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The Bucharest University of Economic Studies

Faculty of Business and Tourism

Protected Area Analysis


Defileul Jiului National Park

Remus Hornoiu Conf.Univ.Dr.

Troaca Mircea

Petcu Teodora Georgiana

Bucharest
2017
The Bucharest University of Economic Studies
Faculty of Business and Tourism

BUCHAREST 2017

CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................................4
Location .......................................................................................................................................4
Landforms ...................................................................................................................................4
Tourism potential .........................................................................................................................5
Natural resources ........................................................................................................................5
Zoning ..........................................................................................................................................6
Flora .............................................................................................................................................6
Fauna ............................................................................................................................................6
Natural Attractions .....................................................................................................................7
Anthropic Resources ..................................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................10
Accommodation.........................................................................................................................10
Points of access ..........................................................................................................................10
CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................11
Analysis of tourist flows............................................................................................................11
CHAPTER 4 ...............................................................................................................................12
Activities in the park .................................................................................................................12
CHAPTER 5 ...............................................................................................................................14

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The Bucharest University of Economic Studies
Faculty of Business and Tourism

THE NATURAL PARK OF MARAMURES MOUNTAINS

Established in 2005 on the surface of 11,127 hectares, the Defileul Jiului National Park is
one of the youngest protected areas in Romania. The objective is located in the north of Gorj
county, between the Parang and Valcan massifs, along the narrow and deep valley dug by the Jiu
waters. Relief falls within the altitude of 295 m in the southern extremity of the Jiu Valley and
1,621 m in the Vulcan Pass..

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CHAPTER 1

1. LOCATION
The territory, located in a legend landscape, away from the agitation of the towns, is
crossed in the south-north direction of the road Filiasi - Deva, which is included in the European
network as E 79 and Bumbesti - Livezeni railway. Defileul Jiului National Park attracts tourists
through the wilderness and beauty of the landscapes through the unexpected richness of flora,
fauna and last but not least through the peace and fresh air that it offers.

So far, 701 species of plants and 441 species of animals have been inventoried, some of
which are protected by law. 80% of the park is covered with beech and oak forests in
combination with hornbeam or ash. Here live vipers, otters and large-scale carnivorous animals
like bears or lashes. There are 5 lilac species in the Defileul Jiului National Park, disappearing
for years on the rest of our continent, specimens of eagles with small horns and scorpions that are
extinct.

2. LANDFORMS
From a geological point of view, the territory of Hunedoara County overlaps with
two large tectonic-structural units: the Danubian autochthon and the getic cloth. As a
result of the active tectogenesis, two areas were delineated: the crystalline-mesozoic
area of the Southern Carpathians and the Banat Mountains and the sedimentary
volcanic area of a Southern Carpathian Apuseni. The native Cristal (danubian) is
encountered in the Vlcan, Parng, Retezat, arcu and Getian massifs in the Godeanu,
ureanu and Poiana Rusc mountains.

The first area is made of crystalline shale, overlaid with sedimentary-mesozoic


formations, especially Jurassic limestone. Perm-carboniferous formations
(conglomerates, breccias) and mesozoic (sandstone, clayey limestone, limestone)
constitute the sedimentary cover of the lens. The crystalline shale, which is the getian
cloth, is overlapped by structural sediments, especially in the Western Sureanu
Mountains and in Poiana Rusca. The sedimentary-eruptive zone of the Apuseni
Carpathians consists of sedimentary mesozoizations (limestone, marl, clayey,
conglomerate, sandstone) and magma (gabrouri, basalt) and neogene formed
(basalt, andesite, pyroclasi).

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3. TOURISM POTENTIAL
Defileul Jiului National Park is the area where nature beauties and many unique
things attract tourists. Today, the Bumbesti-Livezeni section is the railway sector with
most tunnels in a valley in our country. The endless works at DN 66 keep the tourists
away from this commune of nature, which could benefit two counties.

Facts:

- 2,000 visitors per year, but only about 100 of them are interested about natural
values of the protected area;

- the stay is 1-2 days;

- Activities of current visitors: religious pilgrimage, weekend tourism and mountain


hiking (very few, 10-20 tourists annually).

4. NATURAL RESOURCES
The park includes numerous grottoes, karstic forms, natural wells and avenues,
and at the same time it is the ideal place for many animal species, more than 400,
some of which are endangered and protected by national and international laws, but
also over 700 species special plants.

This jagged river, Jiu, with its tumultuous and quiet waters, traverses the park 30
kilometers from the north to the south, offering not only scientific research possibilities of
the aquatic ecosystem but also some of the best conditions for Practicing rafting or
canoeing, as well as sport fishing or, why not, picnic.

Defileul Jiului is one of the most spectacular and wild gorges in the Carpathian
Mountains, and the road and the railway that crosses it reveal to the eye sectors with
deep valleys of overwhelming beauties, tunnels and viaducts, practically an entire
universe offered primarily by nature, But also by man's skill to build one of the most
spectacular access routes on the Romanian territory.

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5. THE ZONING OF DEFILEUL JIULUI NATURAL PARK

Among the Valcan and Parang mountains shall be carried out Defileul Jiului, routing of the road
and a railway which passes through tens of tunnels and over many bridges. The gorge starts to
the north of the city Bumbesti (located in the south) and continues to the north-east, and curling
continuously until the village Livezeni, located at the south of Petrosani (before the confluence
with the river Jiul de Vest/West Jiu ).
Approximately in the middle of the gorge is the Lainici monastery, in the vicinity of which there
are ways of access marked by Valcan Mountains (on to the hermitage Locurele) and Parang
(immediately to the north of the monastery).
At the level of the road or rail we see the fret of the water which passes through the gorge, the
slopes who rose bewilderingly on both sides and from time to time, on their side top, with alpine
heights.
1.The railway and the highway pass, not necessarily together, either on a shore either on another
of the river.
2.To the north of the hermitage Locurele, the chalky peak of Mountains Valcan, with many caves
and forests, on the right bank of the geographical area.
3.Defileul Jiului shot from the Valcan mountains (learn on the left side of the front of the image
of the arrow showing the course of water). To the right of the arrow as we look to the north are
Parang Mountains, halfway through the northern part of the gorge.
4.The tunnel the railways.
5.In the background of the image is the highest area in the Mountains Parang; the foothills are
covered by the upper part of a important area, Valea Polatistea .
6.The Jiu gorge is in many places very curly; here you can see the tunnels along the rail.
7.The Lainici Monastery.
8.On the highway of the rocky gorge are very few places where you can overrun in safety.
9.North of the hermitage Locurele, a look toward the west, the south-western part of the hilltop
from Valcan Mountains.
10.The forest in the Valcan Mountains,in detail.
11.In the background of the image is the highest area in the Parang Mountains; at the foothill,
they are covered by the upper part of a important area, Valea Polatistea .
12.Detail of the image of the 11.
13.The forest in the Mountains Valcan, in detail.
14.The bridge to rail (not all have the same structure)

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6. FLORA AND FAUNA


"The scientific researches in the area, started in 2004, established a first inventory of the
flora and fauna species, as well as the most important habitats that can be found in Defileul Jiului
National Park, which includes a total of 1,142 species , Out of which 441 species of fauna - 168
protected - and 701 species of flora, of which 35 protected, both nationally and internationally,
"explains Marin erban, director of the Park.

Of the protected fauna species, the best known are the brown bear, the wolf, the laugh,
the otter, while the herbivores are represented by roe deer, black deer and black goat, declared a
monument of nature. The park forests are home to different species of chiroptera, including the
vulnerable species: the horseshoe big bat, the bark lion, the long-wing bat, but also some
endangered species such as the small lice with the mouse ears or the big blade with a sharp
blade.

At the same time, Defileul Jiului is mentioned in literature as one of the main colors of
bird migration, which is why it was called the "centro - european - bulgarian road". Here you can
find specimens of mountain rooster, mountain eagles and traveler horses, species protected by
national and international laws.

The existence of limestones in these places makes the area populated by reptiles, such as
the two viper species: viper with hornbeam - endemic species for the area - and common viper.
In fact, vines are the species that the inhabitants of the area fear most, although there have been
no cases of attacks on those who come looking for berries. The snakes' family encountered in the
Jiu Valley is complemented by Esculap's snake, honeysuckle snake, house snake or water snake.

Speaking of insects, the Alpine tailor is protected nationally and internationally, this
species prefering beech habitats well represented in the Jiu Defile of the National Park. Also, the
presence of the well-known tailor (Cerambyx cerdo), and the last but not least, of the Carpathian
scorpion - the Romanian Carpathian endemic was also signaled in the area.

The territory of the park is almost entirely covered by forests (85%), and some of them
fall under the so-called "virgin and quasi-virgin forests". Uncovered are only the mountain
steeples and meadows. Compact natural forests consist of stands where the beech and the oak are
predominant. They also host Mediterranean species, such as hornbeam and ash, as well as
Dacian species that make the gorge a "true botanical garden".

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"In the DN 66 strain, surviving seemingly insignificant trees survive, but which are, in
fact, traditional biotops for relict insects (specific to an extinct world). It is the case of the
Limoniscus violaceus insect localized in the mineral scabs of the locust beetle (Osmoderma
eremita) In high altitudes or Aggnathus decoratus, located strictly in the trunk of the anchor trees
in the gorge. For these reasons, we think that trees are more than a plank or veneer" as Marin
erban says.

The representative habitats of the area are the beech forests, the oak forests, the alluvial
forests of the black alder on the two sides of the Jiu and in the vicinity of DN 66 Bumbeti Jiu -
Petroani, but also the mountain lawns (Nardus stricta).

NATURAL ATTRACTIONS

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CHAPTER 2-Tourism Equipments

ACCOMODATION
The development of agro-tourism hotels and chalets makes the Defileul Jiului National
Park to be a recreational place, as they say, a "green" tourism.

As it is likely that you come from afar and you cannot visit Defileul Jiului in one day - and
the surroundings. You may choose accomodation in Petrosani (closer to the natural
park) or in Targu-Jiu (a little bit further, but you have the chance to visit the Brancusi
agregate). Here are a few offers:

Hotel Petrosani**, Petrosani


Modest hotel but with utilities to European standards, is situated in the center of the city
in Petrosani, next to the Central Park and by 25 minutes away from the National Park in
Retezat Mountains. The rooms have a balcony or terrace with a gorgeous view on the
mountains nearby, minibar and Wi-Fi internet, bathroom with shower or bath.

The tourists accommodated at this hotel can rent a bike or ATV's, Jeeps for mountain
trails. There is also free transportation from the hotel to the ski slopes in Parang and
Straja.
Fare*: 180 lei double room/night (with breakfast)

Hotel Europa*** Targu-Jiu


The hotel is center located in the Municipality of Targu Jiu, very close to the whole of
the sculptural agregate Constantin Brancusi, in the Municipal Park. The hotel has 27
rooms modern with free wireless internet, air conditioning, private bathroom, hair-dryer
and slippers.
Fare*: 244 lei double room/night (with breakfast)

Note: * fares are valid for the weekend 6 - 7 June 2015

POINTS OF ACCESS
- by car: The European road E79 On Route: Targu Jiu - Bumbesti Jiu.

The European road E79 On Route: Deva - Simeria - Calan Hateg - - puppies - Bath - Petrosani

-from any direction, you must get on the national highway 66 linking Bumbesti-Jiu (Gorj county) to
Petrosani (Hunedoara county). If you come from the southern part of the country, the gate in the gorge
is Targu-Jiu; if you come from the north-west, you will enter on the Petrosani. But beware! The road is
full of windings and can face rocks falling.

- by train: on the line Targu-Jiu - Petrosani there are many stations in which you can lower that to enter

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into the Natural Park Defileul Jiului (Sadului Valley, Meri, Lainici, Pietrele Albe or Strambuta). It deserves
to say that a train journey through this gorge is equally spectacular, because of the many rocks that led
to the creation of the tunnels for the sector of railway line - along the gorge (measuring 33 km) there are
43 tunnels, most of the country on such a distance, and 109 bridges.

CHAPTER 3- Analysis of tourist flows

Search results - Arrivals of tourists accommodated in the structure of tourists reception by type of
accommodation, type of tourists,macroregions, development regions and counties

Years

Year Year Year Year Year


2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Type of Type Macroregions,
establishment of of development regions
touristic reception tourists and counties MU: Persons

Number Number Number Number Number


of of of of of
persons persons persons persons persons

Total Total Maramures 92500 107095 107660 109083 121136

Search results - Staying overnight in the establishments of touristic reception by counties and localities

Years

Year Year Year Year Year Year


2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Type of establishment of
Counties Localities
touristic reception
MU: Number

Number Number Number Number Number Number

Total Maramures TOTAL 200693 201683 186343 191843 205038 281027

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Average
Year Arrivals Overnights stay(days)
2010 92500 200693 2,16
2011 107095 201683 1,88
2012 107660 186343 1,73
2013 109083 191843 1,75
2014 121136 205038 1,69

CHAPTER 4

Activities in the park


In the time spent on Defileul Jiului National Park you can practice

rafting

Defileul Jiului is one of the most wanted places in Romania by the lovers of rafting, an extreme sport,
teamy, which becomes ever more popular and in our country. The waveform has a length of 35
kilometers and counts over 80 cascades in which the velocity of the water can be reached up to 40 miles
an hour.
The tour operators have got to see the development potential of this sport and they realized packages of
special services for those people who want to combine relaxation with adrenaline.
The season rafting trip on Defileul Jiului opens, as a general rule, in the month of April and may take up
in the first part of the month of October, if the temperatures outside are maintained with pads for
tourists.
On the Jiu river are three sections with varying degrees of difficulty which may be rafting. The first line is
even more difficult and it starts immediately after the bridge at the exit of the Aninoasa City, in the area
of energy facilities. Continue then in addition to the Lainici monastery, with a second line, ending with a
third line, in the area of the Sadu village, Gorj county.
The risks for rafting lovers are minimal, as they are well trained before ascend in to the boats and are
equipped with special suits with neoprene, safety shoes with neoprene, lifejackets and headphones. Also
in each boat there is a professional pilot, which they must obey all over the world and which draws the
tasks for each.

horse riding,
hiking,
cycling,
fishing
or just visit many places.

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Nearby the park are numerous objectives of historical interest, cultural and tourism, thus:

The wooden church "Sf. Arhangheli" (the "Sanonilor") in Petrosani, built in the XVIII-th century, a historic
monument.
The wooden church "Saint Nicholas" in Bumbesti Jiu, built in 1760, a historic monument.
The wooden church "Sfintii Voievozi" from Plesa (Bumbesti Jiu), built in 1706, a historic monument.
The Old Church of Lainici Monastery located in the area of the park

The church "Entry into the Church" of Lainici monastery, built between 1812-1827, a historic monument.
The "Schimbarea la Fata" in Jiu Bumbesti, built in 1835, a historic monument.
The church "Sf. Ioan Botezatorul" Bumbesti Jiu, built in 1820, a historic monument.
The wooden church "Sf. Gheorghe" in Sambotin, built in 1794, a historic monument.
The wooden church "Sf. Dumitru" in Schela, built in 1781, a historic monument.
The museum of the traditional local architecture of Bumbesti Jiu.
The Cornoiu town of Bumbesti Jiu.
The Romanian Castre/Roman camps: Bumbesti-Jiu (1), Bumbesti-Jiu (2) and Bumbesti-Jiu (3).
Natural parks: Dealul Gornacelul, Sfinxul Lainicilor, Piatra Rafaila , Piatra Crinului, Pestera Bolii.

TOURIST PRODUCT OPTIONS :

Everyone can get a glimpse of the wonderful landscapes Defileul Jiului offers, in a day tour or
many days-tour offered by local tour operator Holidays Tourism.

Tour #1

Day 1: RESITA Caransebes Hateg PETROSANI Defileul Jiului TARGU JIU Hobita
Manastirea TISMANA Tg. Jiu SACELU.

Day 2: SACELU Pestera Muierii Hurezi Monastery Bistrita Monastery Rm. Valcea
Valea Oltului / COZIA Cisnadie CISNADIOARA.

Day 3: CISNADIOARA SIBIU Sebes Orastie Hateg Caransebes - RESITA.

Price = 267,00 lei / person

The price includes :

- transportation by coach 46/49 seats . Optional: minibus with 35 seats or microbus with
16/19 seats - dinner + accomodation + breakfast at Sacelu camp ; dinner +
accomodation + breakfast at Cisnadioara-Sibiu camp ;

One free place on 10 bought !

Optional lunch serving on the waveform and the tour guide.

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Touristic attractions: Old medieval centre with Brukenthal Museum and Dumbrava Park
from Sibiu, Defileul Oltului with Cozia Monastery and Calimanasti-Caciulata resorts,
Ramnicu Valcea municipality, Bistrita,Hurezi ,Polovraci and Tismana monasteries, The
Pottery Centre Horezu, Pestera Muierii, the operas of Constantin Brancusi from Tg.Jiu
(Coloana Infinitului, Poarta Sarutului,Aleea cu Scaune,Masa Tacerii), the memorial
house of Constantin Brancusi, Defileul Jiului with Schitu Lainici, Petrosani municipality.

Tour #2 seasonal tour

Day 1: RESITA Caransebes Hateg PETROSANI Jiului Valley - Schitu LAINICI TG.
JIU HOBITA TISMANA monastery Tg. Jiu SACELU, dinner + acomodation

Day 2: SACELU, breakfast - Novaci RANCA TRANSALPINA Obarsia Lotrului Cabana


Oasa Sebes Orastie Hateg Caransebes RESITA.

Price = 180,00 lei / person

The price includes :

- transportation by coach 46/49 seats . Optional: minibus with 35 seats or microbus with
16/19 seats - dinner + accomodation + breakfast at Sacelu camp ;

One free place on 10 bought !

Optional lunch serving on the waveform and the tour guide.

Touristic attractions : Petrosani municipality, Defileul Jiului with Lainici monastery,the


operas of C-tin Brancusi from Targu Jiu, Constantin Brancusi memorial house, Tismana
monastery, crossing the TRANSALPINA highway 2145 m alt , the barrier lake and Oasa
cabin, Sebes and Orastie municipalities .

Tour #3:

Day 1: RESITA Caransebes Hateg Orastie Sebes SIBIU Oltului Valley/ COZIA
Rm. Valcea HOREZU, dinner + accomodation

Day 2: HOREZU, breakfast Bistrita monastery Hurezi monastery HOREZU serving


lunch- Polovragi monastery Pestera Muierii TG. JIU Jiului Valley/ LAINICI PETROSANI
Hateg Caransebes RESITA.

Price = 205,00 lei / person

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The price includes :

- transportation by coach 46/49 seats . Optional: minibus with 35 seats or microbus with
16/19 seats

- dinner + accomodation + breakfast + lunch at HOREZU hotel.

One free place on 10 bought !

Optional lunch serving on the waveform and the tour guide.

Touristic attractions : Sibiu municipality with the old medieval area and Dumbrava park,
Defileul Oltului with Cozia monastery, Ramnicu Valcea municipality, Hurezi monastery,
the pottery centre in Horezu, Pestera Muierii, operas of C-tin Brancusi from Targu Jiu,
Defileul Jiului with Schitul Lainici, Petrosani municipality

Tour #4:

Day 1: RESITA Caransebes Hateg Simeria SIBIU Oltului Valley - COZIA Rm.
ValceaCurtea de ArgesBaraj VidraruCAPATANENI Arges dinner + accomodation

Day 2: CAPATANENI, breakfast - CURTEA de ARGES Rm. Valcea Bistrita monastery,


Hurezi monastery HOREZU Pestera Muierii TARGU JIU Jiului Valley / Lainici
PETROSANI Hateg Caransebes RESITA.

Price = 212,00 lei / person

Pretul include : - transport autocar 46/49 persoane, Optional minibus 35 pers sau
microbus 16/19 persoane.

- dinner + accomodation + breakfast at DRACULA boarding house ( Valea Argesului ) ;

One free place on 10 bought !

Optional lunch serving on the waveform and the tour guide.

Touristic attractions : Sibiu municipality with the old medieval area and Dumbrava park,
Defileul Oltului with Cozia monastery, Curtea de Arges municipality with its monastery,
Curtea Domneasca and Barajul Vidraru on Arges river, Rm. Valcea municipality, Bistrita
and Hurezi monasteries, the pottery centre of Horezu, Pestera Muierii, Targu Jiu
municipality with Brancusi park and monuments, Defileul Jiului with Schitul Lainici,
Petrosani municipality.

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CHAPTER 5

When we say Maramures, the first thing to which we are thinking is the word hospitality.
When it comes to the improvement of the activity of tourists, the only things we can do are:

promotional video of the park


improving the relation between local commy unities and the guests by creating a festival
where they can have experience exchange
promote local products and try to spread them in all the country sides and maybe outside.
For example, local communities can create a brand of clothes of traditional food that can
be sold.
promote their park via charity events, Like donate half of earnings from a trip or a
festival for poor children.
create specific programs to educate people about eco-tourism, socio-cultural tourism and
also very important to protect and respect nature.

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