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DartmouthCollege

IllustrativeChemistryPlacementtestquestionsandtheirsolutions

Asthefollowingexamplesillustrate,theChemistryPlacementtestis,inthemain,notamultiplechoice
examination,butrather,itconsistsofacollectionofshortproblemsthatprovidethestudentanopportunityto
displayherorhisproblemsolvingabilities.Onsuchquestions,majorpartialcreditisawardedforthe
developmentofanapproachthatwillleadtoasuccessfulanswer.So,makesurethatyouranswershows
clearlytheapproachyouareusingtosolvetheproblem.

Thesolutionstothesequestionsareprovided,notonlyforyoutocheckyouranswers,butalsotoindicatethe
depthofanswerthatisexpected.Youshouldnotbesurprisedtofindthatthedepthofunderstanding
expectedinyouranswerstothesequestionssometimesgoesbeyondthatexpectedinhighschool.

TobeawardedcreditforChemistry5,astudentmustscoreatleast65%ontheChemistryPlacementtest.

Youwillbeprovidedwithaninformationsheetsimilartotheoneincludedbelow.

Informationsheet

R=8.314Jmol1K1=0.0821Latmmol1K1

NA=6.0221023mol1 k=R/NA=1.381023JK1

g=9.8066ms2 F=96,485C(molelectrons)1

1atm=760torr=760mmHg T(K)=T(C)+273 1Latm=101.3J

1J=1kgm2s2=1VC 1A=1Cs1 1m3=1000L

C c D d
Forthegeneralreaction:aA+bB cC+dD K=
A a B b

IftheinitialamountsofA,B,C,andDarenAo ,nBo ,nCo ,andnDo ,then

nAo nA nBo nB nCnCo nDnDo


= = = =
a b c d
H3 O+ A
ForthereactionofacidHA: HA+H2O A+H3O+Ka=
HA

pH=log10[H3O+] Kw=[H3O+][OH]=1.001014

A
pH=pKa+log10 pKa=log10Ka
HA

Forthequadraticequationax2+bx+c=0,thesolutionsare:
2


b b 2 4ac
x=
2a
o
Pi =Xi Pi (Raoult'sLaw) PV=nRT E=(3/2)nRT

CpCv=R Idealmonatomicgas:Cv=(3/2)nR; Cp=(5/2)nR

E=q+w H=E+PV G=HTS qp=H


qv=E qx=CxT(x=PorV) w= PdV


w=nRTln(V2/V1) S=nRln(V2/V1) dS=(dqrev/T)

dS=CxdlnT(x=PorV) G=Go+RTlnQ(Q=reactionquotient)

ln K2 =H 1 1
o
Go=RTlnK Q=It
K1 R T2 T1

E=E o RT log10 Q
nF
3

ThermodynamicDataat298K
o
Substance Hf (kJmol1 ) So (JK1 mol1 )

H(g) 217.96 114.60


H2(g) 0.0 130.57
H+(aq) 0.0 0.0
H3O+(aq) 285.83 69.61
C(s,graphite) 0.0 5.74
C(s,diamond) 1.895 2.377
C(g) 716.682 157.99
CH4(g) 74.81 186.15
C2H2(g) 226.73 200.83
C2H4(g) 52.26 219.45
C2H6(g) 84.68 229.49
C6H6(g) 82.93 269.2
C6H6(l) 49.03 172.8
CO(g) 110.52 197.56
CO2(g) 393.51 213.63
CO2(aq) 413.80 117.6
CH3OH(l) 238.66 126.8
CH3OH(g) 200.66 239.70
CH3OH(aq) 245.93 133.1
N2(g) 0.0 191.50
N(g) 472.70 153.19
NH3(g) 46.11 192.34
NH3(aq) 80.29 111.3
N2H4(l) 50.63 121.21
N2H4(aq) 34.31 138
O2(g) 0.0 205.03
O(g) 249.17 160.95
OH(aq) 229.99 10.75
H2O(l) 285.83 69.91
H2O(g) 241.82 188.72
H2O2(l) 187.78 109.6
H2O2(aq) 191.17 143.9

StandardElectrodePotentialsat298Kand1atm
(Allspeciesareinaqueoussolutionunlessotherwiseindicated)

Halfreaction Eo(volts)
4

Cu++eCu(s) 0.522
Cu2++2eCu(s) 0.340
Cu2++eCu+ 0.158
2H++2eH2(g) 0.000
Zn2++2eZn(s) 0.763
5

Question1
Afirstyearchemistrystudentlearnshowaspirinissynthesizedanddecidestotryoutthe
synthesisinherbasementlaboratory.Sheobtains6.22gofsalicylicacidandanexcessofacetic
acidandrunsthefollowingreaction

HOC6H4COOH+CH3COOH CH3COOC6H4COOH+H2O
salicylicacid aceticacid aspirin

(a) Themolecularweightofaspirinis180.16gmol1.Calculatethemaximummassofaspirin
thestudentcouldsynthesize.

(b) Thestudentcollectedandpurifiedheraspirinproductandwantedtocalculatetheyieldof
thereaction.Unfortunatelyherbalancewasbroken,butherpHmeterwasinworking
condition.Shedissolvedallherproductin1.00Lofwaterandfoundthatthesolution
hadapH=3.19.Calculateheryield,expressedasapercentageofhermaximumyield
frompart(a).Youwillalsoneedtoknowthataspirin'sKa=2.75105.

Question2
Methanol(CH3OH)canbemadebypassingCOandH2athightemperatureoveracatalyst
accordingto
CO(g)+2H2(g) CH3OH(g).

If1.00molofCO(g)and2.00molofH2(g)areintroducedoverthecatalystat500Kandata
constantpressureof1.00atm,calculatetheequilibriumnumberofmolesofCH3OH(g)thatwill
beformed.At500K,KP=6.23103forthisreaction.Tosimplifyyouralgebra,notethatthe
smallvalueofKPindicatesthatatequilibrium,onlyasmallfractionofthereactionmixturewill
bemethanol.

Question3
4.52gofsilversulfate,Ag2SO4,isdissolvedinwater.Hydrogensulfidegas(H2S)isbubbled
throughthesolution,whichcausesinsolublesilversulfideAg2S(s)toprecipitatefromsolution
accordingtothenetreaction

2Ag+(aq)+H2S(g)Ag2S(s)+2H+(aq).

TheAg2Sisgathered,driedandweighed.Thesolutionleftbehindisnowboiledtoremovethe
lasttracesofdissolved,excessH2S.Next,anexcessofasolutionofbariumnitrate,Ba(NO3)2,is
addedtothesolution.Awhitesolidprecipitates,whichsubsequentanalysisprovestobea
compoundcontaining58.84%Ba,13.74%S,and27.42%Obymass.

(a) Showthattheanalysisdataonthesecondsolidareconsistentwiththemolecularformula
BaSO4.
6

(b) Whataretheionsleftinsolutiononcethetwoprecipitatedsolidshavebeenremoved?

Question4
CalculatetheconcentrationsofH2PO4andHPO42neededtoprepareapH=7.40buffer
solutionthathasatotalphosphateconcentration([H2PO4]+[HPO42])of0.100M.(H2PO4
hasapKa=7.18).

Question5
Thecombustionofeitherhydrazine(N2H4(l))orammonia(NH3(g))resultsintheformationof
N2(g)andH2O(l)understandardconditions.Calculatethestandardenthalpyofcombustion
(Hocombust)foreachcompound,andusethesenumberstodeterminewhichcompoundwould
makeabetterrocketfuelpermoleofcompound.

Question6
Yourcompanymakespolyethyleneproductsandyouareinvestigatingaplantouseexcess
ethylenegas(C2H4(g))tomakebenzene(C6H6(l))accordingtothereaction

3C2H4(g) C6H6(l)+3H2(g).

Thebenzenecouldbesold,andhydrogengas,H2(g),couldbeusedtoprovidepowerattheplant.

Calculateavalueoftheequilibriumconstantforthisreactionat1000C.

Question7
Ifatmosphericpressureisequalto1.000atmitcansupportacolumnofHgwhichis760.0mm
tall.SupposeacolumnofHgissetupwherethebathisopentotheatmosphere,andthecolumn
heightofHgis760.0mmwiththetopoftheenclosedcolumnbeingavacuum.Next,suppose
somediethylether(avolatileliquid)isinjectedintothetopofthevacuumabovetheHgcolumn
suchthatthesaturationvaporpressureofdiethyletherisachieved.Now,insteadofavacuumat
thetopofthecolumn,thereisthediethylethervapor,thenalayerofdiethyletherliquid,andthen
theHgcolumn.At25.00Cthevaporpressureofdiethylether(C4H10O)is442mmHg.

(a) At25.00C,whatwouldbethenewcolumnheightofHgpresent?

(b) Supposethat10.00103molesofdiethyletherhadbeeninjectedinpart(a),and
that3.000103molesofdecane(aliquid)aretheninjectedtothetopofthecolumn.

(i)Assumingthatthenumberofmolesinthevaporphaseissmallcomparedtothatin
theliquidphase,calculatethemolefractioncompositionoftheliquidsolutionabove
theHgcolumnat25.00C.
7

(ii)Thevaporpressureofdecane(C10H22)at25.00Cis1.800mmHg.Calculatethe
compositionofthevaporinequilibriumwiththesolutionofpart(i).Youmay
assumethatbothcomponentsobeyRaoult'sLaw.

(iii)CalculatethetotalvaporpressureabovetheHgcolumn.

(iv)Inlightofyouranswertopart(iii)whatwouldthenewheightoftheHgcolumnbe?

Question8
Onemoleofanideal,monatomicgasisputthroughthefollowingreversibleprocesses.Ineach
casetheinitialstateofthegasisatatemperatureof298Kandapressureof1atm.

(a)Foreachofthefollowingthreeprocesses,determineq,w,E,HandS.

(i)coolingto248Katconstantvolume

(ii)isothermal(constantT)compressionto50.0atm

(iii)heatingatconstantpressureto323K.

(b)ForwhichoftheprocessescouldoneuseG=HTS?Stateyourreasoning.

Question9
Azinccopperbatteryisconstructedasfollows:

Zn|Zn2+(0.10M)||Cu2+(2.50M)|Cu.

Thetemperatureisheldconstantat298Kand,initially,themassofeachofthetwometal
electrodesis200g.

(i) Whatisthecellpotentialwhenthebatteryisfirstconnected?

(ii) Calculatethecellpotentialafter10.0Aofcurrenthasflowedfor10.0hours?
(Assumethateachhalfcellcontains1.00Lofsolution).

(iii) Calculatethemassofthemetalatthecathodeafter10.0hours.

(iv) Ifthemassoftheanodeisthelimitingfactor,howlongcanthisbatterydelivera
currentof10.0Abeforeitgoesdead?
8

Question10
Considerasolutionwhichhasconcentrationsof[Pb2+]=0.01Mand[Ag+]=0.01M.Suppose
thatasodiumchloridesolutionisslowlydrippedintothismixture.
Ksp(PbCl2)=1.6106andKsp(AgCl)=1.81010.

(i) Writeoutexpressionsforeachofthetwoequilibriumconstantsgivenabove.

(ii) Whichsaltprecipitatesfirst,andwhatistheminimumchlorideionconcentration
requiredforthistohappen?

(iii) Whatistheconcentrationleftinsolutionofthecationofthesaltinpart(ii)whenthe
chloridesaltofthesecondcationbeginstoprecipitate?

(iv) Supposethatjustenoughchloridehasbeenaddedsothateverythinghas
equilibrated.Next,afewmLsofaratherconcentratedsolutionofHg+areaddedto
thesolution.GiventhatKsp(Hg2Cl2)isapproximately11018,wouldyou
expectthenumberofgramsofAgCl(s)to(checkone)

(a)________increase (b)________decrease (c)______staythesame?

Explainyourreasoning.
9

SolutionstoSampleQuestions

Question1
(a) Becauseaceticacidispresentinexcess,themaximumnumberofmolesofaspirinthat
canbeproducedislimitedbythenumberofmolesofsalicylicacid.
Thenumberofmolesofsalicylicacid=(6.22g)/(138.12gmol1)=0.045mol.

Thus,fromthestoichiometryofthereaction,themaximumnumberofmolesofaspirinthat
canbeproduced=0.045.
Maximummassofaspirinthatcanbeproduced=(0.045mol)(180.16gmol1)=8.11g

(b) IfwedenoteaspirinastheacidHA,thenthereactionwithwateris:

HA+H2O A+H3O+

Thatis,inaqueoussolutionsomeHAwilldissociatetoA.

Theequilibriumconstant,Ka,forthisaciddissociationisgivenby:

H3 O+ A
Ka= =2.75105
HA

So,ifwecandetermine[A]=[H3O+],wecanobtaintheamountofHAthatwas
dissolvedin1.00Lofwater.
FromthepHofthesolution,[H3O+]=103.19=6.46104M.
LetCo=theinitialconcentrationofaspirin(HA)i.e.theconcentrationofHAbefore
anydissociationtoAhastakenplace.
Then,atequilibrium[H3O+]=[A]=6.46104M(thesewereproducedfromHA),
and[HA]=Co[A]=Co6.46104M.

2
6.45104 M
Thus, =2.75105
Co 6.45104 M

SolvingforCo,weobtainCo=0.0158M.Thus,in1.00Lofwaterthereare0.0158
molesofaspirin.
Massofaspirinin1.00Lofwater=(0.0158mol)(180.16gmol1)=2.88g.

Thus,thepercentageyieldis 2.88 100%=35.5% .


8.11
10

Question2
LetPtotbethetotalgaspressure,andPCH3OH,PCO,andPH2bethepartialpressuresofCH3OH,
CO,andH2,respectively.Then,at500K

PCH3OH
KP= =6.23103
2
PCOPH2

ThepartialpressurePi=XiPtot,whereXi(=ni/ntot)isthemolefractionofspeciesi.Hereniis
thenumberofmolesofspeciesiandntotisthetotalnumberofmoles.TheexpressionforKpcan
thenbewrittenintheequivalentforms:

2
XCH3OH nCH3OHntot
KP= = =6.23103 .
2 2 2
XCOXH2Ptot nCOnH22Ptot

Wecandefinetheextentofreaction,,inanyofthefollowingequivalentways:

o nHo2 nH2 o
= nCOnCO = = nCH3 OHnCH3 OH

2
o
withnCH3 OH
o
=0,nCO=1.00mol,nHo2 =2.00mol.

Thus,nCO=1.00,nH2 =2.002,nCH3 OH=,andntot=3.002.Usingthese


expressionsinKPgives:

2
3.002 9
KP=6.23103 = sinceissmall.
2 4
1.00 2.002

4K
SolvingforyieldsnCH3 OH= P =2.77103 mol=2.77mmol.
9

Question3
(a)1moleofBaSO4hasamassof(1mol)(233.3876gmol1)=233.4g.Thismasshas1molof
Ba(withmass137.3g),1molofS(withmass32.06g)and4molofO(withmass
416.00g=64.00g).Thus,themassfractionsare:

137.33g
ForBa: =0.5884=58.84%Ba
233.4g

32.06g
ForS: =0.1374=13.74%S
233.4g

64.00g
ForO: =0.2742=27.42%O
233.4g
11

asexpected.

(b)TheH2SreplacesAg+withH+;theBa(NO3)2replacesSO42withNO3;andsincethe
bariumnitratewasaddedinexcess,therewillalsobeBa2+insolution.

Question4
ThedissociationofH2PO4inwaterisdescribedbytheequation:

H2PO4+H2O HPO42+H3O+

Theequilibriumconstantforthisreactionisgivenby:

2
HPO4 H3 O+
Ka=

H2 PO4

Takinglog10ofbothsidesweobtain:

2
HPO4
log10 Ka=log10 H3 O+ +log10

H2 PO4

NotingthatpKa=log10KaandpH=log10[H3O+],thismayberewrittenas:

2 2
HPO4 HPO4
pH=pKa+log10
i.e.7.40=7.18+lo g10

H2 PO4 H2 PO4

Let[HPO42]=xM;then[H2PO4]=(0.100x)M.Thus,

0.22=log10 x x =100.22 =1.66


0.100x or 0.100x

Solvingforxyields, x=[HPO42]=0.0624M

and [H2PO4]=(0.1000.0624)M=0.0376M.
12

Question5
Thefirststepistowriteabalancedstoichiometricequationforeachreaction.

N2H4(l)+O2(g)N2(g)+2H2O(l)

Notethatthebalancedreactioninvolvesonemoleofhydrazine.

Forthisreactionthestandardenthalpyofcombustionisgivenby:

Hocombust=2Hfo (H2O(l))Hfo (N2H4(l))

=2mol(285.83kJmol1)1mol(50.63kJmol1)=622.3kJ

Thus,thestandardenthalpyofcombustionpermoleofhydrazineis622.3kJ.

2NH3(g)+(3/2)O2(g)N2(g)+3H2O(l)

Notethatthisbalancedreactioninvolvestwomolesofammonia.

Hocombust=3Hfo (H2O(l))2Hfo (NH3(g))

=3mol(285.83kJmol1)2mol(46.11kJmol1)=765.3kJ

Thus,thestandardenthalpyofcombustionpermoleofammoniais382.6kJ.

Therefore,hydrazineisabetterrocketfuel,sincethereismoreheatreleasedpermole.

Question6
o
TheapproachhereistousetherelationK=eGreaxn/RTandthethermodynamicdataprovided
withtheexaminationtocalculateanumericalvaluefortheequilibriumconstantK.Thisrequires
thatwedetermineGoreaxn =Horeaxn TSoreaxn .Fromthethermodynamicdataprovided,we
cancalculateHoreaxn andSoreaxn .

Horeaxn =nC6H6Hof (C6 H6 (l))nC2H4Hof (C2 H4 (g))

=1mol(49.03kJmol1)3mol(52.26kJmol1)=107.75kJ

Soreaxn =nH2So (H2 (g))+nC6H6So (C6 H6 (l))nC2H4So (C2 H4 (g))

=3mol(130.57Jmol1K1)+1mol(172.8Jmol1K1)3mol(219.45Jmol1K1)

=93.84JK1
Thus,at1000C,
13

Goreaxn =Horeaxn TSoreaxn =107.7501273K(93.84J K1 )=11,700J

UsingGoreaxn intheexpressionfortheequilibriumconstantKyields

o
K1273 =eGreaxn/RT=e11,700/((8.3145)(1273)) =0.33 .

Question7
(a) Thepressurefromthediethylethervaportogetherwiththatfromthenewheightofthe
Hgcolumnmustbebalancedbyatmospherepressurei.e.

(442+newheightofHgcolumn)mmHg=760mmHg.

newheightofHgcolumn=318mmHg.

(b) Assumingthatthenumberofmolesinthevaporphase<<thenumberofmolesinthe
liquidphase,totalnumberofmolesintheliquidphase=13.00103.

10.00103
Thus,theethermolefractionintheliquid,Xether= =0.7692
13.00103

Thenthedecanemolefraction,Xdecane=1Xether=10.7692=0.2308.

o
(c) ApplyingRaoult'slaw(seetheinformationsheet)Pether=XetherPether and

Pether=0.7692442mmHg=340.0mmHg.

Similarly,Pdecane=0.23081.8mmHg=0.4154mmHg.

Withthesedatainhandwecancalculatethecompositionofthevapor.

P 340mmHg
Theethermolefractioninthevapor,Yether= ether = =0.9988
Ptotal 340.4mmHg

andYdecane=1Yether=10.9988=0.0012.

(d) Ptotal=Pether+Pdecane=340.4mmHg.
14

(e) Usingtheapproachfollowedinpart(a),

(340.4+newheightofHgcolumn)mmHg=760mmHg

newheightofHgcolumn=419.6mmHg.

Question8
(i)Theinitialstateofthegasis:1mole,Ti=298K,Pi=1atm,Vi.Afterthereversibleprocessis
complete,thefinalstateofthegasis1mole,Tf=248K,Vf=Vi,Pf=unknown.

Sincethevolumeofthegasdoesnotchange,V=0andthus,w=0;noworkisdonebythegas
oronthegas.

Frominformationgivenwiththeexamination,E=qv =nCv T.HereCv isthemolarheat


capacityatconstantvolume(=3R/2foramonatomicidealgas).
Thus,E=(1.00mol)((38.314/2)Jmol1K1)(248K298K)=624J.

Frominformationgivenwiththeexamination,H=qp =nCp T.HereCp isthemolarheat


capacityatconstantpressure(=5R/2foramonatomicidealgas).
Thus,(1.00mol)((58.314/2)Jmol1K1)(248K298K)=1039J.

T
Frominformationgivenwiththeexamination,S=nCv ln f
Ti
Thus,S=(1.00mol)((38.314/2)Jmol1K1)ln(248K/298K)=2.29J/K.

qrev
NotethatitisincorrecttousetherelationS= here,becausethetemperaturedoesnot
T
remainfixed.

(ii)Theinitialstateofthegasis:1mol,Ti=298K,Pi=1atm,Vi.Afterthereversible,
isothermalprocessiscomplete,thefinalstateofthegasis1mol,Tf=298K,Vf=unknown,Pf=
50atm.

Becausethetemperatureisfixed,foranidealgasE=0andH=0.

Inthiscase,thegasundergoesadecreaseinvolumeandsoworkwillbedoneonthegasto
achievesuchareductioninvolume.
V P
Thus,w=nRTln f =nRTln i .Here,sincethegasisidealandthetemperature
Vi Pf
Vf = Pi
isfixed, .
Vi Pf

w=(1.00mol)(8.314Jmol1K1)(298K)ln(1.00/50.00)=9.69kJ.
Fromthefirstlawofthermodynamics,E=q+w.SinceE=0,q=w=9.69kJ.
15

qrev
Inthiscase,sincethetemperatureremainsconstant,wemayuseS= .
T
Thus,S=(9.69103J)/298K=32.5JK1.

(iii)Theinitialstateofthegasis:1mole,Ti=298K,Pi=1atm,Vi.Afterthereversible,
constantpressureprocessiscomplete,thefinalstateofthegasis1mole,Tf=323K,Vf=
unknown,Pf=1.00atm.

Followingananalogousapproachtothatemployedinparts(i)and(ii),
H=qp =nCp T(1.00mol)((58.314/2)Jmol1K1)(323K298K)

=520J;

E=qv =nCv T=(1.00mol)((38.314/2)Jmol1K1)(323K298K)

=312J;

w=Eq=312J520J=208J;

T
andS=nCp ln f =(1.00mol)((58.314/2)Jmol1K1)ln(323K/298K)
Ti

=1.67J/K.

(b) G=HTScouldonlybeusedforprocess(a)(ii),sinceuseofthisexpression requires


thatTremainsfixed.

Question9
(a) Fromthetableofstandardelectrodepotentialsprovided,thefollowinghalfcellreaction
maybewritten:

Zn2+(aq)+2e Zn(s) Eo=0.763VnotethatZn(s)isoxidizedattheanode

Cu2+(aq)+2e Cu(s) Eo=+0.340VnotethatCu2+isreducedatthecathode

Theequationforthenetreactionis:

Cu2+(aq)+Zn(s) Cu(s)+Zn2+(aq)Eo=(0.340(0.763))=1.103V

Here,Eoisthestandardpotentialdifference.Also,notethat2molesofchargeareinvolvedin
theprocess.
Zn2+
Frominformationprovided,E=E o RT lnQ=E o RT ln ,
nF nF Cu2+
16

whereF,theFaraday,isthechargecorrespondingto1moleofelectrons.

8.314Jmol1 K1 298K
Thus,E=1.103V ln 0.10M
1
2 96,485Cmol 2.50M

=1.103V+4.13102V=1.144V.

(b)ThefirststepistocalculatethenewconcentrationsofZn2+andCu2+.Wedothisby
calculatingthechangeinthenumberofmolesofZn2+andCu2+thatresultfrompassing
acurrentof10.0Afor10hours.

Thetotalcharge,Q(Coulombs),passed=CurrentI(A)Timet(s)

Q=10.0(A)10.0hr3600shr1=3.60C

Thus,thenumberofmolesofchargepassed=(3.60C/96,485Cmol1)
=3.73moles.

Since2molesofelectronsareinvolvedinthenetreactionshowninpart(a),thenumber
ofmolesofCu2+consumed=(3.73/2)=1.865moles=thenumberofmolesofZn2+
produced.

Initially,ina1.00Lsolutionwehad2.50molesofCu2+and0.10molesofZn2+.

After10hours,[Cu2+]=(2.501.865)=0.635M;[Zn2+]=(0.10+1.865)=1.965M

Thus,after10hours,Q=(1.965/0.635)=3.09,and

8.314Jmol1 K1 298K
E=1.103V ln 3.09
2 96,485Cmol1

=1.103V1.45102 V=1.09V

(c) Cu(s)isproducedatthecathode.Chargepassedproduced1.865moleCuatthecathode.

MassofCuproducedatthecathode=1.865mol63.456gmol1=118g

So,after10hours,cathodeweighs(200+118)=318g.

(d) Hereweneedtocalculatethetimerequiredtoconsume200gofZn.ThemassoftheZn
anodeisequivalentto200g/(65.39gmol1)molesofZni.e.3.06molZn.Since2moles
ofelectronicchargearerequiredtoconsume1moleofZn,passageof6.12Faradaysof
chargewillconsumetheZnanode.
17

Charge,Q,(C)
Time,t,requiredtoconsumetheanode=
Current,I,(A)

6.12Faradays 96,485C/Faraday
= =5.9104 s=16.4hrs
10.0C/s

Question10
(a) Ksp(PbCl2)=[Pb2+][Cl]2; Ksp(AgCl)=[Ag+][Cl].

(b) If[Pb2+]is0.01M,thenfromKsp(PbCl2),minimumchlorideconcentrationrequiredfor
6 1/2
PbCl2precipitationisgivenby Cl = 1.610 =1.3102 M.
0.01

Similarly,minimumchlorideconcentrationrequiredforAgClprecipitationisgivenby


1.81010
Cl = =1.8108 M.
0.01

Thus,weexpectAgCltoprecipitatelongbeforePbCl2,andweneed
Cl 1.8108 M.

(c) Frompart(b),PbCl2willstarttoprecipitatewhen Cl =1.3102 M.When Cl



1.81010
+
reachesthislevel, Ag = =1.4108 M.
1.310 2

(d) Sinceeverythinghascometoequilibrium,eachsolidwillhaveprecipitatedaccordingtoits
Kspvalue.Hg2Cl2withaKsp~1018isvery,veryinsoluble.Thus,weexpectthatsome
Hg2Cl2(s)willappear;thiswilluseupsomeofthefreeClinsolutionand,asaresult,some
ofthemoresolublesalts(AgClandPbCl2)willdissolveslightly.Thus,thenumberofgrams
ofAgCl(s)wouldbeexpectedtodecrease.