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Geologi Regional Cekungan Sumatera Selatan

Februari 12, 2008 in Indonesia Basin | Tags: Indonesia Basin

Secara fisiografis Cekungan Sumatra Selatan merupakan cekungan Tersier berarah barat laut
tenggara, yang dibatasi Sesar Semangko dan Bukit Barisan di sebelah barat daya, Paparan Sunda di
sebelah timur laut, Tinggian Lampung di sebelah tenggara yang memisahkan cekungan tersebut
dengan Cekungan Sunda, serta Pegunungan Dua Belas dan Pegunungan Tiga Puluh di sebelah barat
laut yang memisahkan Cekungan Sumatra Selatan dengan Cekungan Sumatera Tengah.

Posisi Cekungan Sumatera Selatan sebagai cekungan busur belakang (Blake, 1989)

Tektonik Regional

Blake (1989) menyebutkan bahwa daerah Cekungan Sumatera Selatan merupakan cekungan busur
belakang berumur Tersier yang terbentuk sebagai akibat adanya interaksi antara Paparan Sunda
(sebagai bagian dari lempeng kontinen Asia) dan lempeng Samudera India. Daerah cekungan ini
meliputi daerah seluas 330 x 510 km2, dimana sebelah barat daya dibatasi oleh singkapan Pra-Tersier
Bukit Barisan, di sebelah timur oleh Paparan Sunda (Sunda Shield), sebelah barat dibatasi oleh
Pegunungan Tigapuluh dan ke arah tenggara dibatasi oleh Tinggian Lampung.

Menurut Salim et al. (1995), Cekungan Sumatera Selatan terbentuk selama Awal Tersier
(Eosen Oligosen) ketika rangkaian (seri) graben berkembang sebagai reaksi sistem penunjaman
menyudut antara lempeng Samudra India di bawah lempeng Benua Asia.

Menurut De Coster, 1974 (dalam Salim, 1995), diperkirakan telah terjadi 3 episode
orogenesa yang membentuk kerangka struktur daerah Cekungan Sumatera Selatan yaitu
orogenesa Mesozoik Tengah, tektonik Kapur Akhir Tersier Awal dan Orogenesa Plio
Plistosen.
Episode pertama, endapan endapan Paleozoik dan Mesozoik termetamorfosa, terlipat
dan terpatahkan menjadi bongkah struktur dan diintrusi oleh batolit granit serta telah membentuk
pola dasar struktur cekungan. Menurut Pulunggono, 1992 (dalam Wisnu dan Nazirman ,1997),
fase ini membentuk sesar berarah barat laut tenggara yang berupa sesar sesar geser.

Episode kedua pada Kapur Akhir berupa fase ekstensi menghasilkan gerak gerak
tensional yang membentuk graben dan horst dengan arah umum utara selatan. Dikombinasikan
dengan hasil orogenesa Mesozoik dan hasil pelapukan batuan batuan Pra Tersier, gerak gerak
tensional ini membentuk struktur tua yang mengontrol pembentukan Formasi Pra Talang Akar.

Episode ketiga berupa fase kompresi pada Plio Plistosen yang menyebabkan pola
pengendapan berubah menjadi regresi dan berperan dalam pembentukan struktur perlipatan dan
sesar sehingga membentuk konfigurasi geologi sekarang. Pada periode tektonik ini juga terjadi
pengangkatan Pegunungan Bukit Barisan yang menghasilkan sesar mendatar Semangko yang
berkembang sepanjang Pegunungan Bukit Barisan. Pergerakan horisontal yang terjadi mulai
Plistosen Awal sampai sekarang mempengaruhi kondisi Cekungan Sumatera Selatan dan Tengah
sehingga sesar sesar yang baru terbentuk di daerah ini mempunyai perkembangan hampir
sejajar dengan sesar Semangko. Akibat pergerakan horisontal ini, orogenesa yang terjadi pada
Plio Plistosen menghasilkan lipatan yang berarah barat laut tenggara tetapi sesar yang
terbentuk berarah timur laut barat daya dan barat laut tenggara. Jenis sesar yang terdapat
pada cekungan ini adalah sesar naik, sesar mendatar dan sesar normal.

Kenampakan struktur yang dominan adalah struktur yang berarah barat laut tenggara
sebagai hasil orogenesa Plio Plistosen. Dengan demikian pola struktur yang terjadi dapat
dibedakan atas pola tua yang berarah utara selatan dan barat laut tenggara serta pola muda
yang berarah barat laut tenggara yang sejajar dengan Pulau Sumatera .
KERANGKA TEKTONIK DAN PERKEMBANGAN STRUKTUR CEKUNGAN
SUMATRA SELATAN

Kerangka Tektonik Sumatra

Pulau Sumatra terletak di baratdaya dari Kontinen Sundaland dan merupakan jalur konvergensi
antara Lempeng Hindia-Australia yang menyusup di sebelah barat Lempeng Eurasia/Sundaland.
Konvergensi lempeng menghasilkan subduksi sepanjang Palung Sunda dan pergerakan lateral
menganan dari Sistem Sesar Sumatra.

Gambar 1. Pembentukan Cekungan Belakang Busur di Pulau Sumatra (Barber dkk, 2005).

Subduksi dari Lempeng Hindia-Australia dengan batas Lempeng Asia pada masa Paleogen
diperkirakan telah menyebabkan rotasi Lempeng Asia termasuk Sumatra searah jarum jam.
Perubahan posisi Sumatra yang sebelumnya berarah E-W menjadi SE-NW dimulai pada Eosen-
Oligosen. Perubahan tersebut juga mengindikasikan meningkatnya pergerakan sesar mendatar
Sumatra seiring dengan rotasi. Subduksi oblique dan pengaruh sistem mendatar Sumatra
menjadikan kompleksitas regim stress dan pola strain pada Sumatra (Darman dan Sidi, 2000).
Karakteristik Awal Tersier Sumatra ditandai dengan pembentukkan cekungan-cekungan belakang
busur sepanjang Pulau Sumatra, yaitu Cekungan Sumatra Utara, Cekungan Sumatra Tengah, dan
Cekungan Sumatra Selatan (Gambar 1).

Pulau Sumatra diinterpretasikan dibentuk oleh kolisi dan suturing dari mikrokontinen di Akhir
Pra-Tersier (Pulunggono dan Cameron, 1984; dalam Barber dkk, 2005). Sekarang Lempeng
Samudera Hindia subduksi di bawah Lempeng Benua Eurasia pada arah N20E dengan rata-rata
pergerakannya 6 7 cm/tahun.
Konfigurasi cekungan pada daerah Sumatra berhubungan langsung dengan kehadiran dari
subduksi yang menyebabkan non-volcanic fore-arc dan volcano-plutonik back-arc. Sumatra
dapat dibagi menjadi 5 bagian (Darman dan Sidi, 2000):

1. Sunda outer-arc ridge, berada sepanjang batas cekungan fore-arc Sunda dan yang
memisahkan dari lereng trench.
2. Cekungan Fore-arc Sunda, terbentang antara akresi non-vulkanik punggungan outer-arc
dengan bagian di bawah permukaan dan volkanik back-arc Sumatra.
3. Cekungan Back-arc Sumatra, meliputi Cekungan Sumatra Utara, Tengah, dan Selatan.
Sistem ini berkembang sejalan dengan depresi yang berbeda pada bagian bawah Bukit
Barisan.
4. Bukit Barisan, terjadi pada bagian axial dari pulaunya dan terbentuk terutama pada Perm-
Karbon hingga batuan Mesozoik.
5. Intra-arc Sumatra, dipisahkan oleh uplift berikutnya dan erosi dari daerah pengendapan
terdahulu sehingga memiliki litologi yang mirip pada fore-arc dan back-arc basin.

Struktur Utama Cekungan Sumatra Selatan

Menurut Salim dkk (1995) Cekungan Sumatra Selatan merupakan cekungan belakang busur
karena berada di belakang Pegunungan Barisan sebagai volcanic-arc-nya. Cekungan ini berumur
Tersier yang terbentuk sebagai akibat adanya interaksi antara Paparan Sunda sebagai bagian dari
Lempeng Kontinen Asia dan Lempeng Samudera India. Daerah cekungan ini meliputi daerah
seluas 330 x 510 km2, bagian barat daya dibatasi oleh singkapan Pra-Tersier Bukit Barisan, di
sebelah timur oleh Paparan Sunda (Sundaland), sebelah barat dibatasi oleh Pegunungan
Tigapuluh dan ke arah tenggara dibatasi oleh Tinggian Lampung.

Menurut Suta dan Xiaoguang (2005; dalam Satya, 2010) perkembangan struktur maupun evolusi
cekungan sejak Tersier merupakan hasil interaksi dari ketiga arah struktur utama yaitu, berarah
timurlaut-baratdaya atau disebut Pola Jambi, berarah baratlaut-tenggara atau disebut Pola
Sumatra, dan berarah utara-selatan atau disebut Pola Sunda. Hal inilah yang membuat struktur
geologi di daerah Cekungan Sumatra Selatan lebih kompleks dibandingkan cekungan lainnya di
Pulau Sumatra. Struktur geologi berarah timurlaut-baratdaya atau Pola Jambi sangat jelas
teramati di Sub-Cekungan Jambi. Terbentuknya struktur berarah timurlaut-baratdaya di daerah
ini berasosiasi dengan terbentuknya sistem graben di Cekungan Sumatra Selatan. Struktur lipatan
yang berkembang pada Pola Jambi diakibatkan oleh pengaktifan kembali sesar-sesar normal
tersebut pada periode kompresif Plio-Plistosen yang berasosiasi dengan sesar mendatar (wrench
fault). Namun, intensitas perlipatan pada arah ini tidak begitu kuat.

Pola Sumatra sangat mendominasi di daerah Sub-Cekungan Palembang (Pulunggono dan


Cameron, 1984). Manifestasi struktur Pola Lematang saat ini berupa perlipatan yang berasosiasi
dengan sesar naik yang terbentuk akibat gaya kompresi Plio-Pleistosen. Struktur geologi berarah
utara-selatan atau Pola Sunda juga terlihat di Cekungan Sumatra Selatan. Pola Sunda yang pada
awalnya dimanifestasikan dengan sesar normal, pada periode tektonik Plio-Pleistosen teraktifkan
kembali sebagai sesar mendatar yang sering kali memperlihatkan pola perlipatan di permukaan.
Gambar 2. Elemen Struktur Utama pada Cekungan Sumatra Selatan. Orientasi Timurlaut-
baratdaya atau Utara-Selatan Menunjukkan Umur Eo-Oligosen dan Struktur Inversi
Menunjukkan Umur Plio-Pleistosen (Ginger dan Fielding, 2005).

Perkembangan Tektonik

Peristiwa Tektonik yang berperan dalam perkembangan Pulau Sumatra dan Cekungan Sumatra
Selatan menurut Pulonggono dkk (1992) adalah:
Fase kompresi yang berlangsung dari Jurasik awal sampai Kapur. Tektonik ini
menghasilkan sesar geser dekstral WNW ESE seperti Sesar Lematang, Kepayang,
Saka, Pantai Selatan Lampung, Musi Lineament dan N S trend. Terjadi wrench
movement dan intrusi granit berumur Jurasik Kapur.

Gambar 3. Fase Kompresi Jurasik Awal Sampai Kapur dan Elipsoid Model (Pulonggono dkk,
1992).

Fase tensional pada Kapur Akhir sampai Tersier Awal yang menghasilkan sesar normal
dan sesar tumbuh berarah N S dan WNW ESE. Sedimentasi mengisi cekungan atau
terban di atas batuan dasar bersamaan dengan kegiatan gunung api. Terjadi pengisian
awal dari cekungan yaitu Formasi Lahat.

Gambar 4. Fase Tensional Kapur Akhir Sampai Tersier Awal dan Elipsoid Model (Pulonggono
dkk, 1992).
Fase ketiga yaitu adanya aktivitas tektonik Miosen atau Intra Miosen menyebabkan
pengangkatan tepi-tepi cekungan dan diikuti pengendapan bahan-bahan klastika. Yaitu
terendapkannya Formasi Talang Akar, Formasi Baturaja, Formasi Gumai, Formasi Air
Benakat, dan Formasi Muara Enim.
Fase keempat berupa gerak kompresional pada Plio-Plistosen menyebabkan sebagian
Formasi Air Benakat dan Formasi Muara Enim telah menjadi tinggian tererosi, sedangkan
pada daerah yang relatif turun diendapkan Formasi Kasai. Selanjutnya, terjadi
pengangkatan dan perlipatan berarah barat laut di seluruh daerah cekungan yang
mengakhiri pengendapan Tersier di Cekungan Sumatra Selatan. Selain itu terjadi aktivitas
volkanisme pada cekungan belakang busur.

Gambar 5. Fase Kompresi Miosen Tengah Sampai Sekarang dan Elipsoid Model (Pulonggono
dkk, 1992).
APLIKASI SEKUEN STRATIGRAFI UNTUK DATA WELLLOG

Sebelum masuk ke tema ini hendaknya dipahami mengenai sekuen stratigrafi dahulu. Sebagai
referensi bisa dilihat di halaman http://ptbudie.wordpress.com/2010/12/17/sekuen-stratigrafi/.

System tract secara genesa diasosiasikan dengan unit stratigrafi yang mengendap selama fase
tertentu oleh siklus muka laut relatif (Posamentier, et al, 1988). Unit itu menjelaskan kembali
rekaman batuan berupa tiga dimensi pembentuk fasies. Ketiga dimensi itu berupa tipe dari
permukaan batas, posisi dalam sebuah sekuen, dan pola tumpukan parasekuen (Van Wagoner et
al., 1988).

Menurut Van Wagoner et al.(1987), system tract yang membentuk sebuah single depositional
sequence adalah

1. Lowstand System Tract (LST)


2. Transgressive System Tract (TST)

3. Highstand System Tract (HST)

4. Shelf Margin System Tract (SMFT)

Berikut di bawah adalah diagram sequen stratigrafi yang normal tanpa ada ganguan struktur
sekunder yang memberikan gambaran hubungan antara systems tract serta batas-batas yang
memisahkan antar sytems tract tersebut.

Diagram Sikuen Stratigrafi (Tanpa Terganggu Oleh Adanya Struktur Sekunder) (Vail et al, 1987)
Log yang biasanya digunakan dalam analisis stratigrafi ini adalah log gamma ray (GR) dan Log
Spontaneous Potentian (SP) yang merupakan log yang menceriminkan ukuran butir dari
sedimen. Dalam pengapalikasian sekuen stratigrafi perlu diketahui marker-marker dalam sekuen
stratigrafi yaitu seperti

1. Batas sekuen atau sequence boundary (SB); SB-1 dan SB-2


2. Transgressive Surface

3. Maximum Flooding Surface

Setelah diketahui marker-marker tersebut kemudian dapat dilakukan kronokorelasi untuk setiap
system tract-nya. prinsip kronokorelasi adalah mengkorelasikan kejadian-kejadian geologi yang
terekam pada batuan. Kejadian geologi bisa terjadi secara lokal, regional, dan global, dalam
jangka waktu menit hingga ratusan juta tahun, sehingga rekaman kejadian ini digolongkan dalam
beberapa orde. Pembagian orde-orde tersebut dapat dibaca di halaman sekuen stratigrafi sesuai
link di atas. Setelah kerangka kronologi geologi diketahui kemudian dilakukan korelasi yang
lebih detil biasanya adalah mengunakan prinsip litokorelasi seperti sand to sand correlation dan
kemudian dapat dibuat peta isopach dan paleogeografinya.

Berikut adalah aplikasi sekuen stratigrafi dalam data log:

HIGHSTAND SYSTEMS TRACT (EXXON)


TRANSGRESSIVE SYSTEMS TRACT (EXXON)
LST-PROGRADING WEDGE (EXXON)
LST-SLOPE FAN COMPLEX (EXXON)
LST-BASIN FLOOR FAN (EXXON)
GEOLOGI REGIONAL CEKUNGAN SUMATERA SELATAN
Stratigrafi Regional

Sub Cekungan Jambi merupakan bagian Cekungan Sumatra Selatan yang merupakan

cekungan belakang busur (back arc basin) berumur Tersier yang terbentuk sebagai akibat

tumbukan antara Sundaland dan Lempeng Hindia. Secara Geografis Sub Cekungan Jambi

dibatasi oleh Pegunungan Tigapuluh di sebelah utara, Tinggian Lampung di bagian selatan,

Paparan Sunda di sebelah timur, dan Bukit Barisan di sebelah barat.

Tatanan stratigrafi Sub Cekungan Jambi pada dasarnya terdiri dari satu siklus besar

sedimentasi dimulai dari fase transgresi pada awal siklus dan fase regresi pada akhir

silkusnya. Secara detail siklus ini dimulai oleh siklus non marin yaitu dengan diendapkannya

Formasi Lahat pada Oligosen Awal dan kemudian diikuti oleh Formasi Talang Akar yang

diendapkan secara tidak selaras di atasnya. Menurut Adiwidjaja dan De Coster (1973),

Formasi Talang Akar merupakan suatu endapan kipas alluvial dan endapan sungai teranyam

(braided stream deposit) yang mengisi suatu cekungan. Fase transgresi terus berlangsung

hingga Miosen Awal dimana pada kala ini berkembang Batuan karbonat yang diendapkan

pada lingkungan back reef, fore reef, dan intertidal (Formasi Batu Raja) pada bagian atas

Formasi Talang Akar. Fase Transgresi maksimum ditunjukkan dengan diendapkannya

Formasi Gumai bagian bawah secara selaras di atas Formasi Baturaja yang terdiri dari Batu

serpih laut dalam.

Fase regresi dimulai dengan diendapkannya Formasi Gumai bagian atas dan diikuti oleh

pengendapkan Formasi Air Benakat yang didominasi oleh litologi Batu pasir pada lingkungan

pantai dan delta. Formasi Air Benakat diendapkan secara selaras di atas Formasi Gumai.

Pada Pliosen Awal, laut menjadi semakin dangkal dimana lingkungan pengendapan berubah

menjadi laut dangkal, paludal, dataran delta dan non marin yang dicirikan oleh perselingan
antara batupasir dan batulempung dengan sisipan berupa batubara (Formasi Muara Enim).

Tipe pengendapan ini berlangsung hingga Pliosen Akhir dimana diendapkannya lapisan

batupasir tufaan, pumice dan konglemerat.

Batuan Dasar

Batuan Pra-Tersier atau basement terdiri dari kompleks batuan Paleozoikum dan batuan

Mesozoikum, batuan metamorf, batuan beku dan batuan karbonat. Batuan Paleozoikum

akhir dan batuan Mesozoikum tersingkap dengan baik di Bukit Barisan, Pegunungan

Tigapuluh dan Pegunungan Duabelas berupa batuan karbonat berumur permian, Granit dan

Filit. Batuan dasar yang tersingkap di Pegunungan Tigapuluh terdiri dari filit yang terlipat

kuat berwarna kecoklatan berumur Permian (Simanjuntak, dkk., 1991). Lebih ke arah Utara

tersingkap Granit yang telah mengalami pelapukan kuat. Warna pelapukan adalah merah

dengan butir-butir kuarsa terlepas akibat pelapukan tersebut. Kontak antara Granit dan filit

tidak teramati karena selain kontak tersebut tertutupi pelapukan yang kuat, daerah ini juga

tertutup hutan yang lebat.Menurut Simanjuntak, et.al (1991) umur Granit adalah Jura. Hal

ini berarti Granit mengintrusi batuan filit.

Formasi Lahat

Formasi Lahat diendapkan secara tidak selaras di atas batuan dasar, merupakan lapisan

dengan tebal 200 m - 3350 m yang terdiri dari konglemerat, tufa, breksi vulkanik andesitik,

endapan lahar, aliran lava dan batupasir kuarsa.

Formasi ini memiliki 3 anggota, yaitu :

Anggota Tuf Kikim Bawah, terdiri dari tuf andesitik, breksi dan lapisan lava. Ketebalan

anggota ini bervariasi, antara 0 - 800 m.

Anggota Batupasir Kuarsa, diendapkan secara selaras di atas anggota pertama. Terdiri dari

konglomerat dan batupasir berstruktur crossbedding. Butiran didominasi oleh kuarsa.


Anggota Tuf Kikim Atas, diendapkan secara selaras dan bergradual di atas Anggota
Batupasir Kuarsa. Terdiri dari tuf dan batulempung tufan berselingan dengan endapan mirip
lahar.

Formasi Lahat berumur Paleosen hingga Oligosen Awal.

Formasi Talang Akar

Formasi Talang Akar pada Sub Cekungan Jambi terdiri dari batulanau, batupasir dan sisipan

batubara yang diendapkan pada lingkungan laut dangkal hingga transisi. Menurut

Pulunggono, 1976, Formasi Talang Akar berumur Oligosen Akhir hingga Miosen Awal dan

diendapkan secara selaras di atas Formasi Lahat. Bagian bawah formasi ini terdiri dari

batupasir kasar, serpih dan sisipan batubara. Sedangkan di bagian atasnya berupa

perselingan antara batupasir dan serpih.

Ketebalan Formasi Talang Akar berkisar antara 400 m 850 m.

Formasi Baturaja

Formasi ini diendapkan secara selaras di atas Fm. Talang Akar dengan ketebalan antara 200

sampai 250 m. Litologi terdiri dari batugamping, batugamping terumbu, batugamping

pasiran, batugamping serpihan, serpih gampingan dan napal kaya foraminifera, moluska

dan koral. Formasi ini diendapkan pada lingkungan litoral-neritik dan berumur Miosen Awal.

Formasi Gumai

Formasi Gumai diendapkan secara selaras di atas Formasi Baturaja dimana formasi ini

menandai terjadinya transgresi maksimum di Cekungan Sumatera Selatan. Bagian bawah

formasi ini terdiri dari serpih gampingan dengan sisipan batugamping, napal dan batulanau.

Sedangkan di bagian atasnya berupa perselingan antara batupasir dan serpih.


Ketebalan formasi ini secara umum bervariasi antara 150 m - 2200 m dan diendapkan pada

lingkungan laut dalam.

Formasi Gumai berumur Miosen Awal-Miosen Tengah.

Formasi Air Benakat

Formasi Air Benakat diendapkan secara selaras di atas Formasi Gumai dan merupakan awal
terjadinya fase regresi. Formasi ini terdiri dari batulempung putih kelabu dengan sisipan
batupasir halus, batupasir abu-abu hitam kebiruan, glaukonitan setempat mengan dung
lignit dan di bagian atas mengandung tufaan sedangkan bagian tengah kaya akan fosil
foraminifera. Ketebalan Formasi Air Benakat bervariasi antara 100-1300 m dan berumur
Miosen Tengah-Miosen Akhir. Formasi ini diendapkan pada lingkungan laut dangkal.

Formasi Muara Enim

Formasi Muara Enim mewakili tahap akhir dari fase regresi tersier. Formasi ini diendapkan

secara selaras di atas Formasi Air Benakat pada lingkungan laut dangkal, paludal, dataran

delta dan non marin. Ketebalan formasi ini 500 1000m, terdiri dari batupasir,

batulempung , batulanau dan batubara. Batupasir pada formasi ini dapat mengandung

glaukonit dan debris volkanik. Pada formasi ini terdapat oksida besi berupa konkresi-

konkresi dan silisified wood. Sedangkan batubara yang terdapat pada formasi ini umumnya

berupa lignit.

Formasi Muara Enim berumur Miaosen Akhir Pliosen Awal.

Formasi Kasai

Formasi Kasai diendapkan secara selaras di atas Formasi Muara Enim dengan ketebalan 850

1200 m. Formasi ini terdiri dari batupasir tufan dan tefra riolitik di bagian bawah. Bagian

atas terdiri dari tuf pumice kaya kuarsa, batupasir, konglomerat, tuf pasiran dengan lensa

rudit mengandung pumice dan tuf berwarna abu-abu kekuningan, banyak dijumpai sisa

tumbuhan dan lapisan tipis lignit serta kayu yang terkersikkan.


Fasies pengendapannya adalah fluvial dan alluvial fan.

Formasi Kasai berumur Pliosen Akhir-Plistosen Awal.

Sedimen Kuarter

Satuan ini merupakan Litologi termuda yang tidak terpengaruh oleh orogenesa Plio-
Plistosen. Golongan ini diendapkan secara tidak selaras di atas formasi yang lebih tua yang
teridi dari batupasir, fragmen-fragmen konglemerat berukuran kerikil hingga bongkah, hadir
batuan volkanik andesitik-basaltik berwarna gelap.

Satuan ini berumur resen

Blognya Ahli Geologi Indonesia


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Cekungan Bengkulu
2009 March 22

tags: Cekungan Bengkulu

by admin

Cekungan Bengkulu adalah salah satu cekungan forearc di Indonesia. Cekungan forearc artinya
cekungan yang berposisi di depan jalur volkanik (fore - arc; arc = jalur volkanik). Tetapi, kita
menyebutnya demikian berdasarkan posisi geologinya saat ini. Apakah posisi tersebut sudah dari
dulu begitu? Belum tentu, dan inilah yang harus kita selidiki. Publikasi-publikasi dari Howles
(1986), Mulhadiono dan Asikin (1989), Hall et al. (1993) dan Yulihanto et al. (1995)semuanya
di proceedings IPA baik untuk dipelajari soal Bengkulu Basin.

Berdasarkan berbagai kajian geologi, disepakati bahwa Pegunungan Barisan (dalam hal ini
adalah volcanic arc-nya) mulai naik di sebelah barat Sumatra pada Miosen Tengah. Pengaruhnya
kepada Cekungan Bengkulu adalah bahwa sebelum Misoen Tengah berarti tidak ada forearc
basin Bengkulu sebab pada saat itu arc-nya sendiri tidak ada.

Begitulah yang selama ini diyakini, yaitu bahwa pada sebelum Miosen Tengah, atau Paleogen,
Cekungan Bengkulu masih merupakan bagian paling barat Cekungan Sumatera Selatan. Lalu
pada periode setelah Miosen Tengah atau Neogen, setelah Pegunungan Barisan naik, Cekungan
Bengkulu dipisahkan dari Cekungan Sumatera Selatan. Mulai saat itulah, Cekungan Bengkulu
menjadi cekungan forearc dan Cekungan Sumatera Selatan menjadi cekungan backarc (belakang
busur).
Setting tektonik regional Sumatra (sumber: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/File:Sumatra_map.jpg)

Sejarah penyatuan dan pemisahan Cekungan Bengkulu dari Cekungan Sumatera Selatan dapat
dipelajari dari stratigrafi Paleogen dan Neogen kedua cekungan itu. Dapat diamati bahwa pada
Paleogen, stratigrafi kedua cekungan hampir sama. Keduanya mengembangkan sistem graben di
beberapa tempat. Di Cekungan Bengkulu ada Graben Pagarjati, Graben Kedurang-Manna,
Graben Ipuh (pada saat yang sama di Cekungan Sumatera Selatan saat itu ada graben-graben
Jambi, Palembang, Lematang, dan Kepahiang). Tetapi setelah Neogen, Cekungan Bengkulu
masuk kepada cekungan yang lebih dalam daripada Cekungan Sumatera Selatan, dibuktikan oleh
berkembangnya terumbu-terumbu karbonat yang masif pada Miosen Atas yang hampir ekivalen
secara umur dengan karbonat Parigi di Jawa Barat (para operator yang pernah bekerja di
Bengkulu menyebutnya sebagai karbonat Parigi juga). Pada saat yang sama, di Cekungan
Sumatera Selatan lebih banyak diendapkan sedimen-sedimen regresif (Formasi Air
Benakat/Lower Palembang dan Muara Enim/Middle Palembang) karena cekungan sedang
mengalami pengangkatan dan inversi.

Secara tektonik, mengapa terjadi perbedaan stratigrafi pada Neogen di Cekungan Bengkulu
yaitu Cekungan Bengkulu dalam fase penenggelaman sementara Cekungan Sumatera Selatan
sedang terangkat. Karena pada Neogen, Cekungan Bengkulu menjadi diapit oleh dua sistem
sesar besar yang memanjang di sebelah barat Sumatera, yaitu Sesar Sumatera (Semangko) di
daratan dan Sesar Mentawai di wilayah offshore, sedikit di sebelah timur pulau-pulau busur luar
Sumatera (Simeulue-Enggano). Kedua sesar ini bersifat dextral. Sifat pergeseran (slip) yang
sama dari dua sesar mendatar yang berpasangan (couple strike-slip atau duplex) akan bersifat
trans-tension atau membuka wilayah yang diapitnya. Dengan cara itulah semua cekungan
forearc di sebelah barat Sumatera yang diapit dua sesar besar ini menjadi terbuka oleh sesar
mendatar (trans-tension pull-apart opening) yang mengakibatkan cekungan-cekungan ini
tenggelam sehingga punya ruang untuk mengembangkan terumbu karbonat Neogen yang masif
asalkan tidak terlalu dalam.

Di cekungan-cekungan forearc utara Bengkulu (Mentawai, Sibolga, Meulaboh) pun berkembang


terumbu-terumbu Neogen yang masif akibat pembukaan dan penenggelaman cekungan-
cekungan ini. Dan, dalam dunia perminyakan terumbu-terumbu inilah yang sejak akhir 1960-an
telah menjadi target-target pemboran eksplorasi. Sayangnya, sampai saat ini belum berhasil
ditemukan cadangan yang komersial, hanya ditemukan gas biogenik dan oil show (Dobson et al.,
1998 dan Yulihanto, 2000proceedings IPA untuk keterangan Mentawai dan Sibolga Basins).

Cekungan Bengkulu merupakan salah satu dari dua cekungan forearc di Indonesia yang paling
banyak dikerjakan operator perminyakan (satunya lagi Cekungan Sibolga-Meulaboh). Meskipun
belum berhasil menemukan minyak atau gas komersial, tidak berarti cekungan-cekungan ini
tidak mengandung migas komersial. Sebab, target-target pemboran di wilayah ini (total sekitar
30 sumur) tak ada satu pun yang menembus target Paleogen dengan sistem graben-nya yag telah
terbukti produktif di Cekungan-Cekungan Sumatera Tengah dan Sumatera Selatan.

Cekungan Bengkulu akan merupakan harapan pertama untuk penemuan minyak di sistem
Paleogennya. Sumur terdalam di cekungan ini yang dibor oleh operator Fina pada tahun 1992
(Arwana-1) menemukan oil shows dan menembus sedimen Oligo-Miosen yang berkualitas baik
sebagai batuan induk minyak. Kemudian, berdasarkan data sumur ini pula, diketahui bahwa
termal cekungan ini panas (4,5-5 F/100 ft) sebuah anomali bagi cool basinsebutan yang
terkenal untuk Cekungan-cekungan forearc.

Gradient geothermal yang besar ini merupakan anomali pada sebuah forearc basin yang rata-rata
di Indonesia sekitar 2.5 F/100 ft atau di bawahnya (Netherwood, 2000); Bila dibandingkan
cekungan forearc lain, memang banyak publikasi menyebutkan thermal Cekungan Bengkulu di
atas rata-rata. Itu pula yang dipakai sebagai salah satu pemikiran bahwa Cekungan ini dulunya
bersatu dengan Cekungan Sumatera Selatan (pada Paleogen)pemikiran yang juga didukung
oleh tatanan tektonostratigrafinya.

Gradient geothermal dipengaruhi konduktivitas termal masing-masing lapisan pengisi cekungan


dan heatflow dari basement di bawah cekungan. Apabila basementnya kontinen, maka ia akan
punya heatflow yang relatif lebih tinggi daripada basement intermediat dan oseanik. Selain itu,
kedekatan dengan volcanic arc akan mempertinggi thermal background di wilayah ini dan
berpengaruh kepada konduktivitas termal. Gradient geothermal yang diluar kebiasaan ini, tentu
saja baik bagi pematangan batuan induk dan generasi hidrokarbon.
Sekuen syn-rift dan post-rift di cekungan ini belum tertembus, di situlah harapan akumulasi
migas berada. Diperlukan data seismik yang lebih baik untuk target dalam dan diperlukan sumur-
sumur dalam untuk menembus target-target Paleogen.

Selain data seismik, rembesan minyak dipermukaan juga menjadi data yang sangat berharga
apabila bisa diplot di peta geologi permukaan yang cukup detail, lalu dilihat penampang
geologinya. Nanti akan diketahui dari batuan mana rembesan itu berasal. Yang tak kalah penting
adalah melakukan serangkaian analisis geokimia kepada rembesan minyak itu, hal ini akan
memberi tahu kita sifat batuan induk yang telah menggenerasikan minyak tersebut.

Sejarah tulisan ini:


Tulisan tentang Cekungan Bengkulu ini diawali dari kiriman Pak Awang HS pada medio Maret
2009 di iagi-net yang berupa jawabannya terhadap pertanyaan seorang mahasiswa tentang cara
terbentuknya Cekungan Bengkulu. Kiriman ini ditanggapi oleh beberapa orang anggota milis.
Dengan demikian, para anggota milis iagi-net yang berkontribusibaik bertanya maupun
menjawabdalam diskusi mengenai Cekungan Bengkulu ini adalah: Awang HS, Junrial Hairul
Huzaen, Bayu Nugroho dan Sigit Prabowo. Terima kasih juga untuk Yorris Wibriana atas
informasinya tentang gambar setting tektonik regional Sumatra.
Geology Of South Sumatra Basin
Filed under: Geology of Indonesia haris @ 7:20 am

The South Sumatra basin is located to the east of the Barisan Mountains and extends into the
offshore areas to the northeast and is regarded as a foreland (back-arc) basin bounded by the
Barisan Mountains to the southwest, and the Pre-Tertiary of the Sunda Shelf to the northeast
(de Coster, 1974). The
South Sumatra basin was formed during east-west extension at the end of the Pre-Tertiary to
the beginning of Tertiary times (Daly et al., 1987).

TECTONIC SETTING

The structural features present in the basin are the result of the three main tectonic events.
They are Middle-Mesozoic orogeny, Late Cretaceous-Eocene tectonism and the Plio-
Pleistocene orogeny. The first two events provided the basement configuration including the
formation of half grabens, horsts, and fault block. The last event, the Plio-Pleistocene
orogeny, resulted in formation of the present northwest-southeast structural features and the
depression to the northeast (de Coster, 1974). Structurally the 21 block is located in the
Palembang High. This high is located at the southern edge of a positive feature in the eastern
margin of

South
Sumatra
Basin.

STRATIGRAPHY

The sediments of the

South
Sumatra
Basin comprise an economic basement of Pre-Tertiary rocks that is overlain unconformably by a
thick Tertiary sequence. The first Tertiary sedimentation occurred during Early Oligocene and
gave rise to the Lahat Formation consisting of mainly volcanic rocks, claystone and shale that
was deposited locally in the graben areas. The Talang Akar Formation (Late Oligocene) overlies
the basement where the Lahat Formation is missing. It is a transgresive sequence resulting from
Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene subsidence. The later sedimentation during mid-Miocene to
recent produced a regressive sequence (de Coster, 1974).

In most parts of the Palembang High, sediment deposition started in Early Miocene, except in local low areas
where terrestrial to nearshore sediments of Talang Akar Formation (Oligocene) and terrestrial sediments of
Lahat and Lemat Formation (Eo-Oligocene) had been deposited. In many places, the Talang Akar, the Lahat
and the Lemat Formations cannot be distinguished from each other and hence are called Pre-Baturaja
clastics. During Early Miocene, carbonate sediments of the Baturaja Formation were developed either
directly above the Pre-Tertiary basement or above a thin Talang Akar Formation. Off the Palembang High,
hundreds of feet thick of the Talang Akar Formation are present (Ferianto et al., 2005).

Approximately 17.5 MYBP the sea level dropped, and the Baturaja carbonates were exposed
and subject to diagenetic processes that led to development of good secondary porosity.
Afterward, the sea level rose again and the Telisa marine shales (Early-Mid. Miocene) were
deposited. In around 15.5 MYBP the sea level gradually dropped again and nearshore to
terrestrial sediments of Palembang Formation (Upper Miocene-Pliocene) were deposited
(Ferianto et al., 2005).

Plio-Pleistocene orogeny (in 2.8 MYBP) created the current structures in the region. A NW-SE
striking monocline dipping to SW is the predominant feature there. The detail Stratigraphy of
South Sumatra Basin is described in other literature, such as De Coster (1974) (Ferianto et al.,
2005).

Regional sediment sources were generally from the Sunda Plate to the north and
Palembang or Lampung High to the east (Sitompul et al., 1992). Maximum transgression in the
middle Miocene deposited the marine Gumai Shale Formation seal across the region before
uplift and compression resulted in deposition of shallow marine and continental sandstones
and shales. Development of the

Barisan
Mountains, and possible volcanic islands to the south and southeast, further decreased and then
cut off and overwhelmed marine influences and added new clastic and volcaniclastic sources from
those directions. Erosion of northwest trending anticlines that were formed during compression
resulted in local Plio-Pleistocene continental deposits within the intervening synclines. Continued
volcanic activity has covered much of the surface of the

South
Sumatra
Basin (Bishop, 2000).

PETROLEUM SYSTEM

SOURCE ROCK Hydrocarbons in

South
Sumatra
Province are derived from both lacustrine source rocks of the Lahat Formation and terrestrial coal
and coaly shale source rocks of the Talang Akar Formation. The lacustrine source rocks were
deposited in a complex of half-grabens whereas the subsequent coal and coaly shales were
deposited in and extended beyond the limits of the half-grabens. The Batu Raja Limestone and
the Gumai Formation shales may also be mature and have generated hydrocarbons in local areas
(Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989, Bishop, 2000).

The middle to late Eocene through early Oligocene Lahat or Lemat Formation includes the
Benakat Shale with oil prone Type I and II kerogen and gas prone Type III kerogen. Organic
material in the late Eocene through middle Miocene Talang Akar Formation contains oil- and
gas-prone Type I, II and III kerogen. The general temperature gradient in
South Sumatra is 49o Ckm-1 (Hutchinson, 1996 in Bishop, 2000).

TRAP TYPES

Northwest to southeast trending anticlines were the first traps explored and remain the most
important traps in the
South Sumatra basin. Drape, facies-change, and stratigraphic traps are also important and
may be attractive future targets (Bishop, 2000).

RESERVOIR ROCK There are several formations in the

South
Sumatra
Basin which play as reservoir rocks, event basement rocks. They are basement rocks, Lahat
Formation, Talang Akar Formation, Batu Raja Formation, Gumai Formation, Air Benakat
Formation, and Muara Enim Formation (Bishop, 2000).

Uplifted areas and paleohighs of Mesozoic and Eocene fractured and weathered basement
granite and quartzite are effective reservoirs, in ten fields in
South Sumatra (Sardjito et al., 1991; Bishop, 2000).

The Eocene to Oligocene Lahat Formation is composed of synrift deposits that are as much as
1,070 m thick. Although locally absent, this formation, is in most locations, more than 760 m
thick. The formation was deposited in continental, lacustrine, and brackish lacustrine
depositional settings (Hutchinson, 1996 in Bishop, 2000).

The Talang Akar Formation is as much as 610 m thick. It is a late synrift to post-rift formation
that is thick where the underlying Lahat Formation is thickest. The Talang Akar Formation
unconformably overlies the Lahat Formation. It onlaps the Lahat and the basement, extending
farther outside of the depositional basins than the depositional limits of the Lahat Formation.
This reservoir consists of quartzose sandstones, siltstones, and shales deposited in a delta
plain setting that changed basinward, generally to the south and west, into marginal marine
sandstones and shales (Hutchinson, 1996 in Bishop, 2000). Specific depositional environments
that have been identified include open marine, nearshore, delta plain, delta, distributary
channel, fluvial, and beach (Hutapea, 1981 in Bishop, 2000).

The Batu Raja formation consists of widespread platform carbonates, 2075 m thick, with
additional carbonate buildups and reefs, from 60120 m thick. The Basal Telisa is shale and
calcareous shale deposited in deeper water as the carbonates were being developed on the
platforms and highs. Reservoir porosity ranges from 1838% and reservoir permeability is as
much as 1 Darcy. Porosity has been enhanced in the upper parts of the formation due to
subaerial exposure late in the early Miocene, at approximately 17.5 Ma, and also because of
only partially cemented fractures (Hartanto et al., 1991; Bishop, 2000).

The Oligocene to middle Miocene Gumai Formation, is composed of fossiliferous marine shales
with thin, glauconitic limestones that represent a rapid, widespread maximum transgression.
The thickness of the Gumai Formation varies and is as much as 2,700 m thick in basins. The
formation thins at basin margins and across highs. The Gumai Formation is the regional seal
for the Batu Raja Limestone in
South Sumatra but also contains some reservoir intervals (Hutchinson, 1996 in Bishop, 2000).

The middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation was deposited during the regression that ended
deposition of the Gumai Shale. The Air Benakat Formation changes upward from deep marine
to shallow marine conditions. Marine glauconitic clays decrease in frequency and marine
sands increase. The formation ranges from 1,0001,500 m thick. Coal beds mark the upper
contact with the overlying Muara Enim Formation. The average porosity of the sandstone is
25% (Bishop, 2000).

The Late Miocene to Pliocene Muara Enim Formation, also known as the Middle Palembang
Formation, was deposited as shallow marine to continental sands, muds, and coals. The
formation thins to the north from a maximum of 750 m in the south. Uplift of the

Barisan
Mountains provided source terrains for clastics from the south and southwest during deposition
of the Muara Enim Formation (Bishop, 2000).

SEAL ROCK

The Gumai Formation represents the maximum highstand transgression following development
of Batu Raja carbonates. Shales of this regional formation seal carbonate reservoirs and
locally seal a series of stacked sandstone reservoirs of the Talang Akar Formation (Hartanto et
al., 1991). Hydrocarbons that are found above the regional seal either have migrated there
due to faults that broke the seal during the compression phase or were generated by the
Gumai Formation shales in local areas where this formation might be mature.
Intraformational seals within the Talang Akar consist of shallow marine and overbank shales
that are important seals that compartmentalize the sandstones (Bishop, 2000).

References:

Argakoesoemah R.M.I., Raharja M., Winardhi S., Tarigan R., Maksum T.F., Aimar A., 2005,
Telisa Shallow Marine Sandstone As An Emerging Exploration Target In Palembang High, South
Sumatra Basin, In proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirtieth Annual Convention,
Jakarta

Bishop M. G., 2000, South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia: The Lahat/Talang Akar-
Cenozoic Total Petroleum System, U.S. Department of The Interior U.S. Geological Survey,
http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/OF99-50S/province.html

De Coster G. L., 1974, The Geology of the Central and

South
Sumatra
Basins. In proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Third Annual Convention,
Jakarta, pp. 77 110.

Dally M. C., Hooper B. G. D., and Smith D. G., 1987, Tertiary Plate Tectonics and Basin
Evolution in
Indonesia. In proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Sixteenth Annual Convention,
Jakarta, pp. 399-428.

Feriyanto, Kamil F., Kusnandar Y., and Yanto Y, 2005, Successful Identification of Thin
Carbonate On Paleo-Basement High: Special Case In Palembang High, South Sumatra Basin, In
proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Thirtieth Annual Convention, Jakarta.
Hartanto, Karsan, Widianto, Eko, and Safrizal, 1991, Hydrocarbon prospect related to the
local unconformities of the Duang area,

South
Sumatra
Basin:Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association Twentieth Annual Convention, October,
1991, p. 17-36.

Kamal A., 1999, Hydrocarbon Potential in the Pasemah Block, A Frontier Area in South
Sumatra, In proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association, Twenty Seventh Annual
Convention, Jakarta, pp. 49-63.

Sarjono, S., and Sardjito, 1989, Hydrocarbon source rock identification in the
South Palembang sub-basin:Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association Eighteenth Annual
Convention, October, 1989, p. 427-467.

Sardjito, Fadianto, Eddy, Djumlati, and Hansen, S., 1991, Hydrocarbon prospect of the pre-
Tertiary basement in Kuang area,
South Sumatra:Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association Twentieth Annual Convention,
October, 1991, p. 255-278.

Sitompul N., Rudiyanto, Wirawan A., and Zaim Y., 1992, Effects of Sea Level Drops During
Late Early Miocene To The Reservoirs In
South
Palembang
Sub
Basin, South Sumatra,
Indonesia, Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association Twenty First Annual Convention,
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

SOUTH SUMATRA BASIN PROVINCE, INDONESIA: THE LAHAT/TALANG


AKAR-CENOZOIC TOTAL PETROLEUM SYSTEM

by Michele G. Bishop1

Open-File Report 99-50S

2000

PROVINCE GEOLOGY
The province covers an area of approximately 117,000 km2 primarily onshore Sumatra,
Indonesia (Fig. 1). Exploration efforts have been concentrated onshore with only a few dry
holes drilled in offshore areas (Petroconsultants, 1996). The Palembang or Lampung High or
arch separates the South Sumatra basin from the Sunda Basin of the Northwest Java
Province 3824 (Fig. 2). This high served both as a barrier to sediment dispersal and as a
sediment source terrain from Mesozoic through most of the Tertiary (de Coster, 1974). The
South and Central Sumatra Basin Provinces (3828, 3808) are divided at the Tigapuluh
Mountains (Fig. 2). The western margin is the Plio-Pleistocene Barisan Mountains (Fig. 2).
South Sumatra is divided into sub-basins: Jambi, North Palembang, Central Palembang,
South Palembang, and Bandar Jaya Basin (Fig. 2) (Williams and others, 1995; Suseno and
others, 1992). Most of the published data is from the South Palembang sub-basin.

Tectonics
In the center of the South Sumatra Basin Province, are Permian to Carboniferous metamorphic and igneous rocks
crop out in a northwest to southeast trend. These consist of phyllites, slates, argillites, quartzites, gneisses and
granites (Adiwidjaja and de Coster, 1973). In the northwest, and south of the Permo-Carboniferous trend, are areas
of Mesozoic metamorphic rocks with local granite intrusions (Adiwidjaja and de Coster, 1973). In a broad trend
south of the Permo-Carboniferous and Mesozoic rocks are Mesozoic metasediments and limestones, which have
been dated as Jurassic or Cretaceous, together with mafic igneous rocks (Adiwidjaja and de Coster, 1973). To the
north of the Permo-Carboniferous trend near the city of Palembang, is a northwest to southeast trending area
described as micritic limestone of Cretaceous age (Adiwidjaja and de Coster, 1973).

The South Sumatra basin was formed by three major tectonic phases: 1) extension during late Paleocene to early
Miocene forming north-trending grabens that were filled with Eocene to early Miocene deposits; 2) relative
quiescence with late normal faulting from early Miocene to early Pliocene; and 3) basement-involved compression,
basin inversion, and reversal of normal faults in the Pliocene to Recent forming the anticlines that are the major
traps in the area (Suhendan, 1984). Many of the normal faults that formed the depositional basins in South Sumatra
have been reactivated and some have been reversed during Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene compression and basin
inversion (Sudarmono and others, 1997; Zeliff and others, 1985; Moulds, 1989). The emergent Sunda Shelf plate
(platform, craton, or Malay micro-plate now mostly beneath the Java Sea) was confined on the east by oceanic crust
and spreading centers, to the west by continental crust and to the south by Cretaceous oceanic and continental crust
(Pulunggono, 1985; Ponto and others, 1988). Sundaland, or the Sunda Shelf Plate, is considered to be composed of a
mosaic of continental and oceanic microplates accreted and sutured together in the Late Triassic (Pulunggono, 1985;
Cole and Crittenden, 1997). Since the early Tertiary, the Sunda Shelf plate has generally tilted southward and has
been subsiding (Ponto and others, 1988). The current subduction system, located offshore west of Sumatra and south
of Java, began in the late Oligocene. Uplift of the Barisan Mountains, resulting from the subduction, began in late
Miocene but primarily occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene (Hamilton, 1979; Sudarmono and others, 1997). In the
Eocene to Oligocene, tectonic stress and extension, resulting from northward movement of both the Australian
tectonic plate to the east and the India plate to the west, and rotation of Borneo, formed rifts or half-graben
complexes along much of the southern margin of the Sunda Shelf plate (now Sumatra and Northwest Java) (Hall,
1997a, b; Longley, 1997; Sudarmono and others, 1997). These rift basins overlie an unconformity formed on a
variety of pre-Tertiary rocks.

The grabens and major faults of the South Sumatra Basin Province are oriented north-northwest to south-southeast.
This is a similar alignment to the grabens of Central Sumatra but they are deeper and larger basins (Fig. 3). The
Palembang Basin in South Sumatra is greater than 4,500 m deep (Hutchinson, 1996). The fault-bounded Benakat
Gulley connects the major basin complexes of the Lematang Depression and the Palembang Depression (Fig. 2)
(Hutchinson, 1996; Moulds, 1989). The northsouth Benakat Gulley is similar in trend to the Bengkalis depression
in Central Sumatra, the fault zone that forms the eastern coast of Sumatra, the Sunda and Asri Basins offshore, and
the grabens of Northern Sumatra (Hutchinson, 1996; Pulunggono and others, 1992; Moulds, 1989). A fault zone that
trends southwest to northeast, the Tembesi Fault, forms the northwestern edge of the Jambi Depression (Fig. 2).

Deposition
The overall Tertiary depositional fill of the South Sumatra Basin began in the Eocene with deposition of continental
sediments derived from local erosion (Cole and Crittenden, 1997; Courteney and others, 1990). Characteristic half-
graben-style locally derived deposits began to fill these basins in response to the half-graben architectural style and
subsidence of the basins (Bishop, 1988; Wicaksono and others, 1992). Additional synrift deposits of tuffaceous
sands, conglomerates, breccias and clays were deposited in faulted and topographic lows by alluvial, fluvial, and
lacustrine processes (Fig. 4). Marine transgression occurred in some areas possibly as early as the late Eocene
(Courteney and others, 1990). Widespread marine transgression from the south and southwest in the late Oligocene
to Miocene resulted in onlap of clastic deposits onto basement rocks, development of platform carbonates, and
carbonate build-ups on fault-block highs. Carbonate and sands were also deposited around emergent islands (Cole
and Crittenden, 1997; Courteney and others, 1990; Sitompul and others, 1992; Hartanto and others, 1991; Hutapea,
1981; Tamtomo and others, 1997; Hamilton, 1979). The overall transgression was punctuated by lowstands. This
resulted in development of secondary porosity in some of the carbonates. Lowstands also resulted in submarine fans
within the marine shale strata (Cole and Crittenden, 1997; Courteney and others, 1990; Sitompul and others, 1992;
Hartanto and others, 1991; Hutapea, 1981; Tamtomo and others, 1997; Hamilton, 1979). Regional sediment sources
were generally from the Sunda Plate to the north and Palembang or Lampung High to the east (Sitompul and others,
1992). Maximum transgression in the middle Miocene deposited the marine Gumai Shale Formation seal across the
region before uplift and compression resulted in deposition of shallow marine and continental sandstones and shales
(Fig. 4) (Courteney and others, 1990; Cole and Crittenden, 1997; de Coster, 1974). Development of the Barisan
Mountains, and possible volcanic islands to the south and southeast, further decreased and then cut off and
overwhelmed marine influences and added new clastic and volcaniclastic sources from those directions (de Coster,
1974; Cole and Crittenden, 1997; Hamilton, 1979). Erosion of northwest trending anticlines that were formed during
compression resulted in local Plio-Pleistocene continental deposits within the intervening synclines (de Coster,
1974). Continued volcanic activity has covered much of the surface of the South Sumatra Basin (van Bemmelen,
1949).

History of Exploration
Early exploration was guided by surface seeps that were associated with anticlines, and led
to the discovery of Kampung Minyak Field in South Sumatra in 1886 (Fig. 2) (Macgregor,
1995). This field reportedly contained reserves of 31.3 MMBOE in the deltaic Pliocene Muara
Enim Formation (Fig. 4) (Zeliff and others, 1985). Numerous surface anticlines have been
mapped in South Sumatra, generally with a northwest to southeast trend, and are more
tightly folded in the north than the south (Fig. 2) (van Bemmelen, 1949). Until 1921 the
exploration target was sandstone in the Air Benakat Formation and the deepest penetration
had been the Gumai Formation (Zeliff and others, 1985). In 1921 Nederlandsche Koloniale
Petroleum Maatschappij (NKPM), formed by Standard of New Jersey (SONJ), discovered the
Pendopo/Talang Akar Field (Fig. 2) (Zeliff and others, 1985). This discovery in the Talang Akar
Formation sandstone is the largest oil field in South Sumatra with estimated reserves of 360
MMBOE (Zeliff and others, 1985; Ford, 1985). More recent estimates have increased these
reserves by more than 15 percent (Petroconsultants, 1996). This discovery reportedly
occurred due to communication delays, since the drillers were being paid by the foot, they
drilled ahead after reaching the target Air Benakat Formation, not having been told to stop
(Ford, 1985). Royal Dutch Shell (BPM), Standard of New Jersey, Socony Vacuum (Standard of
New York (Mobil)), and Pertamina were all companies involved in the early exploration of
South Sumatra (Zeliff and others, 1985). In 1933 SONJ (Exxon) and Socony Vacuum each
held 50% interest in Standard Vacuum Oil Company (Stanvac) that took over NKPMs oilfields
and refineries and Soconys marketing in the Asia Pacific region (Ford, 1985).

PETROLEUM OCCURRENCE
Numerous oil and gas seeps occur in South Sumatra in the foothills of the Gumai and Barisan
mountains and are associated with anticlines (Fig. 2) (Macgregor, 1995; Zeliff and others,
1985). The largest fields, however, are not associated with seeps in South Sumatra and
there are no seeps associated with fields in the adjacent and prolific Central Sumatra Basin.
However, the occurrence of seeps promoted interest and early exploration for hydrocarbons
throughout Sumatra (Macgregor, 1995, Zeliff and others, 1985, Van Bemmelen, 1949; Ford,
1985).

Petroleum exploration in South Sumatra has been primarily guided by surface anticlines, sometimes found by
digging trenches (in the absence of outcrop) to map dips (Ford, 1985). Therefore the early distribution of fields
follows the trend of the anticlines. The same compression that formed the inverted rift-basin anticlines reversed the
motion of many normal faults resulting in monoclines and anticlines over keystone type fault blocks (Moulds,
1989). These structures, as well as stratigraphic pinchouts and onlaps trapped hydrocarbons that migrated from
mature source rocks in adjacent lows (Courteney and others, 1990). The earliest fields were discovered in shallow
Air Benakat and Muara Enim reservoirs and located near the Gumai and Barisan mountain fronts (Moulds, 1989;
Ford, 1985; Zeliff and others, 1985). Later discoveries occurred further away from the mountains in older and
deeper reservoirs (Ford, 1985).

Fields in the carbonate reservoirs of the Oligocene to Miocene Batu Raja Limestone (Fig. 4) are also aligned
generally northwest to southeast since these buildups are located on basement highs or fault-block relief associated
with the rifted basins (Zeliff and others, 1985).

Much of the oil in the basin is paraffinic and low in sulfur content (Petroconsultants, 1996; ten Haven and
Schiefelbein, 1995). Both lacustrine and terrigenous facies on the margins of lacustrine environments have been
interpreted as sources for the oils in the South Sumatra Basin. An additional carbonate source rock is suggested by
one oil sample (ten Haven and Schiefelbein, 1995). Gravity of oil and condensate produced from sandstone
reservoirs is reported to range from 2155 API with gas to oil ratios (GOR) ranging from less than one hundred to
more than 55,000 (Petroconsultants, 1996). CO 2 content of the natural gas can be as much as 90 % (Courteney and
others, 1990). Batu Raja Limestone reservoirs contain oils and condensates with gravity from 2758 API and
GOR ranging from approximately 200 to more than 88,000 (Petroconsultants, 1996). Oil gravity, from more than 30
Talang Akar sandstone reservoirs in the Raja Field alone, ranges from 15 to 40 API (Hutapea, 1981). Oils analyzed
by GeoMark from the South Sumatra Basin are plotted with oils from the Northwest Java area (Fig. 5). Oil samples
from the adjoining Northwest Java Basin Province separate into two geochemical clusters, 1) lacustrine, 2) coaly
and mixed regions, that agree with the literature on the origins of oils in this region (Bishop, 2000 figure 6). By
comparison, South Sumatra Basin oil samples show data points transitional between the terrestrial coal/coaly shale
and lacustrine clusters of Northwest Java (Fig. 5).

Hydrocarbon migration occured along carrier beds updip from the deep rift basins, where the source rocks are
mature, and then along faults to overlying anticlines that form the majority of traps (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989).
Migration may have begun in late middle Miocene in the South Palembang sub-basin (Fig. 2 and Fig. 6) (Sarjono
and Sardjito, 1989). Fault breaches in the Gumai Formation regional seal, allowed hydrocarbons to migrate into
middle and late Miocene reservoirs (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989).

SOURCE ROCK
Hydrocarbons in South Sumatra Province, Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic (382801) TPS (Fig. 6), are derived from
both lacustrine source rocks of the Lahat Formation and terrestrial coal and coaly shale source rocks of the Talang
Akar Formation (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989; Todd and others, 1997; Katz, 1991; Sladen, 1997; Suseno and others,
1992; Schiefelbein and others, 1997; Schiefelbein and Cameron, 1997; Sosrowidjojo and others, 1994). The
lacustrine source rocks were deposited in a complex of half-grabens whereas the subsequent coal and coaly shales
were deposited in and extended beyond the limits of the half-grabens (Fig. 3). The Batu Raja Limestone and the
Gumai Formation shales may also be mature and have generated hydrocarbons in local areas (Sarjono and Sardjito,
1989).

The middle to late Eocene through early Oligocene Lahat or Lemat Formation, in the south Palembang area,
includes the Benakat Shale with oil prone Type I and II kerogen and gas prone Type III kerogen depending on its
locale (Suseno and others, 1992). The Benakat Shale Member is found in the deep portions of the basins and
consists of grey-brown shales with tuffaceous shale, siltstones, sandstones, and coals (Hutchinson, 1996). The
depositional environment is described by Hutchinson (1996) as brackish water. Total organic carbon (TOC) content
of the Lahat Formation varies from 1.78.5 wt% (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989) and locally as much as 16.0 wt%
(Suseno and others, 1992). Hydrocarbon index (HI) values are 130290 mg hydrocarbon (HC)/g TOC (Suseno and
others, 1992). Thermal maturity of the Lahat Formation ranges from 0.641.40% Ro (Suseno and others, 1992).
The Lahat Formation generated oil in most locations and oil and gas where more deeply buried (Sarjono and
Sardjito, 1989).

Organic material in the late Eocene through middle Miocene Talang Akar Formation contains oil- and gas-prone
Type I, II and III kerogen, identical to the Lahat Formation, and very similar to the Talang Akar source rocks of the
Northwest Java Ardjuna area (Suseno and others, 1992). The Gritsand Member of the Talang Akar is described by
Cole and Crittenden (1997) as deposited in intramontane lacustrine, lowland marine-influenced lacustrine, and
fluvial-lacustrine-lagoonal settings and contains oil-prone Type I kerogen with the addition of Type II due to local
facies changes. The Talang Akar Formation has good to very good source rock potential with a TOC range of 1.58
wt% in areas of the South Palembang sub-basin (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989) ranging locally up to 50.0 wt%
(Suseno and others, 1992). The range of HI is 150310 mg hydrocarbon (HC)/g TOC (Suseno and others, 1992).
Thermal maturity of the upper Talang Akar in the South Palembang sub-basin ranges from 0.540.60 Ro and from
0.821.30 Ro in the lower Talang Akar (Suseno and others, 1992).

The general temperature gradient in South Sumatra is 49 Ckm-1 (Hutchinson, 1996). This gradient is lower than in
Central Sumatra and consequently the oil window is deeper (Hutchinson, 1996).

The Oligocene to Miocene Batu Raja Limestone and the Oligocene to Miocene Gumai Formation are mature to
early mature for thermal gas generation in some of the deep basins and therefore may contribute gas to the
petroleum system (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989). Gas at MBU-1 field has been attributed to mature Gumai Shale
source rocks in the adjacent low (Fig. 2) (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989).

In the Bandar Jaya Basin area (Fig. 2) several grabens contain rich Lahat source rocks (Williams and others, 1995).
The lacustrine source rocks are oil prone Type I and II kerogen and the coaly lake margin and deltaic source rocks
contain Type III kerogen (Williams and others, 1995). Several wells have tested reservoirs and source rocks in some
of these half-grabens, encountering gas and oil shows but without commercial success (Petroconsultants, 1996).
Analyses of these source rocks indicate that they are just entering the oil window (Williams and others, 1995).

OVERBURDEN ROCK
Marine flooding from the south resulted in deposition of the Gumai Formation in the basins
while Batu Raja Limestone was deposited on platforms and highs with maximum
transgression reached during the early middle Miocene (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989). Clastic
deposition increased during the late middle Miocene regression forming claystone,
sandstone, and siltstone in a shallow marine environment (Sarjono and Sardjdito, 1989).
Shallow marine and terrestrial depositional settings continued. Between 10003000 m of
overburden was deposited until a widespread late Pliocene through Pleistocene orogeny
caused folding and faulting (Sarjono and Sardjito, 1989).

TRAP TYPES
Northwest to southeast trending anticlines were the first traps explored and remain the most important traps in the
South Sumatra basin (van Bemmelen, 1949). Oil and gas reserves found in anticlines total 3.1 BBOE ultimate
recoverable reserves (Petroconsultants, 1996). These fields have primarily sandstone reservoirs with some
limestones and calcareous sandstones and include every producing formation in the basin (Petroconsultants, 1996).
The anticlines formed as a result of compression that began as early as the Miocene but was most pronounced
between 23 Ma (Fig. 6) (Courteney and others, 1990). Stratigraphic pinch-outs and carbonate buildups locally
combine with folds and anticlines to enhance the effectiveness of the primary trap type. Recoverable reserves of 178
MMBOE are found in bioherms and carbonate buildup type traps and 688 MMBOE in fault traps (Petroconsultants,
1996). Drape, facies-change, and stratigraphic traps are also important and may be attractive future targets.

RESERVOIR ROCK
Basement Rocks
Uplifted areas and paleohighs of Mesozoic and Eocene fractured and weathered basement granite and quartzite are
effective reservoirs, with up to 7% porosity, in ten fields in South Sumatra with gas reserves totaling 106 MMBOE
ultimate recoverable reserves (Sardjito and others, 1991; Petroconsultants, 1996).

Lahat (Lemat, Old Lemat, Young Lemat) Formation


The Eocene to Oligocene Lahat Formation (Fig. 4) is composed of synrift deposits that are as much as 1,070 m
thick. Although locally absent, this formation, is in most locations, more than 760 m thick (Hutchinson, 1996). The
formation was deposited in continental, lacustrine, and brackish lacustrine depositional settings (Hutchinson, 1996).
This reservoir accounts for nearly 88 MMBOE of ultimate recoverable reserves (Petroconsultants, 1996).

The Kikim Tuffs, also known as Old Lemat, are tuffaceous sandstones, conglomerates, breccias, and clays, of locally
derived provenance, deposited in faulted and topographic lows (Hutchinson, 1996). The Kikim is interpreted to by
Late Cretaceous to Paleocene in age and occurs in outcrop and at depth in the southern region (Hutchinson, 1996).

The oldest facies of the Young Lemat is granite wash overlain by coarse clastic deposits that consist of sandstones
and breccias with abundant rock fragments, claystones, coals, and tuffs (Hutchinson, 1996).

The Benakat Member is a grey to brown shale with tuffaceous shale, siltstone, sandstone, coal, carbonate stringers
and glauconitic sandstones that occurs in the deep portion of the half-graben basins (Hutchinson, 1996). This
member was deposited in fresh to brackish water lakes and conformably overlies the coarse clastics of the lower
Lemat Formation (Hutchinson, 1996).

Talang Akar Formation


The late Oligocene lower Talang Akar Formation is also referred to as the Gritsand Member and the Oligocene to
early Miocene upper Talang Akar Formation as the Transition Member (Sitompul and others, 1992; Tamtomo and
others, 1997). The Talang Akar Formation is as much as 610 m thick (Hutchinson, 1996). It is a late synrift to post-
rift formation that is thick where the underlying Lahat Formation is thickest (Fig. 3). The Talang Akar Formation
unconformably overlies the Lahat Formation. It onlaps the Lahat and the basement, extending farther outside of the
depositional basins than the depositional limits of the Lahat Formation (Hutchinson, 1996). This reservoir consists
of quartzose sandstones, siltstones, and shales deposited in a delta plain setting that changed basinward, generally to
the south and west, into marginal marine sandstones and shales (Adiwidjaja and de Coster, 1973; Hutchinson, 1996;
Eko Widianto and Nanang Muksin, 1989). Specific depositional environments that have been identified include
open marine, nearshore, delta plain, delta, distributary channel, fluvial, and beach (Hutapea, 1981). Talang Akar
Formation sandstones, which were deposited during marine transgressions and regressions, form important
stratigraphic traps (Tamtomo and others, 1997). These shoreline sands are generally aligned east to west, are
supplied with sediment from the Sunda Shelf to the north and the Palembang High (Lampung High) to the east, can
be laterally restricted, and thicken and thin in response to topography at the time of deposition (Adiwidjaja and de
Coster, 1973; Hamilton, 1979; Hutapea, 1981; Sitompul and others, 1992). Other shoreline sandstones that surround
basement highs are productive reservoirs for several fields (Tamtomo and others, 1997). Here the quality of the
reservoir depends on the type of basement rock eroded to provide the clastics.

The Talang Akar Formation reservoir accounts for more than 75% of the cumulative oil production in South Sumatra
(Tamtomo and others, 1997). Approximately 2 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves have been found in Talang Akar
reservoirs (Petroconsultants, 1996). Porosity of this reservoir rock ranges from 1530 % and permeability is as
much as 5 Darcies (Tamtomo and others, 1997; Petroconsultants, 1996). Porosity of the Gritsand Member is
primarily secondary and averages 25% (Sitompul and others, 1992). Porosity of the Transitional Member is also
primarily secondary and caused by the dissolution of grains and detrital clays. This cleaner and more mature
sandstone has 25% average porosity (Sitompul and others, 1992). Clays in both members include smectite, illite, and
abundant kaolinite (Sitompul and others, 1992).

Batu Raja Limestone


The early Miocene Batu Raja Limestone is also known as the Basal Telisa Limestone (Hutchinson, 1996). The
formation consists of widespread platform carbonates, 2075 m thick, with additional carbonate buildups and reefs,
from 60120 m thick (Hutchinson, 1996; Hartanto and others, 1991). The Basal Telisa is shale and calcareous shale
deposited in deeper water as the carbonates were being developed on the platforms and highs (Courteney and others
1990). At outcrop the Batu Raja is 520 m thick in the Garba Mountains area of the Barisan Mountains (Fig. 2)
(Hutchinson, 1996).

Discoveries in Batu Raja limestone and sandy limestone total over 1 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves, with gas
comprising just over half of that amount (Petroconsultants, 1996). Oil gravity ranges from 2661 API
(Petroconsultants, 1996). Reservoir porosity ranges from 1838% and reservoir permeability is as much as 1 Darcy
(Petroconsultants, 1996). Porosity has been enhanced in the upper parts of the formation due to subaerial exposure
late in the early Miocene, at approximately 17.5 Ma, and also because of only partially cemented fractures
(Courteney and others, 1990; Hartanto and others, 1991; Sitompul and others, 1992).

Gumai Formation
The Oligocene to middle Miocene Gumai Formation, also known as the Telisa Formation, is composed of
fossiliferous marine shales with thin, glauconitic limestones that represent a rapid, widespread maximum
transgression (Fig. 4) (Hartanto and others, 1991; Hutchinson, 1996). The transgression was toward the northeast,
and water depths were shallow in the northeast and bathyal in the southwest (Hamilton, 1979). Fine-grained
sandstones and siltstones occur on the basin margins (Hutchinson, 1996). The thickness of the Gumai Formation
varies and is as much as 2,700 m thick in basins. The formation thins at basin margins and across highs (Hartanto
and others, 1991; Hutchinson, 1996).

The Gumai Formation is the regional seal for the Batu Raja Limestone in South Sumatra but also contains some
reservoir intervals. These carbonates contain 130 MMBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (Petroconsultants, 1996).
These reserves average 3352 API gravity and are found primarily in shoreline and shallow marine sandstones
with 20% porosity, however, Hartanto and others (1991) have used well logs to identify turbidites and suggest that
these sands could be exploration targets in the basins. Thee turbidites suggest that a rapid drop in sea level occurred
at the end of Gumai deposition in middle Miocene time (Hartanto and others, 1991).

Air Benakat Formation


The middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation, also known as the Lower Palembang Formation, was deposited during
the regression that ended deposition of the Gumai Shale. The Air Benakat Formation changes upward from deep
marine to shallow marine conditions. Marine glauconitic clays decrease in frequency and marine sands increase
(Hartanto and others, 1991). The formation ranges from 1,0001,500 m thick (Hutchinson, 1996). Coal beds mark
the upper contact with the overlying Muara Enim Formation (Hutchinson, 1996). Ultimate recoverable reserves
discovered in shallow marine and deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Air Benakat Formation total 647 MMBOE
(Petroconsultants, 1996). The average porosity of the sandstone is 25%. The reservoirs contain oil with average 47
API gravity and some gas (Petroconsultants, 1996).

Muara Enim Formation


The late Miocene to Pliocene Muara Enim Formation, also known as the Middle Palembang Formation, was
deposited as shallow marine to continental sands, muds, and coals. The formation thins to the north from a
maximum of 750 m in the south (Fig. 4) (Hutchinson, 1996). Oil reserves of 179 MMBOE ultimate recoverable are
located in Muara Enim sandstone reservoirs with 30% average porosity (Petroconsultants, 1996). Uplift of the
Barisan Mountains provided source terrains for clastics from the south and southwest during deposition of the
Muara Enim Formation (Hamilton, 1979).

Kasi Tuff
Continental tuffaceous sands, clays, gravels, and thin coal beds of the Kasi Tuff, also known as the Upper
Palembang Formation, are found in valleys and synclines formed during deformation of the Barisan Mountains.
These sediments are derived primarily from these mountains (Courteney and others, 1990; Hutchinson, 1996).

SEAL ROCK
The Gumai Formation represents the maximum highstand transgression following development of Batu Raja
carbonates (Fig. 3 and 4) (Hartanto and others, 1991). Shales of this regional formation seal carbonate reservoirs and
locally seal a series of stacked sandstone reservoirs of the Talang Akar Formation (Martadinata and Wright, 1984;
Hartanto and others, 1991). Hydrocarbons that are found above the regional seal either have migrated there due to
faults that broke the seal during the compression phase or were generated by the Gumai Formation shales in local
areas where this formation might be mature. Intraformational seals within the Talang Akar consist of shallow marine
and overbank shales that are important seals that compartmentalize the sandstones (Courteney and others, 1990).

UNDISCOVERED PETROLEUM BY ASSESSMENT UNIT


One assessment unit, the South Sumatra assessment unit (38280101), is recognized in the Lahat/Talang Akar-
Cenozoic petroleum system (Fig. 1). The primary exploration targets in the South Sumatra Basin have been
anticlines and carbonate buildups. This play is fairly mature. Although the basin as a whole has had a similar
depositional history, there is a great deal of local variation within and around the half-grabens and half-graben
complexes that could yield many targets for exploration. Future exploration targets would include smaller traps
associated with more subtitle structures, stratigraphic traps associated with lowstand fan deposits, shoreline onlap
onto basement highs, and synrift clastic fluvial, deltaic, and possibly deep-water deposits deeper in the half-grabens.
Basin inversion could form traps in some of these synrift deposits. Due to the complex and varied nature of the
province numerous prospects may remain to be explored

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