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KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kami panjatkan ke hadirat Allah SWT, atas limpahan rahmat dan
hidayahnya sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan laporan Praktikum Uji Bahan dan
Proses Produksi.
Dalam kesempatan ini kami mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Yth :
1 Bapak Hari Arbiantara Basuki, S.T., M.T. selaku Ketua Jurusan Teknik Mesin
2 Bapak Ir. Dwi Djumhariyanto, M.T. selaku Ketua Laboratorium Bengkel Kerja
Logam serta Laboratorium Kerja Bangku dan Pelat
3 Bapak Imam Sholahuddin, S.T., M.T. selaku Ketua Laboratorium Pengelasan
4 Dedi Dwi Laksana, S.T., M.T. selaku Ketua Laboratorium Desain sekaligus
Dosen Pengampu
5 Yogi Burhanudin selaku Asisten Praktikum Permesina dan Praktikum Kerja
Bangku dan Plat
6 Muhamad Angga Putra selaku Asisten Praktikum Pengelasan
7 Muhamad Ihsan Prakoso selaku Asisten Praktikum Uji Bahan
8 Orang tua kami yang telah membantu baik moril maupun materi
9 Rekan-rekan kami yang telah membantu dalam penyusunan laporan ini

Kami menyadari bahwa dalam penyusunan laporan ini jauh dari sempurna.
Oleh karena itu kami mengharapkan kritik dan saran yang sifatnya membangun,
khususnya dari guru mata pelajaran guna menjadi acuan dalam bekal pengalaman
bagi kami untuk lebih baik di masa yang akan datang.

Jember, Mei 2017

Penulis

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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL... i
HALAMAN PENGESAHAN. ii
KATA PENGANTAR iii
DAFTAR ISI... iv
DAFTAR GAMBAR.. viii
DAFTAR TABEL x
DAFTAR GRAFIK.xi

MODUL PRAKTIKUM UJI BAHAN


LEMBAR PENGESAHAN
MODUL 1 UJI TARIK
BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang..................................................................................1
1.2 Rumusan masalah.............................................................................2
1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat..........................................................................2
1.3.1 Tujuan.............................................................................................2
1.3.2 Manfaat...........................................................................................2
BAB 2. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Dasar Pengujian Logam..................................................................3
2.2 Kurva Tegangan-Regangan.............................................................6
2.3 Sifat Sifat Material........................................................................9
2.3.1 Sifat Fisik.......................................................................................9
2.3.2 Sifat Mekanis..................................................................................9
2.4 Duktilitas (Ductility)..........................................................................11
2.5 Hal yang Memperngaruhi Hasil Uji Tarik......................................13
2.6 Regangan Normal..............................................................................14
2.7 Tegangan Sejati pada Beban Maksum.............................................15
2.8 Tegangan Perpatahan Sejati.............................................................16
2.9 Regangan Perpatahan Sejati............................................................16
2.10 Bahan Liat (Ductile) dan Bahan Rapuh (Brittle)..........................17

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2.11 Modulud Elastisitas.........................................................................17
2.12 Diagram Fasa...................................................................................18
2.13 Perlakuan Panas..............................................................................19
2.13.1 Penormalan (Normalizing............................................................19
2.13.2 Pelunakan (Annealing..................................................................20
2.13.3 Hardening.....................................................................................20
2.13.4 Temper (Tempering).....................................................................21
2.14 Alat Uji Tarik...................................................................................21
BAB 3. METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM
3.1 Alat dan Bahan .................................................................................23
3.1 Alat....................................................................................................23
3.2 Bahan.................................................................................................23
3.2 Prosedur Pengujian..........................................................................23
3.3 Tugas Setelah Praktikum..................................................................23
BAB 4. PEMBAHASAN
4.1 Data Percobaan.................................................................................25
4.2 Perhitungan.......................................................................................27
4.2.1 Perhitungan Luas............................................................................27
4.2.2 Perhitungan Tegangan....................................................................28
4.2.3 Perhitungan Regangan....................................................................30
4.2.4 Perhitungan Tegangan Sebenarnya.................................................32
4.2.5 Perhitungan Regangan Sebenarnya................................................34
4.2.6 Perhitungan Panjang Akhir.............................................................35
4.3 Jawaban Tugas Setelah Praktikum.................................................37
BAB 5. PENUTUP
5.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................38
5.2 Saran..................................................................................................38

MODUL 2 UJI KEKERASAN


BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang..................................................................................39
1.2 Rumusan masalah.............................................................................39
1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat..........................................................................39

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1.3.1 Tujuan.............................................................................................39
1.3.2 Manfaat...........................................................................................40
BAB 2. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Kekerasan..........................................................................................41
2.2 Faktor Kekerasan.............................................................................53
2.2.1 Pengaruh Kadar Karbon.................................................................53
2.2.2 Unsur Paduan.................................................................................53
2.3 Diagram keseimbangan Fe-Fe2C....................................................54
2.4 Perlakuan Panas................................................................................55
2.4.1 Hardening.......................................................................................55
2.4.2 Annealing.......................................................................................55
2.4.3 Nomalizing.....................................................................................55
2.4.4 Tempering.......................................................................................55
2.5 Macam Macam Alat Uji Kekerasan..............................................56
2.5.1 Alat Uji Kekerasan MH310............................................................56
2.5.2 Spesifikasi Alat Uji Kekerasan MH310.........................................56
2.5.3 Keuntungan....................................................................................56
2.5.4 Aplikasi Utama...............................................................................57
2.5.5 Kondisi Pengoperasian...................................................................58
2.5.6 Spesifikasi Utama...........................................................................58
BAB 3. METODOLOGI
3.1 Alat dan Bahan..................................................................................61
3.1.1 Alat.................................................................................................61
3.1.2 Bahan..............................................................................................61
3.2 Prosedur Pengujian..........................................................................61
3.3 Tugas Setelah Praktikum..................................................................62
BAB 4. PEMBAHASAN
4.1 Data Percobaan.................................................................................63
4.2 Perhitungan........................................................................................63
4.2.1 Perhitungan Beban.........................................................................64
4.2.2 Perhitungan Rata-Rata Beban........................................................69
4.2.3 Rata-Rata Diameter Alat................................................................70

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4.2.4 Rata-Rata Diameter Penitik............................................................70
4.2.5 Rata-Rata BHN..............................................................................71
4.3 Jawaban Tugas Setelah Praktikum.................................................71
BAB 5. PENUTUP
5.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................73
5.2 Saran..................................................................................................73

MODUL 3 UJI IMPACT


BAB 1. PENDAHULUAN
1.1 Latar Belakang..................................................................................74
1.2 Rumusan masalah.............................................................................74
1.3 Tujuan dan Manfaat..........................................................................75
1.3.1 Tujuan.............................................................................................75
1.3.2 Manfaat...........................................................................................75
BAB 2. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
2.1 Uji Impact.........................................................................................77
2.2 Standar Spesimen Uji Impact..........................................................80
2.3 Metode Charphy dan Izod................................................................82
2.3.1 Metode Charphy (USA).................................................................82
2.3.2 Metode Izod (Inggris).....................................................................83
2.4 Cara Pemukulan dengan Mesin Charphy.......................................85
2.5 Macam-Macam Takik.......................................................................86
2.6 Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Bentuk Patahan...................87
2.7 Kurva Suhu Peralihan.......................................................................88
2.8 Perpatahan Impact............................................................................91
2.9 Mesin Uji Impact...............................................................................93
2.9.1 Dasar Pengujian Mesin dan Perhitungan.......................................94
2.9.2 Spesifikasi Mesin Uji Carphy........................................................96
BAB 3. METODOLOGI
3.1 Alat dan Bahan..................................................................................97
3.1.1 Alat.................................................................................................97
3.1.2 Bahan..............................................................................................97

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3.2 Langkah Kerja..................................................................................97
3.2.1 Persiapan Spesimen........................................................................97
3.2.2 Proses Pengerjaan...........................................................................97
3.3 Tugas Setelah Praktikum..................................................................98
BAB 4. PEMBAHASAN
4.1 Data Percobaan.................................................................................99
4.2 Perhitungan......................................................................................99
4.2.1 Perhitungan Tanpa Spesimen.........................................................100
4.2.2 Perhitungan Spesimen Non-Quenching.........................................101
4.2.3 Perhitungan Spesimen Quenching.................................................103
4.3 Tugas Sesudah Praktikum...............................................................104
BAB 5. PENUTUP
5.1 Kesimpulan........................................................................................106
5.2 Saran..................................................................................................106
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LEMBAR ASISTENSI

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

MODUL 1 UJI TARIK

Gambar 2.1 Mesin Uji Tarik dan Spesimen...............................................................3

Gambar 2.2 Dimensi Spesimen Uji Tarik..................................................................4

Gambar 2.3 Benda Kerja Bertambah Panjang Akibat Beban P.................................6

Gambar 2.4 Kurva Tegangan Regangan Untuk Baja..............................................7

Gambar 2.5 Kurva Tegangan Regangan Berbagai Bahan.......................................8

Gambar 2.6 Kurva Tensile Force Engineering Strain.............................................12

Gambar 2.7 Parameter Kurva Tegangan - Regangan.................................................12

Gambar 2.8 Spesimen Pengujian Tarik dan Ukuran..................................................14

Gambar 2.9 Daerah Patahan pada Pengujian Tarik....................................................17

Gambar 2.10 Diagram Fasa Kelarutan Sempurna......................................................18

Gambar 2.11 Diagram Fasa yang Tidak Melarutkan.................................................19

Gambar 2.12 Alat Uji Tarik........................................................................................22

Gambar 4.1 Ploting Tegangan Material Non-Quenched............................................26

Gambar 4.2 Ploting Tegangan Material Quenched....................................................26

MODUL 2 KEKERASAN

Gambar 2.1 Prinsip Identasi dengan Metoda Brinell.................................................46

Gambar 2.2 Parameter Dasar Pengujian Brinell........................................................46

Gambar 2.3 Skematis Pengujian Metode Vickers......................................................48

Gambar 2.4 Panel Alat Uji Kekerasan.......................................................................60

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MODUL 3 UJI IMPACT

Gambar 2.1 Spesimen Metode Charpy......................................................................78

Gambar 2.2 Skematik Pengujian Impact dengan Mesin Charpy...............................79

Gambar 2.3 Ukuran Beberapa Jenis Spesimen Uji Impact Metode Charpy..............81

Gambar 2.4 Standar Spesimen Metode Izod Tipe D..................................................81

Gambar 2.5 Uji Impact Metode Izod dan Ukurannya................................................82

Gambar 2.6 (A) Charpy Takikan bentuk V (B) Charpy Takikan Bentuk U (C) Charpy
Takikan dengan Bentuk Lubang Pengunci.................................................................86

Gambar 2.7 Kurva Suhu Perlihan untuk Dua Logam................................................88

Gambar 2.8 Mesin Uji Impact Charpy.......................................................................93

Gambar 2.9 Mesin Uji Charpy Kapasitas 85 Joule....................................................96

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DAFTAR TABEL

MODUL 1 UJI TARIK

Tabel 4.1 Data Pengujian Tarik..................................................................................25

MODUL 2 KEKERASAN

Tabel 2.1 Logam Ferro dan Pemakaiannya................................................................42

Tabel 2.2 Mohs Scale Hardness.................................................................................44

Tabel 2.3 Skala Kekerasan Metode Rockwell............................................................50

Tabel 2.4 Skala dan Pemakaian..................................................................................51

Tabel 2.5 Impact Device and Hardness Value............................................................59

Tabel 2.6 Standar Configuration................................................................................60

Tabel 4.1 Data Uji Kekerasan....................................................................................63

MODUL 3 UJI IMPACT

Tabel 4.1 Data Percobaan Uji Impact.........................................................................99

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA

http://aldalhar.blogspot.co.id/2014/11/pengujian-dan-pemeriksaan-
material.html
http://ekakurniawanput.blogspot.co.id/p/uji-tarik.html
http://pakdheekris.blogspot.co.id/2011/01/v-behaviorurldefaultvmlo.html
http://materialteknikafcoo19.blogspot.co.id/
http://www.alatuji.com/article/detail/3/what-is-hardness-test-uji-kekerasan-