh nzO;s xkGyh tkowu rhae/khy iksdGkkr tek gksrkr ;kiklwu rhnzo r;kj gksrs- ;k
nzokrhy dkgh Hkkx ygku ekXkkZe/;s fkjrks ;k nzokyk ^yfldk* Eg.krkr-
gk fQdV fioGkk jaxkpk nzo QDr ,dkp fnksus Eg.ktsp rhdMwu n;kdMs okgrks-

ouLirhrhy ifjogu %&


ouLIkrh fLFkj vlrkr- R;kaP;k kjhjkr vusd e`riskh vlrkr- R;keqGs R;kauk tsZph xjt
deh vlrs-
ouLirhauk uk;Vkstu] QkWLQjl] eWXusfkve] eWaxuht] lksfMve ;klkj[;k vdkcZuh inkFkkZaph
vko;drk vlrs- tehu gk R;k inkFkkZapk lokZr toGpk o le`/n L=ksr vkgs-
ouLirhae/;s tyokfgU;k ik.kh okgwu usrkr o jlokfgU;k vUUkkps ogu djrkr-

ckiksPNokl%&
ouLirh R;kaP;k gosrhy HkkxkaekQZr Eg.ktsp ikukaojhy i.kZja/kzkaekQZRk ckIk:ikus ik.kh ckgsj
Vkdrkr] ;k fdz;syk ^ckiksPNokl* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 107


ikukaekQZr ckihHkou fdz;seqGs ikukP;k vfiRospsrhy ik.;kps izek.k deh gksrs gs ik.;kps
izek.k Hk:u dk<.;klkBh tyokfgU;kaekQZRk ik.kh ikukaekQZRk vk.kys tkrs-
ckiksPNoklkeqGs ik.kh o [kfuts kkskw.k ?ksryh tkrkr- gh fdz;k i.kZja/kzs m?kMh vlrkuk
Eg.kts fnolk gksrs-

vUUk vkf.k brj IknkFkkZaps ifjogu %&


ikukaekQZRk r;kj >kysys vUUk ouLirhaP;k izR;sd IkskhdMs iksgkspoys tkrs- vfeuks vkEys lksMwu
tkLrhps vUUk ewG] QGs vkf.k fc;kae/;s lkBoys tkrs ;k fdz;syk ^inkFkkZaps LFkykarj* Eg.krkr- gh
fdz;k jlokfgU;kaekQZRk dsyh tkrs o rh tkZ ATP iklwu feGrs-

mRltZu %&
vusd udks vlysys ?kkrd inkFkZ tls ;qfj;k] ;qfjd vkEy veksfu;k r;kj djrkr- gs inkFkZ
tj lkpwu jkfgys fdaok kfjjkr tkLr dkG jkfgys rj xaHkhj btk iksgkspow kdrkr fdaok dkghosGk
e`R;wgh gks kdrks Eg.ku gs udks vlysys ?kkrd inkFkZ kjhjkrwu ckgsj Vkd.ks Eg.kts ^mRltZu*
gks;-

ekuoke/khy mRltZu %&


ekuoh mRltZu laLFksr o`Ddkph tksMh] ew=okfguhph tksMh vkf.k eq=kk; ;kapk lekosk gksrks-
jDrkrhy Vkd nzO; ckgsj Vkd.;klkBh o`DdkekQZRk ew= r;kj dsys tkrs-
mnjkP;k ikBhekxhy cktwl ikBhP;k d.;kP;k izR;sd cktwl ,d ;kizek.ks ?ksoMkkP;k
fc;kaizek.ks vlrkr- o`Ddkrhy xkG.;kph eqyHkwr fdz;k dj.;kP;k ?kVdkyk ^usQkz Wu* Eg.krkr-
usQkWUle/;s dikP;k vkdkjkpk ikrG fHkfRrdk vlysyk ojpk Hkkx Eg.kts ckseUl laiqV gks; -
jDrdsfkdkaP;k lewgkyk ^XyksHks:yl* Eg.krkr-
XyksHks:ye/khy jDrdsfkdke/kwu jDr xkGys tkrs- jDrkrhy Vkdk inkFkZ vlysY;k nzokiklwu
ew= r;kj gksrs-
ekuoke/;s o`Dd egRRokpk mRltZd vo;o vlyk rjh Ropk o QqQql mRltZukP;k fdz;sr
enr djrkr-
mRltZu laLFksph vkd`rh vH;klyh-
o`k.k ;k vo;okph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 108


;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 109


11 fu;eu% thoukps

leUOk; %&
fofo/k fdz;kaps i/nrkhj fu;eu Eg.kts fu;a=.k gks;] rj fofo/k fdz;k dzeokj ?kMowu vk.k.ks
Eg.kts ^leUo;* gks;-
ik.;kps mRltZu gks.;kP;k ;k fdz;syk ^ckiksRltZu* Eg.krkr- ikukaojhy i.kZja/kzk}kjs
ckiksRltZukph fdz;k ?kMwu ;srs-
tVhy vUu ?kVdkaps Xyqdkst] vfeuks vkEys] fLuX/kkEys ;klkj[;k lk/;k vUUk?kVdkr foHkktu
gksrs- ipu] olu] vfHklj.k o mRltZu ;k ijkoyach izfdz;k vkgsr-
lthokaP;k kjhjkrhy loZ ijLijkoyach thouizfdz;k ?kMowu vk.k.kkjs fofo/k vo;o o
vo;o laLFkk ;ke/;s leUo; vl.ks vko;d vkgs-
bVe; dk;ZkhyrslkBh lthokaP;k fofo/k laLFkke/khy lq;ksX; leUo;kus fLFkj voLFkk jk[kyh
tkrs ;kykp ^lefLFkrh* Eg.krkr-

ouLirhrhy leUOk; %&


LIkkkZP;k mf}iukyk fnysY;k izfrlknkP;k Lo:ikr gkypky vk<Grs ;k gkypkyhl
^daidqfpr* gkypky Eg.krkr-
ouLIkrhr nksu izdkjP;k gkypkyh nkZforkr-
1- o`/nh layXu gkypky
2- o`/nh vlayXu gkypky
ckgk mf}iukl izfrlkn Eg.kwu ouLIkrhP;k dks.kR;kgh Hkkxkph gkypky fdaok ok< Eg.kts
^vuqorZu fdaok vuqorhZ gkypky* gks;-
izdkkkP;k fnksus ouLirhauh nkZoysY;k gkypkyhl ^izdkkkuqorhZ gkypky* Eg.krkr-
tsOgk izdkk ouLIrhaP;k ,dk cktwl iMrks rsOgk vkWfDlu laizsjd izdkkkP;k fo:/n cktwl
vlysY;k izjksgkP;k Hkkxkr iljrs o iskhauk foo/kZukl m|fir djrs-
ouLirhaph ewG laLFkk xq:RokdkZ.k o ik.kh ;k m|hiukauk izfrlkn nsrs ;k izfrlknkauk vuqdzes
^xq:RokdkZ.k gkypky* o ^tykuqorhZ gkypky* Eg.krkr-
fofkV jlk;ukauk fnysyk izfrlkn Eg.kwu ouLirhaP;k Hkkaxkuk >kysY;k gkypkyhl ^jlk;u
vuqorZu* Eg.krkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 110


mnk- chtkaMkP;k fnksus gks.kkjh ijkxufydsph ok<-
ftYcjsfyUl & [kksMkaph ok<
lk;Vksdk;fuUl & iskh foHkktu
vkWfD>Ul & iskh foo/kZu ouLirhaP;k ok<hl enr
vWcflfld vkEy & ouLIkrhaph ok< jks[krs

ouLirhae/khy o`/nh & vlayXu gkypky%&


ouLirhae/khy dkgh fofkV gkypkyhaps Ik;kZolu R;kaP;k ok<hr gksr ukgh vkk gkypkyhauk
^vlayXu gkypky* Eg.krkr-
ouLirhae/;s ekfgrhP;k izlkj.kklkBh dkgh fofkV vkk rh ulY;kus ,dk iskhrwu nql;k
iskhyk ekfgrh ikBo.;klkBh ouLirh fo|qr jklk;fud lk/kukapk mi;ksx djrkr-

ouLirhae/khy o`/nh & vlayXu gkypkyhph dkgh mnkgj.ks%&


mnk- deGkps Qqy ldkGh meyrs] rj fufkxa/kkps Qqy jk=h meyrs-
;k dhVdHk{kh ouLIkrhaP;k ikukojhy rarwds vkrY;k cktwl oGrkr o dhVdkyk pksgkscktawuh
?ks:u /kjrkr-

ekuokrhy leUo; %&


fofo/k kjhjfdz;kaP;k leUo;kps fu;a=.k nksu ;a=.ks}kjs dsys tkrs-
1- psrkfu;a=.k
2- jklk;fud fu;a=.k
esanw] es:jTtw o psrk gs ekuoh psrklaLFksps ?kVd vkgsr-

ekuoh psrklaLFkk %&


ekuoh psrklaLFkk iq<hy rhu Hkkxkr foHkkxyh tkrs-
1- e/;orhZ psrk laLFkk %&
e/;orhZ psrk laLFkk gh esanw o es:jTtw ;kauh cuysyh vlwu kjhjkrhy loZ
fdz;kaps fu;eu djrs-
2- ifj?kh; psrk laLFkk %&

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 111


ifj?kh; psrk laLFkse/;s loZ psrkaPkk lekosk gksrks- psrk ijLIkjkakh tksMY;k tku
,d tkGs r;kj gksrs-
3- Lok;Rr psrk laLFkk %&
Lok;RRk psrk laLFkk gh n;] tBj] QqQql bR;knhlkj[;k vuSfPNd vo;okarhy
loZ psrkauh cuysyh vlrs-
psrkaP;k dk;kZuqlkj R;kaps nksu Hkkxkr foHkktu dsys tkrs-
1- viokgh psrk %& esanwiklwu laosnkaxkekQZr vkosxkaps ogu djrkr-
2- vfHkokgh psrk %& vkosxkps ogu laosnkaxkaekQZr esanwi;Zr djrkr-
psrk ;k psrkiskh vkf.k psrkca/k ;kauh cuysY;k vlrkr- psrkiskhae/;s fo|qr jklk;fud vkosx
fuekZ.k dj.;kph o ogu dj.;kph {kerk vlrs-
jklk;fud izfdz;k lq: gksowu fo|qr vkosx fuekZ.k gksrkr] T;kaps ogu o`f{kdsdMwu
iskhdk;dkdMs] iskhdk;dsdMwu v{krarwdMs o v{krarwdMwu R;kP;k VksdkadMs gksrs-
psrkiskhP;k dk;kZuqlkj R;kaps oxhZdj.k rhu xVkr djrkr-
1- laosnh psrkiskh %& vkosxkaps ogu esanw o es:jTtwdMwu djrkr-
2- izsjd psrkiskh %& vkosxkps ogu esanw o es:jTtwdMwu Luk;w fdaok xzaFkhlkj[;k izsjd
vo;okadMs djrkr-
3- lg;ksxh psrkiskh %& psrklaLFksP;k ,dkfRedrsps dk;Z djhr vlrkr-
psrkiskhph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

izfrf{kIr fdz;k %&


dkgh /kksdknk;d ifjfLFkrhr tyn vkf.k Rofjr izfrlkn ns.ks vko;d vlrs- esanwph fopkj
dj.;kph izfdz;k /khE;k xrhus pkyrs R;klkBh izk.;ke/;s izfrf{kIr fdz;spk ekxZ es:jTtwr r;kj gksrks -
Ik;kZoj.kkrhy ,[kk|k ?kVusyk fnysyk Rofjr izfrlkn Eg.kts ^izfrf{kIr fdz;k* gks; -
1- e/;orhZ psrklaLFkk gh esanw vkf.k es:jTtw ;kauh cuysyh vlrs-
2- esanwyk diZj vkf.k es:jTtwyk dks: LraHkkaP;k gkMkaps laj{k.k vlrs-
3- esanwP;k iksdGkkauk efLrd fuy;s] rj es:jTtwe/khy ykac iksdGhyk e/;ukyk Eg.krkr-
;k iksdGkkae/;s izefLrd es:nzo vlrks-
4- es:nzo psrklaLFksyk ikskdnzO; iqjorks vk?kkr kkskw.k ?ksrks-
esanwps Hkkx nk[kfo.kkjh vkd`rh vH;klyh-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 112


vkiY;k c;kpkk d`rh ;k ,sfPNd vlrkr Eg.ktsp R;k d`rh dj.;kiwohZ vki.k fopkj
djrks- esanw vkiY;k Luk;wauk lans k ikBorks vkf.k vkiys Luk;w R;kuqlkj dk;Z djrkr-
e/;orhZ psrklaLFkk o kjhjkps brj Hkkx ;ke/khy lanskkph nsok.k?ksok.k gh ifj?kh;
psrklaLFksekQZRk dsyh tkrs- ifj?kh; psrklaLFkk gh esanwiklwu fu?k.kk;k es:psrkauh cuysyh -

esanw %&
ekfgrh o d`rh ;kaP;k nsok.k?ksok.khps ,dkfRedj.k dj.;kl dkj.khHkwr vlysyh fofo/k dsanzs
lkekoysyh ,d tfVy lajpuk Eg.kts ^esanw* gks;-
esanw ;k tfVy vo;okps rhu izeq[k Hkkx vkgsr-
1- vxz&efLrd
2- e/;&efLrd
3- Ikp&efLrd
vxz efLrd fdaok izefLrd gk esanwpk fopkj dj.;kph {kerk vlysyk izeq[k Hkkx vkgsk
rlsp xa/k] Jo.k] n`Vh b- laosnukaph osxosxGh {ks=s ;sFks vlrkr-
lg;ksxh izfrlkn %&
laosnh xzkghdMwu feGkysY;k ekfgrh lkscr esanw o vk/khp lkBowu BsoysY;k ekfgrhlkscr gh
ekfgrh ,df=r dsyh tkrs vkk dsnzkauk ^lg;ksxh dsanzs* Eg.krkr-
vuSfPNd fdz;k %&
vkiY;k fopkjkaps fu;a=.k ul.kk;k Luk;waP;k gkypkyhaeqGs dkgh kjhjfdz;k ?kMwu ;srkr
R;kauk vuSfPNd fdz;k Eg.krkr o R;kaps fu;a=.k e/;&efLrd o Ikp&efLrd ;kaP;kdMwu gksrs-
jDrkfHklj.k] olu] fkad.ks ;klkj[;k bPNkkDrhps fu;a=.k ul.kk;k fdz;k gkk
iPN&esanwPkk miHkkx vlysY;k yaceTts}kjs fu;af=r dsY;k tkrkr-
jklk;fud fu;a=.k %&
laizsjd ;k jklk;fud inkFkkZekQZr jklk;fud fu;a=.k gksrs- varL=koh xzaFkhrwu laizsjds L=orkr-
;k xzaFkhauk okfguhfojghr xzaFkh vlsgh Eg.krkr- gh laizsjds r;kj gksrkp ljG jDrizokgkr felGyh
tkrkr-
xjt vlsy frrD;kp izek.kkr laizsjdkaps L=o.ks gs vfrk; egRRokps vkgs- tsOgk jDrkrhy
lk[kjsps izek.k ok<rs rsOgk rs LoknqfiaMkrhy iskhauk loZizFke tk.kors o ;k iskh tkLr izek.kkr

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 113


bUlqfyuph fufeZrh djrkr- tsOgk jDrkrhy lk[kjsps izek.k deh gksrs rsOgk bUlqfyups L=o.;kps
izek.kns[khy deh gksrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 114


12 p% thoukps

iztuu %&
loZ ltho LOkr%lkj[kk uohu tho fuekZ.k djrkr Eg.ktsp ,[kk|k tkrhrhy ltho R;kp
tkrhP;k uohu fi<hph fufeZrh djrkr- lthokaP;k ;k eqyHkwr y{k.kkyk ^iztuu* Eg.krkr-
,dkp iztkrhps ltho lkj[ks fnlrkr o rs R;kaP;klkj[;k fnl.kk;k uohu lthokaph fufeZrh
djrkr-

iztuukrhy eqyHkwr fdz;k %&


iztuukrhy eqyHkwr fdz;k Eg.kts Mh- ,u- ,- ph izr r;kj dj.ks- iskh jklk;fud
vfHkfdz;ka}kjs R;kaP;k Mh- ,u- ,- ph izr r;kj djrkr-
Mh- ,u- ,- P;k izrh ewG Mh- ,u- ,- lkj[;k vlrkr ijarw ewG Mh- ,u- ,- kh rarksrar
tqG.kk;k ulrkr-

iztuukP;k i/nrh %&


iztuukps eq[;Ros nksu izdkj iMrkr-
1- vySafxd iztuu
2- ySafxd iztuu
1- vySafxd iztuu %&
vySafxd iztuurkr dsoG ,dk tuqdkiklwu uohu thokaph fufeZrh xq.klw=h foHkktukus
gksrs- nksu fHkUu iskhaP;k la;ksxkfkok; ?kMwu ;s.kkjs iztuu vlY;keqGs uotkr iskh gh rarksrar ewG
iskhlkj[kh vlrs-
rksVk %& tufud fopj.kkpk vHkko-
Qk;nk %& osxkus gks.kkjs iztuu-
,diskh; lthokae/khy vySafxd iztuu %&
vehck ;k ,diskh; lthokrhy vySafxd iztuu nksu izdkjs gksrs-
vf}foHkktu
ccgqfoHkktu
v f}foHkktu %&
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 115
1- c;kp vkfndsanzdh iskh dkgh vkfntho o n`;dsanzdhiskhrhy dkgh iskh vaxds ;k i/nrhus
iztuu djrkr-
2- ;k i/nrhr tud iskhps nksu leku fdaok toGtoG leku Hkkxkr foHkktu gksrs-
3- ;kizR;sd uotkr iskhr ewG iskhP;k vkdkjkbrds ok<.;kph {kerk vlrs-
4- vfeckr iskhnzO;kps foHkktu dks.kR;kgh v{kkrwu gksrs-
ccgqfoHkktu %&
izfrdqy ifjfLFkrhe/;s vfeck Nn~eikn vkr vks<wu ?ksrks- R;keqGs R;kpk vkdkj xksykdkj gksrks
o iskh iVykHkksorh dMd laj{kd dop r;kj djrks ;kyk ^iqVh* Eg.krkr- iqVhe/;s dsanzdkps iquoZ`RRkh;
foHkktu gksrs- dsanzd foHkktukuarj iskhnzO;kps foHkktu gksowu vusd uotkr iskhaph fufeZrh gksrs]
;kykp cgqfoHkktu Eg.krkr-
dfydk;u %&
fd.okr dfydk;u i/nrhus iztuu gksrs- ;ki/nrhr tud iskhyk ckjhdlk QqxoVk ;srks-
tud iskhaP;k dsanzdkps foHkktu gksrs- ,d uotkr dsanzd dfydsr izosk djrs- dfydspk vkdkj ok<wu
tudiskhiklwu osxGh gksrks o Lora= cuwu ok<rs-

vfeckrhy cgqfoHkktu %&


vkd`rh vH;klyh-

cgqiskh; lthokae/khy vySafxd iztuu %&


[kaMhHkou&
Lik;jksxk;jkps [kaMhHkou ;k i/nrhus vySafxd iztuu gksrs-
Ik.kh o ikskdrRos eqcyd izek.kkr feGkY;koj Lik;jksxk;jkph ok< o foHkktu gksrs - iskh;
ok< xq.klw=h foHkktukus ;k izR;sd [kaMkps ifjiw.kZ Lik;jksxk;jkr :ikarj gksrs-
iqutZuu&
dkgh izk.;kae/;s iqutZuu {kerk brdh izpaM vlrs dh kjhjkiklwu osxGkk >kysY;k
Hkkxkiklwu rs iqUgk iw.kZ kjhj r;kj d: kdrkr-
mnk- tsaOgk IyWusjh;kps vusd [kaMke/;s rqdMs gksrkr rsaOgk izR;sd [kaM uohu IyWusjh;kph fufeZrh
djrks-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 116


dks.krkgh izk.kh iztuuklkBh ;kizek.ks rqdMs gks.;kph okV c?kw kdr ukgh- R;keqGs iqutZuukl
iztuu Eg.k.ks ;ksX; Bjr ukgh-
eqdqyk;u&
eqdqyk;u izfdz;sr] gk;Mklkj[ks ltho iztuuklkBh iqutZuu iskhapk okij djrkr-
gk;Mkph ok< iw.kZ >kY;koj o iw.kZ iksk.k feGkY;koj R;kP;k kjhjfHkfRrdsoj xksykdkj
QqxoVk r;kj gksrks- ;k QqxoVkkl eqdqy Eg.krkr- uotkr gk;Mkps iksk.k tud gk;Mk}kjs gksrs-
tsaOgk uotkr gk;Mkph Lor%ps vfLRkRo fVdo.;kbrir ok< gksrs rsOgk rks tud gk;Mkiklwu osxGk
gksrks-
kkdh; Ikztuu &
ouLirhaP;k ewG] [kksM] iku] eqdqy ;klkj[;k kkdh; vo;okaiklwu gks.kk;k iztuukyk
^kkdh; iztuu* Eg.krkr-
mnk- cVkVkkP;k MksGkkiklwu eqdqykiklwu uohu ouLirh fufeZrh gksrs-
chtk.kwfufeZRkh &
E;qdjps kjhj rarwe; vlrs- E;qdjlkj[ks dkgh ltho chtk.kqfufeZrh djrkr- gs chtk.kw
vuqdwy ifjfLFkrhr :trkr vkf.k uohu lthokaph fufeZRkh djrkr-
mnk- E;qdj
vkd`rh vH;klyh-
Dyksfuax&
TkudiskhP;k kjhjkrhy ,dk ifjiDo iskhiklwu tudh;n`Vkk leku vl.kk;k laiw.kZ
cgqiskh; izk.;kph fufeZrh T;k izfdz;s}kjs djrkr R;kl ^Dyksfuax* Eg.krkr-
^MkWyh esa<h* gs ,dk f}xq.kh ;qXeutk,soth ,dk ifjiDro iskhiklwu Dyksfuax}kjs r;kj >kysY;k
ifgY;k lLru izk.;kps mnkgj.k vkgs-
2- ySafxd iztuu %&
ySafxd iztuukr dsoG nksu tudkiklwu ,dk lthokph fufeZrh gksrs- ;k lthokP;k fufeZrhyk
^ySafxd iztuu* Eg.krkr-
ySafxd iztuukus fuekZ.k >kysY;k lthoke/;s tufud ifjorZukeqGs fofo/krk fnlwu ;srs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 117


oSfkVks vySafxd iztuu ySafxd iztuu
Tkudkaph la[;k 1 1
tudiskhpk izdkj dkf;d iskh ;qXed iskh
Ikskh foHkktukpk izdkj Xkq.klw= foHkktu ;qXed fufeZrhr v/kZ xq.klw=h o
Qyukuarj xq.klw=h foHkktu
uotkr lthokps Lo:i uotkr ltho tudklkj[kk Ukotkr ltho tudklkj[kk
vlsy vlsy vls ukgh-
iztuukpk osx tkLr deh
Ikztuukps izdkj eqyqyk;u] [kaMhHkou] kkdh; nksu ;qXedkaP;k la;ksxkrwu
iztuu] dfydk;u ;qXeut r;kj gksrks- uotkr
ltho r;kj gksrks-

ouLirhae/khy ySafxd iztuu %&


Qqy gs ouLirhrhy ySafxd iztuukps ,dd vkgs- funyiqat] nyiqat] iqdslj] L=hdslj gs
Qqykps Hkkx vkgsr- ;kph ekfgrh [kkyhyizek.ks %

L=hdslj %&
Qqykpk L=hfyaxh Hkkx QqykP;k e/;Hkkxh vlwu dq{kh] dq{khrarw o vaMkk;kiklwu curs-
dq{kh %& dq{khrarwpk VksdkdMhy fpdV Hkkx vlwu ;koj ijkxd.k LFkykarfjr gksowu
:trkr-
dq{kho`ar %&L=hdsljkpk ykacV Hkkx T;kP;k eqGkkh dq{kh vlrs-
vaMkk; %&L=hdskjkP;k eqGkkh vl.kkjk Qqxhj Hkkx ;k vaMkk;kr vusd chtkaMs
r;kj gksrkr- ;k izR;sd chtkaMkr ,d vaMiskh vlrs-
iaqdslj %&
iqadslj ijkxdksk o o`ar ;kauh cuysYkk vlrks- ijkxdksk ijkxd.kkaph fufeZrh djrkr- ijkxd.k
iqa;qXedkph fufeZrh djrkr-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 118


ijkxdksk %&lekU;r% jpuk vlrs- ijkxd.kkaph fufeZRkh djrkr- rlsp
iqa;qXedkaph fufeZRkh djrkr-
o`ar %&ijkxdkskkps nsB-
ijkx.k %&ijkxdkskkrhy ijkxd.kkaps L=hdskjkrhy dq{khoj gks.kkjs LFkkukarj.k Eg.kts
^ijkx.k* gks;-
Lo;aijkx.k %&tsaOgk ijkxfdz;k ,dkp Qqykr fdaok ,dk >kMkP;k nksu Qqykar gksrs
rsaOgk R;kl ^Lo;aijkx.k* Eg.krkr-
ijijkx.k %&tsaOgk ijkx.k fdz;k ,dkp tkrhP;k nksu fHkUUk ouLirhae/khy Qqykar ?kMrs
rsOgk R;kyk ^ijijkx.k* Eg.krkr-
ijijkx.k okjk] izk.kh fdaok ik.kh ;kaP;kekQZRk ?kMwu ;srs-
Qyu %&iaq;qXedkP;k vaMiskhrhy L=h&;qXedkkh la;ksx gksowu ;qXeut r;kj gksrks
R;kyk ^Qyu* vls Eg.krkr-
,dk iqa;qXedkP;k vaMiskh Qyu gksowu ;qXeut r;kj gksrks- rj nql;k
iaq;qXedkP;k f}rh;d dsanzdkkh la;ksx gksowu Hkwikiksk r;kj gksrks ;kykp ^foQyu*
vls Eg.krkr-
chtkadqj.k %&Qyukuarj ;qXeutkps iquoZqRrh; foHkktu gksowu R;kiklwu chtkaMkr Hkzq.k
r;kj gksrks- chtkaMkps :ikarj chtkr gksrs- chtkiklwu vuqdqy ifjfLFkrhr uohu jksiVs
r;kj gksrs R;kyk ^chtkadqj.k* Eg.krkr-
Ok; Okk<hpk osx Ekqyhae/khy cny Ekqykae/khy cny voLFkk
tUekiklwu o; tkLr 1 maphr ok< 1 maphr ok< ckY;koLFkk
oksZ 10 rs 11
2 otukr ok< 2 otukr ok<
3 nq/kkps nkr 3 nq/kkps nkr
;s.ks] iM.ks] nkr ;s.ks] iM.ks o iUgk
;s.ks- uohu nkr ;s.ks-
Ok; oksZ 11 rs Okk<hpk osx 1 dk[ksr dsl o 1 dk[ksr o Rkk:.;koLFkk
eqyhae/;s 18 eankorks o iztuu tuusafnz;ktoG tuusfa nz;ktoG ekufld cny o
oksZ o eqykae/;s rh fodflr dslkaph ok< gks.ks- dslkaph ok< gks.ks- iztuu laLFkspk
21 oksZ gks.;kl lq:okr fodkl
2 tuusafnz; {ks= 2 tuusafnz; {ks=
gksrs-
dkGoaM.ks- dkGoaM.ks-
3 Ropk rsydV 3 Ropk rsydV
;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 119
gksowu gksowu
rk:.;fiVhdk rk:.;fiVhdk
;s.ks- ;s.ks-
4 Lrukapk vkdkj 4 psg;koj jkB
ok<.ks- dsl ;s.ks-
5 ekfld ikGh 5 vkokt QqV.ks-
;s.;kl lq:okr
gks.ks-
eqyhae/;s 18 izkS<koLFkk
okkZuarj o
kkjhfjdn`Vkk iztuukl l{ke
eqykae/;s 21
okkZuarj

ouLIkrh o Qqykae/khy iztuukph vkd`rh vH;klyh-

ekuoh iq:k iztuu laLFkk %&


o`k.k vkf.k fku gs ekuoh iztuu laLFksps izeq[k vo;o vkgsr- o`k.k kqdzrarwph fufeZrh
djrs- kjhjkP;k rkiekukis{kk deh rkieku kqdzke.kaP;k fufeZRkhlkBh vko;d vlrs R;keqGs o`k.k
mnjx`gsckgsj o`k.kdkskkr vlrkr- o`k.k VsLVksLVsjkWu laiszjd L=ors gs laizsjd rk:.;koLFksr eqykae/;s
cny ?kMowu vk.krs-
o`k.kdksk %&;sFks vifjiDo kqdzk.kwapk fodkl o lkBk dsyk tkrks-

kqdzk.kwokfguh %&;k ufyds}kjs kqdzk.kw eq=sRlkfxZdki;Zar iksgksprkr-

kqdzkk; o izksLVsV xzaFkh %&fkukekQZr ckgsj Vkdyk tk.kkjk nzo r;kj djrkr-

fku %&iq:k iztuu laLFksP;k ;k Hkkxk}kjs QyukP;k tkxh kqdzk.kwaps ogu dsys

tkrs-
kqdzk.kw %&kqdzk.kwiskh rhu Hkkxkauh curs- Mksds] e/kyk Hkkx] ksiwV-
ekuoh L=h iztuu laLFkk %&
;ksuh] xHkkZk;] vaMokfguh o vaMkk; gs L=h iztuukps izeq[k Hkkx vkgsr-
vaMkk; %&vaMkk;kr vaMiskhapk fodkl gksrks- vaMkk; ,LVkstu laiszjd L=ors]
vaMkk; izR;sd efgU;kr ,d vaMiskh vaMufydsr lksMrs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 120


ekfld ikGh%&vaMiskhps Qyu u >kY;kl gh vQfyr vaMiskh jDr o E;wdjlfgr
L=kokP;k Lo:ikr xHkkZk;kckgsj Vkdyh tkrs ;kyk ^ekfld ikGh* Eg.krkr-
Qyu%&kqdzk.kw ;ksuh ekxkZr izosk djrkr- kqdzk.kw xfreku gksowu vaMokfguhrwu
vaMiski;Zar iksgksprkr- vaMiskh vkf.k kqdzk.kwapk la;ksx gksowu R;kiklwu ;qXeut
r;kj gksrks] R;kyk ^Qyu* Eg.krkr-
fodkl %&;qXeutkps i`uoZ`RRkh; foHkktu gksowu iskhpk ,d xksGk r;kj gksrks- Hkqz.kkyk
ukGs}kjs vkbZP;k jDrkrwu iksk.knzO;s o vkWfDltupk iqjoBk gksrks- u efgU;kaP;k
fodklkuarj ewy tUe ?ks.;kl fln~/k gksrs-
yksdla[;k ok< %&
nskkP;k yksdla[;kok<hPkk l/;kpk nj ikgrk Hkkjr uthdP;kdkGkr txkrhy lokZr tkLr
yksdla[;kok<hpk nsk cusy- yksdla[;k gh eksBh leL;k vkgs- ekuokP;k mTToy Hkfo;klkBh
yksdla[;kok<hpk nj deh dj.ks vko;d vkgs-

ySafxd laca/kkrwu gks.kkjs jksx %&


vySafxd laca/kkeqGs ckf/kr O;DrhdMwu fujksxh O;Drhl flfQyhu] xksUksgh;k] ,M~l lkj[ks jksx
gks kdrkr- R;kiklwu j{k.k gks.;klkBh ySafxd fk{k.k o izfrca/kkRed mi;kaph xjt vkgs-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 121


13 vkjs[ku % vkiY;k tuqdkaps

vuqoak %&
iqu:RiknukP;k izfdz;srwu uohu larrh fuekZ.k gksbZy- vySafxd iqu:RiknukP;k izfdz;srwu
iztuuke/;s th uohu larrh fuekZ.k gksrs R;k larrhe/;s dkgh lw{k Hksn vlrkr rj tudkkh
[kwi lkE; vlrs-
vySafxd iztuukus fuekZ.k >kysY;k lthokr Hksn deh vlrkr o lkEl vf/kd vlrs rj
ySafxd iztuukus fuekZ.k >kysY;k lthokr lkE; deh o Hksn tkLr vlrkr-
,dk fi<hrhy lnL:ke/;s ekxhy fi<hrhy lnL;kps xq.k/keZ ;srkr] R;kyk ^vuqoak* Eg.krkr-
gs DNA P;k izr cuo.;koj voyacwu vlrs-

vuqoafkdrk %&
ekrk&fiR;kph kkjhfjd fdaok ekufld y{k.ks larrhe/;s ladzfer gks.;kP;k izfdz;syk
^vuqoafkdrk* Eg.krkr-

vuqoafkdrsph y{k.ks %&


ekrk&firk o larrh [kwi lkE; vlys rjh R;kaP;kr ygku&eksBs Hksn vlrkr gs
vuqoafkdrseqGs ?kMrs-

vuqoafkdrspk fl/nkar %&


xzsxj tksgkWu esaMsy ;k oSKkfudkus vuaqoafkdrspk fl/nkar ekaMyk R;klkBh R;kus okVk.;kP;k
>kMkoj iz;ksx dsyk-
esaMsyus ekaMysyk fl/nkar gk ekrk&fiR;kdMwu larrhe/;s leku izek.kkr tuqdh; inkFkZ
gLrkarfjr gksrkr ;koj voyacwu gksrk-
esaMsyus loZ iz;ksx okVk.;kP;k ik;;e lVk;Oge ;kaP;kr vk<G.kk;k y{k.kkoj vk/kkfjr gksrs -
mnk- map fo:/n >kM] fioGs fo:/n fgjos cht] yky @ ika<jh Qqys] xksy @ lqjdqrysyh chts]
d{kh; @ vxzizdkjph Qqys-
esaMsyus yky Qqys vkf.k ika<jh Qqys ;s.kk;k >kkaMke/;s ladj ?kMowu vk.kwu iq<hy larkuh;
fi<he/;s dks.kdks.krh y{k.ks yky o ika<;k >kMkP;k QqykdMwu ;srkr ;kph VDdsokjh dk<yh o
vkiys fudkZ ekaMys-

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 122


esaMsyph ,dladj larrh %&
fo:/n y{k.kkaph ,dp tksMh fo:/n vlysY;k okVk.;kaP;k >kMke/;s ladj ?kMowu vk.kyk
R;kyk ^,dladj* Eg.krkr-
mnk- yky Qqys @ ika<jh Qqys okVk.;kps >kM-

tudfi<h (P1) %&


yky Qqys o ika<jh Qqys ;s.kkjh okVk.;kph >kMs ladjklkBh okij.;kr vkyh Eg.kwu R;kauk
^tudfi<h (P1)* Eg.krkr-
tudfi<hrhy yky Qqykauk izHkkoh o ika<;k Qqykauk vizHkkoh vls EgaVys tkrs-
tuqds %& tudkrhy y{k.ks larrhe/;s ladzfer gks.;klkBh ts ?kVd dkj.khHkwr Bjrkr R;kauk
^tuqds* Eg.krkr-

ifgyh larkuh; fi<h(F1) %&

tudfi<h(P1) iklwu r;kj >kysY;k iq<hy fi<hyk ifgyh larkuh; fi<h (F1)Eg.krkr-
esaMsyyk vkiY;k iz;ksxkr ifgY;k fi<hrhy okVk.;kP;k >kMkyk loZ Qqys yky jaxkph
ykxysyh vk<Gyh ;ko:u R;kus vlk fudkZ ekaMyk dh (F1)fi<hrhy >kMkph Lo:ifo/kk yky
vlyh rjh tuqdfo/kk feJ Lo:ikph gksrh-

nqljh larkuh; fi<h (F2) %&


(P1)fi<hrhy >kMkaps LoQyu gks fnY;kuarj th iq<hy fi<h r;kj >kyh fryk ^nqljh
larkuh; fi<h* Eg.krkr-
esaMsyyk nql;k larkuh; fi<hrhy >kMs gh yky Qqys o ika<jh Qqys ;s.kkjh fnlyh-
esaMsyP;k vkdMsokjhuqlkj 929 okVk.;kP;k >kMkaiSdh 705 >kMkauk yky rj 224 >kMkauk
ika<jh Qqys ykxyh Eg.kwu ;sFks >kMkaps Lo:ifo/kk xq.kksRRkj 3 yky % 1 ika<jk vls gksrs vkf.k tuqdh;
xq.kksRRkj 1-

1RR : 2Rr : 1rr

;kJh Dyklsl]fl/nusyhZ 123