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Course

D1332 Special Topics

:

Course D1332 Special Topics : TOPIC Sustainability from viewpoint Ambidexterity, Leadership and Organizational Learning

TOPIC

Sustainability from viewpoint Ambidexterity, Leadership and Organizational Learning

Session # 12 and 13

Innovasi dan paradoks

Saat ini, inovasi adalah hal yang wajib dilakukan oleh hampir

seluruh lini bisnis karena merupakan hal yang sangat vital untuk

bersaing di pasar. Yang harus diperhatikan juga, inovasi itu sendiri merupakan tantangan yang tidak mudah bagi managerial. Banyak definisi mengenai arti inovasi, menurut Subramaniam dan Youndt (2015), inovasi adalah proses (manajemen pengetahuan) dalam

mengidentifikasi dan memanfaatkan ide, penemuan (alat) dan

peluang untuk menciptakan atau memperbarui produk atau jasa. Sayangnya perusahaan kemungkinan tidak bisa berhasil atau bahkan survive dalam jangka waktu lama hanya dengan memfokuskan pada inovasi saja. Sebuah perusahaan juga harus

mampu melakukan exploitative dan exploratory innovation secara

berimbang.

Innovasi dan paradoks

Untuk memahami exploitative dan exploratory innovation bisa dari berbagai sudut pandang. Dari penjelasan Atuahene-Gima

(2005), exploitative adalah proses dalam memperluas pengetahuan

yang dimiliki saat ini seperti melakukan efisiensi ataupun perbaikan, dengan kata lain melakukan incremental innovation. Sedangkan exploratory innovation adalah aktivitas mengembangkan pengetahuan baru dan melakukan eksperimen untuk dapat

menciptakan variasi baru sebuah produk atau jasa sehingga dapat

mendorong terjadinya radical innovation.

Innovasi dan paradoks

Pada tahap selanjutnya, tugas managerial tidak hanya memastikan exploitative dan exploratory innovation dilakukan,

akan tetapi manajerial juga harus mampu mengatur tekanan

terhadap 2 hal tersebut. Kemampuan dalam melakukan hal tersebut umumnya disebut dengan istilah ambidexterity.

Ada 2 perbedaan sudut pandang mengenai ambidexterity yaitu :

architecture ambidexterity dan contextual ambidexterity.

architecture ambidexterity lebih condong untuk membedakan fokus

antara exploitative dan exploratory.

Sebaliknya, contextual ambidexterity lebih menekankan untuk mengintegrasikan exploitative dan exploratory.

Ambidextrous Organization

Compilation from many source

Andrew Davies_Professor Management of Projects,

The Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment_School of Construction and Project Management_Adjunct Professor, Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, BI

Strategic Knowledge Management-Two enterprises Bo

Cai Min Christine R48951143

The Concepts of Exploration &

Exploitation

A central concern of studies of adaptive processes is the

relation between the exploration of new possibilities and

the exploitation of old certainties (in organizational

learning).

Exploration includes things captured by terms such as

search, variation, risk taking, experimentation, play,

flexibility, discovery, innovation.

Exploitation includes such things as refinement,

choice, production, efficiency, selection,

implementation, execution.

The Concepts of Exploration &

Exploitation

They are in terms of (or defined as)

Actions (Behaviors) ?

Capabilities ?

Norms (Culture, Climate) ?

Processes ?

Strategies ?

Structures (Functions) ?

The Concepts of Exploration & Exploitation

Exploration implies firm behaviors

characterized by search, discovery,

experimentation, risk taking and innovation,

while exploitation implies firm behaviors

characterized by refinement,

implementation, efficiency, production and selection.

The Concepts of Exploration & Exploitation

Exploration and exploitation require substantially different structures, processes, strategies,

capabilities, and cultures to pursue and may have

different impacts on firm adaptation and performance (He & Wong, 2004).

Exploration is associated with organic

structures, loosely coupled systems, path

breaking, improvisation, autonomy and chaos,

and emerging markets and technologies.

Exploitation is associated with mechanistic

structures, tightly coupled systems, path

dependence, routinization, control and bureaucracy, and stable markets and technologies

The Concepts of Exploration & Exploitation

The returns associated with exploration are

more variable and distant in time, while the

returns associated with exploitation are more certain and closer in time (He &

Wong, 2004).

In other words, explorative firms generate larger performance variation by experiencing substantial success as

well as failure, while exploitative firms

are likely to generate more stable performance.

The Concepts of

“Balance”

Maintaining an appropriate balance

between exploration and exploitation is a

primary factor in system survival and prosperity (March, 1991).

Firms need to achieve a balance between

exploration and exploitation to achieve superior performance (Tushman and

O‟Reilly, 1996).

The innovation balancing act

• “Pressures to innovate confront businesses as well as people with another demanding balancing act: keeping up

with the activities we are already committed to, to reap the

benefits of our investment in them, while at the same time starting new activities that will be of benefit in the future. While caught in the mainstream, we must also generate newstreams‟”

Rosabeth Moss Kanter When Giants Learn to Dance

(1990)

March (1990)

Exploratory learning

Exploitative learning

Types of projects

Mainstream projects

Transfer of capabilities across similar projects

Support the momentum behind a companys existing business Focused on existing customersneeds and established technologies

Existing business develops a reputation for ‘doing what it does best’, repeats certain types of
Existing business develops a
reputation for ‘doing what it does
best’, repeats certain types of projects
by exploiting specific products,
contingencies and programmes
(Mintzberg 1983:27).

Newstream projects

Innovation and renewal of capabilities

No experience base Breakthrough initiatives in technologies, products, processes, and services

Breakout into new technologies and markets is led by: Breakthrough project (Tushman & O’Reilly, 2004)
Breakout into new technologies and
markets is led by:
Breakthrough project (Tushman &
O’Reilly, 2004)

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1990) When Giants Learn to Dance

Organising for breakthroughs

• “Most successful enterprises are adept at refining their current offerings, but they falter when it comes to pioneering radically new products and services

OReilly and Tushman (2004) The Ambidextrous Organization, Harvard Business Review

Two types of organisational units:

Exploitative units: make steady improvements in existing business incremental innovations

Exploratory units: breakthrough projects radical

innovations beyond current products or markets

Functional designs

integrate teams into the existing

organisational and management structure

General Manager Mfg Sales R&D
General Manager
Mfg
Sales
R&D

Unsupported teams

are set up outside the established organisation and management hierarchy

General Manager Emerging Mfg Sales R&D Business
General Manager
Emerging
Mfg
Sales
R&D
Business

Cross-functional teams

operate within the established organisation

outside the existing management hierarchy

but

General Manager Mfg Sales R&D Emerging Business
General Manager
Mfg
Sales
R&D
Emerging Business

Ambidextrous organisation

establish project teams that are structurally independent units, each having its own processes, structures and cultures, but are integrated into the existing management hierarchy

General Manager Existing Emerging Business Business Mfg Sales R&D Mfg Sales R&D
General Manager
Existing
Emerging
Business
Business
Mfg
Sales
R&D
Mfg
Sales
R&D

Scope of ambidexterity

Alignment of:

Exploitative Business

Exploratory Business

Strategic intent

cost, profit

innovation, growth

Critical tasks

operations, efficiency, incremental innovation

adaptability, new products, breakthrough innovation

Competencies

operational

entrepreneurial

Structure

formal, mechanistic

adaptive loose

Controls, rewards

margins, productivity

milestones, growth

Culture

efficiency, low risk, quality, customers

risk taking, speed, flexibility, experimentation

Leadership role

authoritative, top-down

visionary, bold

Ambidextrous Leadership Different alignments held together through senior-team integration, common

vision and values, and common senior-team rewards

Topics

Topics
Reference(s) as Consideration • Yet, it is not the only Reference for this topic •
Reference(s) as Consideration • Yet, it is not the only Reference for this topic •

Reference(s) as Consideration

Yet, it is not the only Reference for this topic

Those references are listed in the next several slides.

The CHOSEN References have to be transformed as:

a. Class Discussion, and Case Presentation

b. Individual and Team Assignment

c. Paper Writing

All of those a,b,c aspects are synergized within the

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Disciplines, in at least one of the Supply Chain, Manufacturing and Services. Yet, The Faculty Members and Students, are encourage to widen the Scope of Discussion within Multidisiplinary spirit, and in Indonesian Context.

Several Open Accesses ( FREE ) References, are

available in the following website, but not limited to:

a. Website of Library Bina Nusantara

b. Website of Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia

( PNRI )

but not limited to: a. Website of Library Bina Nusantara b. Website of Perpustakaan Nasional Republik
but not limited to: a. Website of Library Bina Nusantara b. Website of Perpustakaan Nasional Republik

NOTE: You need to read the whole Journals, And NOT ONLY the except in this slide.

Thus, It is suggested that you search it through

Website of Library Binus and PNRI

And NOT ONLY the except in this slide. Thus, It is suggested that you search it

NOTE: You need to read the whole Journals, And NOT ONLY the except in this slide.

Thus, It is suggested that you search it through

Website of Library Binus and PNRI

And NOT ONLY the except in this slide. Thus, It is suggested that you search it

Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes

Referring to Course Description, the keywords are the

Special Topics in Supply Chain, Manufacturing and Service Industry; then, this course covers the application in those three Industries.

Furthermore, the other important keywords are:

THEORETICAL and EMPIRICAL Aspects.

The Mentioned THEORETICAL, can be obtained from

prior semesters that student have learned about all

those Supply Chain, Manufacturing and Service Industry.

Meanwhile, the EMPIRICAL Aspects, can be obtained

from students‟ exposures to any field observation and study in Internship (Kerja Praktek), and/or Final Project ( Tugas Akhir/Skripsi )

Teaching and Learning

Strategies

Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching and Learning Strategies

Referring to Teaching and Learning Studies, This courses emphasize all those 5 activities.

All those 5 activities, require STUDENTS to be

proactive and read several references BEFORE the class begin, involving several PREPARATIONS in which

STUDENTS have to prepare as individual and/or as a

Team.

Those STUDENTS’ preparation will enrich all activities in Teaching and Learning Studies.

The detail on the depth and the width of the preparation, are guided by the FACULTY MEMBER that teaches this course; and according to the FEEDBACKS from Both Faculty and Students.

The references that need to be prepared by

STUDENTS, are the following, but not limited to:

a.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS, ranging from 2010 until

2015.

b.

Supporting classical Journals, from years before 2010.

c.

Textbook(s), Handbook(s)

d.

References that are provided by Faculty Member

e.

References that are proposed by Students