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Research, Development, and Practice in Structural Engineering and Construction

Vimonsatit, V., Singh, A., Yazdani, S. (eds.)


ASEA-SEC-1, Perth, November 28Decmber 2, 2012

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL PORTAL


FRAME WITH OVERHEAD CRANES

Mehdi Shokouhian1 and Reza Sadeghi2


1
Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
E-mail: shm-10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn
2
Bryant Concepts Pty Ltd, U3 66 Rundle St, Kent Town, SA 5067, Australia
E-mail: Reza@bryantconcepts.com.au

Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial
structures. For structures of this type, an unsuitable layout plan can increase total cost of
construction; hence a suitable layout plan is of importance to achieve an economical design.
This may require several trial designs. The optimization study presented here examines some
key geometric and material parameters of industrial portal frame structures with different over
head cranes capacities. The key parameters considered herein are: span of portal frame, portal
frame spacing, overhead crane capacity and material properties of the single and double bay
portal frames. The internal forces and deflections are calculated under the applicable gravity
(considering the action of both crane and its load) by using elastic first-order static analyses,
utilizing the finite element method. The current study examines the function of each of the
above-mentioned parameters and presents the optimum parameters in terms of weight per unit
area of portal frame. The results are presented in graphical form suitable for the preliminary
stages of design of industrial portal frame structures with overhead cranes.

Keywords: Portal frame, optimization, Industrial building, Steel structures, Geometric and material effects,
Overhead cranes.

1 Introduction regular spacing. The economy of the structure


is generally affected by the requirements for
Single-storey steel portal frames offer a cost
spans and the spacing of the frames. Planning
effective form of structure for most single-
column locations to avoid interference with
storey buildings where a large, open space is
any equipment, fulfilling the functional
required. These types of structures can be
requirements of the building and minimizing
used for industrial, airplane hangars, storage
the building layout plan to achieve a low cost
facility and the like. The major components
solution is of importance.
of a portal frame building are a series of
parallel portal frames which are placed at a

1
Design optimization of Portal Frames with Overhead Cranes
M. Shokouhian, R. Sadeghi

2 Background 350 MPa steel grades which are two common


steel grades in the construction of this type of
Extensive studies on the structural cost of
structures. The soil is also assumed to have a
single-storey buildings have been carried out
conventional load bearing capacity and the
by Horridge and Monis in 1986. Gurlement et
cost of footing design is not considered in this
al, 2001, presented a practical method for
study. The cost optimization of portal frame
single-storey steel structure, using a discrete
building on low bearing soils is not within the
minimum weight and Eurocode design. In
scope of this paper as the cost optimization
2003, Kamal et al, carried out a weight
may be greatly affected by the geotechnical
optimization of two-hinged steel portal frames
properties of the soil and consequently the
under multiple loadings. Kravanja and Zula,
selection of clear span and portal spacing may
2009, presented the simultaneous cost,
be governed by accounting the bearing
topology and standard cross-section
capacity of the soil.
optimization of single storey industrial steel
building structures employing the mixed-
integer non-linear programming approach. Liu
Feng et al performed an optimization study on
the economical dimensions and optimum
design of portal frames, both without cranes
and with light cranes. This study follows their
works and performs a cost optimization study
on portal frames with a range of crane
capacities from light to medium capacity. The
results presented herein can be used in the
preliminary stages of the design of industrial
portal frame structures with overhead cranes.

3 Problem Definition and Assumptions:


The cost optimization of a industrial portal
frame is a function of diverse parameters such Figure 1 Portal frame configuration (a) single bay
(b) multi bay
as: the framing system (tapered girder,
portalized roof truss, lattice column etc), the
span of the frames, the spacing between the Considered in this study is a zero-pitched (flat
portal frames, the pitch of the roof, different roof) portal frame with a built up tapered
steel grades, different gravity loads (dead, live section rafter and lattice column system,
designed to carry the gravity loads of cranes,
and snow loads), lateral loads (wind and
dead, live, and snow loads. The geometry of
earthquake), load combinations.
the lattice column is constructed from hot
Simplification of the problem indicates that
the most significant parameters are: the span rolled universal beam (UB) or universal
of portal frame, portal frames spacing column (UC) sections and light-gauge steel is
(distance between the frames), overhead crane used for cladding. A distributed load
including a gravity load of the purlins and
capacity and material properties. This study
cladding, a live load together with a snow load
focus of the effect of above mentioned
parameters in single and double bay portal equaling 2 KPa is assumed on the roof. The
frames for light and medium overhead cranes load is as per AS1418, Cranes, hoist
capacity cranes ranging from 5 to 60 ton. The and winches. The effect of lateral forces such
steel materials considered herein, are 250 and as wind and seismic has been ignored. The

2
Research, Development, and Practice in Structural Engineering and Construction
Vimonsatit, V., Singh, A., Yazdani, S. (eds.)
ASEA-SEC-1, Perth, November 28Decmber 2, 2012

summary of geometric parameters considered 5.1 Effect of portal frame spacing:


in this study is shown in table 1.
As shown in table 1, the portal frame spacings
Table 1. Geometric Parameters of Portal Frame of 5,6,7,8,9,10 and 12m are considered for
Crane Capacity Span frame spacing crane ranging from 5 to 60 ton for a 20m span
tonne (m) (m) portal frame. Single span, Span=20m
120
5 10 5
20 15 6 110 5t
40 20 7 20t

Weight per unit area(kg/m )


2
40t
60 25 8 100
60t
30 9
90
35 10
12 80

4 Structural modeling and design 70

The internal forces and deflections are 60


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Double
Portal span, Span=20m
calculated under the applicable gravity loads Frame Spacing (m) (2-a)
(crane, dead, live and snow) by using the 100
elastic first-order static analysis, utilizing 5t
20t
Strand7, finite element analysis software. To
Weight per unit area(kg/m )

90 40t
2

60t
achieve a cost-effective design, the nominal
bending moment and axial force are 80

considered as close as possible to the section 70


capacity of the member. Based on the
extracted actions and deflections, structural 60

members have been designed manually in


accordance with AS4100-1998 Steel 50
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Structures. Portal span,


Single Frame Spacing
Span=30m(m) (2-b)
120

5 Results and Discussion:


110 5t
20t
There are numerous possible cases of the span
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

40t
width and the spacing between the portal 100
60t

frames, for a given crane capacity. To


achieve optimum values of these parameters, 90

some simplification is required: after


extracting the optimum value of a given 80

parameter and assuming it as a constant, the


70
effect of other parameters are investigated and 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

their optimum values are obtained. Finally the Portal Frame Spacing (m) (2-c)
results based on the defined parameters are Figure 2- Optimal Frame Spacing Span (a) a 20m
presented in terms of weight of the steelworks single-bay (b) a 20m double-bay portal frame (c)
per unit area of the building. 30m span single-bay.

3
Design optimization of Portal Frames with Overhead Cranes
M. Shokouhian, R. Sadeghi

As shown in figures 2a and 2b, in most cases, ton crane in double-bay portal frame. As
7m spacing between portal frames is the most shown, the optimal span increases when a
economical spacing for a given overhead higher crane capacity is used.
crane. Horridge and Morris (1986) in their
paper concluded that, 7.5m is the most 5.3 Comparison between spacing in single
economical spacing for a portal frame and doublebay portal frames
spanning over 20m. To be sure about the
results, a 30m span portal frame is also A relative weight comparison between a
considered and results as shown in figure 2.C double and single-bay portal frame with
indicate that 7m is the optimal portal spacing. several various spacings between the
The optimal spacing is more evident for
frames are shown for different crane
higher capacity cranes or wider span.
capacities in figures 4a to 4d. Generally,
5.2 Effect of span of a portal frame the weight difference between double and
Span=20m, 5t Crane
Based on the results presented in section 5.1, 75

and taking the spacing of the frames 7m, as a 70


constant, the optimum span of single and
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

double-bay portal frames are investigated and 65

results are shown in span,


Single figure 3.a and 3.b.
L=7m
60

120 5t
20t 55
Single-bay
110
40t
Double-bay
60t
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

50
100
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Portal Frame spacings (4-a)


90
85
Span=20m, 20t Crane

80

80
70
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

75
60
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Double Span(m)
span, L=7m (3-a) 70

110 5t
20t 65
40t Single-bay
100
Double-bay
60t
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

90 60
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

80
Portal frame spacing (4-b)
Span=20m, 40t Crane
100
70

95
60
Weight per unit area(kg/m )
2

90
50

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 85

Span(m) (3-b)
80
Figure 3- Optimum span for portal frame (a) single-
bay (b) double-bay portal frame. 75
Single-bay
Double-bay

For example, a 25m span is the optimum span 70


4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

for 60 ton crane in both single and double-bay Portal frame spacing (m) (4-c)
portal frame and 15m is the optimal span for 5

4
Research, Development, and Practice in Structural Engineering and Construction
Vimonsatit, V., Singh, A., Yazdani, S. (eds.)
ASEA-SEC-1, Perth, November 28Decmber 2, 2012

Span=20m, 60t Crane Portal frame spacing 7m - 20t Crane


120 90

115
85

110

Weight per unit area(kg/m )


Weight per uni area(kg/m )

2
2

80
105

100 75

95
70

90

Single-bay 65 Single-Bay
85 Double-bay Double-Bay

80 60
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Portal frame spacing (m) (4-d) Span (m) (5-b)


Portal frame spacing 7m - 40t Crane
Figure 4- Effect of span of a portal frame in single 105

and double-bay portal frames 100

single bay portal frames reduces when the

Weight per unit area (kg/m )


2
95

spacing changes relative to the optimum 90


portal spacing. This means using a double-
85
bay portal frame over a single-bay portal
frame is the most justifiable at the optimum 80

portal spacing where the largest weight 75 Single-bay


Double-bay
difference is evident. 70
10 15 20 25 30 35

5.4 Comparison between spans of a portal Span (m) (5-c)


Portal frame Spacing 7m - 60t Crane
frame in single and double bay portal frames
120 Single-Bay
Similar to section 4.3, a relative weight per Double-Bay
Weight per unit area (kg/m )

unit area difference between single and


2

110

double-bay configuration are shown in figures


100
5a to 5d. Generally, the weight difference
between double and single bay portal frames 90

reduces when the span increases relative to the


optimum portal span. This means using a 80

double-bay portal frame over a single-bay 10 15 20 25 30 35

portal frame is the most justifiable at the Span (m) (5-d)


optimum span where the largest weight Figure 5 - Effect of span of portal frames for
difference is evident. different crane capacity
Portal frame spacing 7m - 5t Crane
85

80
5.5 Effect of material
Weight per unit area (kg/m )
2

75

70
A steel material with yield strength
65 ranging between 250 and 350 MPa are
60 considered in this study. This is the range
55 Single-bay of the steel that most steelworks are done.
Double-bay
50 Figure 6 and 7 show the effect on
10 15 20 25 30 35

Span (m) (5-a) optimized weight of a portal frame. As it

5
Design optimization of Portal Frames with Overhead Cranes
M. Shokouhian, R. Sadeghi

is evident, using different steel grades, the 4- The weight difference between double
extremums in either of the diagrams and single-bay portal frames reduces
follow a similar pattern. It is when either the span or portal spacing
changes relative to their optimum values.
recommended to use higher steel grades
This means using a double-bay portal
for higher crane capacities. frame over a single-bay portal frame is
Portal frame spacing 7m - 20t Crane the most justifiable at the optimum span
90
where the largest weight difference is
85
evident.
Weight per unit area (kg/m )
2

80
References
75
Journal Papers
70 Feng L., Bing G., Changbing C., Gang D.
Economical Dimensions and Optimum Initial
Fy=250 MPa
65
Fy=350 MPa Design of Portal Frame, Steel construction
(Chinese) Journal 2003(1). Vol 18, No.63
10 15 20 25 30 35

Span(m) Kamal OA, El-Mahdy OO, El-Komy GA.


Figure 6- Effect of steel grades for different span Optimum design of one-bay portal steel frames.
20t crane J Eng Appl Sci 2003:72341.
Portal frame spacing 7m - 60t Crane Kravanja. S , Zula.T, Cost optimization of
industrial steel building structures Advances in
120 Fy=250 MPa
Fy=350 MPa Engineering Software Management, Elsevier,
41 (2010) 442450, April , 2009.
Weight per unit area (kg/m )

110
2

Gurlement G, Targowski R, Gutkowski W,


100 Zawidzka J, Zawidzki J., Discrete minimum
weight design of steel structures using EC3
90
code. Struct Multidisc Optim 2001;22:3227
80
Books
70
Woolcock S., Kitipornchai S., Bradford. M. A.,
10 15 20

Span(m)
25 30 35
G.A. Haddad, Design of Portal Frame
Buildings Including Crane Runway Beams and
Figure 7- Effect of steel grades for different span
Monorails, 4th ed., Australian Steel Institute
60t crane
Sydney Australia 2011.
4 Results: King C.M, Design of Steel portal frames for
This study focuses on the optimum geometric Europe, The Steel Construction Institute,
and material properties of an industrial portal Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire, SL5 7QN
AS4100-1998 Steel structures, STANDARDS
frame with light to medium overhead crane.
AUSTRALIA, ISBN 0 7337 1981 3
These results to be presented are as follow: AS1418 Cranes, hoists and winches,
1- In most cases, 7m is the optimal spacing STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
between the portal frames for single and
double bay portal frames. Proceeding Papers
2- Optimum span of a portal frame increases HORRIDGE, J.F. and MORRIS, L.J. Single Story
when a higher crane capacity is used. Building Cost Considerations, Pacific Structural
3- It is recommended to use higher steel Steel Conference, New Zealand Heavy
Engineering Research Associations Aug 265-
grades for structural members when
285,1986
higher crane capacities are utilized.