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MATH 115 PROBLEM SET 3

1. Solve the following congruences: a) 15x 25 (mod 35)


b) 15x 24 (mod 35)
c) 15x 0 (mod 35)
d) x3 + x2 5 0 (mod 73 )

a) x 4, 11, 18, 25, 32 (mod 35).

b) No solution

c) x 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 (mod 35)

d) x 23 (mod 73 ).

2. Let p 1 (mod 4). Show that the equation x2 + y 2 = p has a solution mod q for
all primes q. Note this includes the case q = p. Nontrivial means (x, y) 6= (0, 0).

Proof. For the case q = p, we can use x = 1 and y = 1. For the case q 6= p, we have to
solve:
x2 = y 2 + a (mod q)
where a 6= 0. There are q+1 2 possible values for the left and right hand side, so they
must coincide somewhere by the pigeonhole principle. Since (0, 0) isnt a solution to this
equation, this solution we obtain combintorially must be a nonzero solution. In fact, this
equation actually has q 1 solutions in general, quite a few more than the combinatorics
tells you! 

3. Let f (x) Zp [x] be a polynomial with p roots. Show that (xp x) | f (x).

Proof. If f (x) is constant, then it must be 0, and we are done. Otherwise, we apply the
division algorithm and write:
f (x) = (xp x) q(x) + r(x)
With deg(r(x)) < p. Then r(x) has p distinct roots and degree less than p, so it must be
0. 

4. Find all primitive roots in U23 .

We compute the ord(2) = 11. Since ord(1) = 2, then ord(2) = 22 is a generator.


So the primitive roots are (2)k = (21)k for k = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21.
1
2 MATH 115 PROBLEM SET 3

5. If g and g 0 are primitive roots in Up , show that gg 0 isnt a primitive root.

Proof. This is actually false when p = 2. Assume p 6= 2. Then g and g 0 are quadratic
non-residues by Eulers criterion. So their product is a quadratic residue, which cant be a
generator also by Eulers criterion. 

6. Show that if p 2 (mod 3) then every element of Zp is a cube.

Proof. We want to show the cubing map from Up to Up is surjective when p 2 (mod 3).
By cardinality considerations, this is the same as showing injectivity. If this map were
not injective, then a3 = b3 for a 6= b. Then c3 = (ab1 )3 = 1. Then we must have
ord(c) | 3. However c 6= 1, so ord(c) = 3. However, ord(c) | p 1, which is a contradiction
as ord(c) = 3 and p 2 (mod 3). So the map is injective, so it is surjective, so every unit
is a cube. Finally, 0 = 03 , so every element of Zp is a cube. 
117
. Does the equation x2 + 13x + 13 0 mod 163 have a solution?

7. Compute 163

Since 2 is a unit in Z163 , the quadratic formula holds true. Thus, the solution to this
congruence is:

13 117
x=
2
117

This is an element of Z163 as long as 163 = 1. We compute that now:
    
117 9 13
=
163 163 163
 
163
=
13
 
7
=
13
 
13
=
7
 
1
=
7
= 1

So there are no solutions.

8. Find the solutions to x2 = 79 (mod 105).


MATH 115 PROBLEM SET 3 3

We reduce the equation modulo 3, 5 and 7. We must solve:


x2 = 1 (mod 3)
2
x =4 (mod 5)
x2 = 2 (mod 7)

We have x 1, 2 (mod 3), and x 2, 3 (mod 5), and x 3, 4 (mod 7). Consider 70,
21, and 15. We have 70 1 (mod 3) and is a multiple of 5 and 7. The other two play
analogous roles for 5 and 7. Then we can find all solutions in the form n = 70i + 21j + 15k
where i = 1, 2 and j = 2, 3 and k = 3, 4, giving 8 solutions in total.

9. Let p 3 mod 4, show that


p1  3 
X x x
=0
p
x=0
 
Proof. Notice that f (x) = x3 x is odd. Since 1 p = 1, we see that the terms
corresponding to x and x cancel out. However, what if x = x? This only happens when
x = 0, and that term is 0. So we are done. 
 
10. Find all primes p so that 10p = 1.

Proof. This isnt true for p = 2, so assume p is odd. Then we have


    
10 2 5
=
p p p
  
2 p
=
p 5

So we could have p 1 (mod 8) and p 1, 4 (mod 5). Or we could have p 3, 5


(mod 8) and p 2, 3 (mod 5). This gives p 1, 3, 9, 13, 27, 31, 37, 39 (mod 40). 

11. Show that


 there
 are infinitely many primes of the form 3n + 1.
3
Hint: When is p = 1?
 
3 p
Proof. We have p = 3 . Suppose there are finitely many primes pi 1 (mod 3).
)2
Consider Q = 4(p1 . . . pk + 3. Now let q | Q be a prime divisor. Then q 6= 2 since Q is
odd, q 6= 3, since Q 1 (mod 3), and q 6= pi since Q
3 (mod pi ). Then since q | Q,
we have 4P 3 (mod q), where P = p1 . . . pk . Thus q = 1, so 3q = 1, so q 1
2 3


(mod 3) is another prime congruent to 1 mod 3. 


4 MATH 115 PROBLEM SET 3

p 
12. Find the smallest prime p so that 163 = 1.

p = 41. Really!
2i
13. Let p = e p = cos 2 2 p
p + i sin p . Notice that (p ) = 1, and it is called a primi-
tive pth root of unity. Show that:
p1  
!2  
2
X a a 1
(Gp ) := = p
p p p
a=0
Proof. We have:
X X  ab 
2
(Gp ) = pa+b
p
aZp bZp
We write b = ac and our variable from b to c:
X X  a2 c 
2
(Gp ) = pa+ac
a c
p
We cancel the a2 , change the order of summation, and factor:
XXc
2
(Gp ) = pa(1+c)
c a
p
Consider the inner sum for c 6= 1. Then the powers of p are a rearrangement of
1, . . . p 1, so that sum is pc , because 1 + p + . . . pp1 = 0. When c = 1, we
 
get 1 p (p 1). Overall:
  X  
2 1 c
(Gp ) = (p 1) +
p p
c6=1
 
1
=p
p
The last part follows since the sum of all the Legendre symbols is 0.