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EOwN ARSENAL

BROWN UNIVERSITY

PROVIDENCE, R. 1.

C -BENDING OF BEAMS

BY

D. C. DRUCKER

#7,,

81 5 26 199

NCOTF.This formris to be executed t:, show propouIeq frl~ut -e ~ rid.I-i trip]ic--tP to the

C~h.ef c,' Ordronce for pror approvid of il t-iL!?c~pos,-U listribut~'r to -iencies

or individupis whose official inteyet in th r( ~ t~u f~ jtzt_fzfd by -x

planatory st-stertents on the back of tl~is for-'

COP!E S W ER W S4

REPORT hO AL 14o/lq.-14 TI1TLE: The -Efff-ct of Shear on the Fia-ztic Berndin,- of -,-arrns

T 0

Laoatr ile____________

Author:

I

_ ___

oq.D'R-Artlller ____

Oi'-kwrnnition - -~

OBIYEE-Res .&materials

CoRyTP-Artillery r0ev.-

3IRITS-Smlnal Armns Dev.1 T_____

OPDTi'-TaflkAutomotive_________

ORDWU-Focket Dev.

ORDfTY-Executivf

1___________________ ____________

I

RDjTX-nkR -

ORMYEDEPARTMENT AGENCIES-

ORD -'Snkf or

Zzecutive Llbrary1

Arsenal____

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-- --- ____

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ORDJTR-Rarltafl Arsenal- 1______________

,Z-petroit Arsenal- -

APPROVING AUTHOR.ITY;

Date:

From:

EFFECT OF SHEAR ON THE PLASTIC B7,4PNG OF BEAMS rVt,

by -by

Ao D. C,/Drcker

has been studied in considerable detail but many questions remain unanswered.

action curve relating limiting values of shearing force and bending moment

for perfectly plastic beams, Simple illustrations demonstrate that, far more

than in the elastic range, such interaction is not just a local r.atter but

depends upon the geometry and loading of the entire beam. UsefuL interaction

curves are obtained, nevertheless, with the aid of the upper and lower bound

produces but a second order reduction in the limit moment of beams, a sm4

AA f

i/- q !I"

*The results presented in this paper i-ere obtained in the course 6oA earch

sponsored by the Office of Ordnance Research under Contract No, DA-19-02O-

ORD-3172, Project No. TB2-O001 (1086).

Project No. TB2-O001 (1086 ., e

-2-

Introduction

elastic up to the yield point and then flows under constant stress. The

Onat and Prager (1) takes care of the situation. It might be expected

matter to determine whether or not the beam is fully plastic at the section.

V and M for fully plastic action would be most desirable for beams of

rectangular cross-section, for I-beams and for each shape in common use.

1Unfortunately such a curve does not really exist, even for any one shape,

because the geometry and loading of the entire beam. are important, not the

g an attempt will be made to clarify the reasons for the lack of a unique

interaction curve. Studies of the cantilever beam under end load have been

made by Homne (2), by Onat and Shield (3), by Green (U), 'nd by Xeth (5).

Much of the information to be presented here is contained, therefore, in

this previous work but the relevant parts of each have not :et been compared

in principle and some of the peculiarities of the results have not previously

been explained.

Contract DA-19-320-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-3-

A start

s iill be made by the analysis of cantilever and simple

F! beams with constant shear force. The lower bound technique of limit

analysis (6) will be employed first to find a safe rhlation between V

and M and to provide reference values for the subsequent work, A local

criterion will then be sought to relate limit values of V and 14. The

The upper bound technique of limit analysis (6) will then be applied to

the simple span and comparison made with the lower bound and the local

It noted. The influence of the loading and the geometry away from the

be proposed.

stress which satisfy equilibrium and which do not violate the yield

be assumed so that the maximm shear stress may not exceed a0/2 where

limit load.

Figs. 1 and 2 show problems which are almost but not quite

equivalent, a cantilever beam under end load and a simple beam under

ax 8Y

ax aY

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-O001 (1086)

If in Equation 2] is taken as identically zero, r is seen to be

at x-0

Sdy [3

parabolic '. Fig. 3a, satisfies equilibrium and will not violate yield

anywhere if the maximum bending stress does not exceed o and the shear

stress at the neutral axis is no more than a02. Calling the maximum

2

M4< abh/6

-0

S~[4]

S-0 V< aobh/3

To obtain an interaction plot, designate the known limit moment for moment

2

M =Cobh2/A

0

"0 2- "

stress ac>2.

The elastic solution then gives the lower bound jjinr action plot

M<2 V 2

Although most of the pclnts arc. far too low (too close to the origin) the

Contract DA-I9-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-001 (M086)

2/3,0 2/3 point alone could be quite useful. Two other points which are

known are 021 and 1,0. As a yield or interaction curve must be conLvex

Therefore

(7) any line joining two lower bo'xld points must be a lower bound.

all points lying ins:.de the two inclined dashed straight linas of Fig.

a give

i2 ,2 2(]

Sx + x C

2 2

R + 2=02 [7)

:N - = ~sin h (! _

2'r1

-- = COS l

090 L h

and is valid for < as illustrated in Figs* 3b,c. For larger values

IL

loops, as shown in Fig. 3d, and the shearing stress is constant at a&O2

I.ntegration of [8] leads to

Contract ILA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No, T12-0001 (1086)

-6-

V

V L (1 -Cos

L h

M =2(1)2(h)9h(1 -cos)

L- 2

Sfor h< ('r V_< 2

L-2 Vo -i"

For V 2

0

010

Mh D V

0

71

The composite result i3 plotted on Fig, 4 and should be a very good lower

F for by the lower bound solution. In a sense, therefore, the lower bounds

for Fig. 3a and for Figs. 3b, c, d, do not apply to exactly the same

r and does not generally have as much meaning in the plastic range.

relation for beams in bending to amalyze a very short length of beam between

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-000o (3086)

two neighboring cross-sections. Shear, if included at all, is added by

supposing constancy along the length of the beam. Free end or support

e 'Vec , therefore, the assumption is made for general loading that each

its neighbor.

infonration can then be deduced about the state of stress and of strain

theory that, at the limit load, the stresses are constant and the deforma-

tion is purely plastic (6). Consider a small element of the beam which

with increment y Fig. 6a. As in the previous section, the normal stress

of yielding then requires that all shearing be in the >qr plane, &z = 0.

obeying the maximun shear rule the plastic and, therefore, total strain

s x +s y 0 or y Fx (1U]

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

S~-8-

the origin, Fig. 6c. As the principal directions of stress and of strain

increment coincide,

tan 2E L = [12]

a 0

F0 2

xy 2 x

r where is

h

the maximum strain increment at the extreme fiber y= h/2 or = 1.

2+1

12"2

No. (1 or -P )O

MO 2&

1 d- /2v - -- 2e [14 -

V=V

V or VO- T- sinh

The question which arises immediately is whether the curve

Contract DA-19-.020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-9-

deformation pattern was assumed and the answer is the same as would be

found by following the upper bound procedure of equating the work done

except for Y 0.

taken as in Fig. 8 in which the outor regions of the beam stretch or contract

without shearing and the inner portion D shears and changes length. An

interaction curve can then be obtained for each value of D/h, Fig. 7. The

stage the inner region D is effectively under plastic shear alone and

00

V T bD

2 2

1 0bli a bD

or

2

110

M Fig. 7)4

the surfaces y = +h/2 are free of stress. Does this mean that one of

the individual interaction curves or their lower limiit is the true interac-

tion curve? The answer must be no because [15] is in fact below the

lower bounds, Figs. 3,4. The confusion arises because of the attempt to

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-10-

neighboring elastic (or rigid) reginns as will even more the peculiar

second order with V constant. The curvature varies linearly alo.ng the

beam and there is a gradual transition from the section of maximum mno t

to the section of zero moment. For elastic theory to have any validity,

the length of tha beam must ble several times the depth so that shear strains

6

xy resulting from the variation of y are rLot significant. At the

limit load, on the nther hand, the deformation is entirely plastic and

in the elastic beam becomes primary and has large energy dissipation

associated with it. The mis-match trouble for pure bending is avoided

by the plastic hinge, Fig. 10, which spreads out over a distance equal

local*

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

In general, for both elastic and plastic members it is clear

section. Roots of notches, abrupt changes in depth, and fixed ends all

require more elaborate theory for accurate analysis. The influence of the

complete geometry and load distribution on the limit load appears in more

follows.

the cantilever problem of Fig, 1 wovid be solved, The limit load P would

V P PL

00 "0 bh

-bh aO-K

therefore

V h M [16]

Vo 2L 14o

and the ratio h/2L would give the proper point on the interaction curve.

lla. Although the hinge is of the standard type, its center is h/2

from the fixed ends The support is assumed capable of applying stresses

which keep-an elastic triangular core adjacent to the fixed end and so

Contract DA-19-020-OPD-3172/?

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-12-

strengthen the beam. When the beam is very short, Green (4) and Onat and

Shield (3) propose the circular arc of sliding as in Fig. llb. The kinematic

picture proposed by Leth (5) for an I-beam is appropriate for the short

of view expressed in (3) (4) and (5) the length of the beam becomes question-

not resolve the inherent and important problem associated with a fixed end

picture is as,umed, Fig. 12a, equating work done by the forces P to the

energy dissipated in plastic deformation gives the upper bound result (6)

R This answer cannot be said to be unexpected but it is not obtained for the

Assuming a circular slip surface for verj short beams, Fig. 12b,

equating the work done by the external load to the internal dissipation

0 h _ h

J& PA 2 b 2 sin 2. 2 sin*

- [18]

L +- ctn

bound is desired. The result of Onat and Shield (3) is then found (V=P):

For vcry short beams and consequently small M/M0 , series expansion

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-13-

Fig* 7.

V 3 (M~ 2[20]

01

, PA SCO

-2 + aobb(h 4

bDL + -D)2 L

A

2 L 4 L

or

PL _4 LA R + / \2 [211

a bh 1 h h

Minimizing the upper bound by taking the derivative with respect to D/h

D= L or D+L -h [22]

__ interaction relation

valid for L/h < 1 or 1M/140 2(V/V 0 ) or V/V0 _ 1/2. Note that in

Equation [23] first order changes in V/V0 at V/V = 1 correspond

fcrr0 v/v 0

to first order changes in 1/0%. As shown in Fig. 7, the upper bound

Extension of the simple beam to the left and to the right of the

hinge picture like Fig. 12a or a circular arc of sliding as Fig. 12b.

However, comparing Fig. 12c and Fig. 13, it can easily be seen that

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

-1)4-

Equation [21] does not contain a complete expression for the dissipated

energy for Fig. 13. The (1 - D/h)2 term must be doubled because bending

occurs at the loads P as well as at the center of the beam. Here again is

the mis-match trouble discussed earlier, Fig. 9b, and tVie reason Fig. 8 leads

energy dissipated,

D+ h [24]

2

L M V

andfor - <1 or "I0< 4 0

2h - M0 V0

M - [251

M0 (l0 V

kept in mind that if a unique interaction curve existed it would be convex

a lower bcund and the lower bound corresponds to shear stress distributions

take

mation which nearly coincides with a lower bound and is not tou far from

possible upper bounds would seem satisfactory for practical and theoretical

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

S~-15-

to solve problems, none will be solved. One of the main points is that the

interaction is not a local affair but depends upon the loading and geometry

of the entire beam. Nevertheless when all possible loadings are considered

ment of the central region of the simple beam will, of course, raise the

R limit loads still further above those discussed here in detail. All things

M _ 11 (27]

M

0

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-0001 (1086)

N-16-

BIBLICGRAPHY

(1) E. T. Onat and W. Prager, "The Influence of Axial Forces on the Collapse

Load of Frames", Proceedings 1st Midwest Conference on Solid Mechanics,

University of Illinois, Urbana, 1953, ppa 40-42.

(2) M. R. Home: "The Plastic Theory of Bending of Mild Steel Beamis with

Particular Reference to the Effect of Shear Forces", Proc. Roy. Soc.

v. 207-A, 1951, p. 216.

(3) E. T. Onat and R. T. Shield: "The Influence of Shearing Forces on the

Plastic Bending of Wide Beams", Proceedings of the Second U. S.

National Congress of Applied Mechanics, University of Micigan, An

Arbor, June 14-18, 1954, pp. 535-537,

Cantilevers and Fixed-Ended Beams", Journal of Mechanics and

Physics of Solids, v. 3, 1954, Part I, pp. 1-15. Part II,

pp. 143-155.

(5) C.-F. Leth: "The Effect of Shear Stresses on the Carrying Capacity of

I-Beams., Brown University Technical Report 107 to Office of Naval

Research, Contract N7onr-35801, March 1954.

S(6) D. C. Drucker, W. Prager, and H. J. Greenberg: "Extended Limit Design

Theorems for Continuous Media", Quart. Appl. Math., v. 9, 1952, pp.

381-389.

(7) D. C. Drucker: "A More Fundamental Approach to Stress-Strain Relations",

Proceedings 1st U. S. National Congress for Applied Mechanics, ASME,

R 1951, pp. 487-491.

(8) D. C. Drucker: "Limit Analysis of Cylindrical Shells under Axially-

Symmetric Loading". Proceedings 1st idwest Conference on Solid

Mechanics, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1953, pp. 158-163.

(9) W. Prager: "The Theory of Plasticity - A Survey of Recent Achievements"

(James Clayton Lecture) Journal Instn. Mech. Engineers, v. 169,

n. 21 (1955) pp. 41-57.

Contract DA-19-020-ORD-3172/7

Project No. TB2-O001 (1086)

DA-3172/7

P

-Fm

hit

L i_ _ _ _

4bkL

y

FIG. I CANTILEVER

P P

h x

y 12P

b K L -L ,.

F

FIG. 2 SIMPLE SPAN

(a)(c

L -------

(b) (d)

FIG. 3 EQUILIBRIUM DISTRIBUTIONS OF STRESS

DA-3172/7

11F

S ,see FIG. 3d

0.8-

o "FG.3b

SVo VO -see -3

0.4

30.2

01

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

M/M0

DA-3172/7

N ~to;,=o

(b)

PLASTIC POINT IN A BENT AND SHEARED BEAM WITH 0,y = 0

(Maximum shearing stress criterion of yielding assumed)

r7l_-DA3372/7

0.4

0.0.--

0.4- -h - - - -

0.40.

DA-3172/7

3-h /'Z

- -- = A

-(a) (b)

ISS IPAT ION

Kh- FG 0

DA-3172/7

P Pp

I L

" I

PICTURES

_ II <2 *?2v h

L 2P L 12P 2P

D4Z

PICTURES

DA-3172/7

LL

_ DA-3172/7

CRITERION

0.6

0.4

0.2

M/Mo

__ OF RESULTS

Contract No. DA-19-020-ORD-3172

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