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International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research

ISSN 0976-2612, Online ISSN 2278599X,


Vol5, Issue2, 2014, pp219-227
http://www.bipublication.com

MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE


DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

Sayora S. Murodova1, Vyacheslav V. Shurigin1*, Laziza A. Gafurova1,


Kakhramon Davranov1
1
National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek
*Corresponding author: Email: slaventus87@inbox.ru, Tel: +99893 5047522

[Received-11/04/2014, Accepted-05/05/2014]

ABSTRACT:
Microbial succession of Djizakh steppe soils under salinization was studied. It was revealed that
microorganisms development in the soils of various salinization levels occurs unequally and depends on the
salinization level and season. The dominance of ammonification agents and ray fungi was revealed. The
cellulose-fermenting bacteria content in the soils varies dramatically depending on the salinization level. The
middle- and highly-saline soils were notable for low content of the nitrifying microorganisms. The
microorganisms generic composition in the irrigated soils with various salinization levels was studied.
Keywords: salinization, soil, microbial succession, seasons, ammonifires, nitrifires, denitrifiers

[1] INTRODUCTION
The soils salinization is an essential the unique over-organism system similar to
environmental factor influencing soil multicellular organism, however, not identical
microorganisms development. The over- to the latter in the certain relation has grown
content of water-soluble salts is the limiting recently. Such systems feature is the separate
factor of soil fertility, which reduces the crops cells interaction (cooperation), where their
harvest and activity of the microorganisms. coordinated activity is directed on achievement
The microorganisms are rather sensitive to the of the same result [14].
slightest change of medium conditions. The For most trustworthy information, we set the
matters of soils succession microflora and their goal to reveal the regular and systematic
biological activity remain debatable [9]. change of the microorganisms quantity and
For understanding of the microorganisms quality under saline stress in the soil
functioning, all researches are to be carried out microorganisms system.
interactively. It concerns both the determination [II] MATERIAL AND METHODS
of microorganisms quantity and qualitative The researches had been carried out in the
composition, recovery of the physiologically irrigated soils of the Djizakh steppe in 2008-
active agents microbes-producers and the soils 2011 yy.
fermentation activity. Many parameters of the The soils samples were taken seasonally on
soils biological activity are so dynamical that horizons. For analyses, the samples selected
their disposable determination misleads only from three replications were used. For
[7]. estimation of content of the microorganisms
The comprehension that microorganisms ecological-trophic groups the standard methods
population is not a simple amount of cells, but were applied [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The soils
MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

microbiological analyses were conducted in the On the basis of quantitative analyses was
dynamics of spring-summer-autumn. Microbial revealed that microorganisms development in
communities quantitative count on the basic the soils of various salinization level occurs
rank groups was made under the standard soil unequally and depends on salinization level and
microbiology methods of limiting dilutions by season.
inoculating the soil suspension into the elective In non saline soils, the microorganisms
nutrient mediums [1, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 18]. quantity growing on MPA reached the
The ammonification agents were counted on maximum quantities in comparison with other
MPA, the oligonitrophils and aerobic nitrogen- soils.
fixing microorganisms on the anazotic In all tested samples of soils, the quantity of
medium of Rushman, the 1st phase nitrifying ammonification agents predominated over the
microorganisms - on the medium of Soriano amount of microorganisms consuming mineral
and Walker, the 2 nd phase nitrifying nitrogen forms, which indicated to weak
microorganisms - on the medium of Watson mineralization process. Concerning the number
and Wotbery, the denitrifiers - on the medium of aforesaid, there followed the ray fungi,
of Guiltay, and the aerobic cellulose-fermenting nitrifying microorganisms, nitrogen-fixing
microorganisms - on the medium of Getchinson microorganisms, denitrifiers, and aerobic
and Clayton. The quantity of soil nitrogen-fixing and butyric-acid bacteria and
microorganisms physiological groups fungi. The content of cellulose-fermenting
considered on liquid nutrient mediums was bacteria in the tested soils samples varied
determined according to the table of Mac- dramatically depending on the salinization
Credy. The recalculation of microorganisms level.
amount was made on 1 g. of abs. dry soil. It is known that saprophytic microorganisms
Statistical data processing was carried out by ability to live is closely related to organic
means of software package Microsoft Exel- matter.
2003. Under the similar count, where the humus
content in the upper horizon of irrigated
[III] RESULTS AND DISCUSSION meadow soils is from 0, 96 to 1, 10%, in the
The microbial successions research demands meadow - gray soils - from 0.73 to 2.60%, in
determination of several revealing parameters the gray- meadow soils - from 0.88 to 1.13%,
of population changes. On the assumption of and in paludal-poic soils to 0.80%, the quantity
above-stated, we chose the poic-sierozem and composition of microorganisms
[Figure-1], sierozem-poic [Figure-2], paludal- accordingly changed.
poic [Figure-3], and poic soils [Figure-4] with
mild, middle, and high salinization level.

(a) (b)

Vyacheslav V. Shurigin, et al. 220


MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g) (h)
Fig: 1. Microbial succession of the irrigated poic-sierozem soils of the Djizakh steppe depending on salinization
level.

Vyacheslav V. Shurigin, et al. 221


MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g) (h)
Fig: 2. Microbial succession of microorganisms of the irrigated sierozem-poic soils of the Djizakh steppe
depending on salinization level.

Vyacheslav V. Shurigin, et al. 222


MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g) (h)
Fig: 3. Microbial succession of the irrigated paludal-poic soils of the Djizakh steppe depending on salinization
level.

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MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

() (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

(g) (h)
Fig: 4. Microbial succession of the irrigated poic soils of the Djizakh steppe depending on salinization level.

Vyacheslav V. Shurigin, et al. 224


MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

As the irrigated paludal-poic soils developed in the nitric plants balance [13]. In addition, the
the lowered relief parts of soil, they formed phenomenon can be explained by the
heavy texture soils more often. As a result of microorganisms ability to adapt to the
researches, it was revealed that they are poor of medium. The high enough concentration of
humus; therefore, the ammonification salts in the soil can stand those
microorganisms content was low in the upper microorganisms, in which protoplasm occurs
horizon, whereas, the nitrifying, denitrifying, the reserve substances hydrolysis and emission
and aerobic cellulose-fermenting of the osmotic active agents depressing the
microorganisms were not revealed in the creation of more raised salts content in cells.
bottom soil horizons. In the summer, some decrease of the
For all researched soils, the total amount of microorganisms quantity in the poor-saline
microorganisms reduced on the soil profile, soils is observed in comparison with the spring
which, probably, was connected with the period and in the autumn again lifting, which is
aerations deterioration and insufficiency of especially well traced at counting of bacteria
nutrients, as well as the water-soluble salts growing on MPA.
toxic effect near to the ground waters. Any In the poor-saline soils, the ammonification
toxic agents accumulation in the soil leads to microorganisms and ray fungi were dominating
lowering of the microorganisms growth physiological groups [Table-1].
energy, as well as the lack of any nutrients In the middle-saline soils, the amount of
makes the soil not suitable for their ammonification and cellulose-fermenting
development [12]. microorganisms reduction was noted. In
As there are always much more easily comparison with the poor-saline soil, the
accessible organic substances in the soil quantity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms did
(undecomposed stubble remains of previous not change sharply.
year, etc.) in the spring, microorganisms Degree of soil salinity
Basically met
strengthen the mineralizing activity just in the Poor- Middle- Highly-
types of
spring. Their gradual consumption by the microorganisms
saline saline saline
summer and parallel accumulation of the soils soils soils
Arthrobacter ++ + +
antibiotic substances in the soil leads to
Azotobacter ++ ++ +
lowering of the activity in the summer as well. Bacillus ++ ++ ++
New arrival of the organic substances in the Chromobacterium - - +
autumn and inactivation of antimicrobial Micrococcus + + -
substances within the summer leads to Pseudomonas ++ ++ +
Rhodococcus ++ ++ ++
activation of the microbiological processes in
Myxococcus + - -
the autumn again. This way, probably, there is
Sarcina + ++ ++
a change of more active periods of Spirosarcina + ++ ++
microorganisms growth to less active ones, Sterptomyces ++ ++ ++
finally, the basis for seasonal prevalence of the Penicillium + + -
microbiological processes in the soil, which is Xantomonas ++ + -
Flavobacterium ++ + +
necessary to be considered at practical
Aspergillus ++ + +
conditions of agricultural production. Clostridium + + ++
As a result of analyses, the plentiful growing of Botritiscinereae ++ + ++
bacteria on Eshbi agar, from the earliest Verticillium ++ + ++
development phases and in the radical plants Fusarium ++ + ++
zones, was noticed. Note: ++ - dominating types, + often met types. not

Such quantity of oligonitrophiles in the plants revealed.


rhizosphere and their selectivity by the roots Table: 1. Microbial communities in saline soils of
can serve as an indicator of their certain role in the Djizakh steppe

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MICROBIAL SUCCESSION OF SALINE IRRIGATED SOILS OF THE DJIZAKH STEPPE OF UZBEKISTAN

The middle- and highly-saline soils differed by salinization influenced negatively the nitrifying
the low nitrifying microorganisms content. microorganisms growth and activity. With
Proceeding from the literary data, it is known increasing of salts concentration, the
that nitrifying bacteria are sensitive to the microorganisms type composition differed as
environment, their cells are easily penetrated by well; in the soils which combined temperature
toxic substances, and they use only up to 9% of and humidity, the microorganisms consuming
the energy emitted at the ammonification nitrate nitrogen gave way to the
oxidative processes. They quickly react to microorganisms using the ammoniates
change of the soil medium reaction. This nitrogen.
feature can be consider as salted soils indicator Proceeding, from the above-stated data, it
[17]. follows that microorganisms adapted to the
The researchers showed that, in the highly- soils ecological conditions are peculiar to the
saline soils of the arable soil layer, was certain soil conditions.
revealed reduce of bacteria growing on MPA
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