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arraignment the procedure during which the judge

A reads the formal charge against the defendant and
abridge limit (p. 363) the defendant pleads guilty or not guilty (p. 441)
absentee ballot one that allows a person to vote with- arrest warrant an order signed by a judge naming
out going to the polls on Election Day (p. 491) the individual to be arrested for a specific crime
absolute monarch a monarch that has complete and (pp. 85, 438)
unlimited power to rule his or her people (p. 19) article one of seven main divisions of the body of the
acreage allotment the program under which the gov- Constitution (p. 64)
ernment pays support prices for farmers crops assessment the complicated process involved in calcu-
grown on an assigned number of acres (p. 586) lating the value of property to be taxed (p. 674)
action alert a message from an interest group to its at-large as a whole; for example, statewide (p. 128)
members, calling upon them to respond immediately audit check more closely (p. 556)
by telephone, fax, or e-mail to a specific lawmaker, authorization bill a bill that sets up a federal program
group of lawmakers, or other official (p. 547) and specifies how much money may be appropriat-
administrative assistant member of a lawmakers per- ed for the program (p. 191)
sonal staff who runs the lawmakers office, super- autocracy a system of government in which the power
vises the schedule, and gives advice (p. 147) to rule is in the hands of a single individual (p. 18)
administrative law law that spells out the authority,
procedures, rules, and regulations to be followed by B
government agencies (p. 425)
adversary system a judicial system in which opposing backgrounders information given by top government
lawyers present their strongest cases (p. 428) officials to reporters who can use it in a story, but
advisory opinion a ruling on a law or action that has cannot reveal their source (p. 535)
not been challenged (p. 340) balanced budget plan requiring that what the govern-
affidavit a written statement to prove statements of fact ment spends will not exceed its income (p. 77)
signed by a witness under oath (p. 435) bankruptcy the legal proceedings to administer the
affirmative action government policies that award assets of a person or business that cannot pay its
jobs, government contracts, promotions, admission debts (p. 161)
to schools, and other benefits to minorities and biased sample in polling, a group that does not accu-
women in order to make up for past discriminations rately represent the larger population (p. 520)
(p. 412) bicameral two-house legislative body (p. 641)
alien a person who lives in a country where he or she is bicameral legislature a two-chamber legislature (p. 123)
not a citizen (p. 387) bilateral treaty agreement between two nations (p. 629)
ambassador an official of the government who represents bill a proposed law (p. 135)
the nation in diplomatic matters (p. 615) bill of attainder a law that establishes guilt and punish-
amendment a change to the Constitution (p. 65) es people without a trial (p. 158)
amicus curiae (uhmee kuhs KYURee EYE) Latin for bipartisan consisting of members of both major politi-
friend of the court; a written brief from an individ- cal parties (p. 619)
ual or group claiming to have information useful to a bloc coalition that promotes a common interest (p. 344)
courts consideration of a case (p. 333) block grant a grant of money to a state or local govern-
amnesty a group pardon to individuals for an offense ment for a general purpose (pp. 658, 675)
against the government (pp. 254, 390) bond a contractual promise by a borrower to repay
anarchy political disorder (p. 57) a certain sum plus interest by a specified date
answer a formal response by a defendant to the charges (p. 657)
in a complaint (p. 433) borough a political division in Alaska, similar to a
apartheid strict segregation of the races (p. 693) county in other states (p. 664)
appellate jurisdiction authority held by a court to hear boss a powerful party leader (p. 465)
a case that is appealed from lower court (p. 306) bourgeoisie capitalists who own the means of produc-
appropriation approval of government spending tion (p. 29)
(p. 191) brief a written statement setting forth the legal argu-
appropriations bill a proposed law to authorize spend- ments, relevant facts, and precedents supporting one
ing money (pp. 160, 191) side of a case (p. 333)

broadcast spectrumcompensation

broadcast spectrum the range of frequencies over civil service system practice of government employment
which electronic signals may be sent (p. 547) based on competitive examinations and merit (p. 286)
bureaucracy government administrators (p. 115) civil society a complex network of voluntary associa-
bureaucrat one who works for a department or agency tions, economic groups, religious organizations, and
of the federal governmentcivil servant (p. 275) many other kinds of groups that exist independent of
government (p. 24)
C client group individuals and groups who work with
a government agency and are most affected by its
cabinet secretaries of the executive departments, the decisions (p. 295)
vice president, and other top officials that help the closed primary an election in which only members of
president make decisions and policy (p. 228) a political party can vote (p. 465)
calendar a schedule that lists the order in which bills closed rule rule that forbids members of Congress to
will be considered in Congress (p. 136) offer amendments to a bill from the floor (p. 190)
campaign manager the person responsible for the over- closed shop a place of employment where only union
all strategy and planning of a campaign (p. 476) members may be hired (p. 583)
canvass the vote count by the official body that tabulates cloture a procedure that allows each senator to speak
election returns and certifies the winner (p. 487) only 1 hour on a bill under debate (p. 140)
canvassing board the official body that counts votes cluster sample a polling method that groups people by
and certifies the winner (p. 490) geographical divisions (p. 521)
capital the means of productionmoney, factories, coalition government one formed by several parties
heavy machineryused to produce other products who combine forces to obtain a majority (p. 454)
and goods (p. 718) collective bargaining the practice of negotiating labor
capitalism an economic system providing free choice contracts (p. 581)
and individual incentive for workers, investors, con- collective farm farm in which the land is owned by the
sumers, and business enterprises (pp. 26, 718) government but rented to a family (p. 728)
casework the work that a lawmaker does to help con- collective naturalization a process by which a group of
stituents with problems (p. 200) people become American citizens through an act of
caseworker a member of a lawmakers personal staff Congress (p. 394)
who handles requests for help from constituents collective security a system by which the participating
(pp. 148, 201) nations agree to take joint action against a nation
caucus a private meeting of party leaders to choose that attacks any one of them (p. 629)
candidates for office (pp. 134, 464) command economy an economic system in which
cede to yield (p. 50) the government controls the factors of production
censure a vote of formal disapproval of a members (pp. 30, 717)
actions (p. 129) commission form a form of municipal government that
census a population count (p. 124) combines executive and legislative powers in an elect-
central clearance Office of Management and Budgets ed commission (p. 667)
review of all legislative proposals that executive committees of correspondence colonial committees
agencies prepare (p. 236) urging resistance to the British and keeping in touch
centralized planning government control of the econo- with one another as events unfolded (p. 44)
my (p. 724) committee staff the people who work for House and
change of venue new trial location (p. 86) Senate committees (p. 147)
checks and balances the system where each branch of common law law made by judges in the process of
government exercises some control over the others resolving individual cases (p. 426)
(p. 65) communism an economic system in which the central
civil case one usually involving a dispute between two government directs all major economic decisions
or more private individuals or organizations (p. 646) (pp. 30, 718)
civil law one relating to disputes among two or more comparative advantage economic principle that
individuals or between individuals and the govern- each country should produce those goods it can
ment (pp. 103, 430) make more efficiently and trade for other goods
civil rights movement the efforts to end segregation (p. 732)
(p. 410) compensation salary (p. 214)

complaintdemocratic socialism

complaint a legal document filed with the court that constitutional monarch a monarch that has shared
has jurisdiction over the problem (p. 433) governmental powers with elected legislatures or
concurrent jurisdiction authority shared by both serves mainly as a ceremonial leader of a govern-
federal and state courts (p. 306) ment (p. 19)
concurrent powers powers that both the national consul a government official who heads a consulate in
government and the states have (p. 97) a foreign nation (p. 623)
concurrent resolution a resolution that covers matters consulate office that promotes American business and
requiring the action of the House and Senate but on safeguards its travelers in a foreign country (p. 623)
which a law is not needed (p. 182) containment the policy designed to keep the Soviet
concurring opinion the Courts opinion expressing the Union from expanding its power (p. 610)
views of a justice(s) who agree with the majoritys contempt willful obstruction of justice (p. 168)
conclusions but for different reasons (p. 334) contract a set of voluntary promises, enforceable by
confederacy a loose union of independent states (p. 12) the law, between two or more parties (p. 430)
conferee member of a conference committee (p. 187) copyright the exclusive right to publish and sell a liter-
conference committee a temporary joint committee ary, musical, or artistic work for a specified period
set up when the House and the Senate have passed of time (p. 163)
different versions of the same bill (p. 144) corporate charter a document that gives a corporation
conference report compromise bill presented by the con- legal status (p. 648)
ference committee after changes are made (p. 187) council-manager form a type of municipal government
congressional override the power of Congress to pass in which legislative and executive powers are sepa-
legislation over a presidents veto (p. 249) rated (p. 668)
conscription compulsory military service; also called counsel an attorney (p. 401)
a draft (p. 625) county the largest political subdivision of a state (p. 663)
consensus an agreement about basic beliefs (p. 6) county board the governing board of most counties
conservation the care and protection of natural resources (p. 664)
including the land, lakes, rivers, and forests; oil, natur- covert secret (p. 265)
al gas, and other energy sources; and wildlife (p. 651) criminal case one in which the state brings charges
conservative one who believes government should be against a citizen for violating the law (p. 646)
limited, except in supporting traditional values and criminal justice system system of state and federal courts,
promoting freedom of opportunity (p. 517) police, and prisons that enforces criminal law (p. 437)
consolidated democracy a nation that has democratic criminal law one that defines crimes and provides for
elections, political parties, constitutional govern- their punishment (p. 437)
ment, an independent judiciary, and usually a mar- cross-pressured voter one who is caught between
ket economy (p. 689) conflicting elements in his or her own life (p. 493)
constituent a person whom a member of Congress has customs duties taxes levied on goods imported into
been elected to represent (p. 133) the United Statestariffs or import duties (p. 557)
constitution a plan that provides the rules for govern-
ment (p. 13) D
constitutional commission a group of experts appoint-
ed to study a state constitution and recommend de facto existing in fact rather than legally (p. 265)
changes (p. 639) defamatory speech false speech that damages a persons
constitutional convention a gathering of citizens elect- good name, character, or reputation (p. 369)
ed to consider changing or replacing a constitution defendant the person against whom a civil or criminal
(p. 639) suit is brought in court (p. 433)
constitutional court a court established by Congress delegated powers powers the Constitution grants or
under the Constitution (p. 312) delegates to the national government (p. 95)
constitutional government a government in which a democracy government in which the people rule (p. 19)
constitution has authority to place clearly recognized democratic socialism an economic system in which
limits on the powers of those who govern (p. 13) people have control over government through free
constitutional law law that involves the interpretation elections and multiparty systems, but the govern-
and application of the U.S. Constitution and state ment owns the basic means of production and
constitutions (pp. 14, 424) makes most economic decisions (p. 28)

denaturalizationexpressed powers

denaturalization the loss of citizenship through fraud electronic petition a message that asks the recipient to
or deception during the naturalization process sign his or her name electronically to a request
(p. 396) that will be sent to an official (p. 547)
dependent one who depends primarily on another embargo an agreement prohibiting trade (p. 44)
person for basic needs (p. 556) embassy an ambassadors official residence and offices
deregulate to reduce regulations (p. 283) in a foreign country (pp. 276, 622)
dtente a relaxation of tensions between nations (p. 612) eminent domain the power of the government to take
developing nation a nation only beginning to develop private property for public use (p. 86)
industrially (pp. 16, 722) enabling act the first step in the state admission proce-
direct democracy a form of democracy in which the dure which enables the people of a territory to pre-
people govern themselves by voting on issues (p. 20) pare a constitution (p. 99)
direct primary an election in which party members enemy alien a citizen of a nation with which the United
select people to run in the general election (p. 465) States is at war (p. 387)
discount rate the interest rate the Federal Reserve entitlement a required government expenditure that
System charges member banks for loans (p. 569) continues from one year to the next (pp. 192, 562)
discovery process when both sides prepare for a trial by entrepreneur a person who takes a risk to produce
gathering evidence to support their case (p. 433) goods and services in search of profit (p. 718)
discrimination unfair treatment of individuals based enumerated powers the expressed powers of Congress
solely on their race, gender, ethnic group, age, that are itemized and numbered 1-18 in Article I,
physical disability, or religion (p. 407) Section 8 of the Constitution (pp. 69, 96, 157)
dissenting opinion the opinion expressed by a minority equity a system of rules by which disputes are resolved
of justices in a Court case (p. 334) on the grounds of fairness (p. 426)
divine right belief that certain people are either de- establishment clause the First Amendment guarantee
scended from gods or chosen by gods to rule (p. 8) that Congress shall make no law respecting an
double jeopardy retrial of a person who was acquitted establishment of religion (p. 358)
in a previous trial for the same crime (p. 404) estate tax tax collected on the assets (property and
due process clause Fourteenth Amendment clause stat- money) of a person who dies (p. 558)
ing that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, evolutionary theory the theory that the state evolved
or property without due process of law (p. 308) from the family (p. 8)
due process of law principle in the Fifth Amendment excise tax tax on the manufacture, transportation, sale,
stating that the government must follow proper con- or consumption of certain items such as gasoline,
stitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it liquor, or cigarettes (pp. 557, 656)
takes against individuals (pp. 86, 427) exclusion the right of Congress to refuse to seat an
elected member by a majority vote (p. 128)
exclusionary rule a law stating that any illegally
E obtained evidence cannot be used in a federal
economics the study of human efforts to satisfy court (p. 399)
seemingly unlimited wants through the use of executive agreement an agreement made between the
limited resources (p. 26) president and a head of state (pp. 80, 257, 619)
elastic clause clause in Article I, Section 8 of the executive order a rule issued by the president that has
Constitution that gives Congress the right to the force of law (p. 253)
make all laws necessary and proper to carry executive privilege the right of the president and other
out the powers expressed in the other clauses of high-ranking executive officers to refuse to testify
Article I (pp. 69, 96, 157) before Congress or a court (p. 266)
elector member of a party chosen in each state to expatriation giving up ones citizenship by leaving to
formally elect the president and vice president live in a foreign country (p. 395)
(p. 220) ex post facto law a law that makes a crime of an act
electoral vote the official vote for president and vice that was legal when it was committed (p. 158)
president by electors in each state (p. 220) expressed contract a contract in which the terms are
electronic mailing list an automated e-mail notifica- specifically stated, usually in writing (p. 430)
tion that provides subscribers with current informa- expressed powers powers directly stated in the Consti-
tion on a topic (p. 545) tution (pp. 68, 95, 157)

extraditeideological party

extradite to return a criminal or fugitive who flees front-runner the early leader in an election (p. 530)
across state lines back to the original state (p. 103) fundamental right a basic right of the American system
extradition the legal procedure through which a person or one that is indispensable in a just system (p. 407)
accused of a crime who has fled to another state is re-
turned to the state where the crime took place (p. 652) G
extralegal not sanctioned by law (p. 56)
gag order an order by a judge barring the press from
F publishing certain types of information about a
pending court case (p. 373)
faction a group of people united to promote special gentrification the phenomenon of new people moving
interests (p. 503) into a neighborhood, forcing out those who live
factors of production resources that an economy needs there, and changing the areas essential character
to produce goods and services (p. 717) (p. 681)
fairness doctrine rule requiring broadcasters to provide gerrymander to draw a districts boundaries to gain an
opportunities for the expression of opposing views advantage in elections (p. 126)
on issues of public importance (p. 538) government the institution through which the state
federal bureaucracy departments and agencies of the maintains social order, provides public services,
federal governmentmostly the executive branch and enforces binding decisions on citizens (p. 8)
(p. 71) government corporation a business that the federal
federal grant a sum of money given to a state for a spe- government runs (p. 280)
cific purpose (p. 657) grandfather clause an exemption in a law for a certain
federalism a system in which power is divided between group based on previous conditions (p. 483)
the national and state governments (p. 65) grand jury group that hears charges against a suspect
federal system a government that divides the powers of and decides whether there is sufficient evidence to
government between the national government and bring the person to trial (pp. 312, 439)
state or provincial governments (p. 12) gross national product (GNP) the sum of all goods
felony a major crime (pp. 399, 438) and services produced in a nation in a year
filibuster a method of defeating a bill in the Senate (pp. 568, 729)
by stalling the legislative process and preventing a
vote (p. 140) H
first reading when a bill introduced in Congress is given
a title and a number, printed, and distributed (p. 184) hearing a session at which a committee listens to testi-
fiscal policy a governments use of spending and mony from people interested in the bill (p. 184)
taxation to influence the economy (p. 567) hecklers veto public veto of free speech and assembly
fiscal year a 12-month accounting period (p. 560) rights of unpopular groups by claiming demonstra-
force theory the theory that the state was born of tions will result in violence (p. 379)
forcewhen all the people of an area were brought Holocaust the mass extermination of Jews and other
under the authority of one person or group (p. 8) groups by the Nazis during World War II (p. 379)
foreign policy the strategies and goals that guide a horse-race coverage media approach of focusing on
nations relations with other countries (p. 607) winners and losers, and whos ahead, rather
forum medium for discussion (p. 249) than on issues or policy positions (p. 537)
free enterprise the opportunity to control ones own house arrest a sentence which requires an offender to
economic decisions (p. 23) stay at home except for certain functions the court
free enterprise system an economic system based on permits (p. 653)
private ownership of the means of productionthe human rights fundamental freedoms (p. 355, 710)
capitaland on individual economic freedom hung jury a jury that is unable to reach a decision
(p. 718) (p. 443)
free exercise clause the First Amendment guarantee
that prohibits government from unduly interfering
with the free exercise of religion (p. 358)
free market economic system in which buyers and sell- ideological party a political party that focuses on over-
ers make free choices in the marketplace (p. 27) all change in society rather than on an issue (p. 455)

ideologyjus sanguinis

ideology a set of basic beliefs about life, culture, gov- interest group a group of people with common goals
ernment, and society (pp. 454, 517) who organize to influence government (p. 503)
illegal alien a person without legal permission to be in a intergovernmental organization (IGO) an inter-
country (p. 387) national organization comprised of members of
image mental picture (p. 476) national governments (p. 702)
immunity freedom from prosecution for witnesses intergovernmental revenue revenue distributed by one
whose testimony ties them to illegal acts (p. 169) level of government to another (p. 657)
impeach to accuse a public official of misconduct in interlocking directorate the same people serving on
office (p. 79) the boards of directors of competing companies
impeachment a formal accusation of misconduct in (p. 579)
office against a public official (p. 164) internationalism involvement in world affairs (p. 609)
implied contract a contract in which the terms are not interstate commerce trade among the states (pp. 55, 161)
expressly stated but can be inferred from the actions interstate compact a written agreement between two or
of the people involved and the circumstances (p. 430) more states (p. 105)
implied powers powers that the government requires iron triangle a relationship formed among government
to carry out the expressed constitutional powers agencies, congressional committees, and client
(pp. 96, 157) groups who work together (p. 298)
impound refuse to spend (p. 337) isolationism the avoidance of involvement in world
impoundment the presidents refusal to spend money affairs (p. 609)
Congress has voted to fund a program (pp. 175, 253) item veto the power to turn down a particular item in a
income tax the tax levied on individual and corporate bill without vetoing the entire bill (p. 645)
earnings (p. 108)
incorporation a process that extended the protections J
of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and
local governments (p. 356); the process of setting up Jim Crow law law requiring racial segregation in such
a legal community under state law (p. 666) places as schools, buses, and hotels (p. 408)
incrementalism the term used to explain that the total joint committee a committee of the House and the
budget changes little from year to year (p. 564) Senate that usually acts as a study group and reports
incumbent elected official that is already in office its findings back to the House and the Senate (p. 143)
(p. 130) joint resolution a resolution passed by both houses of
independent a voter who does not support any particu- Congress dealing with unusual or temporary matters,
lar party (p. 458) such as correcting an error in an earlier law (p. 182)
indictment a formal charge by a grand jury (pp. 312, 440) judicial activism the philosophy that the Supreme
industrialized nation a nation with large industries and Court should play an active role in shaping
advanced technology that provides a more comfort- national policies by addressing social and political
able way of life than developing nations (p. 16) issues (p. 81)
information a sworn statement by the prosecution judicial circuit a region containing a United States
that there is sufficient evidence for a trial (p. 440) appellate court (p. 313)
infrastructure the basic facilities of a city, such as paved judicial restraint the philosophy that the Supreme
streets and sidewalks, water pipes, sewers, bridges, Court should avoid taking the initiative on social
and public buildings (p. 680) and political questions (p. 80)
inherent powers powers that the national government judicial review the power of the Supreme Court to de-
may exercise simply because it is a government clare laws and actions of local, state, or national gov-
(p. 96) ernments unconstitutional (pp. 66, 308, 336, 640)
initiative a method by which citizens propose a consti- jurisdiction the authority of a court to rule on certain
tutional amendment or a law (p. 639) cases (pp. 64, 305)
injunction an order that will stop a particular action jury a group of citizens who hear evidence during
or enforce a rule or regulation (pp. 297, 433, 582) a trial and give a verdict (p. 442)
inner cabinet members of the cabinet who wield jus sanguinis (YOOS SAHNgwuhnuhs) Latin phrase
influence with the president because they head de- meaning law of blood; the principle that grants
partments that are concerned with national issues citizenship on the basis of the citizenship of ones
(p. 232) parents (p. 393)

jus solimoderate

jus soli (YOOS SOHLEE) Latin phrase meaning law lobbying direct contact made by a lobbyist in order
of the soil; the principle that grants citizenship to to persuade government officials to support the poli-
nearly all people born in a country (p. 393) cies their interest group favors (pp. 198, 508)
lobbyist interest group representative (pp. 198, 508)
K logrolling an agreement by two or more lawmakers to
support each others bills (p. 202)
kibbutzim collective agricultural communes (p. 725)
majority leader the Speakers top assistant whose job is to
laissez-faire the philosophy that government should help plan the majority partys legislative program and
keep its hands off the economy (pp. 27, 578) to steer important bills through the House (p. 134)
lame duck an outgoing official serving out the remain- majority opinion the Courts decision expressing the
der of a term, after retiring or being defeated for re- views of the majority of justices (p. 334)
election (p. 90) mandate a formal order given by a higher authority
land all natural resources such as soil, water, air, and (pp. 245, 658)
minerals (p. 717) mandatory sentencing a system of fixed, required terms
law set of rules and standards by which a society gov- of imprisonment for certain types of crimes (p. 651)
erns itself (p. 423) market economy an economic system which allows
leak the release of secret information by anonymous buyers and sellers acting in their individual interests
government officials to the media (pp. 230, 529) to control the factors of production (p. 717)
legislative assistant a member of a lawmakers personal marketing quota a limit set among farmers to market
staff that makes certain that the lawmaker is well in- only an assigned portion of an overproduced crop
formed about proposed legislation (p. 148) (p. 586)
legislative court a court created to help Congress exer- market value the amount of money an owner may
cise its powers (p. 314) expect to receive if property is sold (p. 674)
legislative oversight a continuing review by Congress mass media means of communication, such as televi-
of how effectively the executive branch carries out sion, newspapers, movies, books, and the Internet,
the laws Congress passes (p. 169) that influence large audiences (pp. 515, 527)
legislative veto the provisions Congress wrote into mass transit systems such as subways that are used to
some laws that allowed it to review and cancel ac- transport a large number of people (pp. 602, 671)
tions of executive agencies (p. 171) mayor-council form a form of municipal government
liaison officer a cabinet department employee who in which executive power belongs to an elected
helps promote good relations with Congress mayor, and legislative power to an elected council
(p. 296) (p. 666)
libel false written or published statements intended to media event a visually interesting event designed to re-
damage a persons reputation (pp. 84, 369, 536) inforce a politicians position on some issue (p. 529)
liberal one who believes the national government mediation a process in which each side is given the
should be active in promoting health, education, opportunity to explain its side of the dispute and
justice, and equal opportunity (p. 517) must listen to the other side (p. 434)
lieutenant governor the presiding officer of the upper metropolitan area a large city and its surrounding
house in some state legislatures (p. 642) suburbs (p. 671)
life peer a person who has been awarded a title in metropolitan government a type of government that
the House of Lords for outstanding achievement serves several different communities in the same
(p. 690) region (p. 682)
limited government a system in which the power of the militia armed forces of citizens (p. 85)
government is limited, not absolute (p. 36) misdemeanor a minor crime that is usually punished by
limited war a war in which the more powerful nation a fine or jail sentence of less than one year (p. 438)
or nations will not go beyond certain limits (p. 709) mixed economy a system in which the government
line-item veto the power to veto only certain lines or regulates private enterprise (pp. 575, 721)
items in a bill (pp. 176, 255) moderate one whose beliefs fall somewhere between
litigant a person engaged in a lawsuit (p. 307) liberal and conservative views (p. 517)


monarchy autocracy in which a king, queen, or emper- news release a ready-made story government officials
or exercises supreme powers of government (p. 19) prepare for members of the press (p. 528)
monetary policy a governments control of the supply of nominating convention an official public meeting of
money and credit to influence the economy (p. 567) a party to choose candidates for office (p. 464)
monopoly a business that controls so much of an in- nongovernmental organization (NGO) an inter-
dustry that little or no competition exists (pp. national organization comprised of individuals and
578, 719) groups outside the scope of government (p. 702)
mortgage a loan taken out to pay for a house (p. 431) non-resident alien a person from a foreign country
mullah a specially trained Islamic religious leader (p. 700) who expects to stay in the United States for a short,
multilateral treaty international agreement signed by specified period of time (p. 387)
several nations (p. 629) nuclear proliferation the spread of nuclear weapons
municipality an urban unit of government chartered (p. 709)
by a state (p. 665)
Muslim a follower of the religion of Islam (p. 699) O
mutual defense alliance an agreement between nations
to support each other in case of an attack (p. 627) office-group ballot one that lists the candidates togeth-
er by the office for which they are running (p. 489)
N oligarchy a system of government in which a small
group holds power (p. 19)
nation group of people united by bonds of race, language, oligopoly situation when only a few firms dominate a
custom, tradition, and, sometimes, religion (p. 6) particular industry (p. 579)
national budget the yearly financial plan for the na- open-market operations the means the Federal Reserve
tional government (p. 175) System uses to affect the economy by buying or sell-
national committee representatives from the 50 state ing government securities on the open market
party organizations who run a political party (p. 460) (p. 570)
national convention a gathering of local and state party open primary an election in which all voters may
members chosen to nominate presidential and vice- participate (p. 465)
presidential candidates (p. 460) open shop a place of employment where workers may
national debt the total amount of money the govern- freely decide whether or not to join a union (p. 583)
ment owes at any given time (pp. 160, 559) opinion a written explanation of a Supreme Court de-
nationalist position a position that favors national cision; also, in some states, a written interpretation
action in dealing with problems (p. 106) of a state constitution or state laws by the states at-
nationalization the process by which a government torney general (pp. 322, 331, 645)
takes control of industry (p. 724) ordinance a law (pp. 50, 425)
national security protection of a nations borders and original jurisdiction the authority of a trial court to be
territories against invasion or control by foreign first to hear a case (p. 306)
powers (p. 608)
national security adviser director of the National Secu- P
rity Council staff (pp. 237, 616)
nation-state a country in which the territory of both pardon a release from legal punishment (p. 254)
the nation and the state coincide (p. 6) parish a political division in Louisiana, similar to a
naturalization the legal process by which a person is county in other states (p. 664)
granted citizenship (p. 392) parliamentary government form of government in
necessary and proper clause Article I, Section 8, of which executive and legislative functions both reside
the Constitution, which gives Congress the power in an elected assembly, or parliament (p. 689)
to make all laws that are necessary and proper for parochial school a school operated by a church or
carrying out its duties (pp. 96, 157) religious group (p. 359)
newly developed nation a nation that has had significant parole means by which a prisoner is allowed to serve
or rapid industrial growth in recent years (p. 722) the rest of a sentence in the community under the
news briefing a meeting during which a government supervision of a parole officer (p. 653)
official makes an announcement or explains a poli- partisan adhering to or supporting a particular party,
cy, decision, or action (p. 528) faction, cause, or person (p. 544)

party-column ballotprocurement

party-column ballot one that lists each partys candi- political socialization process by which individuals
dates in a column under the partys name (p. 489) learn their political beliefs and attitudes through
passport a document entitling a traveler to certain pro- personal background and life experiences (p. 515)
tections established by international treaty (p. 623) politics the effort to control or influence the conduct
patent the exclusive right of an inventor to manufac- and policies of government (p. 14)
ture, use, and sell his or her invention for a specific polling place the location in a precinct where people
period of time (p. 163) vote (p. 488)
patronage the practice of granting favors to reward poll tax money paid in order to vote (pp. 90, 483)
party loyalty (pp. 256, 462) popular sovereignty rule by the people (p. 65)
peer group an individuals close friends, religious pork-barrel legislation laws passed by Congress that
group, clubs, or work groups (p. 515) appropriate money for local federal projects (p. 202)
per curiam opinion (puhr KYUReeAHM) a brief preamble a statement in a constitution that sets forth
unsigned statement of a Supreme Court decision the goals and purposes of government (p. 13)
(p. 333) precedent a model on which to base later decisions or
perjury lying under oath (p. 168) actions (pp. 338, 364, 426)
personal property movable belongings such as clothes precinct a voting district (pp. 459, 488)
and jewelry, as well as intangible items like stocks, precinct captain a volunteer who organizes party work-
bonds, copyrights, and patents (pp. 431, 673) ers to distribute information about the party and its
personal staff the people who work directly for individ- candidates and to get the voters to the polls (p. 459)
ual senators and representatives (p. 147) presidential government a form of democratic govern-
petition an appeal (p. 77) ment in which a president heads the executive
petit jury a trial jury, usually consisting of 6 or 12 branch (p. 691)
people, that weighs the evidence presented at a trial presidential succession the order in which officials fill
and renders a verdict (p. 313) the office of president in case of a vacancy (p. 217)
petty offense a minor crime, usually punished by a president pro tempore the Senate member, elected by
ticket rather than being arrested (p. 437) the Senate, who stands in as president of the Senate
picket to patrol an establishment to convince workers in the absence of the vice president (p. 139)
and the public not to enter it (p. 378) press conference the news medias questioning of a
plaintiff person who brings charges in court (p. 433) high-level government official (p. 535)
plank a section of a political party platform (p. 469) press secretary one of the presidents top assistants
platform a statement of a political partys principles, who is in charge of media relations (p. 239)
beliefs, and positions on vital issues (p. 469) presumed innocence the presumption that a person is
plea bargaining the process in which a defendant innocent until proven guilty (p. 428)
pleads guilty to a lesser crime than the one with price supports the program under which Congress
which the defendant was originally charged buys farmers crops if the market price falls below
(p. 440) the support price (p. 586)
plurality the largest number of votes in an election prime minister the leader of the executive branch of a
(pp. 465, 644) parliamentary government (p. 691)
pocket veto when a president kills a bill passed during prior restraint government censorship of information
the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply re- before it is published or broadcast (pp. 84, 371, 536)
fusing to act on it (p. 188) private bill a bill dealing with individual people or
political action committee (PAC) an organization places (p. 181)
formed to collect money and provide financial sup- private law a law that applies to a particular person
port for political candidates (pp. 130, 477, 511) (p. 390)
political culture a set of shared values and beliefs about probable cause a reasonable basis to believe a person
a nation and its government (p. 516) or premises is linked to a crime (p. 85)
political efficacy an individuals feelings of his or her procedural due process principle that prohibits
effectiveness in politics (p. 516) arbitrary enforcement of the law, and also provides
political party a group of individuals with broad com- safeguards to ensure that constitutional and
mon interests who organize to nominate candidates statutory rights are protected by law enforcement
for office, win elections, conduct government, and (p. 427)
determine public policy (pp. 23, 453) procurement the purchasing of materials (p. 283)


profit the difference between the amount of money random sampling a polling technique in which every-
used to operate a business and the amount of money one in the universe has an equal chance of being
the business takes in (p. 720) selected (p. 520)
progressive tax tax based on a taxpayers ability to pay ratify to approve (pp. 48, 76)
(pp. 556, 657) rational basis test used by a Court to determine
proletariat workers who produce the goods (p. 29) whether a state law is reasonably related to an
propaganda the use of ideas, information, or rumors to acceptable goal of the government (p. 406)
influence opinion (p. 495) real property land and whatever is attached to or
proportional representation a system in which several growing on it (pp. 431, 673)
officials are elected to represent the same area in reapportionment the process of reassigning representa-
proportion to the votes each partys candidate re- tion based on population, after every census (p. 124)
ceives (p. 457); used in presidential primaries to redistrict to set up new district lines after reapportion-
elect delegates in proportion to their popular vote ment is complete (p. 125)
(p. 467) referendum a special election (p. 666)
proportional tax tax that is assessed at the same rate for refugee a person fleeing a country to escape persecution
everyone (p. 657) or danger (p. 387)
public assistance government programs that distribute regional security pact a mutual defense treaty among
money to poor people (p. 590) nations of a region (p. 627)
public bill a bill dealing with general matters and ap- register to enroll ones name with the appropriate local
plying to the entire nation (p. 181) government in order to participate in elections
public housing government-subsidized housing for (p. 487)
low-income families (p. 600) regressive tax tax in which people with lower incomes
public-interest group a group that seeks policy goals pay a larger portion of their income (pp. 557, 657)
that it believes will benefit the nation (p. 506) representative democracy a form of democracy in
public opinion the ideas and attitudes a significant which the people elect representatives and give them
number of Americans hold about issues (p. 514) the responsibility and power to make laws and con-
public policy the course of action a government takes duct government (p. 20)
in response to some issue or problem (p. 112) representative government a system of government
public utility an organization that supplies such neces- in which people elect delegates to make laws and
sities as electricity, gas, or telephone service (p. 648) conduct government (p. 37)
public welfare government efforts to maintain basic representative sample a small group of people, typical
health and living conditions for those people who of the universe, that a pollster questions (p. 520)
have insufficient resources of their own (p. 654) reprieve the postponement of legal punishment (p. 254)
public works bill a bill in which Congress appropriates republic a government in which voters hold sovereign
money for local projects (p. 201) power; elected representatives, responsible to the
pure speech the verbal expression of thought and opin- people, exercise that power (p. 20)
ion before an audience that has chosen to listen reserved powers powers that belong strictly to the
(p. 366) states (p. 96)
reserve requirement the percentage of money member
banks must keep in Federal Reserve Banks as a re-
C serve against their deposits (p. 570)
quorum the minimum number of members who must resident alien a person from a foreign nation who has
be present to permit a legislative body to take official established permanent residence in the United States
action (p. 137) (p. 387)
quota a limit on the quantity of a product that may be revenue the money a government collects from taxes or
imported (p. 733) other sources (p. 43)
revenue bill a law proposed to raise money (p. 158)
reverse discrimination situation where a qualified
R individual loses out to an individual chosen because
of their race, ethnicity, or gender (p. 414)
racial discrimination treating members of a race differ- revitalization investments in new facilities in an effort
ently simply because of race (p. 408) to promote economic growth (p. 681)


rider a provision included in a bill on a subject other sentence the punishment to be imposed on an offender
than the one covered in the bill (p. 182) after a guilty verdict (p. 443)
riding the circuit traveling to hold court in a justices separate but equal doctrine a policy which held that if
assigned region of the country (p. 320) facilities for different races were equal, they could be
roll-call vote a voting method used by the Senate in separate (pp. 309, 409)
which senators respond Aye or No as their separation of powers the division of power among the
names are called in alphabetical order (p. 187) legislative, executive, and judicial branches of gov-
runoff primary a second primary election between the ernment (pp. 40, 65)
two candidates who received the most votes in the sequester to keep isolated (p. 373)
first primary (p. 465) session a period of time during which a legislature
meets to conduct business (p. 123)
S shah a king (p. 701)
shield law a law that gives reporters some means of pro-
sample group surveyed in an opinion poll (p. 520) tection against being forced to disclose confidential
sampling error a measurement of how much the sample information or sources in state courts (pp. 374, 537)
results may differ from the sample universe (p. 520) shock incarceration a prison program involving short-
sanction a measure such as withholding economic aid er sentences in a highly structured environment
to influence a foreign governments activities where offenders participate in work, community
(pp. 630, 693) service, education, and counseling (p. 653)
scarcity a condition that exists because society does not shock probation program designed to show young
have all the resources to produce all the goods and offenders how terrible prison life is through brief
services that everyone wants (p. 717) incarceration followed by supervised release
school board a usually elected local body that governs a (p. 653)
school district (p. 673) simple resolution a statement adopted to cover matters
search warrant an order signed by a judge describing a affecting only one house of Congress (p. 182)
specific place to be searched for specific items (p. 85) single-issue party a political party that focuses on one
secular nonreligious (p. 360) major social, economic, or moral issue (p. 455)
securities financial instruments, including bonds, notes, single-member district electoral district in which only
and certificates, that are sold as a means of borrow- one candidate is elected to each office (p. 457)
ing money with a promise to repay the buyer with slander false speech intended to damage a persons
interest after a specific time period (pp. 559, 581) reputation (pp. 84, 369)
security classification system the provision that infor- social consensus when most people in a society accept
mation on government activities related to national democratic values and agree about the purpose and
security and foreign policy may be kept secret (p. 416) limits of government (p. 24)
seditious speech speech urging resistance to lawful social contract theory that by contract, people surrender
authority or advocating the overthrow of the gov- to the state the power needed to maintain order and
ernment (p. 367) the state, in turn, agrees to protect its citizens (p. 8)
segregation separation of people from the larger social social insurance government programs designed to
group (p. 408) help elderly, ill, and unemployed citizens (p. 590)
select committee a temporary committee formed to social insurance tax the money collected by the federal
study one specific issue and report its findings to government to pay for major social programs, such
the Senate or the House (p. 142) as Social Security, Medicare, and unemployment
self-incrimination testifying against oneself (p. 402) compensation programs (p. 556)
senatorial courtesy a system in which the president socialism an economic system in which the govern-
submits the name of a candidate for judicial ap- ment owns the basic means of production,
pointment to the senators from the candidates distributes the products and wages, and provides
before formally submitting it for full Senate social services such as health care and welfare
approval (p. 317) (pp. 28, 718)
seniority system a system that gives the member of soft money money raised by a political party for general
the majority party with the longest uninterrupted purposes, not designated for a candidate (p. 478)
service on a particular committee the leadership of sovereignty the supreme and absolute authority within
that committee (p. 145) territorial boundaries (p. 7)

special districttort

special district a unit of local government that deals substantive due process certain rights of individuals in
with a specific function, such as education, water the application of laws, some that are specified in the
supply, or transportation (p. 665) Constitution (like free speech) and some that are not
splinter party a political party that splits away from specified (like the right of privacy in making person-
a major party because of some disagreement al decisions) (p. 427)
(p. 455) suburb a densely settled territory adjacent to a central
spoils system the practice of victorious politicians city (p. 672)
rewarding their followers with government jobs suffrage the right to vote (p. 481)
(p. 285) summons an official notice of a lawsuit that includes
spot advertising the brief, frequent, positive descrip- the date, time, and place of the initial court appear-
tions of a candidate or a candidates major themes ance (p. 433)
broadcast on television or radio (p. 531) sunset law a law that requires periodic checks of govern-
standing committee a permanent committee in Con- ment agencies to see if they are still needed (p. 112)
gress that oversees bills that deal with certain kinds sunshine law a law prohibiting public officials from
of issues (p. 142) holding meetings not open to the public (p. 113)
standing vote a voting method used by the House and supranational organization an organization whose
Senate in which members vote by standing and authority overrides the sovereignty of its individual
being counted (p. 187) members (p. 704)
stare decisis (STEHRee dihSYsuhs) a Latin term supremacy clause statement in Article VI of the Consti-
meaning let the decision stand; the principle that tution establishing that the Constitution, laws passed
once the Court rules on a case, its decision serves by Congress, and treaties of the United States shall
as a precedent on which to base other decisions be the supreme Law of the Land (pp. 64, 97)
(p. 338) suspect classification a classification made on the
state a political community that occupies a definite basis of race or national origin that is subject to
territory and has an organized government with the strict judicial scrutiny (p. 407)
power to make and enforce laws without approval swing vote the deciding vote (p. 344)
from any higher authority (p. 5) symbolic speech the use of actions and symbols, in
state central committee committee usually composed addition to or instead of words, to express opinions
largely of representatives from the partys county (p. 366)
organizations (p. 460)
state farm farm owned by the government and run T
like a factory, with farmworkers being paid wages
(p. 728) tariff a tax placed on imports to increase their price in
state-sponsored terrorism terrorism that is secretly the domestic market (p. 733)
supported by a government (p. 708) tax the money that people and businesses pay to sup-
states rights position a position that favors state and port the activities of the government (pp. 189, 555)
local action in dealing with problems (p. 106) taxable income the total income of an individual minus
statute a law written by a legislative branch (p. 425) certain deductions and personal exemptions (p. 555)
statutory law a law that is written down so that every- tax credit allows taxpayers to reduce their income tax
one might know and understand it (p. 425) liability (p. 559)
straight party ticket one where a voter has selected terrorism the use of violence by nongovernmental
candidates of his or her party only (p. 493) groups against civilians to achieve a political goal
straw poll an unscientific attempt to measure public (p. 708)
opinion (p. 520) theocracy a government dominated by religion (p. 453)
strong-mayor system a type of mayor-council govern- third party any political party other than one of the two
ment in which the mayor has strong executive major parties (p. 455)
powers (p. 666) ticket the candidates for president and vice president
subcommittee a group within a standing committee (p. 466)
that specializes in a subcategory of its standing com- ticket-splitting voting for candidates from different
mittees responsibility (p. 142) parties for different offices (p. 489)
subpoena a legal order that a person appear or produce tort a wrongful act, other than breach of contract, for
requested documents (p. 168) which an injured party has the right to sue (p. 432)

totalitarian dictatorshipzoning

totalitarian dictatorship a form of autocratic govern-

ment where the ideas of leaders are glorified and the V
government seeks to control all aspects of social and verdict decision (p. 443)
economic life (p. 18) veto rejection of a bill (pp. 66, 188)
town meeting a gathering of all the voters of a town victim compensation a program in many states
to express their opinions and participate in the law- whereby the state government provides financial
making process (p. 665) aid to victims of certain crimes (p. 651)
township a unit of local government found in some visa a special document, required by certain countries,
states, usually a subdivision of a county (p. 664) that is issued by the government of the country that
trading bloc a group of nations that trade without a person wishes to enter (p. 623)
barriers such as tariffs (p. 734) voice vote method in which House or Senate members
traditional economy economic system in which cus- call out Aye or No and the Speaker determines
toms dictate the rules for economic activity (p. 717) which side has the most voice votes (p. 187)
transcript a summary record (p. 417)
treaty a formal agreement between the governments of
two or more countries (pp. 80, 257, 615) W
trial court the court in which a case is originally tried ward a large district comprised of several adjoining
(p. 306) precincts (p. 459)
trust a form of business consolidation in which several weak-mayor system mayor-council government in
corporations combine their stock and allow a board which the mayor has limited powers (p. 666)
of trustees to operate as a giant enterprise (p. 578) welfare state a nation that has an economic system,
such as socialism, that provides many welfare
U programs (p. 723)
whip an assistant to the party floor leader in the
unanimous opinion a Court decision in which all legislature (p. 135)
justices vote the same way (p. 334) withholding the money an employer withholds from
uncontrollable government expenditure required by workers wages as payment of anticipated income
law or resulting from previous budgetary commit- tax (p. 556)
ments (pp. 192, 562) workers compensation payments people unable to
unemployment compensation payments to workers work as a result of job-related injury or ill health
who lose their jobs (p. 649) receive (p. 649)
unemployment insurance programs in which the writ of certiorari (SUHRsheeuhRARee) an order
federal and state governments cooperate to provide from the Supreme Court to a lower court to send up
help for people who are out of work (p. 592) the records on a case for review (p. 332)
unfunded mandates programs ordered but not paid writ of habeas corpus a court order to release a person
for by federal legislation (p. 588) accused of a crime to court to determine whether he
unicameral a single-chamber legislature (pp. 48, 641) or she has been legally detained (p. 158)
union shop a place of employment where workers are
required to join a union soon after they have been
hired (pp. 583, 649) Z
unitary system a government that gives all key powers zoning the means a local government uses to regulate
to the national or central government (p. 12) the way land and buildings may be used in order to
universe in polling, the group of people that are to be shape community development (p. 669)
studied (p. 520)
urban renewal programs under which cities apply
for federal aid to clear slum areas and rebuild
(pp. 599, 678)

Aaron, Henry J.Annapolis Convention (1786)

Italicized page numbers refer to illus- Afghanistan, 163, 259; Taliban control Albright, Madeleine, 229, p229
trations. The following abbreviations of, 7089; war in, 82 alcohol, driving under the influence of,
are used in the index: AFL-CIO, 505; Committee on Political p439
m=map, c=chart or graph, Education, 490 Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms,
p=photograph or picture, Africa: economic development in, Bureau of, 277
ctn=cartoon, ptg=painting, q=quote 72526. See also South Africa Aldrin, Edwin E., Jr, p294
African Americans: and affirmative Alexander, Jane, p191
action, 41214, p413; in the cabinet, Alien Registration Act (1940), 382
229; citizenship rights to, 98; civil aliens, 382; classifying, 38788; enemy,
A rights for, 98, 99, p99, 113, 40810, 387; illegal, 38788; nonresident, 387;
p407, p408; and Civil War amend- resident, 387; rights of, 388. See also
Aaron, Henry J., q592 ments, 8889, 98; and desegregation, immigrants
Abington School District v. Schempp, 95, p95, 309, p309, 310, 34647; ef- Allegheny County v. ACLU, 362
361 forts to end discrimination against, Allende, Salvador, 725
abridge, 363 26162; judicial appointments of, alliances, bilateral treaties of, 629
absentee ballots, 491 317, 323; and separate but equal Allott, Gordon, p139
absolute monarchy, 19; doctrine, 309, 346; suffrage for, ambassadors, 615, 622
in Saudi Arabia, 701 48284; in World War II, 133. amendments, 76, c77, 8390, c88; de-
acceptance, 431 See also civil rights movement fined, 65; power of Congress in,
access, media rights of, 537 African National Congress (ANC), 165; proposing, 7677, 79; ratifying,
accused, rights of, 86, 398; cruel and 69394 7779; for state constitutions,
unusual punishment, 87, 405; double Afrikaner Nationalist Party (South 63940. See also specific amendments
jeopardy, 85, c86, 4045; guarantee of Africa), 694 American Association of Retired Per-
counsel, 4012; searches and seizures, Afroyim v. Rusk, 695 sons (AARP), 505
398401, p399, p400; self-incrimina- Agence France-Presse, 533 American Bar Association (ABA), 506;
tion, 8586, 4024 Agency for International Development and judicial appointments, 325
Acevedo, Charles Steven, 400 (AID), 629 American Battle Monuments
acquisitions, U.S., c7 Agnew, Spiro, resignation of, 217 Commission, 279
acreage allotment, 586 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) American College of Surgeons, 510
action alerts, 546547 (1933), 586 American Conservative Union, 490
Adams, Abigail, 151, p151 Agricultural Marketing Services, 586 American Farm Bureau Federation,
Adams, John, 71, 151, 155, q155, q219, agriculture: collective farms in, 728; 505
454; and Declaration of communes in, 725; federal govern- American Federation of Labor (AFL),
Independence, 46; and judicial ment role in, 58486; interest groups 581
review, 3078, p307; and nomination in, 505; state farms in, 728; subsidies American Independent Party, 224, 457
of Marshall as chief justice, 305; as for, 586; subsidies in, 734 American Library Association, U.S. v.,
vice president, 58, 69 Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 277, 54849
Adams, John Quincy, 220, 224, 241; in 283, 295; aid programs in, 586; cre- American Medical Association, 506
election of 1824, 164; as secretary of ation of, 584; school lunch program American Nazi Party, march of, in
state, 616 of, 586 Skokie, 37879
Adams, Samuel, 44 Aid to Families with Dependent Chil- American Online (AOL), 538, 540,
Adams, Sherman, 265 dren (AFDC), 593, 594, 654 p548
Adarand Constructors Inc. v. Pea, 414 Aid to the Blind, 654 American Revolution, 699
Addams, Jane, 421, q421 Aid to the Permanently and Totally American Samoa, representation in
Adderly v. Florida, 377 Disabled, 654 Congress, 129
administrative assistant, 14748 Air Force, Department of the, 625 Americans for Free International
administrative law, 425 Air Force One, 214 Trade, 512
Administrative Procedures Act (1946), air pollution, policies on, 587, 651 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
297 Air Pollution Act (1955), 587 (1990), 72, 337, 580
adversary system, 428 Air Quality Control Act (1967), 651 America Online, 532
advertising: campaign, 476, 531; Feder- Alabama: apportionment in, 126; laws AmeriCorps, 256, p256
al Communications Commission in, 425; legislature in, 642; regional amicus curiae brief, 333
regulation of, 538; financing TV, 531; government in, 673 amnesty, 390; granting of, 254
and free press, 375; propaganda in, Alaska: admission to Union, 100; envi- anarchy, 57
495496; protection against false, ronment concerns in, 651; local gov- Anglican Church, 700
580; spot, 531 ernment in, 664; purchase of, 153 Ankara, 722
affiliated PACs, 512 Albany Plan of Union, 44 Annapolis Convention (1786), 52

Anthony, Susan B.Bryan, William Jennings

Anthony, Susan B., p197 Asia: developing economies in, 734; bilateral treaties of alliances, 629
anticolonialism, 724 Japans leadership in, 734 Bill of Rights: English, 3637; in state
anthrax, 237, 595 Ashcroft, John, p144, 275, q418 constitutions, 638; in U.S. Constitu-
Anti-Federalists, 5657 Askins, Rene, 324, p324 tion, 5658, 8387, 35557, 438, 638,
Anti-Masons, 466 assembly, freedom of, 84, 376; limits on 78990. See also specific amendments
antitrust legislation: Clayton Antitrust parades and demonstrations, 377; lim- bills of attainder, 158
Act (1914), 579, 581; enforcing, 579; its on public, 377; and property rights, Binder, Sarah, q193
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), 378; protecting, 376, 381; public, and Bin Laden, Osama, 70809
57879, 581 disorder, 37880; on public property, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
Anthony, Susan B., p498, q498 377 (BRCA), 216, 47879
ANZUS Pact, 629 assessment, 674 bipartisan support, 619
apartheid, 693, 705 Associated Press (AP), 52829, 533 birth, citizenship by, 393, p393
Appalachian Regional Commission, association, freedom of, 382 Bisnow, Mark, 148, q148
201 Atlanta: housing problems in, 67879; Black, Hugo, 290, 334, q359, q361, q402
appeals courts: federal, 31314; state, mass transit in, 681; suburbs of, 672 Blackmun, Harry, 326
647 at-large, 128 Blair, Tony, p690
appellate jurisdiction, 3067, 321 atomic bomb, 279 block grants, 658, 675
appointments: of cabinet members, attitudes, media impact on, 534 Board of Education v. Allen, 360
22829; power of Congress to con- attorney general, 325; in state Boerne, Texas, City of v. Flores, 36364
firm, 619; presidential, 253, 28889; government, 645 Bolton, John, 312
to Supreme Court, 32326 Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 399 Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon, 690
Apprendi, Charles, 411 Australia: ANZUS Pact with, 629; fed- Bonaparte, Napoleon, 425
Apprendi v. New Jersey, 411 eral system of government, 12 bonds, 559, 657, 675
appropriation, 191 Australian ballot, 490 books, 528
appropriations bills, 160, 19192 authoritarian governments, 696701 Bootstrap Institute, 611
appropriations committees, 192 authorization bill, 191 Bork, Robert, 324
Arab-Israeli wars, 709 autocracy, 18 boroughs, 664
Arafat, Yasir, p615 borrowing for revenue, 559
arbitrator, 434 Bosnia, 628
archives, 544 B bosses, 465
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 589 Boston, laws in, 425
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, p266, 702, backgrounders, 52829 Boston Tea Party, 43
p702 bad tendency doctrine, 368 bourgeoisie, 29
Aristotle, 5, 18, p31 bail, 439 Bowery at Night (Sontag), 670
Arizona: admission to Union, 100; elec- Baird, Zo, 230 brain trust, 231
tion of governor in, 64344; water Baker, Vernon, 133, p133 Brandeis, Louis D., q318, 343, q382
rights disputes in, 105 Baker v. Carr, 126, 341 Brandenburg, Clarence, 369
Arizona v. Fulminante, 404 Bakke, Allan, 41214, p413 Brandenburg v. Ohio, 369
Arkansas: local government in, 664; balanced budget, 77, 563; amendment Branzburg v. Hayes, 537
prison conditions in, 105 for, 77 Braswell v. United States, 4034
Arkansas v. Sanders, 400 Balanced Budget and Emergency Breyer, Stephen, p322, 324, 347
armed forces. See military Deficit Control Act (1985), 563 briefs, 333
Armed Forces Radio and Television ballots, 224, 489; absentee, 491; Aus- Brinton, Jason, 458, p458
Network, 531 tralian, 490; security of, 481 broadcast media, 527; court coverage
Armed Liberty (Crawford), p134 Barrett, Bill, 15 by, 533; regulation of, 53641,
Arms Control and Disarmament Batista, Fulgencio, 698 53738; Roosevelt's use of, 528
Agency, 294 Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), 681 broadcasting, public, 531
Armstrong, Neil, 294 Bay of Pigs, 698 broadcast licensing, 530
Army, Department of the, 625 Beaver, Mary Ellen, 440, p440 broadcast spectrum, 547
arraignment, 441 Beer, Samuel H., q115 Brookhart, Smith, 153
arrest, 43839 Bennett et al. v. Spear et al., 518 Brougham, Henry, q575
arrest warrant, 85, 43839 Bentsen, Lloyd, 223, 476 Brown, Eddie, 103
Arthur, Chester A., succession to presi- Bethel School District v. Fraser, 370 Brown, Linda, p309
dency, 286 Betts v. Brady, 401, 402 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka,
articles, 64 biased sample, 520 309, p309, 310, 319, 337, 34647,
Articles of Confederation, 65; achieve- bibliography, preparing, 713 40910
ments of, 5051; government under, bicameral legislature, 123, 641, 689 Bryan, William Jennings, 499, 473,
48, c49; weaknesses of, 4950, 245, 577 Bigelow v. Virginia, 375 q473

Brzezinski, Zbigniewcheckbook journalism

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 299, q299 environment, 589; and foreign policy, Cannon, Joseph G., 136
Buck, Tom, 656 616; governor of Texas, 641, p641; canvassing board, 490
Buckley v. Valeo, 512 and Kyoto Treaty, 712; and the capital, 718
Buddhism, 697 media, p248; and the military, p623; capitalism, 26, 718, c719, 722; changing
budget: balanced, 77; incremental, 564 president, p74, p212, p214, 222, 224, face of, 72021; characteristics of,
Budget and Accounting Act (1921), 225, m225, 237, 240, p240, q240, 241, 71820; defined, 26; modified, 721;
561, 564 259, 475, c489, m494, 499, 564, 567, origins of, 27
Budget Impoundment and Control p606, 613, p623, 630, 709; and war in capital punishment, 87, m404;
Act (1974), 175 Iraq, q241, 613; and war against ter- constitutionality of, 405
Bulgaria: application for EU member- rorism, 248, q248, 61213, 707, 709; Capitol, U.S., p69
ship, 704, 734; and NATO member- Web site of, 240, 547 card catalogs, 383
ship, 628; overthrow of communism Bush v. Gore, 340, 342, 756 Cardozo, Benjamin, 325
in, 692 business: and antitrust legislation, Carnivore, 417
Bull Moose Party, 457, p457 57879; deregulation of, 578; federal Carter, Jimmy, 77, 237, 261, 468; and
bureaucracy, 275; cabinet departments promotion and protection of, 57576; civil service reform, p288; communica-
as, 27679, c276; in Constitution, 275; federal regulation of, 57679; interest tion skills of, 263; and Department of
cutting size of federal, 283; defined, groups in, 505; and protection of con- Education, p279; and deregulation
115; Executive Office of the President sumers from, 30910; state regulation movement, 283; in election of 1976,
as, 23438; and federal budget, 561; of, 64850 521; in election of 1980, 49495; for-
growth of, 71, 293; independent agen- Business Roundtable, 505 eign policy under, 619; and granting of
cies as, 27980; influence of client business trusts, 30910 amnesty to draft evaders, 254; and Iran
groups on, 29798; influences on deci- Business Week, 528 crisis, 259, 628; judicial appointments
sions of, 29597; in influencing policy, Butler, Pierce, 326 of, 317, 347; and legislative vetoes,
29193; and limitations on presiden- butterfly ballot, 498, p498 176; life after presidency, 266, p266;
tial power, 250; reasons for making Byrd, Robert, 201 and ratification of Panama Canal
policy, 29395; regulatory commis- treaties, 619, ctn619; and use of exec-
sions in, 281, 283; size of, 275, ctn289, utive order, 253
294; technology in, 29394; White
House Office as, 23839; women in,
Carter, Rosalynn, 266
Carter Center, 266
284 cabinet, 228, 27679, c276; African Cary, John H., q585
Bureau of Citizenship and Immigra- Americans in, 229; factors limiting, casework, 200
tion Services (BCIS), 277, 388, 393, 232; function of, 692; Hispanics in, caseworkers, 148, 201
394 229; in history, 231; influence of, 232; Castro, Fidel, ctn698, 698699, 725
Burger, Warren E., q267, 326 modern, 231; nominations and con- categorical-formula grants, 658, 675
Burns, James MacGregor, 173 firmation, 230; role of, 23032; selec- Cato the Younger, p139
Burr, Aaron, 164, 221 tion of, 22830; women in, 229 Cattlemens Action Legislative Fund
Burstyn v. Wilson, 375 Cable News Network (CNN), p531, (CALF), 512
Burton, Harold, 345 544, p545 caucus, 134
Bush, George H.W., p234, p312; cable television, 535, 536, 538 caucuses, 464
bureaucracy of, 236; cabinet of, Calendar of General Orders, 140 Cavazos, Lauro F., 229
23132; communication skills of, calendars, 136 ceded, 50
263; education policy under, 599; in California: anti-pollution laws in, 112; Cedras, Raul, 702
election of 1992, p70; and federal aid criminal law in, 437; legislature in, censorship, 538
policies, 109; foreign policy under, 642; local government in, 664; recall census, 124
612, 619, 621; isolation of, 265; judi- of governor, 644; water rights dis- Census, Bureau of the, 124, 277
cial appointments of, 348; national putes in, 105; welfare in, 654 Centers for Disease Control and
defense, 567; nominations of, 532; California v. Acevedo, 400 Prevention, 595
and Operation Desert Storm, 258, California v. Greenwood, 399 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 257,
p258, 618; and overthrow of Noriega, campaigning online, 130 280, 294, 616
258; and Persian Gulf War, 197; as campaign manager, 476 central issues, identifying, 31
vice president, 213, p213; war powers Campbell, Ben Nighthorse, 153 centralized planning, 724
of, p157 Camp David, 216 change of venue, 86
Bush, George W., in 2004 presidential Campos, Gladiola, 381 Channel One News, 514
campaign, 497, 531; budget of, 564; Canada, federal government in, 12 Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, 370
cabinet of, p231; campaign, 216; and candidates: identifying, 52930; nomi- Charles I (King of England), 36
Defense Department, 294; and De- nation of, 46470, 53031; recruiting, Charles X (King of France), 690
partment of Homeland Security, 237; 461 Chase, Samuel, impeachment of, 322
and education reform, 599; and the Cannon, Charlie, 26 checkbook journalism, 535

checks and balancescommittee system

checks and balances, 6566, c66, ctn67, discrimination against women, ctn347, 348; legislation signing by,
172, 173, 174, p237, 341 41416; protecting, 310 171; and line-item veto, 176, 255; and
Cheney, Dick, p153, 153, 219, 219, 509, Civil Rights Act (1957), 140 the media, p248, p526, p528; and
564 Civil Rights Act (1964), 108, 162, party politics, 173; political cam-
Cheney, Lynne, 509 41516, 580 paigns of, 530, 543; and reinventing
Chiang Kai-shek, 696 Civil Rights and Womens Equity in government, 10910, 283, p293; and
Chicago, 672; municipal government Employment Act (1991), 416 Congress, 257; support for NAFTA,
in, 666; political boss in, 519; voting Civil Rights Commission, 279 711, 734; land investments of, 168,
rights in, 484 civil rights complaint, filing, p414 171; White House staff of, 239
Child Labor Act (1916), 336 civil rights movement, 40810; Clinton v. City of New York, 188, 255
Child Online Protection Act (1998), education in, 40910; under Eisen- closed primary, 465
548 hower, 99; under Johnson, 98, p407; closed rule, 190
Children's Internet Protection Act under Kennedy, 99; closed shops, 583
(2002), 548 sit-ins in, p408, 410; under Truman, cluster sample, 521
Chile: economic policies in, 724; 26162. See also Code of Hammurabi, 423
socialist democracy in, 725 African Americans coercive force, 9
Chiles, Lawton, p103 Civil Service Commission, 286 Cohen, Bernard, q534
China, People's Republic of, 69698; Civil Service Commission v. Letter Car- Cold War, 294, 610, 630; end of, 607,
appeals for democracy in, 697, p697; riers, 290 61113, 616, 698, 704; North At-
changing economy in, 72931; civil civil service system, 28486; benefits lantic Treaty Organization after, 628
liberties in, 69798; communism in, and problems, 287; getting collective bargaining, 581
2930, 697; constitution of, 13; for- job with, 286; Hatch Act (1939), collective farms, 728
eign policy with, 607; as permanent 28788, 290; origins, 28586; political collective naturalization, 39495
member of Security Council, 703; po- appointees, 28889 collective security, 629
litical history of, 69697; relations civil society, 24 colonies: conflict with Great Britain,
with U.S., 698, 731; Tiananmen Civil War, p71, 625; political parties be- 4244; government in, 3840;
Square in, 13, p18; and trade barriers, fore and after, 454 legislatures in, 3940; political her-
733; workers in, p716, 730 Civil War amendments, 8889, 98, 308 itage of, 3538; taxing, 43; unity of,
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), 389 civil wars, 710 44
Chisholm, Shirley, 153 Clark, Tom, q162, 324, q338 Colorado: sunset laws in, 112; water
Chisholm v. Georgia, 348 Clark v. Community for Creative Non- rights disputes in, 105
choice, freedom of, 720 Violence, 365 command economy, 717, 718, 720, 723;
Christian Democratic Union, 700 classroom courtroom, 44447 communism as, 2930
Christmas tree bills, 182, 190 Claybrook, Joan, 513 commander in chief, president as, 615,
Church, Frank, 19798 Clayton Antitrust Act (1914), 579, 581 p623
Churchill, Winston, 610 Clean Air Act (1963), 651 Commerce, U.S. Department of, 277,
Church of England, 700 Clean Air Act (1990), 587, 651 c278, 295, 297, 576
cities, 67172 Clean Air Amendments (1970), 587, Commerce and Slave-Trade
citizen participation: and Internet, 651 Compromise, 55
54648 clear and present danger doctrine, 320, commerce power, 108, 161
citizens: participation of, 23; 368, 382 commission form of municipal
representation of, 36, p36; Cleveland, Grover, 238; and labor rela- government, 667, c667
responsibilities of, 39697; right to tions, 99 committee action on bills, 184
know, 41617; right to privacy, Cleveland, Ohio, voting in, 484 Committee for Public Education v.
41718, p417 client groups, influences of, on Regan, 360
citizenship: by birth, 393, p393; and bureaucracy, 29798 Committee for the Propagation of
Fourteenth Amendment, 39293; los- Clinton, Hillary Rodham, p138, p529 Virtue and the Prevention of Vice,
ing, 39596; national, 39193; by nat- Clinton, William Bill, p80, 261, p262, 701
uralization, 39394, p394; 277, 454, q594, p615; appointments committee hearings of bills, 184
qualifications for, 39394, p394; steps of, 230, 254, 539; and balancing of Committee on Administrative
to, 39495, p396 budget, p562; cabinet of, 229, 23132; Management, 234, 238
civic responsibility, 529 and deregulation, 283; drug policy Committee on Permanent Organiza-
Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), 283 under, 67980; education policy tion, 469
civil cases, 646, 647; steps in, under, 599; in election of 1996, 494; Committee on Political Education
43334 and foreign policy, 612; and health (COPE), 505
civil law, types of, 43032 care reform, 102, 250; impeachment, committees of correspondence, 44
civil liberties, p21, 339, 725; affirmative 164, p164, 249; isolation of, 266; judi- committee system: in House of Repre-
action, 41214; in China, 69798; cial appointments of, 324, 347, sentatives, 133, 13637, 18384;

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)constitutional rights

in state legislatures, 642 influencing, 19498, ctn195; Internet constituents: defined, 133; helping,
Commodity Credit Corporation communication with, 546; investiga- 2003
(CCC), 586 tions by, 16768, p168; investigations Constitution, U.S., 3, 13; amending, 65,
Common Cause, 478, 506 by, and witness rights, 16869; lead- c77; articles of, 64; Bill of Rights in,
common law, 426 ership of, p144, 15253, p152, p153; 56, 58, 8388, 35556, 638; bureau-
Common Sense (Paine), 4546 legislative oversight activities of, 539; cracy in, 275; changes through cus-
Communications Act (1934), 547 limits on presidential power, 249; tom and usage, 82; checks and
Communications Decency Act (1996), media coverage of, 53233, p532; balances in, 6566, c66, ctn67; citi-
375, 548 meeting of first, 58; members of, zenship in, 39193; commerce clause
communism, 718, c719; in China, 12930; money powers of, 16061; of, 577, 578; concurrent powers in,
69698, 72931; class struggles override of veto, 188, 249; oversight 9798, c97; custom duties in, 558; de-
in, 29; collapse of Soviet, 72829; as activities of, 532; perks for members nied powers in, 97; division of federal
command economy, 2930; of, 123, p123; personal activities of and state powers in, c97; division of
in Cuba, 69899; defined, 29; over- members of, 532; powers denied to, powers in, 95; elastic clause in, 69;
throw of, in Eastern Europe, 69293 158; versus president, 74; profile of enacting clause of, 184; executive
Communist Manifesto, The (Marx), 29, 109th, c129; and ratification of branch in, 64, 68, 7071; expressed
739, q739 amendments, 7879; recording stu- powers in, 9596, c97; federal court
Communist Party, 453; of the Russian dios for, 533; and redistricting, 125; system in, 306; federalism in, 65; full
Federation, 731; in United States, 455 reelection to, 130; relations with faith and credit clause in, 1034;
compacts, 98 president, 17276, 61920; sessions guarantees to states in, 9899; impact
comparative adviantage, 732 of, 123; spending power of, 158, 160; of court decisions on, 8081; implied
comparisons, making, 603 Statuary Hall in, 635; swings in con- powers in, 96, c97; informal changes
competition, 71920; in free-enterprise trol of, c127; symbols in, 152; taxing in, 7981; inherent powers in, 96,
economy, 27 power of, 1089, 158, 160, p554; and c97; interpretation of, 15758;
complaint, filing, 433 term limits amendment, 112; terms judicial branch in, 64, 68, 7273; ju-
Comprehensive Employment Training of, 123. See also House of Represen- dicial review in, 6667; legislative
Act (1974), 682 tatives, U.S.; Senate, U.S. branch in, 64, 6870; limited govern-
computer databases, 383 Congressional Budget Act (1974), 562 ment in, 67; necessary and proper
Concord, 42, 44 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), clause in, 96, 157; popular sovereign-
concurrent jurisdiction, 306 14950, 175, 562, 563, 658 ty in, 65; Preamble to, 1314, 63, q63;
concurrent powers, 9798 congressional committees: assignment presidential powers in, 24547; and
concurrent resolutions, 182 to, 144; chairpersons role of, 145; privacy, 417; privileges and immuni-
concurring opinion, 334 choosing members of, 14445; kinds ties clause in, 104; ratifying, 5657,
Conestoga Wagon on the Pennsylvania of, 14244; purposes of, 141; seniori- m57; reserved powers in, 96, c97; sep-
Turnpike (Birch), ptg601 ty system aration of church and state in, 699;
confederacy, 12 of, 145; staff of, 147 separation of powers in, 65; shared
conferees, 187 Congressional Record, 188, 545, 550 power and conflict in, 7375; strict
conference committee, 144; actions by, Congressional Research Service (CRS), versus broad interpretation of, 69;
187 149 structure of, 6365; supremacy clause
confidentiality, 417 congressional staff: committee, 14849; in, 64, 96; taxes in, 555. See also spe-
confirmation power of Senate, 164 growth of, 147, ctn147; influence of, cific amendments by number
Congress, U.S.: in amendment process, on Congress, 194; personal, 14748; constitutional commissions, 639
7677, 165; and appropriation of role of, 14647; support agencies, Constitutional Convention (1787), 20,
money, 19192; commerce power of, 14950; work of, 203 214; beginning of, 53; Commerce and
108, 161; confirmation hearings of, Connecticut, 39; economic develop- Slave-Trade Compromise in, 55;
532; in Constitution, 6870, 7980, ment in, 681; election of governor in, Connecticut Compromise in, 5455;
15758; versus courts, 7475; debate 643; local government in, 664; on delegates to, 53; New Jersey Plan in,
over communications policy in, 547; slavery issue, 55 54; organization of, 5354; slavery
e-mailing messages to, 121, 552; enu- Connecticut Compromise, 5455 question in, 5556; Three-Fifths
merated powers of, 69; and federal conscription, 625 Compromise in, 55; Virginia Plan in,
budget, 56264; first home of, 69; consensus, 6 54
foreign policy powers of, 16263, Consent Calendar, 136 constitutional conventions, 639, 640
61719; helping constituents in, conservation: federal policy on, 586; constitutional government, 13; in
200203; influence of, on bureaucra- state efforts in, 651 Poland, 69293
cy, 29697; influence of, over conservative ideology, 495, 496, 517 constitutional law, 14, 424
Supreme Court, 34748; influence of consideration, 431 constitutional monarchs, 19
political action committees on, 513; consolidated democracies, 689 constitutional rights, 35557

constitutionsDemocratic Party

constitutions: defined, 13; and govern- cradle-to-grave benefits, 723 database, building, 349
ment, 1314; in Japan, 690; in Mexi- Cranston, Alan, p167 Davie, William, q50
co, 694; in Poland, 693; state, 47. See Crassus, Marcus Licinius, 669 Davis, Arthur, 663
also Constitution, U.S.; state constitu- Crawford, Thomas, p134 Davis, Gray, 644
tions credentials committee at national con- Dayton peace accord, 395
consul, 623 ventions, 469 Dean, Howard, 547
consulates, 623, 710 credit information, sharing, 418 death penalty. See capital punishment
Consumer Product Safety Commis- crime, 437; definition of, 398; and law debates, 26871, 476, 546; Lincoln-
sion (CPSC), 579, 580, p291 enforcement, c438; punishment for, Douglas, 551, q551; of 1960, 476; of
consumer protection: federal role in, 395; rights of accused, 8586; types 1976, 476; of 1980, 49495; Nixon-
57982; state role in, 649 of, 43738 Kennedy, 528
containment, 61011 criminal cases, 646, 647; federal, 437; Debs, Eugene V., 309
contempt, 168 steps in, 43843 Debs v. United States, 309
Continental Army, 48 criminal corrections, state, 65253 decentralized justice, 65152
Continental Congress: First, 44; Sec- criminal justice, 437; spending on, decisions: making, 737; in trial, 44243
ond, 4445, 47, 48 c652; state efforts in, 65153, c652 Declaration of Independence, 33, q33,
Continental soldier, p48 criminal law, 437; mandatory 355; citizenship in, 391;
Contract with America, 594 sentencing in, 437 parts of, 4647
contracts, 43031; role of Congress in critical thinking: analyzing news media, Declaration of the Rights of Man, 61,
winning, 2023; yellow-dog, 582 571; analyzing primary sources, 117; q61
contras, 532 analyzing secondary sources, 299; defamatory speech, 36970
convention delegates, 466 demonstrating reasoned judgment, defendant, 433, 435
Coolidge, Calvin, p464 676; distinguishing fact from opinion, defense, secretary of, 616
copping plea, 441 327; identifying central issues, 31; in- Defense, U.S. Department of, 257, 277,
copyright, 163 terpreting information, 193; inter- 294, 295, 298, 595, 615, 616, 62325;
corporate charter, 648 preting point of view, 631; making establishment of, 624; size of, 625;
corporate income tax, 556 comparisons, 603; making decisions, winning contracts with, 2023
Corporation for Public Broadcasting 737; making generalizations, 151; syn- deficit spending, 568
(CPB), 531 thesizing information, 480 de Gaulle, Charles, 691
corruption, and spoils system, 28586 Croatia: application for EU DeJonge, Dirk, 376
Corzine, Jon S., 477 membership, 704, 734 DeJonge v. Oregon, 37677, 382
Council for a Livable World, 512 cross-pressured voter, 493 de Klerk, Frederik, 693
council-manager form of municipal cruel and unusual punishment, 87, 405 Delaware: constitution of, 640; local
government, 668, c667 C-SPAN (Cable-Satellite Public Affairs government in, 664; on slavery issue,
Council of Economic Advisers, 237, Network), 527, 532, p532, 533 55
256 Cuba, 69899; under Castro, 69899, delegated powers, 95
Council of State Governments, 507 725; future of, 699; jinoteros in, 696; Dellums, Ronald, 202
Council of the European Union, 705 trade embargo against, 736 democracy(ies), 1920, 38; characteris-
counsel, guarantee of, 4012 Cuban Democracy Act (1992), 706 tics of, 2023; consolidated, 689;
county, 66364 Cultivation of Cotton (Volkov), ptg29 criteria of, 2324; defined, 19; direct,
county board, 664 cultural activities, local government 20; and economic systems, 2324;
Court of International Trade, 314 role in, 671 emerging, 69294; as foreign policy
Court of Military Appeals, 315 customs duties, 55758 goal, 609; and public opinion, 522;
Court of Veterans Appeals, 316 cybervolunteering, 547 representative, 20; socialist, 725; in
Court TV, 451 Czechoslovakia, overthrow of South Africa, p689
courts: versus Congress, 7475; communism in, 692 Democracy in Action Workshops,
of District of Columbia, 31516; in- Czech Republic, and NATO 2047, 26871, 44447
fluence of, on bureaucracy, 297; mag- membership, 628; Democratic Left Alliance (SLD)
istrate, 646; media coverage of, 533; (Poland), 693
municipal, 646; teen, 665. See also Democratic National Committee, 461
federal court judges; federal courts; D Democratic Party, 454; and campaign
state court judges; state courts; finance reform, 478; Caucus in, 136;
Supreme Court, U.S.; Supreme Dale, Thomas, p35 in House of Representatives, U.S.,
Court, U.S., cases damages, 434 134; media coverage of convention,
Cox, James, 464 Dardick, Geeta, 72, p72 p537; national committee for, 507;
Cox v. Louisiana, 377 Dardick, Sam, 72, p72 1964 national convention for, 469;
Cox v. New Hampshire, 377 Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 308 1968 national convention for, 398,
cracking, 127 Das Kapital (Marx), 29 p398, 666; 1996 national convention

Democratic-Republican Partyelection campaigns

for, 537; and political control of Con- domestic relation courts, 646 command, 2930, 717, 718, 720, 723;
gress, 113, 454, c127; post-Civil War, Dorr, Thomas, 637, p637 global, 73236; laissez-faire, 27, 578;
113; symbol of, 462 double jeopardy, 85, 4045 market, 717; mixed, 575; mixed-mar-
Democratic-Republican Party, 221, Douglas, Stephen, debate with Abra- ket, 28; and taxes, 55859; traditional,
285, 454 ham Lincoln, 551, q551 717; transformation of Russian,
democratic socialism, 28, 33, 723 Douglas, William O., 323, 332, 344, 372 72829
democratic society, media contribu- Douglass, Frederick, 392 education: Clinton's proposals for, 106;
tions to, 527 Dred Scott v. Sandford, 308, 337, 392 desegregation in, 95, p95, 309, p309,
demonstrations, limits on, 377 driving under the influence, p439 310, 34647; federal programs for,
denaturalization, 396 drug abuse, 67980 59799; local administration of, 669,
denied powers, 98 Drug Enforcement Administration 673; political parties role in, 461; state
Dennis v. United States, 369, 382 (DEA), 277, p296, 679 role in, 653; in Turkey, 722. See also
deputy whips, 135 due process of law, 89, 35657, 42728, schools
deregulation, 283, 578 438; defined, 86; procedural, 42728, Education, U.S. Department of, 279,
desegregation: of businesses, 108, p108; p427; and regulatory power, 30810; 297
in education, 95, p95, 309, p309, 310, substantive, 427, p427 Edwards, George C., III, q529
34647, p346 Dukakis, Michael, 223, 476, 495 Edwards, John, p452, p467; in 2004
Detroit, 672; 1967 riots in, 98; political Dulles, John Foster, 237, 617 presidential campaign, 531
boss in, 519; voting rights in, 484 Duma (Russia), 729 Edwards v. Aguillard, 362
developing economies: in Asia, 734; in dumping, 734 e-government, 54546
the global economy, 73536 Duncan, John J., Jr., 133, q133 E-government Act (2002), 546
developing nations, 722, p726; compar- Dunifer, Stephen, 536 Eighteenth Amendment, 78, 83, 89,
ison of, c723; defined, 16; sustainable Dunlap, John, p40 165
development and, 71112 18-year-olds, voting rights for, 5, p5,
Deykes, Robin, 170, p170 212, 484
Daz, Porfirio, 699 E Eighth Amendment, 87, 439
Dickerson v. United States, 331, 404 Einseln, Aleksander, 391, p391
dictatorship, totalitarian, 18 Earth Summit, 712 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 172, 215, 218,
Dincer, Alaatin, 722 Eastern Europe, overthrow of 219, 237, 259, p259; and civil rights,
Dingell, John, p112 communism in, 69293 99; and civil service, 284, q284; in
direct benefit payments, 566 East Germany, overthrow of elections of 1952/1956, 495; foreign
direct democracy, 20 communism in, 692 policy under, 617; isolation of, 265;
direct popular vote, 220, 226 Eckford, Elizabeth Ann, 99, p99 judicial appointments of, 325; and
direct primary, 465 e-commerce, taxing, 549 NASA, 294; and political campaigns,
disabled voters, special assistance for, economic aid, 629 529, 531
491 economic and monetary union (EMU), elastic clause, 69, 96
disabled workers, 580 733, 734 election(s): of 1800, 164, 221; of 1824,
Discharge Calendar, 136 Economic and Social Council 164, 220, p220; of 1828, 496; of 1896,
discrimination: proving intent in, (ECOSOC), 704 499; of 1920, p464; of 1952, 495; of
4078; reverse, 41213, p413; against economic answers, searching for, 1956, 495; of 1964, 493, 495; of 1968,
women, 41416, p415, p416. See also 72425 515; of 1976, 495, 521; of 1980, 493,
civil rights movement economic choices, making, 72224 49495; of 1988, 476, 495; of 1992,
dissenting opinion, 334 economic development: in Africa, p70; of 1996, c477, 478, 494; of 2000,
District of Columbia: courts of, p725, 725726; meeting challenges in, c222, 224, p224, m225, 248, 497, 498,
31516; representation in Congress, 681 499; of 2004, m225, c489, m494, 497;
129. See also Washington, D.C. Economic Opportunity, Office of, 238 decline in participation, 497; free, 22;
districts, role of Congress in helping, economic organization, forms of, 718 and the Hatch Act, 28788; political
2013, p202 Economic Report of the President, action committees in, 513; of presi-
divine right theory, 8 23738 dent, 22026; primary, 465
divorce, 431 economics, 26; decision making in, 11 election campaigns, 216, 460, p460,
documentaries, 530 economic sanctions, 630 47579; advertising in, 53738;
Doggett, Lloyd, p200 economic systems: comparison of, candidates image in, 476, 495;
Dolbeare, Kenneth M., q313 c719; democracy and, 2324; factors financing, 47779, c477, 511, ctn511,
Dole, Bob, p138; campaign finance re- of production in, 71718, p718, 723; 538; influencing, 51314; issues in,
form and, 478; in election of 1996, role of, 26; types of, 2630. See also 49495; media coverage of, 53639;
p269, p468, 494; Web site of, 543 specific system organization of, 476; for the
domestic affairs in Constitution, 80 economies, emerging, 72226 president, 47576; strategy of, 476;
Domestic Policy Council, 238 economy: changing, in China, 72931; working in, 478

election campaign spendingfederal courts

election campaign spending: ceiling Agency (EPA), 238, 279, 298, 482, Executive Calendar, 140
on, 463, 477, c477, 479, ctn479; as 587, p587, 588, 651; unfunded man- Executive Office of President (EOP),
form of speech, 475 dates of, 588 23435; agencies in, 23438, c282
Election Day, 475; setting, 498; video- Epperson v. Arkansas, 362 executive orders, 253, 625
taping of polling places on, 481 Epstein, Laura, 15, p15 executive privilege, 68, 26667
election map, interpreting, 233, m233 Equal Access Act (1984), 362 expatriation, 395
Electoral College, 56, 163, 22021, Equal Credit Opportunity Act (1974), ex post facto laws, 158
c222; casting of votes by, 47576; is- 416 expressed powers: of Congress, 157; de-
sues, 22324; replacement of, 227; Equal Employment Opportunity Act fined, 6869, 9596
today, 22123 (1972), 416 extradition, 103, 1045, 652
electronic eavesdropping, 4001, p401 equal justice under law, 427 extralegal, 56
electronic mailing lists, 545 equal protection, 4067
electronic petition, 547 equal rights, struggle for, 40810
electronic spreadsheet, 471 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 78, F
electronic voting, 54748 p78, 340
Elementary and Secondary Education equal time doctrine, 545 fact, distinguishing from opinion,
Act (1965), 598 equity, 426 327
Eleventh Amendment, 8788, 348 Ervin, Sam, 171 factions, 454, 503. See also political par-
Ellis Island, 353 Escobedo v. Illinois, 403 ties
e-mail, 520; agencies, 210; and Espionage Act (1917), 368, 369 factors of production, 71718, p718,
campaigning, 130, 476; and free Espy, Mike, 586 723
press, 375; and lawmakers, 196; sena- establishment clause, 35863 Fainstein, Norman L., q678
tors, 552 estate tax, 558 Fainstein, Susan F., q678
Emancipation Proclamation, 231 Estonia, and NATO membership, 628 Fair Housing Act (1965), 431
embargo, 44 ethnic warfare, 628; in former fairness doctrine, 538
embassies, 62223, p622 Yugoslavia, 612 fair trade, 73536
embedded journalists, 541 euro, 73435 fair trials and free press, 37274
emerging economies, 72226 eurocracy, 706 Falun Gong, 697
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 516, q516 European Commission, 706 Falwell, Jerry, 370
eminent domain, 86 European Community (EC), 705 Family Educational Rights and Privacy
emperor, 721 European Convention of Human Act (1974), 417
Employment Act (1946), 170, 256 Rights, 710 family in political socialization, 515
enabling act, 99 European Court of Human Rights, 710 family law, 43132
Endangered Species Act (1973), 324 European Court of Justice, 706 Farm Service Agency, 586
Endo, Mitsuye, 2122 European Economic Community farm subsidies, 586
Endo v. United States, 2122 (EEC), 705; economic sanctions Federal Aid Highway Act (1956), 601
Endres, Arlys, 197, p197 against South Africa, 693 federal aid to states, 10910, m110
enemy alien, 387 European Parliament (EP), 7056 Federal Aviation Administration
energy: crisis in, 589; government poli- European Union (EU), 702, 7046; (FAA), 170, 279, 601
cy on, 58889 government of, 7056; human rights Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), 146
Energy, U.S. Department of, 279, 589 and, 710; and Kyoto Treaty, 712; and federal budget: percentage of, for for-
Engel v. Vitale, 361 political developments, 705; and eign aid, 727; preparing, c561, 56064
Engelbart, Christina, 611 trade, 73435 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),
Engelbart, Douglas, 611, p611 Evans, Donald, p231 275, 277; Training Academy, 553
Engels, Friedrich, q29 Evangelical Lutheran Church, 700 Federal Communications Commission
English Bill of Rights, 3637 Everson v. Board of Education, 359 (FCC), 314, 374; content regulation
Enron Corporation, 581 evolution, teaching theory of, 362 by, 538; creation of, 537; fairness doc-
entertainment value of news, 535 evolutionary theory of government trine, 538; ownership regulation by,
entitlements, 192, 562, 566 origin, 8 538539; and radio piracy, 536; on
entrepreneurs, 718, 720, p720 excise taxes, 557, 656 television advertising, 531
enumerated powers, 69 exclusionary rule, relaxing, 399 federal court judges: impeachment of,
environment: federal policies on, executive activities, congressional limits 322, 647; party affiliation of, 31617;
58789; interest groups for, 506; pro- on, 170 selection of, 31617, c316
tecting, 71112; state policies on, executive agreements, 80, 619; power federal courts, c306; of appeals, 31314;
65051 to make, 257 changes in, 7273; Court of Interna-
Environmental Action, Inc., 506 executive branch: in Constitution, 68, tional Trade, 314; Court of Military
Environmental Policy, Office of, 238 7071; in Mexico, 700; in state gov- Appeals, 315; Court of Veterans
Environmental Protection ernment, 64346. See also president Appeals, 316; district, 31213; of Dis-

federal criminal caseFriedman, Milton

trict of Columbia, 31516; jurisdic- (FDC), 705 254; political campaign of, 531;
tion of, 72, 3057; legislative, 31415; Feiner, Irving, 379 succession to president, 217
limits on presidential power, 24950; Feiner v. New York, 379 Ford Foundation, 531
officers of, 313; powers of, 30510; Feingold, Russell, p123, 478 Foreign Affairs, Department of, 621
territorial, 315; United States Claims felonies, 399, 438, 439 foreign affairs in Constitution, 80
Court, 315; United States Tax Court, Ferraro, Geraldine, 216, 470, p470, 499, Foreign Agricultural Service, 586
315 p499 foreign aid: programs for, 62930; rea-
federal criminal case, 437 Fifteenth Amendment, 89, 482 sons for U.S. increase in, 727
Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora- Fifth Amendment, 8586, 169, 357, foreign exchange student, hosting, 730,
tion (FDIC), 280 4024, 442, 719; due process clause p730
federal district courts, 31213 of, 406 foreign governments, recognition of,
Federal Election Campaign Act (1971), filibuster, 140, p139, p181 25758
477, 511 financing: campaign advertising, 537; Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Federal Election Commission (FEC), election campaigns, 47779, c477, (1978), 316, 401
477, 479, 511, 547 511, ctn511; local governments, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
federal government: agricultural policy 67375, c674; state government, Court, 316
of, 58486; in consumer protection, 65658, c674 foreign policy: in action, 62730; advis-
57982; education policy of, 59799; firearms, right to own, 8485 ers for, 61517; cabinet departments
energy policy of, 58889; growth of, fire protection, local government role for, 61516; congressional powers in,
1079; impact of mass media on, in, 670 16263, 61719; development of,
52734; powers of, c97; transporta- fireside chats, 528 60913; goals of, 6079; influence of
tion programs of, 6002; types of First Amendment, 8384, q83, 343, public opinion on, 620; presidents
subsidies, 576 356; establishment clause, 35863; powers in, 61417
federal grants, 109, 116, 65758 freedom of assembly in, 84, 37682; Foreign Service, 622
Federal Highway Administration freedom of speech in, 84, 36670; Foreign Service Officers, 622
(FHWA), 279, 601, 602 freedom of the press in, 84, 37175; Fort Sumter, shelling of, p247
Federal Housing Administration free exercise clause, 36364; free press Fourteenth Amendment, 8889, 3089,
(FHA), 599, 672 guarantees 321, 346, 35657, 411; and citizen-
federalism, 87, 95; defined, 65; in, 53637; interpreting, p364; pro- ship, 39293
developing, 10610; and differences tection of song lyrics under, 41; rights Fourth Amendment, 85, 343, 398401
among states, 115; direction of, under, 548 Fox, Vicente, 694
11516; and political parties, 113; First Continental Congress, 44 France: as permanent member of
and professional politicians, 115; and first reading of bill, 184 Security Council, 703; presidential
public policy, 11213; and taxes, 549 fiscal policy, 56768, 721 government in, 69192; unitary
Federalist, The, 15, 57, p58, 96, 454 Fishner, Steven M., 677 system of government in, 12
Federalist Party, 454 flag: display of, 96, p96; pledge of Frank, Barney, 513
Federalists, 5657, 106, 221, 454 allegiance to, 107, 359, 361; salute Frank, Barry, 82
federal mandates, 658 cases, 36364 Frankfurter, Felix, 345, q381
Federal Metal and Non-Metallic Safety Fletcher v. Peck, 308 franking privilege, 128
Board of Review, 295 Flood, Curt, 166, p166 Franklin, Benjamin, 20, 37, 40, 44, 53,
Federal Power Commission, 297 Flood v. Kuhn, 166 56, 555; and Declaration of
Federal Radio Commission, 545 Florida: conservation in, 651; and elec- Independence, 46
Federal Railroad Administration, 279, tion of 2000, 498; legal assistance freedom of choice, 720, p720
601 program in, 440; local government Freedom of Information Act (1966),
Federal Register, 578 in, 664; sunset laws in, 113 416
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act Florida v. J.L., 399 free enterprise, 23, 26, 27, 718; in Unit-
(1946), 508 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ed States, 28
Federal Reserve System: Board of Gov- 279, 297, 580, 595 free exercise clause, 36364
ernors, 569; districts, m569; making Food From the Hood, 720, p720 free market, 27
monetary policy, 566, 56970; orga- food stamps, 59293 free market economies, 722, 726
nization of, 56869; seal of, p570 force theory, 8 Free Radio Berkeley, 536
Federal Road Aid Act (1916), 601 Ford, Gerald R., q67, 223, p254, q295, Free Soil Party, 455
federal system, 12, 65 462, 499, p499; cabinet of, 229; in free trade: 735; as foreign policy goal,
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 295, election of 1976, 521; and granting of 608; importance of, 57576
297, 314, 575, 579, 580 amnesty to draft evaders, 254; judicial French and Indian War, 42, 43
Federal Transit Administration, 279 appointments of, 316; nomination of, French Revolution (1789), 47, 699
Federation for a Democratic China in 1976, 537; pardoning of Nixon by, Friedman, Milton, q729

Friends of the EarthGuthrie, Oklahoma

Friends of the Earth, 506 global economy, 73236; trade in, c733 Graham, Henry, p95
Frisby v. Schultz, 367 global issues, 707712 Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (1985),
front-runners, 53031 global pollution, 711 563
Fujitsu, p718 Glorious Revolution, 36 Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone
Fulbright, J. William, 528, q528 Goals 2000: Educate America Act (Moran), ptg162
Fuller, Melville, 318, p318 (1994), 599 grandfather clause, 48283
full faith and credit clause, 103 Gobitis, Lillian, 363 grand jury, 312, 43940
Fulminante, Oreste, 404 Gobitis, William, 363 Grange, 505, 525, q525
Fulton, Robert, 161 Golden Fleece Award, p189 Granger Cases, 309
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, Goldwater, Barry M., 216, 617; in elec- Grant, Ulysses S., 259; and corruption,
39 tion of 1964, 493, 495 286
fundamental rights, 407 Gonzalez, Henry B., 577, q577 grants, role of Congress in winning,
Furman v. Georgia, 405 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 61213, 729 2023; to states and localities, 567
future challenges, meeting, 680 Gore, Al: and balancing of budget, grants-in-aid, 658
p562; in election of 2000, c222, 224; Gray, Horace, 323
G and the media, p535; and reinventing Grayned v. City of Rockford, 37778
government, 110, 283, p293; on Great Britain: conflict with colonies,
gag orders, 371; unconstitutional, 373 telecommunications, 546; as vice 4244; democracy in, 689; democrat-
Gallup Poll, p521 president, 245, 283 ic socialism in, 28; dissolving the gov-
Galveston, Texas, municipal government: under Articles of Confed- ernment in, 692; government reforms
government in, 667 eration, c49, 48; authoritarian, in, 689, p690; Parliament in, 36, 68,
Gannett Co. v. Pasquale, 373 696701; in colonies, 3840; com- 123, 68990; as permanent member
Gannett newspaper chain, 528 municating with officials in, 546; of Security Council, 703; prime min-
Gans, Curtis B., q173 comparison of, c20; comparison of ister in, 690, p690; unitary system of
Garfield, James A., 218; assassination presidential and parliamentary, c692; government in, 12
of, 286; and mail scandal, 284 constitutional, 69293; and constitu- Great Depression, 28, 107; farming
Gates, Bill, 578 tions, 1314; in daily life, p9; defined, during, 585; impact of, 59091; polit-
General Accounting Office (GAO), 8; European Union, 705706; forma- ical parties in, 45455; and stock
150, 171 tion of, 1217; influence on econo- market, 566, 581; and use of sales tax,
General Agreement on Tariffs and my, 28; interest groups in, 507; 656. See also New Deal
Trade (GATT), 734, 735 Islamic, 699701; parliamentary, Great Fundamentals, 39
generalizations, making, 151 68991; and politics, 1415; Great Seal of the United States, p2, 3,
General Services Administration presidential, 69192; presidential 10, p10
(GSA), 280 versus parliamentary, c693; princi- Greece, education in, 722
general trial courts, state, 64647 ples of, 511; purposes of, 911; rep- Green, Theodore Francis, p152
gentrification, 68182 resentative, 37; separation between greenhouse gas emissions, 712
George III (King of England), 42, 43, religion and, 699700; spending by, Greenspan, Alan, 566, ctn566, p570
44, 45, 47; crown of, p44 56667; totalitarian, 696; in twenti- Gregg v. Georgia, 405
Georgia: apportionment in, 126; elec- eth century, 1617; types of, 1824, Gregory, Dick, 380
tion of governor in, 64344; taxes in, c20. See also federal government; Gregory v. Chicago, 380
656 local government; state government Grenada, use of military force in, 82,
Germany, education in, 722 government broadcasting, 531 163
Gerry, Elbridge, 12627 government corporations, 280 Griswold v. Connecticut, 41617
gerrymandering, 125, 126, 130 government leaders in political Grodzins, Martin, 114, q114
Gibbons, Thomas, 161 socialization, 516 gross national product (GNP), 568,
Gibbons v. Ogden, 111, 161, 308, p161 Government National Mortgage 729, 734
Gideon, Clarence Earl, 334, p334, Association, 279 Grutter v. Bollinger, 413
4012, p402 Government Performance and Results Guam, 163; representation in Congress,
Gideon v. Wainwright, 334, 4012 Act, 296 129; territorial courts in, 315
gift taxes, 558 Government Printing Office (GPO), guarantee of counsel, 4012
Gingrich, Newt, 130, 137, q188, 532, 150, 188, 545 Guardian, The, p302
594, q595 government securities, 559 Guatemala, Wheels for Humanity in, 700
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 254, 319, p319, government systems: federal, 12; Guiteau, Charles, 286
p322, 323, p325, p344 unitary, 12 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 248, 618
Gitlow v. New York, 357, 368 governor, 643; election of, 64344; roles gun control debate, 356
Glenn, John, 153, p153 of, 64446; term of office and salary Gurwitt, Rob, 672, q672
Glickman, Dan, 513 for, 644 Guthrie, Oklahoma, 100

Habitat for Humanityimpoundment

Holocaust, the, 379 Hudson v. United States, 404

H Home Depot, 717 Hughes, Charles Evans, q74, 334, q334,
Homeland Security Council, 237 376, q377, q582
Habitat for Humanity, p266 Homeland Security, Department of, Hughes v. Superior Court, 381
Hague, Jane, 54546 237, c282 Humane Society, 24
Haiti: government in, 614; military Homeland Security, Office of, 237, humanity, 609, p609
force in, 163, 612, 630; overthrow of homelessness, 679 human rights, 355, 710711
government in, 702 HOME program, 600 Humphrey, Hubert H., 170, 219, 224
Halberstam, David, 528, q528, q534 Homestead Act (1862), 585 Hundt, Reed, 531, q531
Haldeman, H.R., 265 Hoover, Herbert C., 238, 241, p241, Hungary, and NATO membership, 628;
Hale, Jubal, 295 q498, q545; communication skills of, overthrow of communism
Hamilton, Alexander, p52, 57, q106; 263; judicial appointments of, 325; in, 692
and Electoral College, 220; as Federal- leadership style of, 262 hung jury, 443
ist, 106; as member of cabinet, 228, Hoover, J. Edgar, 253 Hussein, Saddam, 612, 613, 707
p230, 259; probusiness policies of, 575 horse-race coverage, 530 Hustler Magazine v. Falwell, 370
Hammurabi, 423, p423; code of, 449, House, Edward, 265, 617 Hutchinson, Anne, 358, p358
q449 house arrest, 653 Hutchinson v. Proxmire, 128
Hancock, John, 46, 53, p53 House Leadership Fund, the, 512
Hand, Learned, 355, q355 House of Burgesses, p37
Han Seung-soo, p617 House of Commons (Great Britain), I
Harding, Warren, 464 37, 689, 690
Harlan, John Marshall (1877-1911), House of Councillors (Japan), 690, 691 Idaho, conservation in, 651; laws
q409 House of Lords (Great Britain), 37, in, 425
Harrison, Benjamin, 224, 254 689, 690 ideological party, 455
Harrison, Michael, 529 House of Representatives (Japan), ideology, 495, 496, 517
Harrison, William Henry, 259 69091 Iglesias, Miquel Angel, 696, p696
Hatch, Carl, 287 House of Representatives, U.S., 123, I Have a Dream Foundation, 215
Hawaii: admission to Union, 100; con- 18990; appropriations committee Ikeda, Yukihiko, 229, p229
servation in, 651 of, 192; calendar in, 136, 137; com- illegal aliens, 38788; hiring of, 390
Hayes, Rutherford B., 224 mittees in, 133, 577; in Constitution, image of political candidate, 476, 495
Hazelwood School District v. 68; in deciding presidential election, immigrants: qualification for
Kuhlmeier, 333, 355, 370 224; floor leaders in, 13435; and im- citizenship, 39394. See also aliens
Health and Human Services, U.S. De- peachment, 164; lawmaking in, immigration, laws on, 623
partment of, 278, 292, 595 13537; leadership of, 13435; Over- Immigration Act (1924), 389
Health Care Financing Administra- sight Committee in, 146, p146; party Immigration Act (1990), 390
tion, 591 affiliation in, c129, 134; political divi- Immigration and Naturalization Ser-
hearings, 184 sion of, c127; power over revenue vice v. Chadha, 171
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United bills, 18990; qualifications of, 124; immigration policy, 388, c388; growth
States, 162 quorum for, 137; representation and of restrictions, 389; Immigration Act
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries apportionment for, 12425, m125; (1990), 390; Immigration Reform Act
(HIPC), 725 revenue bills in, 158; Rules Commit- (1965), 389, p389; Immigration Re-
hecklers veto, 379 tee in, 13637; rules for, 13233; form and Control Act (1986), 390;
Help America Vote Act, 484 symbols in, 152; term of office of, national origins quotas, 389
Henry, Patrick, p12, 44, 56, q57, q83 124; Ways and Means Committee in, Immigration Reform Act (1965), 389,
Herbst, Margaret, q705 189. See also Congress, U.S.; Senate, p389
Hickman, Harrison, 527 U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act
highways, 6012 housing: coping with shortages of, (1986), 390
Hills, Carla, 229 67879; discrimination in, 678; feder- immunity, 169
Hinckley, John, Jr., p218 al government policy toward, 599; impeachment, 249; charges in House of
Hirsch v. Atlanta, 378 public, 538, 600, 678 Representatives, 164;
Hispanics, in cabinet, 229 Housing Act (1949), 599 of Chase, 322; Clinton hearings, 164:
Hitler, Adolf, 19, 610, 630; treatment of Housing and Community Develop- defined, 79, 164; of Johnson, 79, 164,
Jews by, 387, p387 ment Act (1974), 600 p194, 249; of judges, 322, 647; of
Hobbes, Thomas, 8, p8 Housing and Urban Development, Nixon, 79, 249; trial in Senate, 164
Hoffman, Julius, 398, p398 U.S. Department of, 19192, 279, implied powers, 96, 157
Holder, Richard, 17, q17 292, 599600 impoundment, 175; of funds by
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., q318, 320, Houston, Texas, 671 Jefferson, 25354; of funds by Nixon,
p320, q336, p368, q368 Howenstein, G. Albert, q652 253, 254, p252

Inaugural AddressJapan

Inaugural Address, 226 504; power of, 5034; professional, Interstate Commerce Act (1887), 338,
inauguration, 226 506; public interest, 506; purpose of, 578
income taxes: corporate, 556; defined, 504; and shaping of public opinion, Interstate Commerce Commission
108; individual, 55556; replacement 51417; and state legislatures, (ICC), 283, 578
of, 565; state, 657. See also taxes 64243. See also lobbyists interstate compacts, 105
incorporation, 35657, 666 intergovernmental organization Interstate Highway System, 6012
incremental budget making, 564 (IGO), 702, 704 interstate relations, 1035
incumbents, 130, 513; reelection of, 130 intergovernmental revenue, 65758, interviews, p529; conducting, 542
independence days, comparing, c45 675 Intolerable Acts, 43
Independence Hall, 3 Interior, U.S. Department of the, 277 investigations, 43839; congressional,
independent agencies, 27980 interlocking directorates, 579 16769, p168
independent counsel, 171 intermediate appellate courts, 647 Iran: Muslims in, 699; nuclear weapons
independent voters, 49394, 495 Intermodal Surface Transportation Ef- development by, 710; revolution in,
India, federal system of government in, ficiency Act (1991), 683 701; sponsorship of terrorism by,
12 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 167, 708; U.S. hostages in, 628, 701
Indian Affairs Department, of New 277, 296, 297, 556, 565 Iran-contra affair, p169, p234; media
Mexico, 665 international agreements, 712 coverage of, 532
Indiana: economic development in, International Atomic Energy Agency Iraq: economic sanctions against, 630;
681; local government in, 664 (IAEA), 709 military force in, 163; and Persian
India-Pakistan wars, 709 International Broadcasting Act (1994), Gulf War, 612; sponsorship of terror-
individual income tax, 55556 531 ism by, 708; and United Nations, 704
individual initiative, 719 International Brotherhood of Team- Iraq War, 82, 613, 630; media coverage
Indonesia, Muslims in, 699 sters, 505 of, 541
industrial development bonds, 64950 International Brotherhood of Team- Irish Republican Army (IRA), 17
Industrial Revolution, 432 sters, Local 695 v. Vogt, 38182 iron curtain, 610
industrialized nations, 16 International Civil Aviation Organiza- iron triangles, 29798, c297
infomercials, p461 tion, 704706 Islam, 699; views of, 7001
information, 440; censorship of, 536; international conflict, types of, 70810 Islamic governments, 699701
entertainment versus, 535; informa- International Court of Justice, 704 Islamic Republican Party, 453
tional, p542; Internet in gathering, International Criminal Court (ICC), isolationism, 609, 610
54446; interpreting, 193; and media 710711 Israel, kibbutzim in, 725
rights, 53740; sharing, 52829; syn- International Criminal Police Organi- issue advocacy advertising, 478
thesizing, 480 zation (Interpol), 704 issue awareness, media role in, 53334
infrastructure, 68081 International criminal tribunals, 710 Istanbul, 722
inherent powers, 96 International Exchange (iX), 732 Italy: government in, 453, p453; unitary
initial appearance, 439 internationalism, 609, 610 system of government in, 12
initiative, 639 International Monetary Fund, 704 item veto, 645
injunctions, 582 international news, 533
injunctive relief, 434 International Red Cross, 702
inner cabinet, 232 International Sugar Council, 17 J
Institutional Revolutionary Party international trade, 73234; barriers to,
(PRI) (Mexico), 454, 694 73334; with China, 698; fair, 735; fi- Jackson, Andrew, 75, 231, 259, 466;
intellectual property, 733 nancing, 734; free, 608, 735; in the campaign advertising for, 531; in
intentional tort, 432 global economy, c733; importance of election of 1824, 164, 220, p220, 466,
interdependence, 16, 613 free, 57576; managed, 736; most-fa- p466; in election of 1828, 496, 499;
interest groups, 114, 229, p229; vored-nation (MFN) status in, 619; judicial power of, 341, p341; and
in agriculture, 505; in business, 505; protectionism and, 736; purpose of, spoils system, 285; and states rights,
comparison with political parties, 73233 308; struggle with Congress, 174
504; contributing to, 506, 507; de- Internet, 106, 536, 540; and campaign- Jackson, Jesse, 216
fined, 503, 504; effect of, on public ing, 130, 476, 479; in China, 698; and Jackson, Robert, 323, q364
policy, 50813; in environment, 506; citizen participation, 54648; features Jacksonville, Florida, 671
in government, 506; influence on of, 54344; and free press, 375; and Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 363
Congress, 198; and judicial appoint- government surveillance, 417; and in- James II (King of England), 8, 36
ments, 32526; in labor, 505; leader- formation gathering, 54446; power Jamestown, p35, 39, 42
ship and membership in, 505; letter of, 527; and privacy issues, 417; pub- Japan: constitution in, 690; National
writing by, 510; limitations on, 510; lic policy challenges for, 54849; and Diet in, 69091; prime minister in,
in measuring public opinion, 519; tracking legislation, 188 69091; teenagers in, 689, p689; trade
media campaigns of, 510; national, interstate commerce, 55, 161 barriers in, 733

Javits, Jacoblaw(s)

Javits, Jacob, 618, q618 judicial interpretation, 640 Kerry, John, p452, p467; in 2004 presi-
Jaworski, Leon, p68 judicial proceedings, 104 dential campaign, 497, 531
Jay, John, 57; as chief justice, 73, 318, judicial restraint, 8081 Kettl, Donald F., q116
481; as Federalist, 106 judicial review, 6667, 73, 8081, 307, Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 701
Jefferson, Thomas, q24, 37, 43, q46, 33637, ctn339, p307, p403, 640 kibbutzim, 725
p55, q132, p136, p149, q152, p193, judicial system: in Constitution, 68, Kilberg, Gillian, 680, p680
q241, 285, q345, 454, 536, q536, q543; 7273; media coverage of, 533; in Kim II Sung, 699
as author of Declaration of Indepen- state government, 64647. See also Kim Jong II, 699
dence, 46; and Barbary States, 258; in federal courts; Supreme Court, U.S. King, Martin Luther, Jr., p357, 410
election of 1800, 164, 221; and First Judiciary Act (1789), 73, 79, 308, 312 King, Samuel, 637
Amendment, 358, 359; foreign policy Jungle, The (Sinclair), 57980 Kiryas Joel v. Grumet, 361
under, 609; impoundment of funds jurisdiction, 72, 3056; appellate, Kissinger, Henry, 237, p237, 617
by, 25354; and judicial review, 3067, 321; concurrent, 306; defined, kitchen cabinet, 231
3078, p307; and Louisiana Purchase, 64; of federal courts, 72; original, 306, Knight, Dottie, p172
247; on New England towns, 665; as 307, 321; of Supreme Court, 321 Knox, Henry, 51, p230
secretary of state, 228, p228, p230, jury, 442; decision of, 44243; grand, Koizumi, Junichiro, 694
307, 616 312, 43940; hung, 443; petit, 313; Korea: government in, 20; and foreign
Jeffords, James, 130 rights to trial by, 86; serving on, 315, policy, p617. See also South Korea
Jennings, Peter, p529 p315 Korean War, 82, 162, 294, 61112, 709
Jewish refugees, 387, p387 jus sanguinis, 393 Korematsu v. United States, 21
Jiang Zemin, 730 jus soli, 393 Kosovo, 628
Jim Crow laws, 408 Justice, U.S. Department of, 277, 292; Kotohda, Junko, p689
jinoteros, 696 Antitrust Division, 579 Kovic, Ron, p367
job creation, trade and, 732 justice courts, 646 Kuwait, 704; economy in, 722
Job Opportunities and Basic Skills justice of the peace, 646, p646 Kyoto Protocol, 587, 712
program (JOBS), 59394 Justinian Code, 425
John (King of England), 3536 juvenile courts, 646
Johnson, Andrew, p164; impeachment L
of, 164, p194, 249 K
Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 152, p152, labor, 718; interest groups in, 505
q174, 219; in election of 1964, 493, Kamber, Victor, 577, q577 Labor, U.S. Department of, 277, 295, 582
495; and election of 1968, 515, 620; Kansas: local government in, 664; Labor Statistics, Bureau of, 277
cabinet of, 229, 231; and civil rights womens rights in, 645 labor unions: government protection of,
movement, 98, q241, p407; foreign Kantor, Mickey, 736 581, 583; government regulation of,
policy under, 612, 617, 618; Great So- Kasanoff, Larry, 141 583; and judicial appointments, 326
ciety program of, 119, q119, 598; iso- Katz, Charles, 401 Lafayette, Marquis de, 71
lation of, 264; judicial appointments Katz v. United States, 401 Laffer, Arthur B., 576, q577
of, 317; leadership style of, 262, p262; Kayden, Xandra, q459 laissez-faire economy, 27, 578
legislation of, 255; and the media, KaZaA, 544 lame ducks, 90
536; as vice-presidential candidate, Keating, Charles, p167 Lampkin, Bertina, p443
470; and Vietnam War, 19798, 248, Kemmelmeyer, Frederick, p221 land, 71718
250, 259 Kennan, George F., 607, 610, 633, q633 Landgraf, Heidi, 296, p296
Johnson, Paul, 413 Kennedy, Anthony, p322 land ordinances, 50
Johnson Act (1924), 389 Kennedy, Edward, 46869 Landrum-Griffin Act (1959), 583
Johnson v. Transportation Agency, Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, q152, 216, Lang, Eugene M., 215, p215
Santa Clara County, California, 413 217, 224, 232, 470; assassination of, Lardy, Nicholas, 730
Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), 277, 625 231, 323; and civil rights, 99; debate Latin America: nationalization in,
joint committees, 14344 of, with Nixon, p270, 528; Executive 72425; Organization of American
joint resolutions, 182 Office staff of, 236; foreign policy States in, 629; Rio Pact in, 628
Jones, LeAlan, 530, p530 under, 617; judicial appointments of, Latvia, and NATO membership, 628
Jordan, Barbara, 82, p82, q82 317; leadership style of, 263; and the Laughery, David, 512, p512
Joyce, Diane, 413, p413 media, 536; and NASA, 294; political Lau v. Nichols, 338
judges. See federal court judges; state campaign of, 52930; and public as- law(s): administrative, 425; common, 426;
court judges; Supreme Court, U.S., sistance programs, 592 constitutional, 424; due process of,
justices Kennedy, Joseph, 577 42728; early systems of, 42324; equal
judgment, demonstrating reasoned, 676 Kennedy, Robert, 277, p277 justice under, 427; family, 43132; mar-
judicial activism, 81 Kentucky: admission to Union, 99; tial, 425; property, 431; registering, 188;
judicial circuits, 313, c314 taxes in, 657 secular, 700; shield, 537; statutory, 425

law clerks for Supreme Courtmarketing quotas

law clerks for Supreme Court, 323 letter writing, in expressing public loss, 720
Law Enforcement Assistance opinion, 520 lotteries, state, 657
Administration, 292 Levitt, David, 113, p113 Loucks, William, q718
lawmaking: in House of Representa- Levitt v. Committee for Public Educa- Louisiana: election of governor in,
tives, 13537; involvement of bureau- tion, 360 64344; legislature in, 642; local gov-
cracy in, 292 Lewis, Bernard, 699, 709 ernment in, 664
Lawrence v. Texas, 417 Lexington, 44, p42 Louisiana Purchase, 247
lawyer: choosing, 426; hiring, 433 libel, 84, 369, 53637 Louis Philippe (King of France), 690
League of Nations, 26364 liberal ideology, 495, 496, 517 Lowden, Frank, p464
League of Women Voters, 490, 546 Libertarian Party, 455, 517 Lurton, Horace H., q101, 323
leaks, 263, 529 liberty, individual, 21 Lusk, R.D., q585
Lebanon, use of military force in, 163 Liberty Party, 455 Lynch, John, 170
Lee, Richard Henry, 44, 48 Library of Congress, 149, p149 Lynch v. Donnelly, 362
Lee v. Weisman, 361 library resources, using, 383
legislation: agricultural, 584585; in Libya, sponsorship of terrorism by, 708
House of Representatives, 135137; license plates, Confederate flags on,
Internet tracking of, 545; passage of 366, p366
state, 642643 licenses, 648; broadcast, 530; state fees Maastricht Treaty (1993), 705
legislative activities of Congress, 532 for, 657 mace, 152, p152
legislative assistants, 148 Lieberman, Joseph, p468 Madison, James, q15, 43, p52, 76, p76,
legislative bills: appropriations, 19192; lieutenant governor, 642, 645 q83, 96; and Bill of Rights, 58, 356; on
committee action on, 184; committee limited government, 36, 67 factions, 503; as father of the Consti-
hearings on, 184; debating and limited war, 709 tution, 53; as Federalist, 454; as secre-
amending of, 186; defined, 13536; Lincoln, Abraham, q10, 19, p71, 216; tary of state, 616; and Virginia Plan,
final steps in passing, 18588; floor Civil War and, p71, 231, 24748, 264, 54
action on, 18485; how a bill be- 425; debate with Stephen Douglas, magazines, 527
comes law, c185; initiating, 182, p182; 551, q551; inaugural speech of, 226; magistrate courts, 646
introduction of, 182, 18384; passage judicial appointments of, 317; on Magna Carta, 3536, 93, q93
of, 187; presidential action on, 187; purpose of government, 10; struggle magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) trains,
private, 181; public, 18182; report- with Congress, 174 602
ing, 186; role of lobbyists in drafting, Lineberry, Robert L., q529 Mahe, Eddie, Jr., q459
509; role of president in passing, Line Item Veto Act, 176, 188, 255 Maine, admission to Union, 99
25455; scheduling, 13536; state, line-up, 439 majority leaders, 13435, 13940
64243; taxing and spending, 18992; Li Peng, 705 majority opinion, 334
types of, 18182; vetoing, 188; voting Lippmann, Walter, 198 majority rule, 21
on, 18687, p186 literacy test, 483 majority whip, 135
legislative oversight, 16971; limits on, Lithuania, and NATO membership, 628 Malaysia, economy in, 734
170 Livingston, Robert, 161 Malcolm X, 385, q385
Legislative Reorganization Act (1946), Lloyd Corporation v. Tanner, 378 Mall of America, p376
147, 169 lobbying: amicus curiae briefs as form managed trade, 736
Legislative Reorganization Act (1970), of, 333; defined, 198, 508 Management and Budget, Office of
145 Lobbying Disclosure Act (1995), 508, (OMB), 150, 23637, 292, 561, 563
legislative veto, 171, 176 513 mandates, 658; federal, 109, 658; un-
legislatures: bicameral, 123, 641, 689; lobbyists, 297; defined, 198; identifying, funded, 588, 658
colonial, 3940; comparing, c135; in 5089; work of, 5089. See also inter- mandatory sentencing, 651
Constitution, 6870; contacting est groups Mandela, Nelson, 693
members of, 101; in France, 692; in local government: financing, 67375, Manhattan Project, 279
Japan, 691; in Mexico, 699; in state c674; in Mexico, 701; regional Manual of Parliamentary Practice (Jef-
government, 64143, 645; unicamer- arrangements, 673; services of, ferson), p136
al, 48. See also Congress, U.S. 66971; structure of, 66368; types Mao Zedong, 69697
legitimacy, 9 of, 66368 Mapp v. Ohio, 399
Lemon test, 360 Locke, John, 8, p8, 910, q9, q38, 46; Marbury, William, 3078
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 360 ideas of, 3738 Marbury v. Madison, 67, 73, 249,
Lenin, Vladimir, 729 Lodge, Henry Cabot, q140 3078, p307, 337
Leo, John, 508 logrolling, 202 Marcus, Bernie, 717
Lerner, Barbara, 598, q599 Los Angeles, 672; housing problems in, market economy, 717
Letourneau, Mary Kay, 535 678 marketing quotas, 586

market valueNapoleon Crossing the Great St. Bernard

market value, 674 McCulloch v. Maryland, 69, 102, 107, mixed-market economy, 28
markup session, 184 308 moderates, 517
Marshall, John, 73, q76, q83, q158, 305, McGovern, George, 216, 462 modified capitalism, 721
p305, 318, p318, 341, 638 McKinley, William, 238, 499 Mohammed, death of, 700
Marshall, Thurgood, p310, 317, 323, McReynolds, James, 343, p343 Molinari, Susan, 200
329, q329 McVeigh, Timothy, p98, p371 monarchy, 19; absolute, 19
Marshall Plan, 610, 727 Meat Inspection Act (1906), 28, 580 Mondale, Walter F., 470
Mars Pathfinder, p280 media. See mass media monetary policy, 567, 568, 56970, 721
Martin, Casey, 33738, p337 media events, 529 money: appropriation of, 19192; life
Martindale-Hubbell Law Directory, media outlets, growth in, 535 of, 721; power of Congress, 618
426 mediation, 434 monopoly, 578, 719
Marx, Karl, 2930, p30, q30, 739, q739 Medicaid, 278, 593, 654 Monroe, James, q609; as secretary of
Mary II (Queen of England), 8, 36 Medicare, 278, 292, 592 state, 61516
Maryland: courts in, 647; legislature in, meet-the-candidates nights, 546 Monroe Doctrine, 609
642 mergers: mass media and, p538, 540; of Montesquieu, baron de, p63
Mason, George, 43, p43 stock markets, 732 Moran, Thomas, ptg162
Massachusetts: colonial government in, Merit System Protection Board, 286 Morrill Act (1862), 585, 598
39, 43, 44; militia in, 51; ratification metropolitan communities, 67172 Morris, Gouverneur, 53
of Constitution by, 53; on slavery metropolitan government, 682 Morse, Eric, 530
issue, 55; state legislature in, 641; wel- Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 671 mortgage, 431
fare in, 654 Mexico: democracy in, 692; federal sys- Moscow, homeless in, 726
mass media: content control on, 538, tem of government in, 12; political Mosely-Braun, Carol, 153
540; coverage of Congress by, p532, parties in, 694 most-favored-nation (MFN) status,
53233; coverage of courts, 533; de- Michael, Mark, 26 619
fined, 527; First Amendment protec- Michigan: local government in, 664; Mothers Against Drunk Driving
tion of, 53637; in gauging public state police in, 98; welfare in, 654 (MADD), p439, 503
opinion, 520; global access to, c539; Microsoft, 578 motion pictures, and free press, 375;
impact on government, 52734; in- military, c624; civilian control of, 624; ratings, 141
terest group use of, 510; and mergers, desegregation of, p253; president as motor voter law, 488, 492
p538, 540; and national security, commander-in-chief of, 25859, 615, Mount Vernon, 52
54041; ownership of, 53839; in po- p623; spending, 567; use of, 626, Moyers, Bill, q83, 239
litical socialization, 515; and presi- 63031; volunteer, 616, 625; women Mueller v. Allen, 360
dent, 52729; and presidential in, p416, 625 Muhlenberg, Fredrick A., 69
campaigns, 52930; presidential use military rule, 425 mullahs, 700
of, p248, 24849, 263; protection of militia, 85 multimedia activities, 3, 177, 211, 303,
sources, 374, 537; regulation of, Miller v. California, 375 353, 449, 451, 635, 687
53641; setting of public agenda by, Milligan, Ex parte, 337 multinational corporations, 1617, 732
53334; types of, 527; in the United Mills, Wilbur, 190 multiparty systems, 454
States, c544; war coverage by, 534, Minersville School District v. Gobitis, municipal courts, 646
541, p541 363 municipal government, forms of,
mass transit: federal programs in, 602; Mines, Bureau of, 277 66668
improving to solve traffic congestion, minimum wage laws, 160 municipality, 665
683; local government role in, 671; minority leaders, 135, 139 Murphy, Frank, q22, q370
meeting challenges in, 681 minority whips, 135 Murray v. Curlett, 361
material scarcity, 11 Mint, Bureau of the, 277 Music Television (MTV), Rock the
Matsch, Richard P., p371 Minute Men, p42 Vote, 223, p223
Mayflower (ship), 39 Miranda, Ernesto, 403, p403 Muslim fundamentalists, 7001
Mayflower Compact, 39, q39 Miranda v. Arizona, 83, 331, 337, Muslims, 699. See also Islam
mayor-council form of municipal gov- 4034, p403 Mussolini, Benito, 19, 610
ernment, 66667, c667 misdemeanor, 438 mutual defense alliances, 62729
Mbeki, Thabo, 699 Mississippi: election of governor in,
McCaffrey, Barry R., q680 64344; legislature in, 642; term lim-
McCain, John, 478, q498 its in, 644 N
McCain-Feingold bill, 478 Missouri, local government in, 664
McCarthyism, 171 Missouri Compromise, 337 Nader, Ralph, 506, 513, 580, 605, q605;
McClellan, Scott, p238 Missouri Plan, 647 in election of 2000, m225
McCollum v. Board of Education, 361 mixed economy, 575, 721 Napoleon Crossing the Great St.
McCulloch, James, 158 Mitchell v. Helms, 360 Bernard, ptg19

Napoleon Inon-tariff barriers

Napoleon I, 690 National Park Service, 277, p285 newly developed nations, 722
Napoleonic Code, 425 National Party Congress, 703 Newman, Lloyd, 530, p530, p538
Napoleon III, 690 National Peoples Congress, 704 New National Party, 699
Nast, Thomas, 462, 499 National Performance Review, 110 New Orleans, housing problems in,
nation, 56; defined. See also state National Public Radio (NPR), 530, 544 67879
National Abortion Rights Action National Recovery Administration New Republic, 528
League PAC, 512 (NRA), 74, c75 news: entertainment value of, 535; pro-
National Action Party (PAN) (Mexico), National Republicans, 454 tection of sources, 374, 537
694 National Review, 528 news briefings, 528
National Aeronautics and Space Ad- National Rifle Association, 24, 510, 544 news media, analyzing, 571
ministration (NASA), 199, 279, p280 National Right to Life PAC, 512 newspapers, 527, 543
National Archives, p74, 82, p82 National Road, 600 news releases, 528
National Assembly: in France, 692; in National Science and Technology Poli- New York (state), 57; courts in, 64647;
South Africa, 69394 cy, 238 ratification of Constitution by, 58;
National Association for the national security, as foreign policy goal, term limits in, 644; use of interstate
Advancement of Colored People 608, p608; and mass media, 54041; compacts, 105; welfare in, 654
(NAACP), 317, 326, 409 providing, 10 New York City: political boss in, 519;
National Association of Counties, 507 National Security Act (1947), 616 terrorist attack on, 248; voting rights
National Association of Manufacturers national security adviser, 616 in, 484
(NAM), 505 National Security Archive, p312 New York Times, 533, 541, 544
national budget, 175 National Security Council (NSC), 169, New York Times Co. v. United States,
national citizenship, 39193 219, 2367, 257, 616, 620 369, 372, p372, 541
National Commission on Excellence in National Security Establishment, 624 New Zealand, ANZUS Pact with, 629
Education, 598 National Voter Registration Act Nicaragua, contra affair and, 532
national committee, 460 (1995), 488, c488, 492 Nineteenth Amendment, 89, 414
National Conference of State National Wildlife Federation, 506 Ninth Amendment, 87
Legislators, 5067 nation-state, 6 Nixon, Richard M., 164, 218, 224, 237,
national debt, 559; interest on, 562 Native Americans, citizenship for, p237, 241, p241, q241, 457; cabinet of,
national defense, 56667 39495; and tribal government, 665 231; debate of, with Kennedy, p270,
National Diet (Japan), 69091 naturalization: citizenship by, 39394, 528; and executive privilege, 267; for-
National Drug Control Policy, Office p394; collective, 39495 eign policy under, 617; and housing
of, 236 Navy, Department of the, 625 assistance, 600; impeachment, 164;
National Economic Council, 238 NBC, 544 impoundment of funds by, 252, p252,
National Emergencies Act (1976), 175 Near v. Minnesota, 371 254; isolation of, 265; judicial appoint-
National Environmental Policy Act Nebraska: local government in, 664; ments of, 324, 347; leadership style of,
(1969), 651 state legislature in, 641 p264; and nuclear powers, 259; par-
National Farmers Union (NFU), 505 Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart, doning of, 254; and price and wage
National Governors Association, 101, 373 controls, 256; resignation of, 67, 217;
106, 110, 5067 necessary and proper clause, 96, 107, suspension of draft by, 625; veto of
National Guard, 645 157 War Powers Act by, 249; and Vietnam
National Highway System, 602 negligence, 432 War, 259, 620; visit to China, p299,
National Highway Traffic Safety Ad- Neighborhood Legal Assistance 698; and Watergate scandal, p68, 171;
ministration, 601 Program, 440 White House staff of, 239
National Industrial Recovery Act Newark, voting rights in, 484 Nixon, Sydney, 476
(1935), 348 New Deal program, 107, 249, 256, 582, Nix v. Williams, 400
National Institute of Standards and 58586, 59091. See also Great De- No Child Left Behind Act, 599
Technology, 277 pression nolo contendere, 441
Nationalist Party (China), 696 New Federalism, 109 nominating conventions, 46465
nationalists, 106; states rightists versus, New Hampshire, 57; constitution of, nominating process, 46470, 53031
1067 640; legislature in, 642; ratification of nonconnected PACS, 51213
nationalization, 357; in Latin America, Constitution by, 56; state legislature nongovernmental organizations
72425 in, 641; term limits in, 644 (NGOs), 702
National Labor Relations Board New Jersey: executive branch in, 644; nonpartisan voters guides, 546
(NLRB), 297, 58283 governor of, 482; local government Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT),
National League of Cities, 507 in, 664; and use of 70910
National Organization for Women interstate compacts, 105 nonresident aliens, 387
(NOW), 326 New Jersey Plan, 54 nonstate international groups, 17
national origins system, 389 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 400 non-tariff barriers, 733


nonvoters, profiles of, 49697 ONeill, Thomas P. Tip, 134 parliamentary procedure, p136
Noriega, Manuel, 258 one-party systems, 45354 parliamentary systems, 688
Norris-LaGuardia Act (1932), 582 one person, one vote rule, 22, 126, parochial schools, state aid to, 36061
North, Oliver, 169, p169 642 parole, 653
North American Free Trade online computer services, 535 Parrish, Elsie, 58182
Agreement (NAFTA), 16, 219, open housing, p431 Partido Revolucionario Institucional
575576, 613, 735 Open Housing Act (1968), 678 (PRI), 699, 701
North Atlantic Treaty Organization open-market operations, 570 party-column ballot, 489
(NATO), 62728, 711; post-Cold open primary, 465 party county chairperson, 459
War, 628 open shops, 583 party national chairperson, 460
North Carolina: congressional districts Operation Desert Storm, 258, p258, party state chairperson, 460
in, m126; executive branch in, 645; 618 passports, 623; applying for, 50
ratification of amendments in, 5 Operation Green Ice, 296 Patent and Trademark Office, 277
North Dakota: state legislature in, 641; Operation Restore Hope, p618 patents, 163
voting rights in, 497 opinions, 331, 333, 645; distinguishing Paterson, William, 54
Northern Mariana Islands, territorial from fact, 327 Patrick, Deval, 481
courts in, 315 Oregon: conservation efforts in, 651; patronage, 46162
North Korea: development of nuclear laws in, 425; regional government in, Patrons of Husbandry, 505
weapons by, 699, 70910; relations 673; state legislature in, 641 Paul, Alice, p415
with U.S., 699 Oregon v. Elstad, 403 Payton v. New York, 399
Northwest Ordinance (1787), 50 Oregon v. Mitchell, 485 peace as foreign policy goal, 608
notes, taking, 91 Oregon v. Smith, 363 Peace Corps, 294
nuclear weapons: development of, 699, Organization for Security and peacekeeping, role of UN in, 704
70910; threat of, 70910 Cooperation, 729 peer groups, in political socialization,
Organization of American States 515
(OAS), 629 Pendleton Act (1883), 286
O original jurisdiction, 306, 307, 321 Pennsylvania: Fair Labor Law in
Our America: Life and Death on the (1978), 440; local government in,
obscenity: free press and, 375; laws on, South Side of Chicago, 530, p530 664; police force in, 652; public edu-
540 outlining, 419 cation in, 24; on slavery issue, 55; tax
Occupational Safety and Health Ad- Owens, R., 133, q133 policy in, 158
ministration (OSHA), 298 Pentagon, 543; terrorist attack on,
OConnor, Sandra Day, 317, p318, 61213, 707, 708
q318, p322, 323, 326, p344, q362 P Pentagon Papers case, 372, p372
per curiam, 333
offer, 43031
office-group ballot, 489 packing, 127 perestroika, 73031
Office of Electronic Government, 546 Packwood, Robert, 16768 Pericles, 19
Office of National Drug Control Pahlavi, Mohammed Reza, 701 periodical guides, 383
Policy, 67980 Paine, Thomas, 4546, q45 perjury, 168
off the record meetings, 529 Pakistan, Muslims in, 699 Perkins, Frances, 229
Ogden, Aaron, 161 Palestine Liberation Organization Perot, Ross, p461, 479, 49394
Ohio: local government in, 665; (PLO), 17 Persian Gulf War, 82, p359, 612, 619,
ratification of amendments in, 5 Panama, use of military force in, 163 704; media coverage of, p541; mili-
oil industry, 722; global importance of, Panama Canal treaties, 619; ratification tary force in, 163
708 of, 619, p619 personal liberties, foundations of, c64
Oklahoma: admission to union, 1001; parades, limits on, 377 personal property, 431, 673
ratification of amendments in, 5; paragraph, writing, 117 personal staff, 147
taxes in, 657 pardon, 254 Personnel Management, Office of, 286
Old Age, Survivors, and Disability parishes, 664 Peterson, Peter G., q592
Insurance (OASDI), 591 Park Communications, 528 Petition of Right, 36
Old Age Assistance, 654 Parker, Barrington, p312 petitions, 77, 101, 46566, 54647;
Old Treaty Seal, p2 Parliament, 36, 68, 123, 68990 signing, 84, p369
oligarchy, 19, c20 parliamentary government, 68991; petit jury, 313
oligopoly, 579, 719 comparison of, with presidential gov- petty offenses, 43738
Olmstead v. United States, 339, 401 ernment, c692; dissolving govern- Pew Research Center for the People
Omnibus Crime Control and Safe ment, 691, 692; function of the and the Press, 519
Streets Act (1968), 401 cabinet in, 691; in Great Britain, Philadelphia: housing problems in,
Omnibus Education Act (1972), 416 68990; in Japan, 69091 67879; political boss in, 519

Philadelphia v. State of New Jerseyprivate bills

Philadelphia v. State of New Jersey, 111 454; voter loyalty to, 49394. See also ers in, 61417; in France, 691; as head
picketing, protection for, 381 specific parties of state, 252; inauguration of, 226; in-
pigeonholing, 184 political socialization, 51516; media fluence of, over Supreme Court, 347;
Pilgrim, 39 role in, 534 influence on Congress, 19798; infor-
Pinochet, Augusto, 725 political sovereignty, 7 mal sources of power for, 24749; ju-
Pitt, William, p124 political Web sites, 544 dicial appointments of, 32324;
plaintiffs, 433, 435 politics: defined, 14; and government, leadership styles of, 26167; as legisla-
platform committee, at national con- 1415; importance of, 15 tor, 7374, 25455; limits on power
ventions, 469 Polk, James K., 238 of, 24950; mass media and, 52729;
plea bargaining, 44041 Polk, Sarah, 238 in Mexico, 694; nominating process
pleas, 439, 441 poll taxes, 90, 483 for, 53031; as party leader, 25657;
Pledge of Allegiance, 359 pollution: air, 587, 651; state efforts in in Poland, 693; powers of, c246; quali-
Plessy, Homer, 346 controlling, 11213, 651; water, fications of, 21517; relations with
Plessy v. Ferguson, 309, 346, 4089 58788, 651 Congress, 74, 17276, 61920;
plum book, 288 Poole, George, 290 relations with media, p248, 24849,
plurality, 465, 644 popular sovereignty, 65 263; in South Africa, 69394; specific
pocket veto, 188 population, 6; managing decline in, powers of, 71; succession of, 80, p216,
Poland: constitutional government in, 677; mobility of, 6 21718; versus Supreme Court, U.S.,
69293; and NATO membership, pork-barrel legislation, 2012 75; term and salary of, 21415; and
628; overthrow of communism in, Portland, Oregon, regional government use of executive privilege, 26667. See
69293; Solidarity in, 693 in, 673 also by name
Police Department of Chicago v. Port of New York Authority, 105 presidential campaigns, and mass
Mosley, 378 Post Office Department, 280 media, 52930
police protection: local government Powell, Adam Clayton, 131 presidential disability, 218
role in, 670; state, 652 Powell, Colin, 216, p541, p548 presidential government, 69192;
Politburo, 697 Powell, Lewis F., Jr., q251, 327, p327, comparison of, with parliamentary
political action committees (PACs), q327, 344, q527 government, c692; in France, 69192
130, 51113, ctn511; in election cam- Powell v. McCormack, 129, 131 presidential nominations, 46668
paigns, 47879, 51315; laws govern- powers, separation of, 40 presidential preference poll, 467
ing, 511; strategies for influence, 198, preamble, 13 presidential primaries, 46668, 53031
51315, ctn511 Preamble, the, 63, q63 presidential succession, 80
political appointees, 28889 precedent, 364, 426 Presidential Succession Act (1947),
political campaigns. See election cam- precinct, 459 21718
paigns, election campaign spending precinct captain, 459 president pro tempore, 139, 218
political cartoons, interpreting, 260, preemption, 109, 613 Presidents Council on Sustainable De-
551 preferred position doctrine, 36869 velopment, 735, q735
political efficacy, 516 preliminary hearing, 43940 press, freedom of, 84, 53637; and free
political participation, 114 premier in France, 692 trials, 37274; and gag orders, 371,
political parties, in China, 705; See also president: and use of executive privilege, 373; and mass communication,
specific parties 26667. See also by name 37475; and prior restraint, 37172;
political parties, 453; affiliation of president: action on bills, 187; appoint- and protection of new sources, 374
federal judges, 31617; comparison ment power of, ctn347; budget of, press conferences, 263, 528
with interest groups, 504; defined, 23, 56062, p562; changes in Constitu- pretrial discovery, 433
453; federalism and, 113; functions tion and, 80; changes in office of, 71, price supports, 586
of, 46062; in Germany, 700; growth p71; as chief diplomat, 25758; as primary elections, 465, 46668
of American, c456, 45455; in House chief executive, 25354; as comman- primary sources, analyzing, 117
of Representatives, U.S., 134; impact der in chief, 25859, 615, p623; con- prime minister: in Great Britain, 690,
of, 221; influence on Congress, gressional power in selecting, 16364; p690; in Japan, 69091
19697; in measuring public opinion, constitutional powers of, 70, 24547; Printing and Engraving, Bureau of,
519; media coverage of, 531; mem- curbing emergency powers of, 175; 277
bership of, 45859; in Mexico, 694; duties of, 21314; as economic plan- print media, 527; regulation of, 53641
minor, 455, 457; multiparty systems, ner, 256; election campaign for, c477, prior restraint, 84, 371, 536
454; one-party systems, 45354; orga- 47576; election of, 22026; of the prison population, state, m442
nization of, 45859, 460, 519; in European Commission, 706; Execu- privacy: citizens right to, 41718, p417;
Poland, 693; president as leader of, tive Office of, 234; executive privilege right to, 85
25657; in South Africa, 69394; and, 26667; financing election cam- Privacy Protection Act (1980), 537
third, 455, 457; two-party systems, paign for, 47779; foreign policy pow- private bills, 181

Private CalendarReorganization Act (1970)

Private Calendar, 136 influencing, 29193; definition doctrine, q538; and federal aid poli-
private law, 390 of, 291; effect of interest groups on, cies, 109; foreign policy under, 617;
private ownership, 719 50813; federalism and, 11213; In- as governor of California, 18788;
privileges and immunities clause, 104 ternet challenges for, 54849; reasons and hostages in Iran, 628; isolation
Privy Council, 40 bureaucracy makes, 29395; tools for of, 265; judicial appointments of,
probable cause, 85 shaping, 33639 316, 317, 324, 347; leadership style of,
probate courts, 646 public property, assembly on, 377 261, 263; political campaign of,
procedural due process, 42728, p427 public services, providing, 10 52930; as president, 232; Social Se-
production, factors of, 71718, p718 public utility, 64849 curity and, 591; use of e-mail and,
product safety, government role in, public welfare, state role in, 654 p312
58081 Puerto Rico: representation in real property, 431, 673
professional associations, 506 Congress, 129; and statehood Realtors Political Action Committee,
Professional Golfers Association (PGA) question, 100, 107; territorial courts 512
v. Martin, 337, p337 in, 315 reapportionment, 124
profit, 720, p720 Pulling Down the Statue of George III Reapportionment Act (1929), 125
Progressive Party, 45557 (Walcutt), ptg46 reasonable standard, 415
progressive taxes, 556, 558, 657 Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), 28 recall, 644
Project 1992, 710 pure speech, 366 reconciliation, 56364
proletariat, 29 Putin, Vladimir, 729 records, 104
propaganda, 49596 recount, 475
property: personal, 431; private owner- recreation, local government role in,
ship of, 719; real, 431 671
property law, 431 Q Red Cross, 24
property rights, and assembly, 378 redistricting, 125
property tax, 657, 67374 al-Qaeda, 17, 612, 613, 7089 Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 538
proportional representation, 467 quorum, 69, 137 Reed, Stanley, 345
proportional tax, 657 quotas, 733, 734; marketing, 586; Reed, Thomas Brackett, q152
protectionism, 736 national origins, 389 Reed v. Reed, 415
protective tariffs, 557, 575 Quran, 699, 700, 708, 709 Reedy, George, q264, 536, q536
Proxmire, William, 189 Reeve, Christopher, p205
public acts, 1034 referendum, 640, 666
public agenda, 544; setting of, by the R refugees, 387
media, 533534 Regan, Donald, 261, 265
public assembly and disorder, 37880 Rabin, Yitzhak, p615 Regents of University of California v.
public assistance, 59091, 59295 radio, 527, 540, 543; campaign Bakke, 41214, p413
public bills, 18182 advertising on, 531; fireside chats on, regional security pacts, 62729
public broadcasting, 531 p248, 24849, 263; and free press, regional wars, 70910
Public Broadcasting Act (1967), 531 374; pirate, 536 regressive taxes, 557, 657
Public Broadcasting System (PBS), 531 Raines, Franklin, p236 regulatory agencies, deregulation of,
Public Citizen, Inc., 506, 513 Randolph, Edmund, 54, 57, p230 283
public education, 24 random sampling, 520 regulatory commissions, 281, 283
public health: government promotion ratification: of amendments, 7779; de- Rehnquist, William H., p322, 326, p344
of, 59495; state role in, 65354 fined, 48; power of Senate in, 165; of religion: and Bible reading, 362; and
Public Health Service, 279, 595 state constitutions, 640; of U.S. Con- flag statute, 36364; limitations on
public housing, 600, 678; violence in, stitution, 5657, m57 practices of, 363; in public life, 359;
538 ratings services, 532 and release time for students, 361;
public-interest groups, 506 rational basis test, 4067 and school prayer, 362; separation
public life, religion in, 359 Ray, Robert, 663, p663 between state and, 699700; state aid
public opinion, 2; and democracy, 522; Rayburn, Sam, q201 to parochial schools, 36061
influence of, on foreign policy, 620; Reagan, Ronald, 223, p234, 236, 241, religion, freedom of, 84; establishment
interpreting polls, 523; limitations on p241, q546, 559; assassination at- clause, 35863; free exercise clause,
presidential power, 250; measuring, tempt on, p213, p218; budget of, 566; 36364
51922; shaping, 51417 bureaucracy under, 236; cabinet of, Religious Freedom Restoration Act
public opinion polls, 517, 519, 52022; 229, 231; communication skills of, (1993), 363
on ideology, 517; interpreting results, 249, 263; and content-based media Reno v. American Civil Liberties
522, 523; by mail, 521; by phone, 521; regulation, 538; and contra affair, Union, 375, 548
questions in, 521 532; drug policy under, 679; in elec- Reno v. Condon, 417
public policy, bureaucracy in tion of 1980, 493, 49495; on fairness Reorganization Act (1970), 169

reportsseditious speech

reports, writing, 659 Roe v. Wade, 326, 417 Sanchez, Loretta, 465, p465
representative democracy, 20, 21 roll-call vote, 187 Sanders, Leonard, 563, p563
representative government, 37; princi- Romania: application for EU San Diego, 671, p672
ples of, 689 membership, 704, 734; and NATO San Francisco, mass transit in, 681
representative sample, 521 membership, 628; overthrow of com- sanitation, local government role in,
reprieve, 254 munism in, 692 670
republic, 20 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 231 Santa Fe School District v. Doe, 361
Republican Court, The (Huntington), Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 75, 130, Santobello v. New York, 441
ptg73 216, 219, 231, 241, 387, p387; cabinet Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, 581
Republican National Committee, 461 of, 229; and court packing, 310, 348, Al Saud family, 701
Republican Party, 454, 455; and cam- ctn348; death of, 213; employment of Saudi Arabia: absolute monarchy in,
paign finance reform, 478; and Con- emergency powers, p175; fireside 19, 701; economy in, 722; terrorism
tract with America, 295, 594; in chats of, 209, q209, 248, p248, 263, and, 7089; U.S. Embassy in, p622
House of Representatives, U.S., 134; 528; foreign policy under, 619; judi- Scalia, Antonin, q83, p322
ideology in, 495; mailing lists of, 545; cial appointments of, 321; leadership scarcity, 717
national committee for, 507; national style of, 263; New Deal program of, Schechter Poultry Corporation v. Unit-
convention of, 531, 666; 1996 con- 107, 249, 256, 582, 58586, 59091; ed States, 310
vention of, 458; and political control presidential powers of, 248; and size Schenck v. Pro-Choice Network of
of Congress, c127, 45455; symbol of, of bureaucracy, 29496; spending by, Western New York, 378
462, 499 566; terms of office, 13, p14; and Schenck v. United States, 320, 368
Republicans for Choice, 512 Works Progress Administration, school district, 673
reserved powers, 9697 p191; and World War II, 257, 259, schools: Bible reading in, 362; in
resident aliens, 387 425 political socialization, 515; prayer in,
resolutions, 182; concurrent, 182; joint, Roosevelt, Theodore, q247, 259, 455, 362; release time from, 361; state aid
182 457; foreign policy under, 614; as to parochial, 36061; teaching evolu-
restraint, 109 governor of New York, 644; judicial tion in, 362. See also education
Reuters of Britain, 533 appointments of, 320, p320; and Na- Schulz, George, 232
revenue: borrowing as source of, 559; tional Governors Association, 101; Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 644, p644
defined, 43; taxes, 55559 and presidential power, 247; press Science and Technology Policy, Office
Revenue Act (1971), 511 conferences of, 528 of, 238
revenue bills, 158 Ross, Edmund G., p194 scientific polling, 52022
reverse discrimination, 41213, p413 Rubin, Barry, q622 scientific socialism, 30
revitalization, 681 rules committee, at national Scott, Dred, 392, p392
Revolutionary War, 44 conventions, 46869 Seale, Bobby, 398, p398
Revolution of 1848, 690 Rumsfeld, Donald, p231 searches and seizures, 398401, p399,
Reynolds, George, 363 runoff primary, 465 p400
Reynolds v. Sims, 126, 642 Rural Electrification Administration, search warrant, 85, 399
Reynolds v. United States, 363 586 Second Amendment, 8485, q85, 356,
Rhode Island, 39; local government in, Russia: economy in, p726; and NATO 357
664; ratification of Constitution by, partnership, 628; as permanent mem- secondary sources, analyzing, 299
56; on slavery issue, 55 ber of Security Council, 703; trans- Second Bank of the United States,
Rhodes v. Chapman, 405 formation of economy, 72829 15758
Rice, Condoleezza, 482, p482, 616 Rutledge, John, 323 Second Continental Congress, 4445,
Richard, David, 700 47, 48
Richard, Dennis, 700 Second Treatise of Government
Richard, Mark, 700
Richmond Newspapers, Inc. v.
S (Locke), 37
secularists, 700
Virginia, 373 Sadat, Anwar, 701 secular law, 700
Richmond v. J.A. Croson Co., 414 Safe Streets Act (1968), 292 secular textbooks, 360
rider, 182 Safire, William, 265 securities, 581
right-to-work laws, 583, 649 sales tax: local, 675; state, 65657 Securities and Exchange Commission
Rio Pact, 62829 Salinas de Gortari, Carlos, 734 (SEC), 281, 581
Robert, Henry M., p136 sample, 520 security, right to, 8485
Roberts Rules of Order (Robert), p136 sample populations, 520 security agreements, 71011
Robinson, Ryan, 26 sampling errors, 52021 security classification system, 416
Rockefeller, John D., 578 sampling procedures, 521 Sedition Act (1918), p132
Rockefeller Foundation, 531 Samuelson, Robert, q731 sedition laws, 369
Rock the Vote, 223, p223 Sanchez, Linda, 465, p465 seditious speech, 369

segregationstate constitutions

segregation, 408 Sinclair, Upton, 57980, q580 sources, media protection of, 374, 537
select committees, 14243 Singapore, capitalism in, 721 Souter, David, p322, 326, 348
Select Intelligence Committee, 143 single-issue party, 455 South Africa: apartheid in, 693, 705;
Selective Service System, 625 Sixteenth Amendment, 89, 108, 348, civil rights in, 693694; democracy
self-government, 35 p555 in, p689, 692; economic sanctions
self-incrimination, 4024 Sixth Amendment, 86, 401, 442 against, 705; voting in, p688
Senate, U.S., 123; appropriations com- slander, 84, 369 South Carolina, legal assistance
mittees of, 192; confirmation hear- Slaughterhouse cases, 3089 program in, 440
ings in, 230; confirmation power of, slavery: and Dred Scott case, 39293; South Dakota v. Dole, 596
164, 532; in Constitution, 68; fili- as issue at Constitutional Convention, South Korea: capitalism in, 721; foreign
buster in, p139, 140, 181; Finance 55 policy, p617
Committee, 190; and impeachment, Sliskovic, Irena, 395, p395 sovereignty, 7
164; leadership in, 13840, 153, Slovakia, and NATO membership, 628 Soviet Union: collapse of communism
p153; majority leader in, 153; party Slovenia, and NATO membership, 628 in, 72829; and end of Cold War,
affiliation in, c129; political division Small Business Administration, 279, 61213
of, c127; president of, 152, 153; privi- 280, 292, 576 space station, building of, 199
leges of members of, 12829; qualifi- small claims courts, 43435, 646 Spanish-American War, 60910
cations of, 128; ratification power of, Smith, Adam, 27, p27 Speaker of the House, for Congress,
165; role in tax legislation of, 190; Smith, Margaret Chase, p152, q152 134, 136, 152
and role of vice president, 21819; Smith, Mary Louise, 462 speaker of the house, for state
rules for, 13840; salary and benefits Smith, Steven S., q193 legislature, 642
of, 128; scheduling of bills, 140; Smith Act (1940), 382 special districts, 665, 673
symbols in, 152; term of office Smith-Hughes Act (1917), 597 speech, 366; defamatory, 36970; fight-
in, 128. See also Congress, U.S.; social consensus, determining, p22 ing words, 370; protected and unpro-
House of Representatives, U.S. social contract, 8 tected, 41; pure, 366; regulating,
senatorial courtesy, 317 social contract theory, 8 36769; seditious, 369; student, 370;
seniority system, 145 social insurance programs, 590, symbolic, 36667, p367
sentencing, 443; mandatory, 651 59192 speech, freedom of, 84, 366; defamato-
separate but equal doctrine, 309, 346 social insurance taxes, 55657 ry, 36970; limits to, p84; regulating,
separation of powers, 40, 65, 75 socialism, 28, 718, c719, 72324; 36769; student, 370; types of,
September 11 terrorist attacks, 17, 237, defined, 28, 718; democratic, 28; 36667
240, 248, 294, 417, 612, 701, 707, practical problems of, 726; scientific, Spinal Cord Injury Association, 700
p707, 708, p708 30 Spirit of Laws, The (Montesquieu), 63
sessions, 123 socialist democracy, 725 splinter party, 455, 457
Seventeenth Amendment, 89 Socialist Labor Party, 455 spoils system, 285
Seventh Amendment, 86, 357 social order, maintaining, 910 Sporkin, Stanley, q128
severance taxes, 657 Social Security, 281, 566; crisis in spot advertising, 531
sewage, local government role in, 670 system, 59192; financing, 591 Sputnik I, 294
Seward, William, 231 Social Security Act (1935), 292, 301, Stalin, Joseph, 19
shah, 701 590 Stamp Act (1765), 43; repeal of, 43
Shalala, Donna, 590 Social Security Administration, 278, Stamp Act Congress, 44
Shallus, Jacob, 83 292 Stamp Tax, 44
Shayss Rebellion, 51, p51 Social Security System, 28, 292 Standard Oil Trust, 578
Shelby, Richard, 245, p245 social services, local government role standing committees, 142, c143
Shelton v. Tucker, 655 in, 671 standing vote, 187
Sheppard, Samuel H., 373 social spending, c591; government stare decisis, 33839
Sheppard v. Maxwell, 373 comparisons on, c591 state, secretary of, 61516; federal, 621;
Sherman, Roger, 5455 social studies: interpreting public opin- in state government, 645
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890), 338, ion polls, 523; interpreting election State, U.S. Department of, 257,
57879, 581 maps, 233, m233; interpreting politi- 276, 61516, 621; organizational
shield laws, 374, 537 cal cartoons, 260, ctn260 structure of, 62122
shock incarceration, 653 soft money, 478 state constitutions, 47; amending and
shock probation, 653 Soil Conservation Service, 586 making changes in, 63940; Bill of
Sierra Club, 24, 503, 505, 506, 544 solicitor general, 332 Rights in, 638; characteristics of, 638;
Signing of the Constitution of the Unit- Solidarity, 693 criticism and reform of, 640; execu-
ed States (Rossiter), ptg34 Somalia: foreign aid to, p618; troops in, tive branch in, 644; importance of,
Signing the Compact on Board the 612, 621 63738; local government in, 663;
Mayflower (Matteson), ptg39 Sotomayer, Sonia, p313 National Guard in, 644; ratification

state court judgestelegraph

of, 640; taxes in, 656 Stockman, David, 236 Supreme Court, U.S., justices, 32126,
state court judges: removal of, 647; se- stocks, regulation of sale of, 581 p322, p325; appointing, 32326;
lection of, 647; in small claims courts, Story, Joseph, 323, q344 background of, 323; duties of,
43435 straight party ticket, 493 32223; handshakes of, 345; influence
state courts, 64647, 65153; Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty of chief justice on, 345; law clerks for,
importance of, 646 (SALT), 165 323; relations among, 34445; re-
state farms, 728 straw polls, 520 moteness of, 533; salaries of, 348; and
state government, 56; criminal justice strikes, 99, 581 selection of other justices, 326; views
systems in, 65153; defined, 5; educa- strong-mayor system of municipal of, 344
tion policy in, 653; environmental government, 666, c667 suspect classification, 407
policies in, 65051; executive branch student speech, 370 sustainable development, 71112
in, 64346; financing, 65658, c674; study and writing: conducting inter- Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg
income tax in, 657; influence of inter- views, 549; preparing a bibliography, Board of Education, 410
est groups on, 642; judicial branch in, 713; taking notes, 91; using library re- Switzerland, federal system of
64647; legislative branch in, 64143; sources, 383; writing reports, 659 government in, 12
in Mexico, 701; National Guard in, subcommittees, 142 symbolic speech, 36667, p367
644; organization of, 637; police subpoena, 168 Syria, sponsorship of terrorism by, 708
forces in, 652; powers of, c97; public subsidies, 734; farm, 586; government,
health policy of, 65354; regulation 576
of business by, 64850; and taxing of Substance Abuse and Mental Health T
e-commerce, 549; welfare programs Administration, 590
of, 654 substantial interest standard, 415 Taft, William Howard, 100, 240, p240,
states: admission of new, 99101; con- substantive due process, 427, p427 323, 326, 457; ceremonial role of,
stitutional guarantees to, 9899; elec- suburbs, 672 252; as chief justice, 343, p343
tion campaigns in, 476; and electoral suffrage, 48184; for African Ameri- Taft-Hartley Act (1947), 583
votes, 47576; equality of, 101; essen- cans, 48284; for eighteen-year olds, Taiwan, capitalism in, 721
tial features of, 68; federal aid to, 5, p5, 212, 484; universal, 481; for Taliban, 70, 7089
10910, m110; lawsuits between, 105; women, 482 Taney, Roger B., 107; as chief justice,
limitations on voting in, 481; major Sunbelt, 671 308, 392, p392
inequalities among, 16; nominating Sun Oil Corporations SunPAC, 512 Tanzania, democratic socialism in, 28
conventions in, 46465; obligations sunset laws, 112 Taoism, 697
of, 102; party organization in, 460; Sunshine Act (1976), 41617 tariffs, 733, 734; protective, 557, 575
prison populations in, m442; guaran- sunshine law, 113 tax credits, 559
tees to, 9899; relations among, Super Tuesday election, 467 taxes: as colonial issue, 43; defined, 189;
1035; role of Congress in helping, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), on e-commerce, 549; and economy,
2013; territorial integrity of, 99; the- 592 55859; estate, 558; excise,
ories of origin of, 8; voting rights in, supranational organizations, 704 557, 656; gift, 558; local sales, 675;
49697 supremacy clause, 64, 97 loopholes in, 55859; poll, 90, 483;
states rights position, 106; and pre- Supreme Allied Command Europe progressive, 556, 558, 657; property,
emption, 110; versus nationalists, (SACEUR), 628 657, 67375; proportional, 657; rea-
1067 supreme court: state, 647. See also sons for paying, 558; reducing, 568;
state-sponsored terrorism, 708 Supreme Court, U.S. reforms in, 559; regressive, 557, 657;
Statistical Abstract of United States, Supreme Court, U.S., 68, 102, 302, 320; sales, 65657; severance, 657; social
150 acceptance of cases by, 319, 33233; insurance, 55657; as source of rev-
Statuary Hall, 635 caseload of, c332; and changes in enue, 55559; state, 65657, 657. See
Statue of Liberty, p352 Constitution, 8081; First Amend- also income taxes
statutory law, 425 ment rights and, 548; free speech taxing and spending bills, 18992
Staunton, city of, 685, q685 issue and, 540; housing for, 31819, taxing power, 1089
Steck, Daniel, 153 p318; influences on decisions of, Tax Reform Act (1986), 559
stem cell research, 595 34348; and interpretation of Consti- Taxpayer Relief Act, 188
stemming from equity, 434 tution, 15758; jurisdiction of, 321; Taylor, Zachary, 259
Stevens, John Paul, 176, 326, p322 limits on, 33941; media coverage of, technology: building a database, 349;
Stevens, Thaddeus, 24, q24 533; media rights and, 537, 538; offi- multimedia presentations, 177; using
Stevenson, Adlai, 648; in elections of cial seal of, p321; power of, 3078; an electronic spreadsheet, 471
1952/1956, 495; presidential cam- versus president, 75; procedures in, teen courts, 665
paign of, 549 331, p335; seal of, p321; in shaping Telecommunications Act (1996),
Stewart, Potter, 361 public policies, 33641; steps in de- 53940
stock exchanges, merger of, 732 ciding cases, 33335; terms of, 331 telegraph, 536

telephoneUnited Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF)

telephone: and protection of privacy, Thornhill v. Alabama, 381 Truman Doctrine, 61011
340; public opinion polls by, 52122 Three-Fifths Compromise, 55 trust, 578
television, 530; cable, 53031; three-strikes law, 437 Tuesday Cabinet, 617
candidates image on, 476, 495; Thucydides, q31 Turkey: application for EU
C-SPAN, 534, 540; debates on, 476, Thurmond, Strom, 140, 153, p181 membership, 704, 734; education in,
49495; election coverage on, Tiananmen Square, 18, p18, 697 722; Muslims in, 699
49495, 53639; financing campaign ticket, 466 Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. v.
advertising on, 538; and free press, ticket-splitting, 489 FCC, 374
374; presidential addresses on, Time, 544 Twelfth Amendment, 5, 88, 221
24849; and shaping of public opin- Time Warner, p538, 540 Twentieth Amendment, 8990, 164
ion, 514, 515; and V-chip technology, Tinker v. Des Moines School District, Twenty-fifth Amendment, 80, 90, 164,
142, p142, 547 television, 527, 543; 367, 370 213, 21718, 219
cable, 535, 536, 538; campaign adver- Tocqueville, Alexis de, 503, q504 Twenty-first Amendment, 78, 90, 165
tising on, 531; candidates image on, Todaro, Michael, q736 Twenty-fourth Amendment, 90, 483
476, 495; coverage of president, Toolson v. New York Yankees, 166 Twenty-second Amendment, 90, 214
52728; C-SPAN, 527, 532, p532, tort, 432 Twenty-seventh Amendment, p76, 82,
533; debates on, 476, 49495; election totalitarian dictatorship, 18 90, 128
coverage on, 49495; financing cam- totalitarian government, 696 Twenty-sixth Amendment, 5, 90, 112,
paign advertising on, 531; and free Tower, John, 532 484
press, 374; presidential addresses on, town meetings, 20, 664 Twenty-third Amendment, 90
24849; shaping of public opinion towns, 672 two-party system, 23, 114, 454
and, 514, 515; and V-chip technolo- township, 664 Two Treatises of Government (Locke),
gy, 142, p142, 540, p540 trade. See international trade 9, 37, 806
television malaise, 534 trade agreements, 73435 Tyler, John, 80
Temporary Assistance for Needy Fami- trade embargo, 733, 736; against Cuba,
lies (TANF), 594 69899
Ten Commandments, 42324 trade wars, 627 U
Tennessee: admission to Union, 99; ap- trading blocs, 733
portionment in, 126; executive traditional economy, 717 unanimous opinion, 334
branch in, 644 traffic courts, 646 uncontrollables, 192
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 28, Train v. City of New York, 337 unemployment compensation, 649
280 transcript, 417 unemployment insurance, 592
Tenth Amendment, 87, 107, 357 transportation: federal government Unfunded Mandate Reform Act, 658
term limits, p112 programs in, 6002; local govern- unfunded mandates, 588, 658
territorial courts, 315 ment role in, 671 unicameral legislature, 48, 641
territory, 7, c7 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Union Calendar, 136, 137
terrorism, 17, 237, 259, 316, 56667, Century (TEA-21), 602 union shop, 583, 649
595, 608, 61213, 628, 630, p708, Transportation, U.S. Department of, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
7089; and Saudi Arabia, 701; war 279, 601 (U.S.S.R.), 294
on, 707, 709 treasurer, state, 646 unitary system, 12
Terry v. New York National Organiza- Treasury, U.S. Department of, United Auto Workers (UAW), 505
tion for Women, 378 277 United Mine Workers (UMW), 505
Texas, admission to Union, 100, 153; treaties, 80, 615; bilateral, 629; power of United Nations (UN), 17, 687, 701,
constitution, 661, q661; legislature in, Congress in making, 61819; power 7024, 707; Charter of, 702, 703, 715,
p643; local government in, 664; po- of president in making, 257 q715; Commission on Human
lice force in, 652; taxes in, 657; teen trial court, 306 Rights, 710; Conference on Environ-
courts in, 665 trials, 434, 442; fair, 37274; press ac- ment and Development, 712; Frame-
Texas v. Johnson, 367 cess to, 373, p373; resolution without, work Convention on Climate
Thailand, economy in, 734 434; rights in, 86; right to fair, p441; Change, 712; General Assembly in,
Third Amendment, 85, 357 right to jury, 86 703, 704; headquarters of, 706; mem-
third parties, 455, c456, p461; tribal government, 665 bership in, 702; peacekeeping activi-
candidates of, 224; impact of, 457; Truman, Harry S, q213, 216, 217, q217, ties of, 704; Secretariat in, 703;
obstacles to, 457; types of, 455, 457 219, p241, q241, p253, q324, 379, Secretary General of, 703; Security
Thirteenth Amendment, 88 q495, 610, q610; assumption of presi- Council in, 703, 704; specialized
THOMAS, 188, 545 dency, 213; civil rights movement agencies of, 704; structure of, c703,
Thomas, Clarence, p322, 323, 324, 326, under, 26162; and integration of 7024
348, 533 military, 263; and labor relations, United Nations Childrens Fund
Thompson v. Oklahoma, 429 250; leadership style of, 26162 (UNICEF), 704

United Press International (UPI)Washington, George

United Press International (UPI), USS Cole, bombing of, 709 volunteering, 547
52829, 533 U.S. News & World Report, 528 vote: roll-call, 187; standing, 187; voice,
United Public Workers of America v. USA Patriot Act, 316, 41718 187
Mitchell, 290 USA Today, 528 voters: becoming informed, 546;
United Russia Party, 729 Utah, election of governor in, 643 expectations of, 195; increasing
United States: acquisitions by, c7; for- turnout, 497; influence of, on Con-
eign aid by, 727; Kyoto Treaty and, gress, 19596; profile of, 450, 496
712; as permanent member of Securi- voting, 39697, p397, 476; decline in
ty Council, 703; position of, against V participation, 497; early limitations
International Criminal Court, 711; on, 481; electronic, 54748; influ-
relations between China and, 698, values, media impact on, 534 ences on, 49297; preparing for, 490;
731; relations between Cuba and, V-chip, 142, p142, 540, p540, p547 procedures in, 48890; qualifications
69899; relations between North Vermont: admission to Union, 99; elec- for, 487; registration for, 48788; spe-
Korea and, 699; trade alternatives for, tion of governor in, 644; term limits cial circumstances, 49091
73536; as world power, 60910 in, 644 voting machine, 489
United States Chamber of Commerce, Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton, voting rights. See suffrage
505 400 Voting Rights Act (1965), 483, 484
United States Circuit Court of Appeals Voting Rights Act (1970), 483, 497
Veterans Administration (VA), 294,
for the Federal Circuit, 314 Voting Rights Act (1975), 491
595, 672
United States Claims Court, 315 voting rights acts, 48384
United States Conference of Mayors, Veterans Affairs, U.S. Department of,
115 279, 294, 298
United States consulate, 711 veto, p80; congressional override of,
188; defined, 66, 187; hecklers, 379;
United States Information Agency,
item, 645; legislative, 171, 176; line-
294, 531
United States marshal, 313 item, 176, 18788, 255 Wagner Act (1935), 582, 583
United States Military Establishment, vice president: nomination of, 470; as Wake Islands, 163
277, 294 president of Senate, 139; role of, Walesa, Lech, 693
United States oath of allegiance, 394 21819. See also by name Wallace, George, p95, 224
United States of America, p10 victim compensation laws, 651 War, Department of, 277
United States Patent Office, 314 Victory, p68687 war, power of Congress to declare,
United States Postal Service (USPS), Vietnam Veterans Against the War, 61718
277, 280 p367 ward, 459
United States Secret Service, 277 ward heelers, 201
Vietnam War, 82, 162, 259, 294, 611;
United States Tax Court, 314, 315 Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 25
United States v. Eichman, 367 granting to amnesty to draft evaders
War of 1812, 575, 617
United States v. Halper, 404 in, 254; and Gulf of Tonkin Resolu- war on terrorism, 70, 294, 417, 61213,
United States v. Leon, 399 tion, 248; Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 707, 709
United States v. Lopez, 102 in, 618; media coverage of, 534, 541 war powers, 108; debate over, 157, 163,
United States v. Nixon, 267 Vinson, Fred M., q380 249, 25859, 618
United States v. OBrien, 367 Virginia, 57; colonial government in, War Powers Act (1973), 163, 179, q179,
United States v. Playboy, 374 44; Constitutional Convention in, 249, 258, 618
United States v. United States District p424; election of governor in, 643; warrant: arrest, 85, 43839; search, 85,
Court, 251 House of Burgesses in, 39; ratification 399
United States v. Virginia, 311, p311 of Constitution by, 58; tax policy in, Warren, Charles, q305
United States v. E.C. Knight & Co., 309 158; term limits in, 644 Warren, Earl, 81, q169, 310, 319, q319,
Universal Declaration of Human Virginia Military Institute, 311 323, 336, 34647, q347, 402, q403,
Rights, 710 Virginia Plan, 54 410, 642
Universal Postal Union, 17 Warren Report, 323
Virginia Womens Institute for Lead-
universal suffrage, 481 Warsaw Pact, 628
ership (VMIL), 311
universe, 520 Washington, D.C.: electoral votes for,
Urban Development Action Grants, Virgin Islands, 163; representation in
475; mass transit in, p670, 681; ter-
682 Congress, 129; territorial courts in, rorist attack on, 248. See also District
urban growth, challenges of, 67782 315 of Columbia
Urban Mass Transit Administration visa, 623 Washington, George, 43, 53, p71, q71,
(UMTA), 602 Voice of America, 531 p193, 214, p221, 307, p560, 666; ap-
urban renewal, 672, 678; federal gov- voice vote, 187 pointments of, 285; budget of, 560;
ernment policy toward, 599600 Volkov, Aleksandr, ptg29 cabinet of, 71, 228, 230, p230, 231,

Washington MonumentZula Inkatha Party (South Africa)

276; decision to seek second term, role in, 654; sweeping reform in, 594 Woodworth, Laurence, 149
520; election of, as president, 58, 221; Wesberry v. Sanders, 126 workers: federal protection of, 58182;
and executive privilege, 26667; West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, 58182 minimum wage laws for, 160; state
Farewell Address of 1796, 273, q273, Western Europe, democratic challenges protection of, 649
454; at First Continental Congress, for, 693 workers compensation, 649
44; First Inaugural Address, 243, Westside Community Schools v. Mer- workplace, disabilities in, 580
q243; as first president, 69, 70, 71, gens, 362 Works Progress Administration, p191
213; foreign policy under, 609, West Virginia, admission to Union, World Bank, 704, 725
61819; judicial appointments of, 99100 World Court, 704
320, 32324; as presiding officer at West Virginia State Board of world economy. See global economy
Constitutional Convention, 53; as Education v. Barnette, 36364 World Health Organization (WHO),
probusiness, 575; retirement of, 560, Westwood, Jean, 462 704
p560; staff of, 238; traditions set by, Wheels for Humanity, 700 World Meteorological Organization, 17
240; warning on foreign entangle- Whigs, 454 World Trade Center, 237, 566, 61213,
ments, 70; and Whiskey Rebellion, whips, 135, 184 708, p708, 709, p709
25859, p258, 573, q573 Whiskey Rebellion, 25859, p258, 573, World Trade Organization (WTO), 17,
Washington Monument, p552 q573 707, 734, 735, 736
Washington v. Davis, 408 White, Michael, 116, p116 World War I, 82, 610
Watergate investigation, and Sam White, Theodore H., q466, q468 World War II, 82, 610; and Franklin D.
Ervin, 171 White House, 211, 240; duties of staff Roosevelt, 175, 257, 259, 425
water pollution, policies on, 58788, for, 239 Wright, Jim, q137
651 White House Office, 23839 Wright-Ingraham, Elizabeth, 650, p650
Water Pollution Control Act (1948), Whitney, Charlotte Anita, 382 writ of certiorari, 332
587 Whitney, William, q718 writ of habeas corpus, 158
Water Pollution Control Act (1972), Whitney v. California, 382 Wyoming, conservation in, 651
588 Whren v. United States, 399
Water Quality Act (1965), 651 William III (King of England), 8, 36
Water Quality Improvement Act Willkie, Wendell Lewis, p14
(1970), 587 Wilson, James, 53 Y
water supply, local government role in, Wilson, Pete, 639, p639
670 Wilson, Woodrow, 218, 231, 457, p555; Yates v. United States, 369
Watkins, James D., q589 foreign policy under, 610, 617, 619; Yeardley, George, p37
Watkins v. United States, 16869 isolation of, 265; leadership style of, yellow-dog contracts, 582
Watson, Gregory, p76 26364; and League of Nations, Yellowstone National Park, 324
Watterberg, Martin P., q529 26364 Yeltsin, Boris, q607, 702, 730
Ways and Means Committee, 190 wire services, 52829 Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company
weak-mayor system of municipal gov- wiretapping, 4001, p401 v. Sawyer, 250
ernment, 666, c667 Wisconsin, item veto in, 645 Youth Volunteer Corps of America
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 27 Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 407 (YVCA), 15
Weaver, Robert, 229 Wisconsin v. Yoder, 36364 Yugoslavia, breakup of, 612
Web sites: and campaigning, 130, 476; Wolman v. Walter, 360
evaluating, 631; grassroots, 547; polit- women: in bureaucracy, 284; in the cab-
ical, 543, 544 inet, 229; constitutional rights of,
Webster, Daniel, 153 311; discrimination against, 41416, Z
Weeks v. United States, 399 p415, p416; judicial appointments of,
Weicker, Lowell, 146 317, 323, p325; in military, p416, 625; Zedillo Ponce de Len, Ernesto, 694
Weinberger, Caspar, 232 suffrage for, 482 Zemel v. Rusk, 537
Welfare Reform Bill, 594 womens rights in Great Britain, 689 zoning, local government role in,
welfare state, 72324 Wood, Leonard, p464 66970
welfare system: local government role Woodbury, Levi, q320 Zorach v. Clauson, 361
in, 671; need for reform in, 593; state Woodson v. North Carolina, 405 Zula Inkatha Party (South Africa), 694

Spanish Glossary
abridge/privar bipartisan/bipartidario

appellate jurisdiction/jurisdiccin de apelacin

A autoridad tomada por una corte para or un caso que
abridge/privar limitar (pg. 363) es apelado de una corte menor (pg. 306)
absentee ballot/balota ausente la que permite a una appropriation/asignacin de fondos aprobacin de gastos
persona votar sin ir a la urna electoral en el da de gubernamentales (pg. 191)
eleccin (pg. 491) appropriations bill/proyecto de ley de asignacin de
absolute monarch/monarca absoluto un monarca que fondos ley propuesta para autorizar el gasto de dinero
tiene poder absoluto e ilimitado para gobernar su gente (pgs. 160, 191)
(pg. 19) arraignment/acusacin procedimiento durante el cual el
acreage allotment/asignacin de acres el programa bajo juez lee el cargo formal contra el acusado y el acusado
el cual el gobierno paga precios de apoyo para las se declara culpable o no culpable (pg. 441)
arrest warrant/orden de detencin orden firmada por un
cosechas de los agricultores cultivadas en un nmero
juez nombrando al individuo a ser arrestado por un
de acres asignado (pg. 586)
crimen determinado (pgs. 85, 438)
action alert/alerta para entrar en accin mensaje de un
article/artculo una de las siete divisiones principales de la
grupo de inters a sus miembros pidindoles que
Constitucin (pg. 64)
respondan inmediatamente por telfono, fax o correo
assessment/tasacin proceso complicado de calcular el
electrnico a un dirigente poltico especfico, grupo
valor de propiedad para el impuesto (pg. 674)
de congresales u otros funcionarios pblicos (pg. 547)
at-large/en general como un todo; por ejemplo, por todo
administrative assistant/auxiliar administrativo
el estado (pg. 128)
miembro del personal propio de un legislador que
audit/intervenir revisar ms estrictamente (pg. 556)
dirige la oficina del legislador, supervisa el calendario,
authorization bill/proyecto de ley de autorizacin
y da asesoramiento (pg. 147)
proyecto de ley que establece un programa federal
administrative law/ley administrativa ley que estipula la y especifica cunto dinero le puede ser asignado
autoridad, procedimientos, y reglas para ser seguidos (pg. 191)
por agencias gubernamentales (pg. 425) autocracy/autocracia sistema de gobierno en el cual el
adversary system/sistema adversario sistema judicial en el poder para dirigir est en manos de un solo individuo
cual los abogados opositores presentan sus casos ms (pg. 18)
slidos (pg. 428)
advisory opinion/opinin asesorada una decisin sobre
una ley o accin que no ha sido desafiada (pg. 340) B
affidavit/declaracin jurada una declaracin escrita backgrounders/informes annimos informacin dada
para verificar afirmaciones de hecho firmada bajo por altos funcionarios gubernamentales a reporteros
juramento (pg. 435) que estos pueden usar en una historia pero sin revelar
affirmative action/accin afirmativa poltica de gobierno su fuente (pg. 535)
que les asigna trabajos, contratos gubernamentales, balanced budget/presupuesto balanceado un plan
promociones, admisiones a escuelas, y otros beneficios financiero requiriendo que lo que el gobierno federal
a minoras y mujeres con el fin de enmendar discrimi- gasta no exceder su ingreso (pg. 77)
naciones pasadas (pg. 412) bankruptcy/bancarrota el proceso legal para administrar
alien/extranjero una persona que vive en un pas donde los bienes de una persona o negocio que no puede
no es ciudadano (pg. 387) pagar sus deudas (pg. 161)
ambassador/embajador oficial del gobierno que represen- biased sample/muestra sesgada en votacin, un grupo
ta la nacin en asuntos diplomticos (pg. 615) que no representa exactamente la mayor poblacin
amendment/enmienda un cambio en la Constitucin (pg. 520)
(pg. 65) bicameral legislatura de dos cmaras (pg. 641)
amicus curiae trmino latino que significa amigo de la bicameral legislature/legislatura bicameral legislatura de
corte; un informe escrito por un individuo o un grupo dos cmaras (pg. 123)
afirmando tener informacin til para la consideracin bilateral treaty/tratado bilateral acuerdo firmado por dos
de la corte de un caso (pg. 333) naciones (pg. 629)
amnesty/amnista indulto a un grupo de individuos por bill/proyecto de ley ley propuesta (pg. 135)
una ofensa en contra del gobierno (pgs. 254, 390) bill of attainder/orden de culpabilidad una ley que
anarchy/anarqua desorden poltico (pg. 57) establece la culpabilidad y castiga a una persona sin
answer/respuesta contestacin formal por un acusado a juicio (pg. 158)
los cargos en una demanda (pg. 433) bipartisan/bipartidario que consta de miembros de
apartheid segregacin estricta de las razas (pg. 693) ambos grandes partidos polticos (pg. 619)


Spanish Glossary
bloc/bloque collective bargaining/negociacin colectiva

bloc/bloque coalicin unida para promocionar un inters caucus/junta electoral reunin privada de dirigentes
comn (pg. 344) del partido para escoger candidatos a gobierno
block grant/otorgacin general grande donacin de (pgs. 134, 464)
dinero a un gobierno estatal o local para usar para cede/ceder renunciar (pg. 50)
un propsito general (pgs. 658, 675) censure/censura voto de desaprobacin formal de las
bond/garanta promesa contractual de parte de aqul que acciones de un miembro (pg. 129)
pide prestado para volver a pagar cierta cantidad ms census/censo conteo de poblacin (pg. 124)
inters para una fecha especfica (pg. 657) central clearance/despacho central revisin por la
borough/burgo divisin poltica en Alaska semejante a un Oficina de Direccin y Presupuesto de todas las
condado en otros estados (pg. 664) propuestas legislativas que las agencias ejecutivas
boss/jefe poderoso lder de partido (pg. 465) preparan (pg. 236)
bourgeoisie/burguesa capitalistas que poseen los medios centralized planning/planeacin centralizada control de
de produccin (pg. 29) la economa por el gobierno (pg. 724)
brief/informe declaracin escrita exponiendo los change of venue/cambio de jurisdiccin nueva loca-
argumentos legales, hechos relevantes, y precedentes lizacin para un juicio (pg. 86)
apoyando un lado de un caso (pg. 333) checks and balances/control y balances el sistema en que
broadcast spectrum/espectro de difusin la variacin cada ramo del gobierno ejercita algn control sobre los
de frecuencias sobre la cual seales electrnicas pueden otros (pg. 65)
ser enviadas (pg. 547) civil case/caso civil caso generalmente involucrando
bureaucracy/burocracia administradores gubernamen- una disputa entre dos o ms individuos privados u
tales (pg. 115) organizaciones (pg. 646)
bureaucrat/burcrata aqul que trabaja para un departa- civil law/ley civil una relacionada a disputas entre dos
mento o agencia del gobierno federalservidor civil o ms individuos o entre individuos y el gobierno
(pg. 275) (pgs. 103, 430)
civil rights movement/movimiento de derechos civiles
C los esfuerzos para acabar con la segregacin (pg. 410)
civil service system/sistema de servicio civil la prctica de
cabinet/gabinete los secretarios de los departamentos empleo gubernamental basado en abiertos exmenes
ejecutivos, el vicepresidente, y otros altos funcionarios competitivos y mrito (pg. 286)
que ayudan al presidente a tomar decisiones y hacer civil society/sociedad civil una red compleja de asocia-
polticas (pg. 228) ciones voluntarias, grupos econmicos, organizaciones
calendar/calendario horario que enumera el orden en religiosas, y muchos otros tipos de grupos que existen
el cual los proyectos de ley sern considerados en el independientes del gobierno (pg. 24)
Congreso (pg. 136) client group/grupo de clientes individuos y grupos que
campaign manager/director de campaa la persona trabajan con una agencia gubernamental y que son los
responsable de la estrategia global y la planeacin de ms afectados por sus decisiones (pg. 295)
una campaa (pg. 476) closed primary/eleccin preliminar cerrada una eleccin
canvass/escrutinio el conteo de votos por el cuerpo oficial en que slo los miembros de un partido poltico
que tabula las devoluciones electorales y certifica al pueden votar (pg. 465)
ganador (pg. 487) closed rule/norma cerrada una regla que prohibe a
canvassing board/consejo de escrutinio el cuerpo oficial miembros del Congreso ofrecer enmiendas a un
que cuenta los votos y certifica al ganador (pg. 490) proyecto de ley pidiendo la palabra (pg. 190)
capital los medios de produccindinero, fbricas, closed shop/taller cerrado lugar de empleo donde slo
maquinaria pesadausados para hacer otros produc- los miembros del sindicato pueden ser contratados
tos y bienes (pg. 718) (pg. 583)
capitalism/capitalismo un sistema econmico proporcio- cloture/clausura procedimiento que permite a cada
nando la libertad de accin e incentivo individual para senador hablar slo una hora sobre un proyecto de ley
trabajadores, inversionistas, consumidores, y empresas bajo debate (pg. 140)
de negocios (pgs. 26, 718) cluster sample/muestra regional mtodo de votacin que
casework/trabajo particular el trabajo que un legislador agrupa a personas por divisin geogrfica (pg. 521)
hace para ayudar a los constituyentes con sus coalition government/gobierno de coalicin uno
problemas (pg. 200) formado por varios partidos que unen fuerzas para
caseworker/asistente social el miembro del personal pro- obtener una mayora (pg. 454)
pio de un legislador quien se encarga de las peticiones collective bargaining/negociacin colectiva la prctica
de ayuda de los constituyentes (pgs. 148, 201) de negociar contratos laborales (pg. 581)


Spanish Glossary
collective farm/granja colectiva consulate/consulado

collective farm/granja colectiva ejido en el cual la tierra conference report/reporte de conferencia el compromiso
es propiedad del gobierno pero arrendada a una familia final del proyecto de ley presentado por el comit
(pg. 728) de conferencia despus de haber hecho cambios
collective naturalization/naturalizacin colectiva (pg. 187)
proceso por el cual los miembros de un grupo llegan a congressional override/anulacin del Congreso el poder
ser ciudadanos americanos por medio de un acto del del Congreso de aprobar legislacin anulando el veto
Congreso (pg. 394) del presidente (pg. 249)
collective security/seguridad colectiva un sistema en el conscription/conscripcin servicio militar obligatorio,
cual las naciones participantes acuerdan tomar accin tambin llamada la quinta (pg. 625)
unida en contra de una nacin que ataque a cualquiera consensus/consenso acuerdo sobre creencias bsicas
de ellas (pg. 629) (pg. 6)
command economy/economa de mando un sistema conservation/conservacin cuidado y proteccin de
econmico en el cual el gobierno controla los elemen- recursos, incluyendo la tierra, lagos, ros, y bosques;
tos de produccin (pgs. 30, 717) petrleo, gas natural, y otros recursos de energa;
commission form/forma comisin forma de gobierno y la vida silvestre (pg. 651)
municipal que combina los poderes ejecutivo y conservative/conservativo uno que cree que el gobierno
legislativo en una comisin electa (pg. 667) debe ser limitado excepto apoyando los valores tradi-
committees of correspondence/comits de corresponden- cionales y promoviendo la libertad de oportunidad
cia comits de la poca colonial que urgan la resisten- (pg. 517)
cia a los ingleses y el mantenerse en contacto mientras consolidated democracy/democracia consolidada una
los eventos se desenvolvan (pg. 44) nacin que tiene elecciones democrticas, partidos
committee staff/personal de comit las personas que traba- polticos, gobierno constitucional, judicatura indepen-
jan para los comits de la Cmara y el Senado (pg. 147) diente, y generalmente una economa mercadera
common law/ley comn ley hecha por jueces en el (pg. 689)
proceso de resolver casos individuales (pg. 426) constituent/constituyente una persona a la cual un
communism/comunismo un sistema econmico en el miembro del Congreso ha sido elegido para representar
cual el gobierno central dirige todas las importantes (pg. 133)
decisiones econmicas (pgs. 30, 718) constitution/constitucin un plan que provee las normas
comparative advantage/ventaja comparativa principio para el gobierno (pg. 13)
econmico de que cada pas debe hacer aquellos constitutional commission/comisin constitucional
productos que puede hacer ms eficientemente e un grupo de expertos designados para estudiar la
intercambiar para otros productos (pg. 732) constitucin de un estado y recomendar cambios
compensation/compensacin salario (pg. 214) (pg. 639)
complaint/queja documento legal presentado en la corte constitutional convention/convencin constitucional
que tiene jurisdiccin sobre el problema (pg. 433) junta de ciudadanos electos para considerar el cambiar
concurrent jurisdiction/jurisdiccin conjunta autoridad o reemplazar una constitucin (pg. 639)
compartida por las cortes federales y estatales (pg. 306) constitutional court/corte constitucional una corte
concurrent powers/poderes comunes poderes tanto establecida por el Congreso bajo la Constitucin
del gobierno nacional como de los gobiernos estatales (pg. 312)
(pg. 97) constitutional government/gobierno constitucional un
concurrent resolution/resolucin concurrente resolucin gobierno en el cual una constitucin tiene la autoridad
que se dirige a asuntos requiriendo la accin de la de establecer lmites claramente reconocidos en los
Cmara y el Senado pero sobre los cuales una ley no es poderes de aquellos que gobiernan (pg. 13)
necesaria (pg. 182) constitutional law/ley constitucional ley que involucra la
concurring opinion/opinin comn la opinin de la interpretacin y la aplicacin de la Constitucin de
Corte expresando la perspectiva de uno o ms jueces E.U. y constituciones estatales (pgs. 14, 424)
quienes acuerdan con las conclusiones de la mayora constitutional monarch/monarca constitucional un
pero por razones distintas (pg. 334) monarca que tiene poderes gubernamentales compar-
confederacy/confederacin unin suelta de estados tidos con legislaturas electas o que sirve principalmente
independientes (pg. 12) como lder ceremonial de un gobierno (pg. 19)
conferee miembro de un comit de conferencia (pg. 187) consul/cnsul funcionario gubernamental que encabeza
conference committee/comit de conferencia comit un consulado en una nacin extranjera (pg. 623)
comn temporal creado cuando la Cmara y el Senado consulate/consulado la oficina que promueve los intereses
han aprobado diferentes versiones del mismo proyecto comerciales americanos en un pas extranjero y guarda
de ley (pg. 144) a los viajeros de su nacin en ese pas (pg. 623)


Spanish Glossary
containment/contencin elastic clause/clusula elstica

containment/contencin la poltica diseada para denaturalization/desnaturalizacin la prdida de la

prohibir que la Unin Sovitica expandiera sus poderes ciudadana por causa de fraude o decepcin durante
(pg. 610) el proceso de la naturalizacin (pg. 396)
contempt/rebelda obstruccin voluntaria de la justicia dependent/dependiente aquel que depende principalmente
(pg. 168) de otra persona por la necesidades bsicas (pg. 556)
contract/contrato conjunto de promesas voluntarias, que deregulate/desregular reducir los reglamentos (pg. 283)
se pueden hacer cumplir a fuerza de ley, entre dos o dtente relajacin de la tensin entre pases (pg. 612)
ms partidos (pg. 430) developing nation/pas en desarrollo una nacin
copyright/derecho de autor derecho exclusivo de publicar apenas comenzando a desarrollarse industrialmente
y vender un trabajo literario, musical, o artstico por (pgs. 16, 722)
cierto perodo (pg. 163) direct democracy/democracia directa forma de democra-
corporate charter/estatuto de corporacin documento cia en la cual la gente se gobierna a s misma votando
que da el estatus legal a una sociedad annima en temas (pg. 20)
(pg. 648) direct primary/eleccin preliminar directa eleccin en la
council-manager form/forma consejo-director tipo de cual miembros del partido seleccionan a personas para
gobierno municipal en el cual los poderes legislativo y postularse en la eleccin general (pg. 465)
ejecutivo estn separados (pg. 668) discount rate/tipo de descuento la tasa de inters que el
counsel/asesor jurdico abogado (pg. 401) Sistema de Reserva Federal les cobra a los miembros
county/condado la mayor subdivisin territorial y poltica bancos para prstamos (pg. 569)
de un estado (pg. 663) discovery/descubrimiento el proceso cuando ambos
county board/consejo del condado el consejo gobernante lados preparan para un juicio reuniendo evidencia para
de la mayora de los condados (pg. 664) apoyar su caso (pg. 433)
covert/cubierto secreto (pg. 265) discrimination/discriminacin tratamiento injusto de
criminal case/caso criminal uno en el cual el estado lleva individuos basado slo en su raza, gnero, grupo
cargos contra un ciudadano por violar la ley (pg. 646) tnico, edad, incapacidad fsica, o religin (pg. 407)
criminal justice system/sistema de justicia criminal el dissenting opinion/opinin disidente la opinin
sistema de cortes estatales y federales, policas, y expresada por una minora de jueces en un caso de la
prisiones que hacen cumplir la ley criminal (pg. 437) Corte (pg. 334)
criminal law/ley criminal aquella que define crmenes y divine right/derecho divino la creencia de que ciertas
provee por su castigo (pg. 437) personas son descendientes de dioses o escogidas por
cross-pressured voter/votante bajo presin aquel que se dioses para dirigir (pg. 8)
encuentra atrapado entre elementos conflictivos en su double jeopardy/doble riesgo nuevo juicio de una
propia vida (pg. 493) persona que fue absuelto en un juicio previo por el
customs duties/deberes de aduana los impuestos fijados mismo crimen (pg. 404)
sobre los productos importados a Estados Unidos due process clause/clusula de proceso legal correspon-
tarifas o deberes de importacin (pg. 557) diente clusula en la Decimocuarta Enmienda
estableciendo que ningn estado puede privar a una
D persona de vida, libertad, o propiedad sin el proceso
legal correspondiente (pg. 308)
de facto existiendo de hecho en vez de legalmente (pg. 265) due process of law/proceso legal correspondiente un
defamatory speech/expresin difamatoria discurso falso principio en la Quinta Enmienda estableciendo que
que deteriora el buen nombre, carcter, o reputacin el gobierno debe seguir los procedimientos constitu-
de una persona (pg. 369) cionales propios en juicios y en otras acciones que
defendant/acusado la persona contra la cual una demanda toma en contra de individuos (pgs. 86, 427)
civil o criminal es trada (pg. 433)
delegated powers/poderes delegados poderes que la Cons- E
titucin otorga o delega al gobierno nacional (pg. 95)
democracy/democracia gobierno en el cual la gente economics/econmica el estudio de los esfuerzos
manda (pg. 19) humanos para satisfacer los deseos aparentemente
democratic socialism/socialismo democrtico un sistema ilimitados por el uso de recursos limitados (pg. 26)
econmico en el cual la gente tiene el control sobre el elastic clause/clusula elstica clusula en el Artculo I,
gobierno por medio de la libre eleccin y el sistema Seccin 8 de la Constitucin que otorga al Congreso el
multipartidario, pero el gobierno es dueo de los derecho de hacer todas las leyes necesarias y propias
medios bsicos de produccin y toma la mayora de las para llevar a cabo los poderes expresados en las otras
decisiones econmicas (pg. 28) clusulas del Artculo I (pgs. 69, 96, 157)


Spanish Glossary
elector filibuster/obstruccionismo

elector miembro de un partido poltico escogido en exclusionary rule/norma de exclusin una ley estable-
cada estado para elegir formalmente al presidente y ciendo que cualquier evidencia obtenida ilegalmente no
vicepresidente (pg. 220) puede ser usada en una corte federal (pg. 399)
electoral vote/voto electoral el voto oficial para presidente executive agreement/acuerdo ejecutivo un acuerdo hecho
y vicepresidente por los electores en cada estado entre el presidente y un jefe de estado (pgs. 80, 257, 619)
(pg. 220) executive order/orden ejecutiva una norma emitida por el
electronic mailing list/lista de correo electrnico notifi- presidente que tiene la fuerza de ley (pg. 253)
cacin automtica por correo electrnico que provee a executive privilege/privilegio ejecutivo el derecho del
los suscriptores informacin al da acerca de un tema presidente y otros altos funcionarios para rehusarse a
(pg. 545) atestiguar ante el Congreso o una corte (pg. 266)
electronic petition/peticin electrnica mensaje en que expatriation/expatriacin renunciar a la ciudadana por
se le pide a quien lo recibe que firme su nombre salir para vivir en un pas extranjero (pg. 395)
electrnicamente a una peticin que se le enviar a un ex post facto law/ley ex post facto una ley que hace
funcionario pblico (pg. 547) crimen de un acto que fue legal cuando fue cometido
embargo acuerdo que prohibe el intercambio (pg. 44) (pg. 158)
embassy/embajada la residencia y oficinas oficiales de un expressed contract/contrato expresado contrato en el
embajador en un pas extranjero (pgs. 276, 622) cual los trminos son especficamente establecidos,
eminent domain/dominio eminente el poder del generalmente por escrito (pg. 430)
gobierno de quitar propiedades privadas para el uso expressed powers/poderes expresados poderes estableci-
pblico (pg. 86) dos directamente en la Constitucin (pgs. 68, 95, 157)
enabling act/acto capacitador el primer paso en el extradite/extraditar regresar al estado original a un
procedimiento de admisin de un estado el cual criminal o fugitivo que huye cruzando los lmites
permite a la gente de un territorio preparar una estatales (pg. 103)
constitucin (pg. 99) extradition/extradicin el proceso legal a travs del cual
enemy alien/enemigo extranjero ciudadano de una una persona acusada de un crimen que ha huido a otro
nacin contra la cual Estados Unidos est en guerra estado es regresado al estado donde el crimen tuvo
(pg. 387) lugar (pg. 652)
entitlement/derecho financiero un gasto gubernamental extralegal no permitido por ley (pg. 56)
requerido que contina de un ao al otro (pgs. 192,
562) F
entrepreneur/empresario persona que se arriesga para
hacer productos y servicios en busca de ganancias faction/faccin grupo de personas unidas para promover
(pg. 718) intereses especiales (pg. 503)
enumerated powers/poderes enumerados los poderes factors of production/elementos de produccin recursos
expresados del Congreso que son especificados y que una economa necesita para producir bienes y
numerados de 1 a 18 en el Artculo I, Seccin 8 de la servicios (pg. 717)
Constitucin (pgs. 69, 96, 157) fairness doctrine/doctrina justa una norma que requiere
equity/equidad sistema de normas por el cual las disputas que los medios de difusin proporcionan oportu-
son resueltas a base de lo justo (pg. 426) nidades para la expresin de ideas opuestas en temas de
establishment clause/clusula de establecimiento la importancia pblica (pg. 538)
garanta de la Primera Enmienda que el Congreso federal bureaucracy/burocracia federal los departamen-
no har ninguna ley respecto al establecimiento de tos del gobierno federalen su mayora del ramo
religin (pg. 358) ejecutivo (pg. 71)
estate tax/impuesto de herencia impuestos recaudados federal grant/otorgacin federal dinero dado al estado
en los bienes (propiedad y dinero) de una persona que para un propsito especfico (pg. 657)
fallece (pg. 558) federalism/federalismo un sistema en el cual el poder
evolutionary theory/teora evolucionaria la teora de es dividido entre los gobiernos nacional y estatales
que el estado evolucion de la familia (pg. 8) (pg. 65)
excise tax/impuesto indirecto impuesto en la manufac- federal system/sistema federal gobierno que divide los
tura, transportacin, venta, o consumo de ciertos poderes del gobierno entre el gobierno nacional y los
artculos tales como gasolina, licor, o cigarrillos gobiernos de los estados o provincias (pg. 12)
(pgs. 557, 656) felony/crimen un delito grave (pgs. 399, 438)
exclusion/exclusin el derecho del Congreso de negarse a filibuster/obstruccionismo mtodo de derrotar un
sentar a un miembro electo con un voto de mayora proyecto de ley en el senado al demorar el proceso
(pg. 128) legislativo y evitar un voto (pg. 140)


Spanish Glossary
first reading/primer informe implied contract/contrato implcito

first reading/primer informe cuando un proyecto de ley grand jury/gran jurado el grupo que escucha cargos en
es presentado en el Congreso y es dado un ttulo y contra de una persona sospechosa y decide si hay
nmero, es impreso y distribuido (pg. 184) suficiente evidencia para traer a la persona al juicio
fiscal policy/poltica fiscal el uso por el gobierno de gastos (pgs. 312, 439)
e impuestos para influenciar la economa (pg. 567) gross national product (GNP)/producto nacional bruto
fiscal year/ao fiscal perodo de contabilidad de 12 meses el total de todos bienes y servicios producidos en una
(pg. 560) nacin en un ao (pgs. 568, 729)
force theory/teora de fuerza la teora de que el estado
naci a fuerzascuando toda la gente de un lugar fue H
trada bajo la autoridad de una persona o grupo (pg. 8)
foreign policy/poltica exterior las estrategias y metas que hearing/audiencia una sesin en la cual un comit
guan las relaciones de una nacin con otros pases escucha el testimonio de gente interesada en el
(pg. 607) proyecto de ley (pg. 184)
forum/foro medio para discusin (pg. 249) hecklers veto el veto pblico de la libre expresin y
free enterprise/empresa libre la oportunidad de controlar derechos de asamblea de grupos impopulares declaran-
sus propias decisiones econmicas (pg. 23) do que las demostraciones resultarn en violencia
free enterprise system/sistema de empresa libre un (pg. 379)
sistema econmico basado en la propiedad privada de Holocaust/holocausto la exterminacin masiva de judos
los medios de produccinel capitaly en la libertad y otros grupos por los nazis durante la Segunda Guerra
econmica individual (pg. 718) Mundial (pg. 379)
free exercise clause/clusula de libre ejercicio la garanta horse-race coverage/reportaje de carrera de caballos
en la Primera Enmienda que prohibe al gobierno mtodo de reportaje enfocando en ganadores y
interferir sin causa con el libre ejercicio de religin perdedores y en quin va adelante mejor que en
(pg. 358) temas o posiciones polticas (pg. 537)
free market/mercado libre un sistema econmico en el house arrest/arresto domiciliario una sentencia que
cual compradores y vendedores hacen decisiones libres requiere a un ofensor quedarse en casa con excepcin
en el mercado (pg. 27) de ciertas funciones que la corte permite (pg. 653)
front-runner/candidato delantero el lder a principios de human rights/derechos humanos libertades fundamen-
una eleccin (pg. 530) tales (pgs. 355, 710)
fundamental right/derecho fundamental un derecho hung jury/jurado indeciso un jurado que est imposibili-
bsico del sistema americano o uno que es indispen- tado para llegar a una decisin (pg. 443)
sable en un sistema justo (pg. 407)
ideological party/partido ideolgico partido poltico que
gag order/orden de supresin una orden por un juez se enfoca en cambios globales en la sociedad ms bien
prohibiendo a la prensa de publicar ciertos tipos de que en un tema (pg. 455)
informacin sobre un caso judicial pendiente ideology/ideologa el conjunto de creencias bsicas
(pg. 373) sobre la vida, cultura, gobierno, y sociedad
gentrification/gentificacin el fenmeno de nueva gente (pgs. 454, 517)
mudndose a un vecindario, echando afuera aquellos illegal alien/extranjero ilegal persona sin permiso legal
que viven ah, y cambiando el carcter esencial del rea para estar en un pas (pg. 387)
(pg. 681) image/imagen representacin mental (pg. 476)
gerrymander trazar los lmites de un distrito para ganar immunity/inmunidad libertad de ser acusado para
ventaja en las elecciones (pg. 126) los testigos cuyo testimonio los ata a actos ilegales
government/gobierno la institucin por medio de la cual (pg. 169)
el estado mantiene el orden social, proporciona servi- impeach/acusar acusar a un funcionario de mala conducta
cios pblicos, e impone decisiones obligatorias para los en su cargo (pg. 79)
ciudadanos (pg. 8) impeachment/acusacin acusacin formal de mala
government corporation/corporacin gubernamental conducta en el cargo en contra de un oficial pblico
una empresa dirigida por el gobierno federal (pg. 164)
(pg. 280) implied contract/contrato implcito contrato en el cual
grandfather clause/clusula de abuelo una exencin en los trminos no son expresamente citados pero pueden
una ley para cierto grupo basada en condiciones previas ser deducidos de las acciones de la gente involucrada y
(pg. 483) las circunstancias (pg. 430)


Spanish Glossary
implied powers/poderes implcitos jus soli

implied powers/poderes implcitos poderes que el interlocking directorate/direccin entrelazada la misma

gobierno requiere para llevar a cabo los poderes gente sirviendo en las mesas directivas de compaas
constitucionales expresados (pgs. 96, 157) competentes (pg. 579)
impound/confiscar rehusar a gastar (pg. 337) internationalism/internacionalismo involucramiento en
impoundment/confiscamiento la negativa del presidente asuntos mundiales (pg. 609)
de gastar el dinero que el Congreso ha votado para interstate commerce/comercio interestatal intercambio
fundar un programa (pgs. 175, 253) entre los estados (pgs. 55, 161)
income tax/impuesto sobre la renta el impuesto recauda- interstate compact/compacto interestatal acuerdo escrito
do en ganancias individuales y corporativas (pg. 108) entre dos o ms estados (pg. 105)
incorporation/incorporacin proceso que extiende la iron triangle/tringulo de hierro relacin formada entre
proteccin de la Declaracin de Derechos en contra de agencias gubernamentales, comits congresistas, y
las acciones de gobiernos estatales y locales (pg. 356); grupos de clientes que trabajan juntos (pg. 298)
el proceso de establecer una sociedad legal bajo la ley isolationism/aislacionismo la evasin del involucramien-
estatal (pg. 666) to en asuntos mundiales (pg. 609)
incrementalism/incrementalismo el trmino usado para item veto/veto de artculo el poder de rechazar un artculo
explicar que el total del presupuesto cambia poco de un particular en un proyecto de ley sin vetar el proyecto
ao al otro (pg. 564) entero (pg. 645)
incumbent/titular funcionario gubernamental que ya est
en el cargo (pg. 130) J
independent/independiente votante que no apoya a un
partido poltico en particular (pg. 458) Jim Crow law/ley Jim Crow ley que requiere la
indictment/acusacin acusacin formal por un gran segregacin racial en lugares tales como escuelas,
jurado (pgs. 312, 440) autobuses, y hoteles (pg. 408)
industrialized nation/nacin industrializada nacin joint committee/comit conjunto comit de la Cmara
con grandes industrias y tecnologa avanzada que y el Senado que generalmente acta como grupo de
proporciona una forma de vida ms cmoda que la estudio y reporta sus descubrimientos de regreso a la
de las naciones en desarrollo (pg. 16) Cmara y el Senado (pg. 143)
information/informacin declaracin jurada por la joint resolution/resolucin conjunta resolucin aprobada
fiscala afirmando que hay suficiente evidencia para por las dos cmaras del Congreso que trata de asuntos
un juicio (pg. 440) inusuales o temporales, tal como el corregir un error en
infrastructure/infraestructura las facilidades bsicas de una una ley previa (pg. 182)
ciudad, tales como calles y banquetas pavimentadas, tu- judicial activism/activismo judicial la filosofa que la
bera de agua, puentes, y edificios pblicos (pg. 680) Suprema Corte debe tomar un papel activo en darle
inherent powers/poderes inherentes poderes que el forma a polticas nacionales dirigindose a cuestiones
gobierno nacional puede ejercitar simplemente porque sociales y polticas (pg. 81)
es un gobierno (pg. 96) judicial circuit/circuito judicial regin que contiene una
initiative/iniciativa mtodo por el cual los ciudadanos pro- corte de apelacin de Estados Unidos (pg. 313)
ponen una enmienda constitucional o una ley (pg. 639) judicial restraint/represin judicial la filosofa que la
injunction/mandato judicial orden que detendr una Suprema Corte debe evitar tomar la iniciativa en
accin en particular o har cumplir una norma o cuestiones sociales y polticas (pg. 80)
reglamentacin (pgs. 297, 433, 582) judicial review/revisin judicial el poder de la Suprema
inner cabinet/gabinete interior miembros del gabinete Corte de declarar inconstitucionales leyes y acciones de
que manejan influencias sobre el presidente porque gobiernos locales, estatales, o nacional (pgs. 66, 308,
encabezan departamentos que estn interesados con 336, 640)
temas nacionales (pg. 232) jurisdiction/jurisdiccin la autoridad de una corte para
interest group/grupo de intereses grupo de personas con dictaminar en ciertos casos (pgs. 64, 305)
objetivos comunes que se organizan para influenciar al jury/jurado grupo de ciudadanos que escuchan
gobierno (pg. 503) evidencias durante un juicio y dan el veredicto
intergovernmental organization (IGO)/organizacin (pg. 442)
intergubernamental organizacin gubernamental jus sanguinis frase latina que quiere decir ley de sangre;
compuesta por miembros de gobiernos nacionales el principio que otorga la ciudadana en base de la
(pg. 702) ciudadana de los padres (pg. 393)
intergovernmental revenue/ingresos intergubernamen- jus soli frase latina que quiere decir ley de la tierra; el
tales ingresos distribuidos de un nivel de gobierno a principio que otorga la ciudadana a casi toda persona
otro (pg. 657) nacida en un pas (pg. 393)


Spanish Glossary
kibbutzim metropolitan area/rea metropolitana

litigant/litigante persona comprometida en una demanda

K (pg. 307)
kibbutzim comunas agrcolas colectivas (pg. 725) lobbying/cabildeo contacto directo hecho por un
cabildero con el fin de persuadir a los funcionarios
gubernamentales para apoyar la poltica que su grupo
L de inters favorece (pgs. 198, 508)
lobbyist/cabildero representante de un grupo de inters
laissez-faire la filosofa que el gobierno debe mantener sus (pgs. 198, 508)
manos fuera de la economa (pgs. 27, 578) logrolling/intercambio de favores polticos un acuerdo
lame duck un funcionario saliente sirviendo el resto de un entre dos o ms legisladores para apoyarse el uno al
perodo despus de su retiro o siendo derrotado para otro en sus proyectos de ley (pg. 202)
reeleccin (pg. 90)
land/tierra todos los recursos naturales tales como tierra, M
agua, aire, y minerales (pg. 717)
law/ley conjunto de normas y estndares por los cuales majority leader/lder mayoritario el asistente mximo
una sociedad se gobierna a s misma (pg. 423) del presidente de la Cmara cuyo trabajo es ayudar a
leak/divulgacin el anuncio de informacin secreta por planear el programa legislativo del partido mayoritario
funcionarios gubernamentales annimos a los medios y dirigir importantes proyectos de ley a travs de la
informativos (pgs. 230, 529) Cmara (pg. 134)
legislative assistant/asistente legislativo miembro del per- majority opinion/opinin mayoritaria decisin de la
sonal propio de un legislador que se asegura de que el Corte expresando la perspectiva de la mayora de los
legislador est bien informado de legislacin propuesta jueces (pg. 334)
(pg. 148) mandate/mandato orden formal dada por una autoridad
legislative court/corte legislativa una corte creada para superior (pgs. 245, 658)
ayudar al Congreso a ejercitar sus poderes (pg. 314) mandatory sentencing/sentencia mandataria sistema de
legislative oversight/revisin legislativa el repaso continuo trminos de encarcelamiento fijos y requeridos por
del Congreso sobre qu tan efectivamente el ramo ejecu- ciertos tipos de crmenes (pg. 651)
tivo ejecuta las leyes que el Congreso aprueba (pg. 169) market economy/economa mercadera un sistema
legislative veto/veto legislativo provisiones que el Congre- econmico que permite a compradores y vendedores
so escribi dentro de algunas leyes que le permitieron actuar en sus propios intereses para controlar los
revisar y cancelar acciones de las agencias ejecutivas elementos de produccin (pg. 717)
(pg. 171) marketing quota/cupo mercader lmite establecido entre
liaison officer/oficial de enlace empleado de un departa- agricultores para vender slo una porcin asignada de
mento de gabinete que ayuda a promover las buenas una cosecha sobreproducida (pg. 586)
relaciones con el Congreso (pg. 296) market value/valor de mercado la cantidad de dinero
libel/difamacin declaracin falsa escrita o publicada que un propietario espera recibir si su propiedad es
con intencin de daar la reputacin de una persona vendida (pg. 674)
(pgs. 84, 369, 536) mass media/medios informativos medios de comunicacin,
liberal uno que cree que el gobierno nacional debe ser tales como televisin, peridicos, pelculas, libros, e Inter-
activo promoviendo salud, educacin, justicia, y net, que influencian a grandes audiencias (pgs. 515, 527)
oportunidad equitativa (pg. 517) mass transit/trnsito pblico sistemas tales como el
lieutenant governor/vicegobernador el oficial presidente metro que son usados para transportar a grandes
en la cmara alta en algunas legislaturas estatales nmeros de personas (pgs. 602, 671)
(pg. 642) mayor-council form/forma alcalde-consejo forma de
life peer/noble de por vida persona a quien le ha sido gobierno municipal en la cual el poder ejecutivo
otorgado un ttulo en la Cmara de Lores por logro pertenece a un alcalde electo, y el poder legislativo a
sobresaliente (pg. 690) un consejo electo (pg. 666)
limited government/gobierno limitado un sistema de media event/evento para los medios informativos evento
gobierno en el cual el poder del gobierno es limitado, de inters visual diseado para reforzar la posicin de
no absoluto (pg. 36) un poltico en algn tema (pg. 529)
limited war/guerra limitada una guerra en la cual la mediation/mediacin proceso en el cual cada partido
nacin o naciones ms poderosas no continuarn ms tiene la oportunidad de explicar su lado de la disputa y
all de ciertos lmites (pg. 709) debe escuchar al otro lado (pg. 434)
line-item veto/veto de lnea el poder de vetar slo ciertas metropolitan area/rea metropolitana una ciudad grande
lneas o artculos en un proyecto de ley (pgs. 176, 255) y sus suburbios alrededores (pg. 671)


Spanish Glossary
metropolitan government/gobierno metropolitano open primary/eleccin preliminar abierta

metropolitan government/gobierno metropolitano tipo national security/seguridad nacional proteccin de las

de gobierno que sirve varias comunidades en la misma fronteras y territorios de una nacin en contra de
regin (pg. 682) invasiones o el control por poderes extranjeros
militia/milicia fuerzas armadas de ciudadanos (pg. 85) (pg. 608)
misdemeanor/delito menor un crimen menor que national security adviser/consejero de seguridad nacional
normalmente es castigado por una multa o sentencia director del personal del Consejo de Seguridad Na-
de crcel por menos de un ao (pg. 438) cional (pgs. 237, 616)
mixed economy/economa mixta un sistema en el cual el nation-state/estado nacin un pas en el cual el territorio
gobierno regula empresas privadas (pgs. 575, 721) de ambos la nacin y el estado coinciden (pg. 6)
moderate/moderado aqul cuyas creencias caen entre naturalization/naturalizacin el proceso legal por el cual
ideas liberales y conservativas (pg. 517) se le otorga a una persona la ciudadana (pg. 392)
monarchy/monarqua autocracia en la cual un rey, necessary and proper clause/clusula de necesario y
reyna, o emperador, ejercita los poderes supremos del propio Artculo I, Seccin 8 de la Constitucin, la
gobierno (pg. 19) cual le da al Congreso el poder de aprobar todas las
monetary policy/poltica monetaria el control del leyes que sean necesarias y propias para hacer cumplir
gobierno del abastecimiento de dinero y crdito para sus deberes (pgs. 96, 157)
influenciar la economa (pg. 567) newly developed nation/nacin nuevamente desarrollada
monopoly/monopolio un negocio que controla tanto de nacin que ha tenido rpido crecimiento industrial en
una industria que existe poco o nada de competencia aos recientes (pg. 722)
(pgs. 578, 719) news briefing/sesin noticiera una junta durante la cual
mortgage/hipoteca prstamo solicitado para pagar una un funcionario gubernamental anuncia o explica una
casa (pg. 431) poltica, decisin, o accin (pg. 528)
mullah/mullah lder religioso islmico con entrenamiento news release/comunicado de noticias historia preparada
especializado (pg. 700) que los funcionarios gubernamentales escriben para los
multilateral treaty/tratado multilateral acuerdo interna- miembros de la prensa (pg. 528)
cional firmado por varias naciones (pg. 629) nominating convention/convencin de nominacin
municipality/municipalidad unidad urbana de gobierno junta oficial pblica de un partido para escoger
establecida por carta estatal (pg. 665) candidatos para un cargo (pg. 464)
Muslim/musulmn adepto a la religin islmica (pg. 699) nongovernmental organization (NGO)/organizacin no
mutual defense alliance/alianza de defensa mutua gubernamental organizacin internacional compuesta
acuerdo entre naciones para apoyarse la una a la otra por individuos y grupos fuera del alcance del gobierno
en caso de ataque (pg. 627) (pg. 702)
non-resident alien/extranjero no residente persona de un
N pas extranjero que espera quedarse en Estados Unidos
por un perodo corto y especfico (pg. 387)
nation/nacin grupo de personas unidas por lazos de nuclear proliferation/proliferacin nuclear la expansin
raza, lenguaje, costumbre, tradicin, y a veces religin de armas nucleares (pg. 709)
(pg. 6)
national budget/presupuesto nacional plan financiero O
anual para el gobierno nacional (pg. 175)
national committee/comit nacional representantes de las office-group ballot/balota de grupo de cargo aquella
50 organizaciones estatales de un partido poltico que que enumera los candidatos juntos por el cargo al cual
lo dirigen (pg. 460) se estn postulando (pg. 489)
national convention/convencin nacional reunin de oligarchy/oligarqua sistema de gobierno en el cual un
miembros locales y estatales de un partido escogidos pequeo grupo mantiene el poder (pg. 19)
para nominar a los candidatos para presidente y oligopoly/oligopolio situacin cuando slo unas
vicepresidente (pg. 460) cuantas empresas dominan una industria particular
national debt/deuda nacional el total de dinero (pg. 579)
que el gobierno debe en cualquier momento open-market operations/operaciones del mercado abierto
(pgs. 160, 559) los medios que el Sistema de Reserva Federal usa para
nationalist position/posicin nacionalista posicin afectar la economa comprando o vendiendo bonos del
que favorece la accin nacional en tratar problemas gobierno u otras seguridades en el mercado abierto
(pg. 106) (pg. 570)
nationalization/nacionalizacin el proceso por el cual el open primary/eleccin preliminar abierta una eleccin en
gobierno toma control de la industria (pg. 724) la cual todos los votantes pueden participar (pg. 465)


Spanish Glossary
open shop/taller abierto pork-barrel legislation

open shop/taller abierto lugar de empleo donde los petit jury/jurado pequeo jurado de juicio, generalmente
trabajadores pueden decidir libremente reunirse o no de 6 o 12 personas, que considera la evidencia
a una unin (pg. 583) presentada en un juicio y rinde un veredicto (pg. 313)
opinion/opinin explicacin escrita de una decisin de la petty offense/ofensa menor un crimen menor, general-
Suprema Corte; tambin, en algunos estados, una mente castigada con una multa en vez del arresto
interpretacin escrita de la constitucin o leyes estatales (pg. 437)
por el fiscal del estado (pgs. 322, 331, 645) picket/vigilar con piquetes patrullar un establecimiento
ordinance/ordenanza una ley (pgs. 50, 425) para convencer a trabajadores y al pblico de no
original jurisdiction/jurisdiccin original la autoridad de entrar (pg. 378)
una corte de juicio para ser la primera en escuchar un plaintiff/demandante la persona que trae los cargos en
caso (pg. 306) una corte (pg. 433)
plank/punto una seccin individual del programa poltico
P de un partido (pg. 469)
platform/programa poltico declaracin de los principios,
pardon/indulto la liberacin de castigo legal (pg. 254) creencias, y posiciones en asuntos vitales de un partido
parish/parroquia divisin poltica en Luisiana, semejante poltico (pg. 469)
a un condado en otros estados (pg. 664) plea bargaining/negociacin de alegato el proceso en el
parliamentary government/gobierno parlamentario cual el acusado se declara culpable a un crimen menos
tipo de gobierno en el cual las funciones ejecutiva y grave que l con el cual fue acusado originalmente
legislativa residen en la asamblea electa, o parlamento (pg. 440)
(pg. 689) plurality/pluralidad la mayor cantidad de votos en una
parochial school/escuela parroquiana escuela operada eleccin (pgs. 465, 644)
por una iglesia o grupo religioso (pg. 359) pocket veto/veto indirecto cuando un presidente se
parole/libertad condicional forma por la cual a un pri- deshace de un proyecto de ley aprobado durante los
sionero se le permite servir el resto de una sentencia ltimos 10 das que el Congreso est en sesin simple-
en la comunidad bajo la supervisin de un oficial mente por rehusar a actuar en ello (pg. 188)
(pg. 653) political action committee (PAC)/comit de accin
partisan/proslito que se adhiere o apoya un partido, poltica una organizacin formada para recolectar
faccin, causa o persona en particular (pg. 544) dinero y proporcionar ayuda financiera a candidatos
party-column ballot /balota columnar de partido aquella polticos (pgs. 130, 477, 511)
que enumera a cada candidato de partido en una political culture/cultura poltica el conjunto de valores y
columna bajo el nombre del partido (pg. 489) creencias compartidos sobre una nacin y su gobierno
passport/pasaporte documento permitiendo a un viajero (pg. 516)
cierta proteccin establecida por tratado internacional political efficacy/eficacia poltica los sentimientos de un
(pg. 623) individuo sobre su efectividad en la poltica (pg. 516)
patent/patente el derecho exclusivo para un inventor de political party/partido poltico un grupo de individuos
manufacturar, usar, y vender su invencin por un con intereses comunes que se organizan para nominar
perodo especfico (pg. 163) candidatos para el cargo, ganar elecciones, conducir
patronage/patrocinio la prctica de otorgar favores para el gobierno, y determinar la poltica pblica (pgs.
recompensar la lealtad al partido (pgs. 256, 462) 23, 453)
peer group/grupo paritario los amigos cercanos, grupo political socialization/socializacin poltica el proceso
religioso, clubes, o grupos de trabajo de un individuo por el cual individuos aprenden sus creencias y acti-
(pg. 515) tudes polticas a travs de sus antecedentes personales
per curiam opinion/opinin per curiam breve y experiencias de la vida (pg. 515)
declaracin no firmada de una decisin de la Suprema politics/poltica el esfuerzo para controlar o influenciar la
Corte (pg. 333) conducta y poltica del gobierno (pg. 14)
perjury/perjurio el mentir bajo juramento (pg. 168) polling place/urna electoral el lugar en un recinto donde
personal property/propiedad personal pertenencias la gente vota (pg. 488)
movibles tales como ropa y joyas, as como artculos poll tax/impuesto al voto dinero pagado para votar
intangibles como acciones, bonos, derechos de autor, (pgs. 90, 483)
y patentes (pgs. 431, 673) popular sovereignty/soberana popular mando por la
personal staff/personal propio las personas que trabajan gente (pg. 65)
directamente para senadores y representantes indivi- pork-barrel legislation leyes aprobadas por el Congreso
duales, (pg. 147) que asignan dinero para proyectos federales locales
petition/peticin una solicitud (pg. 77) (pg. 202)


Spanish Glossary
preamble/prembulo quota/cuota

preamble/prembulo una declaracin en una constitucin progressive tax/impuesto progresivo impuesto basado
que estipula los objetivos y propsitos del gobierno en la habilidad del contribuyente para pagar
(pg. 13) (pgs. 556, 657)
precedent/precedente modelo en el cual basar decisiones proletariat/proletariado trabajadores que producen los
o acciones posteriores (pgs. 338, 364, 426) bienes (pg. 29)
precinct/recinto distrito electoral (pgs. 459, 488) propaganda el uso de ideas, informacin, o rumores para
precinct captain/capitn de recinto un voluntario que influenciar la opinin (pg. 495)
organiza los trabajadores del partido para distribuir proportional representation/representacin proporcional
informacin acerca del partido y sus candidatos y para sistema en el cual varios oficiales son electos para
urgir a los votantes a las urnas (pg. 459) representar la misma rea en proporcin a los votos
presidential government/gobierno presidencial forma de que cada candidato de partido recibe (pg. 467);
gobierno democrtico en la cual el presidente encabeza usado en elecciones preliminares presidenciales
el ramo ejecutivo (pg. 691) para elegir delegados en proporcin a su voto
presidential succession/sucesin presidencial la orden popular
en la cual los funcionarios ocuparn el cargo del proportional tax/impuesto proporcional impuesto fijado
presidente en caso de vacante (pg. 217) a la misma tasa para todos (pg. 657)
president pro tempore/presidente pro tempore el public assistance/asistencia pblica programas guberna-
miembro del Senado, electo por el Senado, que mentales que distribuyen dinero a los pobres
suple como presidente del Senado en la ausencia (pg. 590)
del vicepresidente (pg. 139) public bill/proyecto de ley pblico proyecto de ley rela-
press conference/conferencia de prensa el cuestionamien- cionado con asuntos generales y aplicarse a toda la
to por los medios informativos de un alto funcionario nacin (pg. 181)
gubernamental (pg. 535) public housing/vivienda pblica alojamiento subsidiado
press secretary/secretario de prensa uno de los asistentes por el gobierno para familias de bajos ingresos
mximos del presidente que se encarga de las relaciones (pg. 600)
con los medios informativos (pg. 239) public-interest group/grupo de inters pblico grupo que
presumed innocence/inocencia presunta la presuncin busca realizar metas polticas que cree que beneficiarn
de que una persona es inocente hasta comprobarse la nacin (pg. 506)
culpable (pg. 428) public opinion/opinin pblica las ideas y actitudes que
price supports/apoyo de precios el programa bajo el cual un nmero significativo de americanos mantiene sobre
el Congreso les compra la cosecha a los agricultores temas (pg. 514)
si el precio del mercado cae bajo del precio de apoyo public policy/poltica pblica el curso de accin que un
(pg. 586) gobierno toma en respuesta a algn tema o problema
prime minister/primer ministro el lder del ramo (pg. 112)
ejecutivo de un gobierno parlamentario (pg. 691) public utility/utilidad pblica una organizacin que
prior restraint/restriccin anterior la censura por el administra necesidades tales como electricidad, gas,
gobierno de informacin antes de ser publicada o servicio telefnico (pg. 648)
o emitida (pgs. 84, 371, 536) public welfare/asistencia social pblica esfuerzos del
private bill/proyecto de ley privado proyecto de ley que gobierno para mantener la salud y condiciones de
trata de personas o lugares individuales (pg. 181) vivienda bsicas para aquella gente que no tiene
private law/ley privada una ley que se aplica a una suficiente recursos propios (pg. 654)
persona en particular (pg. 390) public works bill/proyecto de ley de trabajos pblicos
probable cause/causa probable base razonable para creer proyecto de ley en el cual el Congreso asigna dinero
que una persona o un lugar est ligado a un crimen para los proyectos locales (pg. 201)
(pg. 85) pure speech/expresin pura la expresin verbal de pen-
procedural due process/proceso de procedimiento samiento y opinin ante una audiencia que ha escogido
correspondiente el principio que prohibe la aplicacin escuchar (pg. 366)
arbitraria de la ley, y tambin provee salvaguardias para
asegurar que los derechos constitucionales y estatuta- Q
rios estn protegidos por la polica (pg. 427)
procurement/adquisicin la compra de materiales quorum/qurum el nmero mnimo de miembros que
(pg. 283) deben estar presentes para permitir a un grupo legisla-
profit/ganancia la diferencia entre la cantidad de dinero tivo de tomar accin oficial (pg. 137)
usado para operar un negocio y la cantidad de dinero quota/cuota la limitacin de la cantidad de un producto
que el negocio recibe (pg. 720) que puede ser importado (pg. 733)


Spanish Glossary
racial discrimination/discriminacin racial securities/seguridades

resident alien/extranjero residente persona de una nacin

R extranjera que ha establecido la residencia permanente
racial discrimination/discriminacin racial el tratar en Estados Unidos (pg. 387)
diferente a miembros de una raza slo por su raza revenue/ingresos el dinero que un gobierno cobra de
(pg. 408) impuestos u otras fuentes (pg. 43)
random sampling/muestreo al azar tcnica de votacin revenue bill/proyecto de ley de ingresos una ley propuesta
en la cual cada uno en el universo tiene una oportu- para juntar dinero (pg. 158)
nidad equitativa de ser escogido (pg. 520) reverse discrimination/discriminacin reversa
ratify/ratificar aprobar (pgs. 48, 76) situacin donde un individuo competente pierde a
rational basis test/prueba de base racional usada por una un individuo escogido por su raza, etnicidad, o gnero
corte para determinar si una ley estatal es razonable- (pg. 414)
revitalization/revitalizacin inversiones en nuevas
mente relacionada a una meta aceptable del gobierno
facilidades en el esfuerzo de promover el crecimiento
(pg. 406)
econmico (pg. 681)
real property/propiedad real tierra y lo que est unido o
rider/clusula aadida provisin incluida en un proyecto
creciendo en ella (pgs. 431, 673)
de ley sobre un tema diferente al que es abarcado en el
reapportionment/nueva distribucin el proceso de
proyecto (pg. 182)
asignar de nuevo la representacin basada en la
riding the circuit/recorriendo el circuito viajando para
poblacin, despus de cada censo (pg. 124)
presidir el tribunal en la regin del pas asignada a un
redistrict/delimitar nuevos distritos establecer nuevas
juez (pg. 320)
lneas de distrito despus de que la nueva asignacin
roll-call vote/votacin nominal mtodo de votar usado
est concluida (pg. 125)
por el Senado en el cual los senadores responden S o
referendum/referndum eleccin especial (pg. 666)
No cuando sus nombres son llamados en orden
refugee/refugiado persona huyendo de un pas para alfabtico (pg. 187)
escapar del peligro y la persecucin (pg. 387) runoff primary/eleccin preliminar de desempate
regional security pact/pacto de seguridad regional segunda eleccin preliminar entre los dos candidatos
tratado de defensa mutua entre las naciones de una que recibieron la mayor cantidad de votos en la
regin (pg. 627) primera eleccin preliminar (pg. 465)
register/registrarse enlistar su nombre con el gobierno
local apropiado con el fin de participar en las elecciones
(pg. 487) S
regressive tax/impuesto regresivo impuesto en el cual la sample/muestra grupo entrevistado en una encuesta de
gente de bajos ingresos paga una mayor porcin de sus opinin (pg. 520)
ingresos (pgs. 557, 657) sampling error/error de muestreo la medida de cunto
representative democracy/democracia representativa los resultados de la muestra pueden diferenciarse del
forma de democracia en la cual la gente elige a universo de la muestra (pg. 520)
representantes y les da la responsabilidad y el poder sanction/sancin una medida tal como embargar la
para hacer leyes y dirigir el gobierno (pg. 20) asistencia econmica para influenciar las actividades
representative government/gobierno representativo de un gobierno extranjero (pgs. 630, 693)
sistema de gobierno en el cual la gente elige delegados scarcity/escasez una condicin que existe porque
para hacer leyes y dirigir el gobierno (pg. 37) la sociedad no tiene todos los recursos para producir
representative sample/muestra representativa pequeo todos los bienes y servicios que todos quieren
grupo de gente, tpica del universo, al que un (pg. 717)
encuestador cuestiona (pg. 520) school board/mesa directiva escolar un cuerpo local,
reprieve/indulto la pospuesta de un castigo legal generalmente electo, que gobierna un distrito escolar
(pg. 254) (pg. 673)
republic/repblica gobierno en el cual los votantes search warrant/orden de cateo orden firmada por un juez
mantienen el poder soberano; los representantes electos, describiendo un lugar especfico para ser cateado por
responsables a la gente, ejercitan ese poder (pg. 20) artculos especficos (pg. 85)
reserved powers/poderes reservados poderes que secular/profano no religioso (pg. 360)
pertenecen estrictamente a los estados (pg. 96) securities/seguridades instrumentos financieros, in-
reserve requirement/requerimiento de reserva el cluyendo bonos, notas, y certificados, que son vendidos
porcentaje de dinero que los bancos miembros deben como medios de pedir dinero prestado con la promesa
guardar en Bancos de Reserva Federal como una de volver a pagarlo al comprador con intereses despus
reserva contra sus depsitos (pg. 570) de un perodo especfico (pgs. 559, 581)


Spanish Glossary
security classification system/sistema de clasificacin de seguridad standing vote/voto a pie

security classification system/sistema de clasificacin de single-issue party/partido de un solo tema partido

seguridad la provisin de que la informacin sobre las poltico que se enfoca en solo un principal tema social,
actividades gubernamentales relacionadas a la seguri- econmico, o moral (pg. 455)
dad nacional y la poltica exterior pueden mantenerse single-member district/distrito de un solo miembro
en secreto (pg. 416) distrito electoral en el cual slo un candidato es electo
seditious speech/expresin sediciosa discurso urgiendo la para cada cargo (pg. 457)
resistencia a las autoridades legales o el derrocamiento slander/calumnia expresin falsa con la intencin de
del gobierno (pg. 367) daar la reputacin de una persona (pgs. 84, 369)
segregation/segregacin separacin de personas del grupo social consensus/consenso social cuando la mayora de
social mayor (pg. 408) las personas en una sociedad aceptan valores
select committee/comit selecto un comit temporal democrticos y se acuerdan del propsito y lmites del
formado para estudiar un tema especfico y reportar gobierno (pg. 24)
sus descubrimientos al Senado o a la Cmara social contract/contrato social teora que, por contrato, la
(pg. 142) gente entrega al estado el poder necesario para mante-
self-incrimination/autoincriminacin atestiguando en ner el orden y el estado, a cambio, acuerda proteger a
contra de s mismo (pg. 402) sus ciudadanos (pg. 8)
senatorial courtesy/cortesa senatorial sistema en el cual social insurance/seguro social programas gubernamen-
el presidente somete el nombre de un candidato para tales diseados para ayudar a los ciudadanos ancianos,
una asignacin judicial a los senadores del estado del enfermos, y desempleados (pg. 590)
candidato antes de someterlo formalmente para la social insurance tax/impuesto del seguro social dinero
aprobacin de todo el Senado (pg. 317) cobrado por el gobierno federal para pagar por grandes
seniority system/sistema de antigedad sistema que da programas sociales tales como seguro social, cuidado
el liderazgo de un comit al miembro del partido mdico, y programas de compensacin de desempleo
mayoritario con el servicio ms largo sin interrumpir (pg. 556)
en ese comit (pg. 145) socialism/socialismo sistema econmico en el cual el
sentence/sentencia el castigo para ser impuesto a un gobierno es dueo de los elementos bsicos de produc-
acusado despus de un veredicto de culpable (pg. 443) cin, distribuye los productos y salarios, y proporciona
separate but equal doctrine/doctrina de separadas pero servicios sociales tales como cuidado de salud y
equitativas poltica que mantuvo que si las facilidades asistencia social (pgs. 28, 718)
por las diferentes razas fueran iguales podran ser soft money/dinero no asignado dinero juntado por un
separadas (pgs. 309, 409) partido poltico para propsitos generales que no es
separation of powers/separacin de poderes la divisin asignado a un candidato (pg. 478)
de poder entre los ramos de gobierno legislativo, sovereignty/soberana la absoluta y suprema autoridad
ejecutivo, y judicial (pgs. 40, 65) dentro de lmites territoriales (pg. 7)
sequester/secuestrar mantener aislado (pg. 373) special district/distrito especial unidad de gobierno
session/sesin un perodo durante el cual una legislatura local que trata de una funcin especfica tal como
se rene para manejar negocios (pg. 123) educacin, abastecimiento de agua, o transportacin
shah un rey (pg. 701) (pg. 665)
shield law/ley protectora ley que da a los reporteros splinter party/partido disidente partido poltico que se
alguna forma de proteccin en contra de ser forzados separa de uno de los grandes partidos a causa de algn
a revelar informacin o fuentes de informacin desacuerdo (pg. 455)
confidenciales en cortes estatales (pgs. 374, 537) spoils system/sistema de despojos la prctica de polticos
shock incarceration/encarcelamiento a choque programa victoriosos compensando a sus seguidores con puestos
de prisin involucrando sentencias ms cortas en un gubernamentales (pg. 285)
ambiente altamente estructurado donde los acusados spot advertising/publicidad entre programas las descrip-
participan en trabajos, servicio a la comunidad, ciones breves, frecuentes, y positivas de un candidato o
educacin, y asesoramiento (pg. 653) de sus importantes temas transmitidas por televisin o
shock probation/libertad condicional a choque programa radio (pg. 531)
diseado para mostrar a los delincuentes juveniles standing committee/comit permanente un comit
lo terrible de la vida en la prisin a travs de un breve permanente en el Congreso que supervisa los
encarcelamiento seguido por una libertad supervisada proyectos de ley que tratan de cierta clase de temas
(pg. 653) (pg. 142)
simple resolution/resolucin simple informe adoptado standing vote/voto a pie mtodo de votar usado por la
para cubrir asuntos afectando solamente una cmara Cmara y el Senado en el cual los miembros votan
del Congreso (pg. 182) ponindose a pie y siendo contados (pg. 187)


Spanish Glossary
stare decisis town meeting/reunin municipal

stare decisis trmino latino que significa que permanezca sunshine law/ley del sol ley que prohibe a funcionarios
la decisin; el principio de que alguna vez que la pblicos tener reuniones no abiertas al pblico
Corte dictamina en un caso, su decisin sirve como (pg. 113)
precedente en el cual basar otras decisiones supranational organization/organizacin supranacional
(pg. 338) organizacin cuya autoridad anula la soberana de sus
state/estado comunidad poltica que ocupa un territorio miembros individuales (pg. 704)
definido y tiene un gobierno organizado con el poder supremacy clause/clusula de supremaca declaracin en
de hacer leyes y hacerlas cumplir sin la aprobacin de el Artculo VI de la Constitucin estableciendo que la
cualquier autoridad superior (pg. 5) Constitucin, las leyes aprobadas por el Congreso, y los
state central committee/comit central de estado comit tratados de Estados Unidos sern la Ley suprema de la
generalmente compuesto en gran parte de represen- Tierra (pgs. 64, 97)
tantes de organizaciones del partido de los condados suspect classification/clasificacin de sospecho clasifi-
(pg. 460) cacin hecha en la base de raza u origen nacional que es
state farm/granja estatal ejido propio del gobierno y sujeto al severo escrutinio judicial (pg. 407)
administrado como una fbrica, con los agricultores swing vote/voto ganador el voto decisivo (pg. 344)
siendo asalariados (pg. 728) symbolic speech/expresin simblica el uso de acciones
state-sponsored terrorism/terrorismo apoyado por un y smbolos, junto con o en lugar de palabras, para
gobierno apoyo secreto del terrorismo por parte de un expresar opiniones (pg. 366)
gobierno (pg. 708)
states rights position/posicin de derechos estatales T
posicin que favorece accin estatal y local al tratar de
problemas (pg. 106) tariff/tarifa impuesto sobre importaciones para aumentar
statute/estatuto ley escrita por un ramo legislativo su precio en el mercado domstico (pg. 733)
(pg. 425) tax/impuesto el dinero que la gente y los negocios
statutory law/ley estatutaria ley que est escrita con el fin pagan para apoyar las actividades del gobierno
de que todo el mundo pueda conocer y entenderla (pgs. 189, 555)
(pg. 425) taxable income/renta imponible el total de ingresos de
straight party ticket/balota partidaria aquella en que un individuo menos ciertas deducciones y exenciones
el votante selecciona a candidatos de su partido personales (pg. 555)
solamente (pg. 493) tax credit/crdito de impuesto le permite al contribuyente
straw poll/votacin de prueba atento no cientfico de reducir su responsabilidad de impuesto sobre la renta
medir la opinin pblica (pg. 520) (pg. 559)
strong-mayor system/sistema de alcalde fuerte tipo de terrorism/terrorismo uso de violencia por parte de grupos
gobierno de alcalde-consejo en el cual el alcalde tiene no gubernamentales contra los ciudadanos con el
poderes ejecutivos fuertes (pg. 666) propsito de alcanzar una meta poltica (pg. 708)
subcommittee/subcomit grupo dentro de un comit theocracy/teocracia gobierno dominado por la religin
permanente que se especializa en una subcategora de (pg. 453)
la responsabilidad del comit permanente (pg. 142) third party/tercer partido cualquier partido poltico ms
subpoena/citacin orden legal para que una persona com- que los dos partidos mayores (pg. 455)
parezca o produzca documentos requeridos (pg. 168) ticket/candidatura los candidatos para presidente y
substantive due process/proceso substantivo correspon- vicepresidente (pg. 466)
diente ciertos derechos de individuos en la aplicacin ticket-splitting/balota no partidaria el votar por
de leyes, algunos de los que son especificados en la candidatos de diferentes partidos para los varios cargos
Constitucin (como la libre expresin) y otros de (pg. 489)
los que no son especificados, (como el derecho de tort/agravio un acto injusto, ms que el incumplimiento
privacidad haciendo decisiones personales) (pg. 427) de contrato, por el cual el partido daado tiene derecho
suburb/suburbio territorio muy poblada adjunto con una de demandar (pg. 432)
ciudad central (pg. 672) totalitarian dictatorship/dictadura totalitaria forma de
suffrage/sufragio el derecho al voto (pg. 481) gobierno autocrtico donde las ideas de los lderes son
summons/citacin judicial notificacin oficial de una glorificadas y el gobierno busca controlar todo aspecto
demanda que incluye la fecha, tiempo, y lugar de la de la vida social y econmica (pg. 18)
aparicin inicial en la corte (pg. 433) town meeting/reunin municipal reunin de todos los
sunset law/ley de puesta del sol ley que requiere inspec- votantes de un pueblo para expresar sus opiniones y
ciones peridicas de agencias gubernamentales para ver participar en el proceso de elaboracin de las leyes
si todava son necesarias (pg. 112) (pg. 665)


Spanish Glossary
township/municipio zoning/restricciones de edificacin

township/municipio unidad de gobierno local encontrada

en algunos estados, generalmente una subdivisin de V
un condado (pg. 664) verdict/veredicto decisin (pg. 443)
trading bloc/bloque comerciante un grupo de naciones veto rechazo de un proyecto de ley (pgs. 66, 188)
que intercambian sin barreras tales como tarifas victim compensation/compensacin de vctima un
(pgs. 710, 734) programa en varios estados por lo cual el gobierno
traditional economy/economa tradicional sistema proporciona ayuda financiera a las vctimas de ciertos
econmico en el cual el hbito y la costumbre crmenes (pg. 651)
dictan las normas para toda actividad econmica visa documento especial, requerido por ciertos pases,
(pg. 717) emitido por el gobierno del pas en el que una persona
transcript/transcripcin un rcord sumario (pg. 417) desee entrar (pg. 623)
treaty/tratado acuerdo formal entre los gobiernos de dos voice vote/voto a voz mtodo usado por la Cmara y el
o ms pases (pgs. 80, 257, 615) Senado en el cual los miembros juntos claman S o
trial court/corte de justicia la corte en la cual un caso es No y el presidente determina cul de los lados tiene
originalmente jurado (pg. 306) ms votos (pg. 187)
trust/crtel forma de consolidacin de negocios en la
cual varias sociedades annimas unen sus acciones y
permiten que una mesa directiva las dirija como una W
sola empresa gigante (pg. 578)
ward/distrito gran distrito que consta de varios recintos
adjuntos (pg. 459)
U weak-mayor system/sistema de alcalde dbil tipo de
unanimous opinion/opinin unnime una decisin gobierno alcalde-consejo en el cual el alcalde slo tiene
de la Corte en la cual todos los jueces votan igual poderes limitados (pg. 666)
(pg. 334) welfare state/estado benefactor nacin que tiene un
uncontrollable/incontrolable gasto gubernamental sistema econmico, tal como el socialismo, que
requerido por ley o resultando de previos compromisos proporciona varios programas de bienestar social
presupuestarios (pgs. 192, 562) (pg. 723)
unemployment compensation/compensacin de whip asistente al jefe de partido en la legislatura
desempleo pagos a los trabajadores que pierden su (pg. 135)
trabajo (pg. 649) withholding/impuesto retenido el dinero que un
unemployment insurance/seguro de desempleo progra- empleador retiene del salario de los trabajadores para
mas en los cuales los gobiernos federal y estatales pagar los impuestos anticipados (pg. 556)
cooperan para proporcionar ayuda a personas que no workers compensation/compensacin a trabajadores
tienen empleo (pg. 592) pagos que reciben las personas imposibilitadas para
unfunded mandates/mandatos sin asignacin programas trabajar como resultado de una herida o mala salud
requeridos pero no pagados por la legislacin federal relacionada con el trabajo (pg. 649)
(pg. 588) writ of certiorari/orden de certiorari una orden de la
unicameral legislatura de una cmara (pgs. 48, 641) Suprema Corte a una corte menor para mandar los
union shop/taller sindicalizado lugar de empleo donde registros de un caso para su revisin (pg. 332)
los trabajadores son requeridos a unirse a la unin al writ of habeas corpus/orden de hbeas corpus una orden
haber sido empleados (pgs. 583, 649) de la corte para enviar a una persona acusada de un
unitary system/sistema unitario gobierno que da crimen a la corte para que sta determine si ha sido
todos los poderes clave al gobierno nacional o central legalmente detenida (pg. 158)
(pg. 12)
universe/universo en votacin, el grupo de gente que ser Z
estudiada (pg. 520)
urban renewal/renovacin urbana programas bajo los zoning/restricciones de edificacin medios que un
cuales las ciudades pueden solicitar asistencia federal gobierno local utiliza para regular la manera en que
para limpiar reas deterioradas y reconstruirlas la tierra y los edificios pueden ser utilizados para dar
(pgs. 599, 678) forma al desarrollo de una comunidad (pg. 669)


Acknowledgments and Credits

Acknowledgments Mark Cullum/Copley News Service; 148 Dennis Brack/Black Star; 149 (l)Jefferson
by Rembrandt Peale White House Historical Association/Photo by National Geo-
Reprinted by arrangement with The Heirs to the Estate of Martin Luther King, Jr., c/o graphic Society, (r)Robert C. Shafer/Folio; 151 Massachusetts Historical Society; 152
Writers House, Inc. as agent for the proprietor. (l)Dennis Brack/Black Star; (c)US Senate; 153 (t)George Tames/The New York
Times, (b)FOLIO, Inc.; 155 Charles Fagan/Associated Features; 156 Mark Groff, Life
Copyright 1963 by Martin Luther King, Jr., copyright renewed 1991 by Coretta
Magazine Time, Inc.; 157 Chet Nunley/Gamma Liaison; 158 (t)Picture Research
Scott King.
Consultants & Archives, (b)Numismatic Education Society; 160 David Young
Photo Credits Wolff/Tony Stone Images; 161 Collection of the New-York Historical Society; 162
National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C./Art
Picture Research by Pembroke Herbert & Sandi Rygiel, Picture Research Consultants Resource, NY; 163 (t)West Point Museum, US Military Academy, West Point
& Archives. NY/Photo by Josh Nefsky, (b)Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 164 (l)David
COVER Wes Thompson/The Stock Market. Burnett/CONTACT Press Images, (tr)PhotoAssist/courtesy The National Archives,
(br)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 166 Walter Iooss, Jr./Sports Illustrated;
The following photos appear multiple times. Their first usage is as follows. ii (flag) 167 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 168 (l)JP Laffont/Sygma,(r)Robert Phillips, Life Maga-
PhotoDisc, Inc.; 3 (multimedia tools) Aaron Haupt; 25 (Supreme Court) Pho- zine Time, Inc.; 169 Ken Lambert/The Washington Times/Gamma Liaison; 170
toDisc, Inc.; 32 (notebook) Jerry Davis; 33 clockwise from top right (flag) PhotoDisc, (t)courtesy Robin Deykes, (b)Russel Munson/The Stock Market; 172 Tom
Inc., (paper) Jerry Davis, (banner) PhotoDisc, Inc., (MA Statehouse) PhotoDisc, Horan/Sygma; 173 King Features Syndicate; 175 (l)Picture Research Consultants &
Inc.; 207 (clipboard) Jerry Davis. Archives, (r)Library of Congress; 177 Aaron Haupt; 179 1998 Bob Mankoff from
i Wes Thompson/The Stock Market; iii Corbis-Bettmann; iv (l)UPI/Corbis- The Cartoon Bank, Inc.; 180 Ashe/Folio; 181 Bob Kelley/Life Magazine Time, Inc.;
Bettmann, (r)US Senate; v Supreme Court Historical Society; vi Joe Traver/Gamma 182 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 186 Dennis Brack/Black Star; 187 US Capitol; 191
Liaison; vii DPA/Ipol; viii Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; ix (l)Republican (l)John Duricka/Wide World, (r)James Prigoff; 192 Picture Research Consultants &
National Committee, (r)Mike Derer/Wide World; x (t)courtesy Points of Light Foun- Archives; 193 (l)Collection of The New-York Historical Society, (r)Corbis-Bettmann;
dation, (b)Joseph Sohm/Chromosohm; xi William Mercer McLeod; xiv Kleponis/Folio; 194 Kansas State Historical Society; 195 1998 Frank Cotham from The Cartoon
1 Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art; 2 The National Archives of Bank, Inc.; 196 (l)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent, (r)Collection of Janice L. &
the United States by Herman Viola, photos Jonathan Wallen, published by Harry N. David J. Frent; 197 (l)Ed Carreon, (r)Wayne W. Fisher; 199 NASA; 200 Bob Daemm-
Abrams, Inc.; 4 Bruce Stoddard/FPG; 5 Bob Daemmrich/Tony Stone Images; 6 (l)Li- rich Photography; 202 Mark Richards/Contact Press Images; 203 Picture Research
brary of Congress, (r)Bob Daemmrich/The ImageWorks; 8 (l)Corbis-Bettmann, Consultants & Archives; 205 (b)Joe Marquette/Wide World; 206 (t)courtesy House
(r)courtesy National Portrait Gallery, London; 9 Rhoda Sidney/The Image Works; 11 of Representatives; 209 1998 Aaron Bacall from The Cartoon Bank, Inc.; 210 Su-
Cosmo Condina/Tony Stone Images; 12 Mead Art Museum, Amherst College; 13 perStock; 212 Reuters NewMedia Inc./CORBIS; 213 Reagan Library; 214 AFP/COR-
(l)Independence National Historical Park Collection, (r)Picture Research Consul- BIS; 215 I Have a Dream Foundation; 216 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 218 Ron
tants & Archives; 14 Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 15 (t)courtesy Laura Ep- Edmonds/Wide World; 219 Pool Photo/Newsmakers/Liaison; 220 The Ralph E.
stein, (b)Latent Image; 16 Paul Edmondson/Tony Stone Images; 18 Peter Becker Collection/Smithsonian Institution; 221 (l)Collection of Janice L. & David J.
Charlesworth; 19 Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 21 AP/Wide World; 22 Skjold/The Frent, (r)Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler
Image Works; 23 (l)Chris Corsmeier; (r)Nebraska State Historical Society; 25 Garbisch, 1963. (62.256.7); 223 MTV; 224 Robert King/Newsmakers/Liaison Agency;
UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 26 Boplop; 27 (l)Corbis-Bettmann, (r)Jeff Greenberg/Folio; 226 Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 227 Corbis-Bettmann; 228 The Metro-
29 Scala/Art Resource, NY; 30 Corbis-Bettmann; 31 Scala/Art Resource, NY; 33 politan Museum of Art; 229 Itsu Inouye/Wide World; 230 Stock Montage; 231
Drawing by Dana Fradon, 1972 The New Yorker Magazine, Inc.; 34 Archive Photos; Reuters NewMedia/CORBIS; 234 James Colburn/Ipol; 236 Shonna Valeska; 237 Steve
35 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 36 Joe Sohm/Uniphoto; 37 (t)House of Northup, Time Magazine Time, Inc.; 238 Ron Sachs/CORBIS; 240 (l)John F.
Delegates, State Capitol, Richmond VA, (b)Public Record Office; 39 (l)Private Col- Kennedy Library, (c)National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource,
lection, (r)Colonial Williamsburg Foundation; 41 Doug Martin; 42 Lexington His- NY, (r)Library of Congress; 241 (l)Doug Mills/Wide World, (r)John
torical Society. Photo by Rob Huntley/Lightstream; 44 (l)Crown copyright. Historic Ficara/Newsweek; 243 1998 Bob Mankoff from The Cartoon Bank, Inc.; 244 Owen
Royal Palaces. Photo: David Chalmers (r)Peabody-Essex Museum, Salem MA; 46 Franken/CORBIS; 245 Rob Huntley/Lightstream; 247 Library of Congress; 248
(t)Lafayette College Art Collection, Easton PA, (b)Division of Political History, (l)UPI/Corbis-Bettmann, (r)Reuters NewMedia/CORBIS; 249 Larry Burrows, Life
Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC; 48 Painting by Don Troiani, photo cour- Magazine Time, Inc.; 251 courtesy Central Intelligence Agency; 252 Oliphant
tesy Historical Art Prints, Ltd.; 50 J. Christopher/Uniphoto; 51 (l)Sam Abell/Nation- 1973, Denver Post. Distributed by the Los Angeles Times Syndicate. Reprinted with
al Geographic Society Image Collection, (r)Picture Research Consultants & Archives; permission; 253 National Archives; 254 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 255
52 (t)Columbiana Collection, Columbia University, (b)Library of Congress; 53 De- Karl Rubenthal/LBJ Library; 256 Corporation for National Service; 258 (l)The Met-
posited by the City of Boston, courtesy Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; 55 (l)H. Arm- ropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch, 1963,
strong Roberts, (r)Tracy W. McGregor Library, Special Collections Department, (r)Dirck Halstead/Gamma Liaison; 259 Smithsonian Institution; 260 (l)Collection of
University of VA Library; 56 Independence National Historic Park Collection; 58 The New-York Historical Society, (r)Ranan R. Lurie; 261 U.S. Coast Guard; 262
(l)North Wind Pictures, (r)The Image Bank; 61 Library of Congress; 62 Pete (l)Yoichi R. Okamoto/LBJ Library, (r)Porter Gifford/Gamma Liaison; 264 Nixon
Souza/Folio; 63 Corbis-Bettmann; 67 Tony Auth 1974 Philadelphia Enquirer. Presidential Materials Project; 265 The White House; 266 (t)Ed Reinke/Wide World,
Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; (b)courtesy Habitat for Humanity; 269 (tl)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent,
68 Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 69 (l)Miriam & Ira D. Wallach Division of (tc)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent, (tr)Collection of Janice L. & David J.
Art, Prints and Photographs, New York Public Library. Astor, Lenox & Tilden Foun- Frent, (b)Bill Greenblatt/Newsmakers/Liaison; 270 (t)NBC Photo, (b)Collection of
dations, (r)Joseph Sohm/Chromosohm; 70 (l)Steve Liss/Time Magazine, (r)Collec- Janice L. & David J. Frent; 273 1998 Mike Stevens from The Cartoon Bank, Inc.; 274
tion of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 71 (l)White House Historical Association, Jim Pickerell/Gamma Liaison; 275 Courtesy of the United States Federal Bureau of In-
(r)Chicago Historical Society/Photo Researchers; 72 (l)Geeta Dardick, (r)Sonda vestigation; 277 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 279 Uniphoto; 280 NASA;
Dawes/The Image Works; 73 The Brooklyn Museum. Gift of the Crescent-Hamilton 281 Jeff Greenberg/The Picture Cube; 284 National Postal Museum, Smithsonian In-
Club; 74 (t)National Archives, (b)Ron Edmonds/AP Wide World Photos; 75 stitution; 285 Scott Sachman National Parks & Conservation Association; 286 Li-
(l)Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, (r)Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; 76 Independence brary of Congress; 288 John Emmons/Ipol; 289 Tribune Media Services; 290
National Historic Park; 78 (l)Martin Levick/Black Star, (r)Schlowsky Photography; 79 Lawrence Migdale/Stock Boston; 291 Doug Martin; 292 Bob Daemmrich/Uniphoto;
Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 80 Diana Walker/Gamma Liaison; 84 293 Larry Downing/Sygma; 294 (l)NASA, (r)Ralph Morse/Life Magazine Time,
Lawrence Ruggeri/Uniphoto; 87 Cheekwood Museum of Art; Museum Purchase Inc.; 295 Richard Ellis/Sygma; 296 (l)People Weekly 1997 Neal Preston, (r)Drug En-
through the Bequest of Anita Bevill McMichael; 89 (t)Jeff Bundy/Omaha World-Her- forcement Administration; 301 Tribune Media Services; 302 Ken Heinen; 304 Bob
ald, (b)Gerald Peters Gallery, NY; 93 1998 Bob Mankoff from The Cartoon Bank, Daemmrich Photography; 305 John Marshall by Febret de Saint Memin, 1801.
Inc.; 94 Uniphoto; 95 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 96 Joseph Sohm/Chromosohm; 98 Bob Duke University Archives; 307 Lisa Biganzoli/National Geographic Society; 309
Daemmrich Photography; 99 Francis Miller/Life Magazine, Time, Inc.; 100 (l)Holt (l)courtesy The Historic New Orleans Collection, (r)Carl Iwaski, Life Magazine
Confer/The ImageWorks, (r)courtesy State of Oklahoma; 101 SuperStock; 104 Chuck Time, Inc.; 310 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 311 Nancy Andrews/Wide World; 312 cour-
Savage/Uniphoto; 106 Bob Daemmrich/Stock Boston; 108 (l)Library of Congress, tesy National Security Archive; 313 (l)Rob Huntley/Lightstream, (r)Susan Farley
(r)Don Uhrbroch/Life Magazine Time Inc.; 111 Paul Conklin/Uniphoto; 112 Randy 1992 New York Newsday; 315 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 318 (tl)Underwood &
Hampton/Time Life; 113 (l)People Weekly 1997 Andrew Kaufman, (r)courtesy Underwood/Corbis-Bettmann, (tr)Emmett Collection, New York Public Library,
Points of Light Foundation; 114 (l)Mark Reinstein/Uniphoto, (r)Collection of Janice (b)Joseph J. Scherchel/National Geographic Society Image Collection; 319 Robert
L. & David J. Frent; 116 (l)Brooks Kraft/Sygma, (r)courtesy Cleveland City Hall; 117 Llewellyn; 320 Portrait by John Sydney Hopkinson/Collection of The Supreme Court
Francis Miller/Life Magazine Time-Life, Inc.; 119 1998 Bob Mankoff from the of The United States; 321 (l)Supreme Court Historical Society, (r)Ken Heinen; 322
Cartoon Bank, Inc.; 120 Kleponis/Folio; 122 Everett Johnson/Folio; 123 Wayne Fish- (t)Supreme Court Historical Society, (b)Ken Heinen; 324 (t)Jim Brandenburg/Min-
er; 124 (l)courtesy National Portrait Gallery, London, (r)House of Representatives; den Pictures, (b)courtesy Rene Askins; 325 Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann; 326 US Postal
131 Wide World; 132 Library of Congress; 133 (l)Diana Walker/Gamma Liaison, Service; 327 Portrait by George Augusta/Collection of The Supreme Court of The
(r)Henry Groskinsky; 134 Walter P. Calahan/Folio; 136 Bantam Books; 138 Dennis United States; 329 1981 by Herblock in The Washington Post; 330 Robert Llewellyn;
Brack/Black Star; 139 (l)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (r)Ed Clark, Life Magazine Time, 331 Doug Martin; 333 James A. Finley/Wide World; 334 (l)UPI/Corbis-Bettmann,
Inc.; 141 Dennis Cook/AP/Wide World Photos; 142 John Troha/Black Star; 144 Joe (r)Random House Inc., NY; 335 Erich Solomon; 336 Library of Congress; 337
Marquette/AP/Wide World Photos; 146 Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 147 AFP/CORBIS; 339 Cartoonists & Writers Syndicate; 340 Nancy Richmond/The


Acknowledgments and Credits

Image Works; 341 White House Historical Association; 342 Collection of Janice L. & cal History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; 562 Ron Edmunds/Wide
David J. Frent; 343 Portrait by Bjorn Egeli/Collection of The Supreme Court of The World; 563 Steve Warmowski; 565 Internal Revenue Service; 566 Harry Bates/For-
United States; 344 Ken Heinen; 346 (l)Bob Adelman/Magnum, (r)Charles E. Stein- tune Magazine; 570 (l)Steven Senne/AP/Wide World Photo, (r)Louis Psihoyos/Ma-
heimer, Life Magazine Time, Inc.; 347 Tribune Media Services; 348 Franklin D. trix; 571 Bob Daemmrich Photgraphy; 573 Raeside/Cartoonists & Writers Syndicate;
Roosevelt Library; 349 Ken Heinen; 351 1998 Reprinted courtesy Bunny Hoest and 574 SuperStock; 575 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 576 International Brotherhood
Parade Magazine; 352 Barth Falkenberg/Stock Boston; 354 Laina Druskis/Stock of Teamsters; 577 (t)UPI/Corbis-Bettmann, (b)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 580
Boston; 355 Charles Gupton/Stock Boston; 357 Bob Fitch/Black Star; 358 Picture Re- Bob Daemmrich Photography; 581 The Oakland Museum; 584 Bruce Forster/Stone;
search Consultants & Archives; 359 (l)Eric P. Newman Numismatic Education Soci- 587 (l)Pete Souza/Gamma Liaison, (r)Environmental Protection Agency; 588 Bill
ety, (c)Rob Huntley/Lightstream, (r)Eric Bouvet/Gamma Liaison; 360 Bob Greene/The Boston Globe; 590 Food and Drug Administration; 593 Nina
Daemmrich Photography; 362 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 364 James Conklin; Berman/Sipa Press; 594 Chuck Harrity/US News & World Report; 596 courtesy Stu-
365 Audrey Gibson/Washington Stock Photo; 366 courtesy Patrick Griffin/Photo by dents Against Destructive Decisions; 597 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 598
Wayne W. Fisher; 367 (l)Hiroji Kubota/Magnum, (r)Eddie Adams/Time Magazine; (l)William Mercer McLeod, (r)Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 600 Jim Lo
368 Wide World; 369 Paul S. Conklin; 371 D. Boone/Westlight; 372 (l)UPI/Corbis- Scalzo; 601 (l)Lake County (IL)Museum/Curt Teich Postcard Archives, (r)Shelburne
Bettmann, (r)Wide World; 373 Glenn Martin/Denver Post/Wide World; 374 Nor- Museum, Shelburne VT/Photo by Ken Buris; 603 CORBIS SYGMA; 605 Toles 1996
man Walker/Constitution Magazine; 376 courtesy Simon MOA Management Co., US News & World Report. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYN-
Inc.; 377 Rob Badger/FPG; 378 Rob Huntley/Lightstream; 379 Wide World; 380 DICATE; 606 Getty Images; 607 Reuters NewMedia/CORBIS; 608 AFP/CORBIS; 609
Charles Moore/Black Star; 381 (t)Union Summer, (b)Agence France Presse/Corbis- Eric Bouvet/Matrix; 610 (l)The Michael Barson Collection/Past Perfect, (r)Picture
Bettmann; 383 F. Pedrick/The Image Works; 385 1985 by Sidney Harris; 386 Joseph Research Consultants & Archives; 611 (t)Jim Storey, (b)Rob Huntley/Lightstream;
Sohm/Chromosohm; 387 Hikaru Iwasaki/National Archives; 388 National Park Ser- 612 (l)David Burnett/Contact Press Images, (r)Collection of Janice L. & David J.
vice Collection/Gift of Angelo Forgione; 389 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 391 Peo- Frent; 614 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 615 The White House; 616 US
ple Weekly 1993 Ian Cook; 392 (l)Library of Congress, (r)Portrait by George PA Army; 617 AFP/CORBIS; 618 Steve Lehman/Saba; 619 Rothco Cartoons; 621 Jerome
Healy/Collection of the Supreme Court of The United States; 393 Bob Daemmrich Delay/Wide World; 622 Isabel Cutler/Gamma Liaison; 623 AFP/CORBIS; 626 Bill
Photography; 394 Uniphoto; 395 (t)Torsten Kjellstrand, (b)Ranko Chkovic/Sygma; Gentile/SIPA Press; 627 Larry Lefever from Grant Heilman; 628 Museum of Ameri-
396, 397 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 398 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 399 (t)Therese can Political Life/Anderson; 630 Jon Jones/Sygma; 631 Bob Daemmrich Photography;
Frare/Black Star, (b)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 400 Bob Daemmrich Photogra- 633 Arcadio/Cartoonists & Writers Syndicate; 634 Frank Siteman/Stock Boston; 636
phy; 401 Division of Political History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC; 402 Jerry Howard/Stock Boston; 637 courtesy The Rhode Island Historical Library; 638
(l)Bob Daemmrich Photography, (r)Flip Schulke; 403 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 406 Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum; 639 Dan Groshong/Sygma; 641, 643 Bob
Bob Daemmrich Photography; 407 Wide World; 408 (l)Bruce Roberts/Photo Re- Daemmrich Photography; 645 courtesy Ron Thornburgh, Secretary of State, State
searchers, (r)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 409 Picture Research Consul- Capitol, Topeka KS; 646 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 648 J. Koontz/The Picture
tants & Archives; 411, 412 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 413 (l)Gary Cube; 649 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 650 (t)L.L. Griffin Photography, (b)Thor-
Wagner/Sygma, (r)Walt Zeboski/Wide World; 414 Bob Daemmrich Photography; ney Lieberman; 655 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 656 Camerique/The Picture
415 (l)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent, (r)Library of Congress; 416 Cube; 657, 659 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 661 John Klosner; 662 Michael L.
Topham/The Image Works; 417 Nick Ut/Wide World; 418 Bob Daemmrich Photog- Abramson/Life Magazine Time, Inc.; 663 Office of the Mayor, Des Moines IA; 665
raphy; 419 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 421 Steve Kelley/Copley News Bob Daemmrich Photography; 666 M. Fernandes/Washington Stock Photo; 668
Service; 422 David W. Hamilton/The Image Bank; 423 Photri, Inc.; 424 Collection of Coutesy of the City of Hearne, Texas; 669 Jeffery Titcomb/Gamma Liaison; 670
The New-York Historical Society; 426 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 427 courtesy (l)Museum of the City of New York, (r)Berle Cherney/Uniphoto; 672 James
Tabor Academy; 428 James Wilson/Woodfin Camp & Associates; 429 Greg Blank/Stock Boston; 676 Bill Pugliano/Gamma Liaison; 677 Robert Maass/CORBIS;
Smith/Saba; 430 John Biever/Sports Illustrated; 431 (l)courtesy Vernon A. Martin Re- 678 Rhoda Sidney/Stock Boston; 680 courtesy Gillian Kilberg; 681 Trinity College;
altors, (r)Paul Barton/The Stock Market; 432 (l)Corbis-Bettmann, (r)Bob Daemm- 683 Miro Vintoniv/Stock Boston; 685 Signe/Philadelphia Daily News/Cartoonists &
rich Photography; 433 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 434 (l)Corbis-Bettmann, Writers Syndicate; 686 Robert Llewellyn; 688 David Turnley/Corbis; 689 Bob Daemm-
(r)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 435 John Neubauer; 436 Bob Daemmrich Photog- rich Photography; 690 David Cairns/Sipa Press; 695 Rob Huntley/Lightstream; 696
raphy; 437 Ogust/The Image Works; 439 (t)Bob Daemmrich Photography, Reuters NewMedia/CORBIS; 697 Czarak Sokolowski/Wide World; 699 John Chias-
(b)MADD; 440 courtesy Mary Ellen Beaver; 441 (l)Bob Daemmrich Photography, son/Gamma Liaison; 700 (l)Joe Raedle/Newsmakers/Liaison, (r)Wesley Bocxe/news-
(r)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 443 Val Mazzenga/Chicago Tribune Magazine; 445 makers/Liaison; 702 Joel Simon; 703 Sovfoto/Eastfoto; 704 courtesy Wheels for
(t)Ilene Perlman/Stock Boston, (b)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 446 (t)Bob Humanity; 705 (l)Carl Ho/Reuters/Corbis-Bettmann, (r)Vincent Yu/Wide World;
Daemmrich Photography, (b)Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 449 Har- 706 1994 Dayton Daily News and Tribune Media Services, Inc. courtesy Grimmy,
ris/Cartoonists & Writers Syndicate; 450 Shelburne Museum; 452 Tom Fox/CORBIS; Inc.; 708 AP/Wide World Photos; 709 AP/Wide World Photos; 710 Kindra Clin-
453 J.A. Pevlovsky/Sygma; 456 (l)Library of Congress, (r)David Woo/Stock Boston; eff/The Picture Cube; 713 Dante Busquets/Gamma Liaison; 715 Henge/Cartoonists &
457 Museum of American Political Life; 458 courtesy Jason Brinton; 459, 460 Collec- Writers Syndicate; 716 Fritz Hoffman/Network; 717 Bill Gallery/Stock Boston; 718
tion of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 461 Ted Thai/Time Magazine; 463 Rob Tom Wagner/Saba; 720 (t)Jim McHugh/Outline, (b)courtesy Food from the Hood;
Huntley/Lightstream; 464 Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent; 465 (t)Rick Fried- 721 Wide World; 724 (l)Larry Luxner, (r)Chilean Trade Commission; 725 Picture
man/Black Star, (b)Larry Hawkins/Eufala Photography; 466 Collection of The New- Research Consultants & Archives; 726 P. Le Segretain/Sygma; 727 Liz Gilbert/Sygma;
York Historical Society; 467 (l)Doug Martin, (r)Mark Avery/ 728 Michael S. Yamashita/CORBIS 729 Sovfoto/Eastfoto; 730 Bob Daemmrich Pho-
CORBIS; 468 Doug Martin; 469 Stephan Savoia/AP Wide World Photos; 470 Divi- tography; 731 Reuters Newmedia/CORBIS; 732 Reuters NewMedia/CORBIS; 735
sion of Political History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC; 473 1978 by Greg Girard/Contact Press Images; 737 Beth A. Keiser/Wide World; 739 Carlson
Herblock in The Washington Post; 474 Kraft Brooks/Corbis Sygma; 475 TimePix.; 1993/Milwaukee Sentinel/Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYN-
478 Bob Daemmrich/Uniphoto; 479 Toles 1996 The Buffalo News. Reprinted with DICATE; 740 G. Silverstein/Washington Stock Photo; 746-752 White House Histor-
permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE; 481 Charles Gupton/Uniphoto; ical Association; 753 (t,c) White House Historical Association, (b) Bush 2000
482 (t)courtesy Office of the Governor, (b)Courtesy of the United States Environ- Campaign; 754 Ken Heinen; 756 Supreme Court Historical Society; 757 Picture Re-
mental Protection Agency; 483 (l)Collection of Janice L. & David J. Frent, (r)Matt search Consultants & Archives; 759 Rob Huntley/Lightstream; 770 (t)Raza Estakhri-
Herron; 485 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 486 Matt Meadows; 487 Schlowsky Pho- an/Tony Stone Images, (b)Historical Society of Pennsylvania; 774 Mark Burnett; 796
tography; 490 Allan Tannenbaum/Sygma; 492 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 493 Cobalt Productions; 799 Paul Conklin; 801 SuperStock; 803 Corbis-Bettmann; 804
Paul Szep; 501 Reprinted by permission of John Trevor, Albuquerque Journal; 502 SuperStock; 806, 807 Corbis-Bettmann; 808 Picture Research Consultants &
Bob Daemmrich Photography; 503 MADD; 504 (l)Scott Sachman National Parks Archives; 812 Corbis-Bettmann; 815 National Gallery of Art, Washington DC; 817
and Conservation Association, (r)Scott Sachman National Parks and Conservation Corbis-Bettmann; 818 Smithsonian Institution; 819 North Wind Picture Archives;
Association; 506 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 507 Public Citizen News; 508 (t)Ted 820 National Portrait Gallery/Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, NY; 821 Smith-
Morrison, (b)Mark Burnett; 509 Wide World; 511 Mike Keefe/The Denver Post; 512 sonian Institution; 822 UPI/Corbis-Bettmann; 823 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; 824
courtesy David Laughery; 514 Channel One News; 515 Steve Liss/Time Magazine; 516 Glencoe file photo; 825 Flip Schulke/Black Star; 826 Tim Crosby/Liaison; 827 COR-
Bob Daemmrich Photography; 518 Rick Schmidt/Sygma; 519 L. Clarke/CORBIS; 526 BIS/SYGMA; 837 Dennis Brack/Black Star; 838 Charlie Westerman/Gamma Liaison;
Doug Mills/Wide World; 527 Picture Research Consultants & Archives; 528 Library 839 John Chiasson/Gamma Liaison; 841 National Park Service; 842 Social Security
of Congress; 529 Amy Sancetta/AP Wide World Photos; 530 (t)Picture Research Con- Administration.
sultants & Archives, (b)Bob Daemmrich Photography; 531 courtesy CNN; 532
Manuello Paganelli; 533 Donna Cox & Robert Patterson/NCSA; 534 C-SPAN; 535
Wilfredo Lee/Wide World; 536 Charles Phillips/Smithsonian Institution; 538 (t)John
Zich/Wide World, (b)Scribners; 540 C-SPAN; 542 Entertainment Weekly; 543 Ter-
rence McCarthy/The New York Times; 544 Les Stone/Corbis Sygma; 545 Federal
Communications Commission; 547 Dennis Brack/Black Star; 548 Terry Ashe/Time
Magazine; 549 Stephenson/Zuma; 551 Tony Auth. Reprinted with permission of
UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE; 552 Robert Llewellyn/Folio; 554 Alex
Wong/Getty Images; 555 Culver Pictures; 556 (l)Tribune Media Services, (r)Bob
Daemmrich Photography; 558 Bob Daemmrich Photography; 560 Division of Politi-