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Part A

Description of CBM practices What data supports the description? Implication or links to the described teaching

Self-determination and autonomy: Word


Teachers at Ingleburn Public School use a The word wall is always there for them to In the interview, the teachers at Ingleburn

visual CBM strategy called a word wall, access, so rather than coming to us, asking discuss a series of CBM strategies used to

which displays words students use often or teachers how to spell a word, we assist them promote self-determination and autonomy.

those they sometimes find difficult. in using the resources that are always The word wall is a great example of this and

available and developing their independence is considered a significant CBM strategy, as

(Scocco, 2015, p. 9). it minimalises small disruptions, gives

students the tools to facilitate their own

learning, and allows teachers to focus on

other aspects of learning. Although the word

wall is only part of the organisational

strategies, that promote self-determination

and autonomy at Ingleburn. The word wall

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shows the teachers at Ingleburn primary

school value and promote student autonomy

over their own learning and cultural

development. Moreover, this type of

organisation can help minimise disruptions

and allow students to focus on learning,

leaving little time for behavioural issues.

Positive behaviour for learning: High flyer

Ingleburn kindergarten teachers encourage We tend to use a high flyer system, which is The Whole-school systems at Ingleburn

positive behaviours for learning through a also part of the PBL system (OReilly, 2015, Public School reinforces the school mottos

whole-school behaviour system, which helps p. 4). and common shared goals within a

students identify as part of a wider You will have some in your hand, and community of learners. This is significant to

community of learners and follows the instantly all 60 children are cross legged and students because all students want to receive

concepts of the behaviourist theory proposed ready with their 5 Ls, and it just changes their awards as their peers do. Awarding students

by B. F. Skinner. Moreover, the behavioural behaviour in an instant (OReilly, 2015, p. encourages them to make better behavioural

system acts as a cuing system, also referred to 4). decisions. This CBM strategy is also

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as an antecedent, in which a stimulus is used Just use some incentives before they are significant to teachers because prevention is

to prevent a behaviour before the behaviour going out to their literacy activities, or even if better than a cure, allowing teachers to

occurs. To successfully incorporate high we are going to assembly, we will say, minimise behavioural issues during

flyers as an antecedent, the teacher must Okay, we are looking for 10 high flyers to transitioning. It is important to note that this

present to the entire class his or her explicit give out, and that will just change technique must be combined with explicit

reasoning behind awarding a given student. (OReilly, 2015, p. 4). praise, as explicit praise informs students of

It is explicit (Nanlohy, 2016, p. 4). exactly what is expected.

We are looking at pointing out the positive

behaviours, so we are looking at really

encouraging others to look at their role

models next to them (OReilly, 2015, p. 4).

Rather than just saying, Good boy, you are

actually telling them why (OReilly, 2015,

p. 4).

Rich, challenging curriculum: Enquiry-

based learning.

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Enquiry based learning is a self-directed or Andreahas really pushed this enquiry- The teachers at Ingleburn are seen to use a

research based method of learning. Where based learning in the school. So we have rich, challenging curriculum and enquiry-

students can focus on interests as well as done a lot of enquiry based on getting the based learning. This is significant for

meeting curriculum outcomes. kids to really think and come up with students, as they are working within their

questions of their own about different topics, individual skillsets and are eliminating

really investigating and going through that behavioural issues stemming from an

whole process of turning them in and finding inability to grasp tasks. Enquiry based

out and hands-on activities to try to come up learning allows students to develop their own

withyeah (OReilly, 2015, pp. 12). interests within the guidelines of the

Um, [there is] a lot of time for them to curriculum. Additionally, students who are

experiment and try some hands-on things and highly engaged and experimenting find less

trial and error (Scocco, 2015, p. 7). time to misbehave.

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Summary Report

The teachers at Ingleburn Public School have adopted a number of CBM strategies from various theorists and models, such as the fair

go model, behaviourism theory, and positive behaviour leadership theory. They have thus implemented various components of these theories

and learning strategies based on the needs of students. The CBM strategies used reflect beliefs that support and respect student safety in

accordance with Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) standard four, Create and maintain supportive and safe

learning environments, as well as create a bright, challenging, respectful learning space that promotes self-determination and autonomy.

While each CBM strategy differs slightly from the others, most researchers agree that classroom management must occur on three

levels: in each individual, among the whole class, and through engaging lessons (Munns, 2013; Zipoli, 2008; Woolfolk & Margetts, 2016).

The teachers at Ingleburn are seen to use the high flyer reward systems as an antecedent, in line with preventative behavioural measures as

described by Woolfolk and Margetts (2016); Whitton, Barker, Humphries, Nosworthy, and Sinclair (2016); Goss, Sonnemann, and Griffiths

(2017); and Zipoli (2008). However, the discouragement of problematic behaviour can require the simultaneous use of several CBM


Moreover, according to Wilkinson and Meiers (2007), behaviour management alone does not create a learning environment. The

teachers at Ingleburn emphasise the importance of self-determination and provide students with a series of visual aids as well as clear, explicit

classroom rules. While ONeill and Stephenson (2014) have claimed that controlled classrooms are built on rules and relationships, Whitton

(2015) suggests that student participation is dependent on the relationships they build with teachers and peers. This approach is consistent with

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the positive behaviour leadership theory, which highlights rights and responsibilities as a basis for rules and routines (Edwards & Watts,


Additionally, the teachers at Ingleburn describe interactive lessons built around enquiry-based learning, consistent with the leadership

theory, allowing students to take responsibility for their learning (Edwards & Watts, 2008; Reynolds, 2014). This is similar to the fair go

program, which aims to create model students by creating high cognitive, high effective, and high operative learning opportunities (Munns,

2013). Goss, Sonnemann, and Griffiths (2017) have supported this view and claimed that the top reason for misbehaviour in schools today is

boredom. In accordance with AITSL standard one, Know students and how they learn (p. 1),

Despite their familiarity with these theories, teachers find that putting CBM strategies into practice in the classroom is quite

challenging (Goss, Sonnemann, & Griffiths, 2017). Thus, when considering CBM strategies for classroom management, it is important that

educators consider CBM strategies to cover individuals, the whole class, and engaging lessons, as these elements are the foundation of an

atmosphere for learning and a realisation that learning and relationships prove to be far better behaviour management tools than targeting

behaviour. My growing beliefs and CBM strategies fall in line with the positive behaviour for learning theory, as did Ingleburn pubic school.

My practicum placement has shown me that, creating a positive environment for students, encourages participation and learning. To achieve

this many organisational, social, interpersonal, CBMs come together to enable students to use their autonomy and encourage self-

determination in a safe respected environment.

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Management Case Study Plan: Timetable for Class 2C in Stage 1

Maintain classroom behaviours in a positive way using the 5Ls in line with the positive behaviour for learning model to build safe, respectful

interpersonal relationships with the year two students at Holsworthy Public School.

Management Practices Teaching Opportunities Data Collection Methods

Build respectful interpersonal relationships Use the 5Ls positively during morning Voice recording: I will use a voice

in a safe environment using the 5Ls CBM routines and when taking roll. recording to gather data and will make note

active listening strategy. Use the 5Ls during explicit instructions for of the difference in noise levels once the 5Ls

The 5Ls, which stand for lips, looking, tasks while students are sitting on the mat. have been used.

legs, listening, and laps, is an active Use the 5Ls when concluding tasks while Lesson reflections: The goal of the lesson is

listening strategy that targets students physical students are consolidating their learning. to concentrate on using the 5Ls in a positive

movements. Students are to sit with lips closed, 5Ls can be used as a talk back where the way. I will later reflect on the success of this

eyes looking at the speaker, legs crossed, ears teacher states: Look, legs, laps, and the method and document my findings on the

listening, and hands in laps. students reply: lips, listen. lesson feedback sheet.

The 5Ls CBM strategy can be used within a Annotated photograph: Some students are

classroom in several ways, the first being to familiar with the 5Ls active listening

ask which students are showing the 5Ls. For strategy, as it is already used within the

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example, the instructor might say, Were school in several ways, including negatively.

waiting for Johnny to show the 5Ls. The I will explicitly explain the use of the 5Ls

instructor might also thank the students already active listening strategy through visuals in

showing the 5Ls, saying, for example, I can line with positive behaviour for learning. I

see Johnny sitting, showing his 5Ls, ready to will take a photo and annotate my

learn. Thank you, Johnny. instructions and visual representation for the

The strategy thus concentrates on positive classroom wall.

behaviour and on giving students explicit

guidelines for active listening. Moreover, the

strategy reinforces positive behaviour without

acknowledging poor behaviours, in turn

increasing and building respectful interpersonal

relationships with students.

Use a word wall as an organisational CBM Ensure new words and topics are displayed Observers notes: I will note the amount of

strategy minimising disruption, keeping on the interactive whiteboard (IWB) during times a lesson is disrupted to check the

spelling of a word.

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students on task, and encouraging self- tasks to prevent students from straying Lesson reflections: My goal will be to

determination. because of an inability to spell words. concentrate on giving students the tools to

Set students up for success by ensuring Ensure that the new spelling words and topic successfully spell new words. I will later

students have the necessary vocabulary and words are added to the word wall for future reflect on the success of this method and

tools to complete new tasks. reference. document my findings on the lesson

Include new words in students personal feedback sheet.

dictionaries on desks for use. Supervising teachers reports: My lesson

goal is to introduce new words included in

my lesson using the word wall, and my

supervising teacher will provide feedback on

this goal.

Create a routine of packing up and standing Ring the bell twice two minutes before the Observers notes: I will observe students

behind chairs at the bell. recess bell, the lunch bell, and the home time leaving the room and the condition of tables

Two minutes prior to the school bell at recess, bell. before and after the routine has been

lunch, and home time, I will implement a bell implemented.

that requires students to pack up and stand

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behind their chairs. Following this, the school Audio recording: I will record noise and

bell will ring and I will dismiss students one proceedings before and after the bell signals

table at a time to prevent injuries, running, and to students that they should pack up and

students not packing up their desks. stand behind their chairs.

Supervising teachers reports: For lesson

plans conducted before recess, lunch, and

home time, my goal will be to implement the

routine requiring students to pack up and

stand behind their chairs at the bell. The

supervisor will comment on the effectiveness

of this routine.

Data Analysis Method

1. Review voice recordings, lesson reflections, annotated photographs, and mentor teacher reports to select appropriate data that

reflects the positive use of CBM to build safe, respectful interpersonal relationships with the year two students at Holsworthy

Public School.

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2. Use colour coding to group voice recordings, lesson reflections, annotated photographs, and mentor teacher reports into smaller

categories of information, looking for patterns and contrasts such as the following, for example:

Green for evidence of classroom behaviour management strategies

Red for evidence of successful implementation of CBM

Blue for evidence of unsuccessful implementation of CBM

Yellow for evidence of areas that need further direction and future planning

3. Write memos consolidating key information found in the coded data, and use that data to communicate findings with mentors

and students to guide professional development.

4. Reflect on and compile a report based on the collected data. Use that data to support evidence of meeting AITSL (2014)

Standard 4, Create and maintain supportive and safe learning environments (p. 14).

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Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. (2014). Australian professional standards for teachers. Retrieved from

Edwards, C. H., & Watts, V. (2008). Classroom discipline and management (2nd ed.). Brisbane: John Wiley & Sons Australia.

Goss, P., Sonnemann, J., & Griffiths, K. (2017). Engaging students: Creating classrooms that improve learning. Retrieved from

Lai, L., OReilly, K., & Scocco, A. (2015). Transcript of interview at Ingleburn. In P. Nanlohy (Ed.), Teaching and learning in classrooms unit

USB (pp.118). Sydney: School of Education, Western Sydney University.

Munns, G. (2013). Learning and behaviour. In G. Munns, W. Swayer, & B. Cole (Eds.), Exemplary teachers of students in poverty (pp. ##).

Abingdon: Western Sydney University.

ONeill, S. C., & Stephenson, J. (2014). Evidence-based classroom and behaviour management content in Australian pre-service primary

teachers coursework: Wherefore art thou?. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 39(4), 1.

Whitton, D. (2015). Teaching and learning strategies. Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Whitton, D., Barker, K., Humphries, J., Nosworthy, M., & Sinclair, C. (2016). Learning for teaching: Teaching for learning. South Melbourne:

Cengage Learning Australia.

Wilkinson, J., & Meiers, M. (2007). Managing student behaviour in the classroom. Research Digest, 2, 114.

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Woolfolk, A., & Margetts, K. (2016). Educational psychology (4th ed.). Frenchs Forest: Pearson.

Zipoli, T. J. (2008). Behaviour management application for teachers. New Jersey: Pearson Education.

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