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201761 CHAPTER1.

RESIDENCES

CHAPTER1.RESIDENCES
SPACECONDITIONINGsystemsforresidentialusevarywithbothlocalandapplicationfactors.
Localfactorsincludeenergysourceavailability(presentandprojected)andpriceclimate
socioeconomiccircumstancesandavailabilityofinstallationandmaintenanceskills.Application
factorsincludehousingtype,constructioncharacteristics,andbuildingcodes.Asaresult,many
differentsystemsareselectedtoprovidecombinationsofheating,cooling,humidification,
dehumidification,ventilation,andairfiltering.Thischapteremphasizesthemorecommonsystems
forspaceconditioningofbothsinglefamily(i.e.,traditionalsitebuiltandmodularormanufactured
homes)andmultifamilyresidences.Lowrisemultifamilybuildingsgenerallyfollowsinglefamily
practicebecauseconstraintsfavorcompactdesignsHVACsystemsinhighriseapartment,
condominium,anddormitorybuildingsareoftenofcommercialtypessimilartothoseusedin
hotels.Retrofitandremodelingconstructionalsoadoptthesamesystemsasthosefornew
construction,butsitespecificcircumstancesmaycallforuniquedesigns.

1.SYSTEMS
CommonresidentialsystemsarelistedinTable1.Threegenerallyrecognizedgroupsarecentral
forcedair,centralhydronic,andzonedsystems.Systemselectionanddesigninvolvesuchkey
decisionsas(1)source(s)ofenergy,(2)meansofdistributionanddelivery,and(3)terminal
device(s).

Table1.ResidentialHeatingandCoolingSystems
Central Forced Central
Air Hydronic Zoned
Most common energy Gas Gas Gas
sources Oil Oil Electricity
Electricity Electricity
Distribution medium Air Water Air
Steam Water
Refrigerant
Distribution system Ducting Piping Ducting
Piping or
Free delivery
Terminal devices Diffusers Radiators Included with product or same as forcedair or hydronic
Registers Radiant panels systems
Grilles Fancoil units

Climatedeterminestheservicesneeded.Heatingandcoolingaregenerallyrequired.Aircleaning,
byfiltrationorelectrostaticdevices,ispresentinmostsystems.Humidification,whenused,is
providedinheatingsystemsforthermalcomfort(asdefinedinASHRAE 55),health,and Standard
reductionofstaticelectricitydischarges.Coolingsystemsusuallydehumidifyairaswellaslowering
itstemperature.TypicalforcedairresidentialinstallationsareshowninFigures1and2.

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Figure1.TypicalResidentialInstallationofHeating,Cooling,Humidifying,andAir
FilteringSystem

Figure1showsagasfurnace,splitsystemairconditioner,humidifier,andairfilter.Airfromthe
spaceenterstheequipmentthroughareturnairduct.Itpassesinitiallythroughtheairfilter.The
circulatingblowerisanintegralpartofthefurnace,whichsuppliesheatduringwinter.Anoptional
humidifieraddsmoisturetotheheatedair,whichisdistributedthroughoutthehomeviathesupply
duct.Whencoolingisrequired,heatandmoistureareremovedfromthecirculatingairasitpasses
acrosstheevaporatorcoil.Refrigerantlinesconnecttheevaporatorcoiltoaremotecondensing
unitlocatedoutdoors.Condensatefromtheevaporatorisremovedthroughadrainlinewithatrap.
Figure2showsasplitsystemheatpump,supplementalelectricresistanceheaters,humidifier,
andairfilter.Thesystemfunctionsasfollows:airfromthespaceenterstheequipmentthrough
thereturnairduct(orsometimesthroughanopeningintheequipmentitself),andpassesthrough
afilter.Thecirculatingblowerisanintegralpartoftheindoorairhandlingportionoftheheat
pumpsystem,whichsuppliesheatthroughtheindoorcoilduringtheheatingseason.Optional
electricheaterssupplementheatfromtheheatpumpduringperiodsoflowoutdoortemperature
andcounteractindoorairstreamcoolingduringperiodicdefrostcycles.Anoptionalhumidifieradds
moisturetotheheatedair,whichisdistributedthroughoutthehomethroughthesupplyduct.
Whencoolingisrequired,heatandmoistureareremovedfromthecirculatingairasitpasses
acrosstheevaporatorcoil.Refrigerantlinesconnecttheindoorcoiltotheoutdoorunit.Condensate
fromtheindoorcoilisremovedthroughadrainlinewithatrap.

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201761 CHAPTER1.RESIDENCES

Figure2.TypicalResidentialInstallationofaSplitSystemAirtoAirHeatPump

Figure.3ExampleofTwoZone,DuctlessMultisplitSysteminTypicalResidential
Installation

Minisplitandmultisplitsystems,whicharesimilartosplitsystemsbutaretypicallyductless,are
increasinglypopularworldwide.Atypicaltwozone,ductlessmultisplitsysteminstallationisshown

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inFigure3.Inthisexample,thesystemconsistsmainlyoftwoparts:anoutdoorcondensingunit
andtwoindoorairhandlingunitsthatareusuallyinstalledonperimeterwallsofthehouse.Each
indoorairhandlerservesonezoneandiscontrolledindependentlyfromtheotherindoorunit.
Singlepackageunitarysystems,suchaswindowmounted,throughthewall,orrooftopunits
whereallequipmentiscontainedinonecabinet,arealsopopular.Ductedversionsareused
extensivelyinregionswhereresidenceshaveductsystemsincrawlspacesbeneaththemainfloor
andinareassuchasthesouthwesternUnitedStates,whererooftopmountedpackagesconnectto
atticductsystems.
CentralhydronicheatingsystemsarepopularbothinEuropeandinpartsofNorthAmericawhere
centralcoolinghasnotnormallybeenprovided.Newconstruction,especiallyinmultistoryhomes,
nowtypicallyincludesforcedaircooling.
Zonedsystemsaredesignedtoconditiononlypartofahomeatanyonetime.Theymayconsist
ofindividualroomunitsorcentralsystemswithzoneddistributionnetworks.Multiplecentral
systemsthatserveindividualfloorsorthesleepingandcommonportionsofahomeseparatelyare
sometimesusedinlargesinglefamilyresidences.
Theenergysourceisamajorconsiderationinsystemselection.Accordingto2009datafromthe
U.S.EnergyInformationAdministration(EIA2013),forheating,about49%ofhomesusenatural
gas,followedbyelectricity(34%),fueloil(6%),propane(5%),wood(2.5%),andkeroseneor
otherfuel(<1%).Relativeprices,safety,andenvironmentalconcerns(bothindoorandoutdoor)
arefurtherfactorsinheatingenergysourceselection.Wherevarioussourcesareavailable,
economicsstronglyinfluencetheselection.Electricityisthedominantenergysourceforcooling.
2.EQUIPMENTSIZING
Theheatlossandgainofeachconditionedroomandofductworkorpipingrunthrough
unconditionedspacesinthestructuremustbeaccuratelycalculatedtoselectequipmentwiththe
properheatingandcoolingcapacity.Todetermineheatlossandgainaccurately,thefloorplanand
constructiondetails,includinginformationonwall,ceiling,andfloorconstructionaswellasthe
typeandthicknessofinsulation,mustbeknown.Windowdesignandexteriordoordetailsarealso
needed.Withthisinformation,heatlossandgaincanbecalculatedusingtheAirConditioning
ContractorsofAmerica(ACCA) Manual
J orsimilarcalculationprocedures.Toconserveenergy,
manyjurisdictionsrequirethatthebuildingbedesignedtomeetorexceedtherequirementsof
ASHRAE Standard90.2orsimilarrequirements.
Propermatchingofequipmentcapacitytothebuildingheatlossandgainisessential.Theheating
capacityofairsourceheatpumpsisusuallysupplementedbyauxiliaryheaters,mostoftenofthe
electricresistancetypeinsomecases,however,fossilfuelfurnacesorsolarsystemsareused.
Undersizedequipmentwillbeunabletomaintaintheintendedindoortemperatureunderextreme
outdoortemperatures.Someoversizingmaybedesirabletoenablerecoveryfromsetbackandto
maintainindoorcomfortduringoutdoorconditionsthataremoreextremethanthenominaldesign
conditions.Grosslyoversizedequipmentcancausediscomfortbecauseofshort times,wide on
indoortemperatureswings,andinadequatedehumidificationwhencooling.Grossoversizingmay
alsocontributetohigherenergyusebyincreasingcycliclosses.Variablecapacityequipment(heat
pumps,airconditioners,andfurnaces)canmorecloselymatchbuildingloadsoverbroadambient
temperatureranges,usuallyreducingtheselossesandimprovingcomfortlevelsinthecaseof
heatpumps,supplementalheatneedsmayalsobereduced.
Residencesoftightconstructionmayhavehighindoorhumidityandabuildupofindoorair
contaminantsattimes.Airtoairheatrecoveryequipmentmaybeusedtoprovidetempered
ventilationairtotightlyconstructedhouses.Outdoorairintakesconnectedtothereturnductof
centralsystemsmayalsobeusedwhenreducinginstalledcostsisimportant.Simpleexhaust
systemswithorwithoutpassiveairintakesarealsopopular.Naturalventilationbyoperable
windowsisalsopopularinsomeclimates.Excessiveaccumulationofradonisofconcerninall
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buildingslowerlevelspacesshouldnotbedepressurized,whichcausesincreasedmigrationofsoil
gasesintobuildings.Allventilationschemesincreaseheatingandcoolingloadsandthusthe
requiredsystemcapacity,therebyresultingingreaterenergyconsumption.Inallcases,minimum
ventilationrates,asdescribedinASHRAE Standards
62.1and62.2,shouldbemaintained.

3.SINGLEFAMILYRESIDENCES
HeatPumps
Heatpumpsforsinglefamilyhousesarenormallycentrallyductedunitaryorsplitsystems,as
illustratedinFigures2and3.
Mostcommerciallyavailableheatpumps,particularlyinNorthAmerica,arereversible,electrically
powered,airsourcesystems.Thedirectionofflowoftherefrigerantcanbeswitchedtoprovide
coolingorheatingtothehome.
Heatpumpsmaybeclassifiedbythermalsourceanddistributionmediumintheheatingmodeas
wellasthetypeoffuelused.Themostcommonclassificationsofheatpumpequipmentareairto
airandwatertoair.Airtowaterandwatertowatertypesarealsoused.
Heatpumpsystemsaregenerallydescribedasairsourceorgroundsource.Thethermalsinkfor
coolingisgenerallyassumedtobethesameasthethermalsourceforheating.
AirSourceSystems.Airsourcesystemsusingambientairastheheatsource/sinkcanbe
installedinalmostanyapplicationandaregenerallytheleastcostlytoinstallandthusthemost
commonlyused.
GroundSource(Geothermal)Systems.Groundsourcesystemsusuallyusewatertoairheat
pumpstoextractheatfromthegroundusinggroundwateroraburiedheatexchanger.Asaheat
source/sink,groundwater(fromindividualwellsorsuppliedasautilityfromcommunitywells)
offersthefollowingadvantagesoverambientair:(1)heatpumpcapacityisindependentof
ambientairtemperature,reducingsupplementaryheatingrequirements(2)nodefrostcycleis
required(3)althoughoperatingconditionsforestablishingratedefficiencyarenotthesameasfor
airsourcesystems,seasonalefficiencyisusuallyhigherforheatingandforcoolingand(4)peak
heatingenergyconsumptionisusuallylower.
Twoothersystemtypesaregroundcoupledandsurfacewatercoupledsystems.Ground
coupledsystemsofferthesameadvantages,butbecausesurfacewatertemperaturestrack
fluctuationsinairtemperature,surfacewatercoupledsystemsmaynotofferthesame
benefitsasothergroundsourcesystems.Bothsystemtypescirculatebrineorwaterinaburiedor
submergedheatexchangertotransferheatfromthegroundorwater.Directexpansion
groundsourcesystems,withevaporatorsburiedintheground,alsoareavailablebutare
seldomused.Watersourcesystemsthatextractheatfromsurfacewater(e.g.,lakesorrivers)
orcity(tap)wateraresometimesusedwherelocalconditionsallow.SeeChapter49ofthe2016
ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment forfurtherinformation.
Watersupply,quality,anddisposalmustbeconsideredforgroundwatersystems.Caneta
Research(1995)andKavanaughandRafferty(2014)providedetailedinformationonthese
subjects.SecondarycoolantsforgroundcoupledsystemsarediscussedinCanetaResearch(1995)
andinChapter31ofthe2013 ASHRAEHandbookFundamentals
.Buriedheatexchanger
configurationsmaybehorizontalorvertical,withtheverticalincludingbothmultipleshallowand
singledeepwellconfigurations.Groundcoupledsystemsavoidwaterquality,quantity,anddisposal
concernsbutaresometimesmoreexpensivethangroundwatersystems.However,groundcoupled
systemsareusuallymoreefficient,especiallywhenpumpingpowerforthegroundwatersystemis
considered.Properinstallationofthegroundcoil(s)iscriticaltosuccess.
AddOnHeatPumps.Inaddonsystems,aheatpumpisadded(oftenasaretrofit)toan
existingfurnaceorboiler/fancoilsystem.Theheatpumpandcombustiondeviceareoperatedin
oneoftwoways:(1)alternately,dependingonwhichismostcosteffective,or(2)inparallel.

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Bivalentheatpumps,factorybuiltwiththeheatpumpandcombustiondevicegroupedina
commonchassisandcabinets,providesimilarbenefitsatlowerinstallationcosts.
FuelFiredHeatPumps.Extensiveresearchanddevelopmenthasbeenconductedtodevelop
fuelfiredheatpumps.TheyhavebeenmarketedinNorthAmerica.Moreinformationmaybefound
inChapter49ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment
.
WaterHeatingOptions.Heatpumpsmaybeequippedwithdesuperheaters(eitherintegralor
fieldinstalled)toreclaimheatfordomesticwaterheatingwhenoperatedincoolingmode.
Integratedspaceconditioningandwaterheatingheatpumpswithanadditionalfullsizecondenser
forwaterheatingarealsoavailable.
Furnaces
Furnacesarefueledbygas(naturalorpropane),electricity,oil,wood,orothercombustibles.Gas,
oil,andwoodfurnacesmaydrawcombustionairfromthehouseorfromoutdoors.Ifthefurnace
spaceislocatedsuchthatcombustionairisdrawnfromtheoutdoors,thearrangementiscalledan
isolatedcombustionsystem(ICS).FurnacesaregenerallyratedonanICSbasis.Outdoorairis
ductedtothecombustionchamber(adirectventsystem)formanufacturedhomeapplicationsand
somemidandhighefficiencyequipmentdesigns.Usingoutdoorairforcombustioneliminatesboth
infiltrationlossesassociatedwithusingindoorairforcombustionandstacklossesassociatedwith
atmosphericallyinduceddrafthoodequippedfurnaces.
Twoavailabletypesofhighefficiencygasfurnacesarenoncondensingandcondensing.Both
increaseefficiencybyaddingorimprovingheatexchangersurfaceareaandreducingheatloss
duringfurnaceofftimes.Noncondensingfurnacesusuallyhavecombustionefficienciesbelow85%
andcondensingfurnaceshavecombustionefficiencieshigherthan90%.Thehigherefficiency
condensingtyperecoversmoreenergybycondensingwatervaporfromcombustionproducts.
Condensateisformedinacorrosionresistantheatexchangerandisdisposedofthroughadrain
line.Caremustbetakentopreventfreezingthecondensatewhenthefurnaceisinstalledinan
unheatedspacesuchasanattic.CondensingfurnacesgenerallyusePVCforventpipesand
condensatedrains.
Biofuelsandcoalfueledfurnacesareusedinsomeareasaseithertheprimaryorsupplemental
heatingunit.Thesefurnacesmayhavecatalyticconverterstoenhancethecombustionprocess,
increasingfurnaceefficiencyandproducingcleanerexhaust.
Chapters31and33ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment
includemore
detailedinformationonfurnacesandfurnaceefficiency.
HydronicHeatingSystems
Withthegrowthofdemandforcentralcoolingsystems,hydronicsystemshavedeclinedin
popularityinnewconstruction,butstillaccountforasignificantportionofexistingsystemsin
colderclimates.Thefluidisheatedinacentralboileranddistributedbypipingtoterminalunitsin
eachroom.Terminalunitsaretypicallyeitherradiatorsorbaseboardconvectors.Otherterminal
unitsincludefancoilsandradiantpanels.Mostrecentlyinstalledresidentialsystemsuseaforced
circulation,multiplezonehotwatersystemwithaserieslooppipingarrangement.Chapters13and
36ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment havemoreinformationon
hydronics.
Designwatertemperatureisbasedoneconomicandcomfortconsiderations.Generally,higher
temperaturesresultinlowerfirstcostsbecausesmallerterminalunitsareneeded.However,losses
tendtobegreater,resultinginhigheroperatingcostsandreducedcomfortbecauseofthe
concentratedheatsource.Typicaldesigntemperatureszforradiatorsystemsrangefrom180to
200F.Forradiantpanelsystems,designtemperaturesrangefrom110to170F.Thepreferred
controlmethodallowsthewatertemperaturetodecreaseasoutdoortemperaturesrise.Provisions
forexpansionandcontractionofpipingandheatdistributingunitsandforeliminatingairfromthe
hydronicsystemareessentialforquiet,leaktightoperation.
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Fossilfuelsystemsthatcondensewatervaporfromthefluegasesmustbedesignedforreturn
watertemperaturesintherangeof120to130Fformostoftheheatingseason.Noncondensing
systemsmustmaintainhighenoughwatertemperaturesintheboilertopreventthiscondensation.
Ifrapidheatingisrequired,bothterminalunitandboilersizemustbeincreased,althoughgross
oversizingshouldbeavoided.
Anotherconceptformultiorsinglefamilydwellingsisacombinedwaterheating/spaceheating
systemthatuseswaterfromthedomestichotwaterstoragetanktoprovidespaceheating.Water
circulatesfromthestoragetanktoahydroniccoilinthesystemairhandler.Spaceheatingis
providedbycirculatingindoorairacrossthecoil.Asplitsystemcentralairconditionerwiththe
evaporatorlocatedinthesystemairhandlercanbeincludedtoprovidespacecooling.
ZonedHeatingSystems
MostmoderatecostresidencesinNorthAmericahavesinglethermalzoneHVACsystemswith
onethermostat.Multizonedsystems,however,offerthepotentialforimprovedthermalcomfort.
Loweroperatingcostsarepossiblewithzonedsystemsbecauseunoccupiedareas(e.g.,common
areasatnight,sleepingareasduringtheday)canbekeptatlowertemperaturesinthewinter.
Oneformofthissystemconsistsofindividualheaterslocatedineachroom.Theseheatersare
usuallyelectricorgasfired.Electricheatersareavailableinthefollowingtypes:baseboardfree
convection,wallinsert(freeconvectionorforcedfan),radiantpanelsforwallsandceilings,and
radiantcablesforwalls,ceilings,andfloors.Matchingequipmentcapacitytoheatingrequirements
iscriticalforindividualroomsystems.Heatingdeliverycannotbeadjustedbyadjustingairorwater
flow,sogreaterprecisioninroombyroomsizingisneeded.Mostindividualheatershaveintegral
thermostatsthatlimittheabilitytooptimizeunitcontrolwithoutcontinuousfanoperation.
Individualheatpumpsforeachroomorgroupofrooms(zone)areanotherformofzonedelectric
heating.Forexample,twoormoresmallunitaryheatpumpscanbeinstalledintwostoryorlarge
onestoryhomes.
Themultisplitheatpumpconsistsofacentralcompressorandanoutdoorheatexchangerto
servemultipleindoorzones.Eachzoneusesoneormorefancoils,withseparatethermostatic
controlsforeachzone.Thesesystemsareusedinbothnewandretrofitconstruction.Theseare
alsoknownasvariablerefrigerantvolume(VRV)orvariablerefrigerantflow(VRF)
systems,andmayincludeaheatrecoverymodewheresomeindoorunitsoperateinheatingand
someincoolingsimultaneously.
Amethodforzonedheatingincentralductedsystemsisthezonedampersystem.Thisconsists
ofindividualzonedampersandthermostatscombinedwithazonecontrolsystem.Bothvariable
airvolume(damperpositionproportionaltozonedemand)and on/off
(damperfullyopenorfully
closedinresponsetothermostat)typesareavailable.Thesesystemssometimesincludeaprovision
tomodulatetolowercapacitieswhenonlyafewzonesrequireheating.
SolarHeating
Bothactiveandpassivesolarthermalenergysystemsaresometimesusedtoheatresidences.In
typicalactivesystems,flatplatecollectorsheatairorwater.Airsystemsdistributeheatedaireither
tothelivingspaceforimmediateuseortoathermalstoragemedium(e.g.,arockpile).Water
systemspassheatedwaterfromthecollectorsthroughaheatexchangerandstoreheatinawater
tank.Becauseoflowdeliveredwatertemperatures,radiantfloorpanelsrequiringmoderate
temperaturesareoftenused.Awatersourceheatpumpbetweenthewaterstoragetankandthe
loadcanbeusedtoincreasetemperaturedifferentials.
Trombewalls,directgain,andgreenhouselikesunspacesarecommonpassivesolarthermal
systems.Glazingfacingsouth(inthenorthernhemisphere),withoverhangstoreducesolargains
inthesummer,andmovablenightinsulationpanelsreduceheatingrequirements.
Someformofbackupheatingisgenerallyneededwithsolarthermalenergysystems.Solar
electricsystemsarenotnormallyusedforspaceheatingbecauseofthehighenergydensities
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requiredandtheeconomicsofphotovoltaics.However,hybridcollectors,whichcombineelectric
andthermalcapabilities,areavailable.Chapter35hasinformationonsizingsolarheating
equipment.
UnitaryAirConditioners
Inforcedairsystems,thesameairdistributionductsystemcanbeusedforbothheatingand
cooling.Splitsystemcentralcooling,asillustratedinFigure1,isthemostwidelyusedforcedair
system.Upflow,downflow,andhorizontalairflowindoorunitsareavailable.Condensingunitsare
installedonanoncombustiblepadoutdoorandcontainamotororenginedrivencompressor,
condenser,condenserfanandfanmotor,andcontrols.Thecondensingunitandevaporatorcoil
areconnectedbyrefrigeranttubingthatisnormallyfieldsupplied.However,precharged,factory
suppliedtubingwithquickconnectcouplingsisalsocommonwherethedistancebetween
componentsisnotexcessive.
Adistinctadvantageofsplitsystemcentralcoolingisthatitcanreadilybeaddedtoexisting
forcedairheatingsystems.Airflowratesaregenerallysetbythecoolingrequirementstoachieve
goodperformance,butmostexistingheatingductsystemsareadaptabletocooling.Airflowrates
of350to450cfmpernominaltonofrefrigerationarenormallyrecommendedforgoodcooling
performance.Aswithheatpumps,thesesystemsmaybefittedwithdesuperheatersfordomestic
waterheating.
Somecoolingequipmentincludesforcedairheatingasanintegralpartoftheproduct.Yearround
heatingandcoolingpackageswithagas,oil,orelectricfurnaceforheatingandavapor
compressionsystemforcoolingareavailable.Airtoairandwatersourceheatpumpsprovide
coolingandheatingbyreversingtheflowofrefrigerant.
Distribution.Ductsystemsforcooling(andheating)shouldbedesignedandinstalledin
accordancewithacceptedpractice.UsefulinformationisfoundinACCA D andS. Manuals
Thereisrenewedinterestinqualityductdesign,becauseitcanmakealargedifferenceinthe
effectivenessoftheresidentialunitarycoolingandheatingsystem.Thereisatrendtowardplacing
asmuchductworkaspossibleintheconditionedspace,toreduceductthermallossesandlessen
theeffectofanyleaksthatexist.Foragivendiameter,flexibleductshavehigherpressuredrop
thanmetalducts,andthisshouldbetakenintoconsideration.Flexibleductmustbeproperly
supportedoritcansag,increasingairflowresistance.Minimizingductsystemairflowresistance
helpsminimizeenergyconsumptionthroughoutthelifeofthesystem.
ASHRAEHandbookFundamentals
Chapter21ofthe2013 providesthetheorybehindduct
ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment
design.Chapter10ofthe2016 discussesair
ASHRAE
distributiondesignforsmallheatingandcoolingsystems.Chapter19ofthe2016
HandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment addressesductconstructionandcoderequirements.
Becauseweatheristheprimaryinfluenceontheload,thecoolingandheatingloadineachroom
changesfromhourtohour.Therefore,theowneroroccupantshouldbeabletomakeseasonalor
morefrequentadjustmentstotheairdistributionsystemtoimprovecomfort.Adjustmentsmay
involveopeningadditionaloutletsinsecondfloorroomsduringsummerandthrottlingorclosing
heatingoutletsinsomeroomsduringwinter.Manuallyadjustablebalancingdampersmaybe
providedtofacilitatetheseadjustments.Otherpossiblerefinementsareinstallingaheatingand
coolingsystemsizedtomeetheatingrequirements,withadditionalselfcontainedcoolingunits
servingroomswithhighsummerloads,orseparatecentralsystemsfortheupperandlowerfloors
ofahouse.Alternatively,zonedampersystemscanbeused.Anotherwayofbalancingcoolingand
heatingloadsistousevariablecapacitycompressorsinheatpumpsystems.
Operatingcharacteristicsofbothheatingandcoolingequipmentmustbeconsideredwhenzoning
isused.Forexample,areductioninairquantitytooneormoreroomsmayreduceairflowacross
theevaporatortosuchadegreethatfrostformsonthefins.Reducedairflowonheatpumps
duringtheheatingseasoncancauseoverloadingifairflowacrosstheindoorcoilisnotmaintained

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above350cfmperton.Reducedairvolumetoagivenroomreducestheairvelocityfromthe
supplyoutletandmightcauseunsatisfactoryairdistributionintheroom.Manufacturersofzoned
systemsnormallyprovideguidelinesforavoidingsuchsituations.
SpecialConsiderations.Inresidenceswithmorethanonestory,coolingandheatingare
complicatedbyairbuoyancy,alsoknownasthestackeffect.Inmanysuchhouses,especially
withsinglezonesystems,theupperleveltendstooverheatinwinterandundercoolinsummer.
Multipleairoutlets,somenearthefloorandothersneartheceiling,havebeenusedwithsome
successonalllevels.Tocontrolairflow,thehomeowneropenssomeoutletsandclosesothersfrom
seasontoseason.Freeaircirculationbetweenfloorscanbereducedbylocatingreturnshighin
eachroomandkeepingdoorsclosed.
Inexistinghomes,thecoolingthatcanbeaddedislimitedbytheairhandlingcapacityofthe
existingductsystem.Althoughtheexistingductsystemisusuallysatisfactoryfornormal
occupancy,itmaybeinadequateduringlargegatherings.Whennewcooling(orheating)
equipmentisinstalledinexistinghomes,supplyairductsandoutletsmustbecheckedfor
acceptableairhandlingcapacityandairdistribution.Maintainingupwardairflowataneffective
velocityisimportantwhenconvertingexistingheatingsystemswithfloororbaseboardoutletsto
bothheatandcool.Itisnotnecessarytochangethedeflectionfromsummertowinterfor
registerslocatedattheperimeterofaresidence.Registerslocatednearthefloorontheinside
wallsofroomsmayoperateunsatisfactorilyifthedeflectionisnotchangedfromsummertowinter.
Occupantsofairconditionedspacesusuallypreferminimumperceptibleairmotion.Perimeter
baseboardoutletswithmultipleslotsororificesdirectingairupwardseffectivelymeetthis
requirement.Ceilingoutletswithmultidirectionalvanesarealsosatisfactory.
Aresidencewithoutaforcedairheatingsystemmaybecooledbyoneormorecentralsystems
withseparateductsystems,byindividualroomairconditioners(windowmountedorthroughthe
wall),orbyminisplitroomairconditioners.
Coolingequipmentmustbelocatedcarefully.Becausecoolingsystemsrequirehigherindoor
airflowratesthanmostheatingsystems,soundlevelsgeneratedindoorsareusuallyhigher.Thus,
indoorairhandlingunitslocatednearsleepingareasmayrequiresoundattenuation.Outdoornoise
levelsshouldalsobeconsideredwhenlocatingtheequipment.Manycommunitieshaveordinances
regulatingthesoundlevelofmechanicaldevices,includingcoolingequipment.Manufacturersof
unitaryairconditionersoftenratethesoundleveloftheirproductsaccordingtoanindustry
standard[AirConditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute(AHRI) 270].AHRI Standard
Standard 275givesinformationonhowtopredictthedBAsoundlevelwhentheAHRIsound
ratingnumber,theequipmentlocationrelativetoreflectivesurfaces,andthedistancetothe
propertylineareknown.
Aneffectiveandinexpensivewaytoreducenoiseistoputdistanceandnaturalbarriersbetween
soundsourceandlistener.However,airflowtoandfromaircooledcondensingunitsmustnotbe
obstructedforexample,plantingsandscreensmustbeporousandplacedawayfromunitssoas
nottorestrictintakeordischargeofair.Mostmanufacturersproviderecommendationson
acceptabledistancesbetweencondensingunitsandnaturalbarriers.Outdoorunitsshouldbe
placedasfarasispracticalfromporchesandpatios,whichmaybeusedwhilethehouseisbeing
cooled.Locationsnearbedroomwindowsandneighboringhomesshouldalsobeavoided.Inhigh
crimeareas,considerplacingunitsonroofsorothersemisecureareas.
EvaporativeCoolers
Inclimatesthataredrythroughouttheentirecoolingseason,evaporativecoolerscanbeusedto
coolresidences.Theymustbeinstalledandmaintainedcarefullytoreducethepotentialforwater
andthusairqualityproblems.FurtherdetailsonevaporativecoolerscanbefoundinChapter41of
the2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment andinChapter52ofthisvolume.
Humidifiers
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Forimprovedwintercomfort,equipmentthatincreasesindoorrelativehumiditymaybeneeded.
Inaductedheatingsystem,acentralwholehousehumidifiercanbeattachedtoorinstalledwithin
asupplyplenumormainsupplyduct,orinstalledbetweenthesupplyandreturnductsystems.
Whenapplyingsupplytoreturnducthumidifiersonheatpumpsystems,takecaretomaintain
properairflowacrosstheindoorcoil.Selfcontainedportableortabletophumidifierscanbeusedin
anyresidence.Eventhoughthistypeofhumidifierintroducesallthemoisturetooneareaofthe
home,moisturemigratesandraiseshumiditylevelsinotherrooms.
Overhumidificationshouldbeavoided:itcancausecondensatetoformonthecoldestsurfacesin
thelivingspace(usuallywindows).Also,becausemoisturemigratesthroughallstructural
materials,vaporretardersshouldbeinstallednearthewarmerinsidesurfaceofinsulatedwalls,
ceilings,andfloorsinmosttemperatureclimates.Lackofattentiontothisconstructiondetailallows
moisturetomigratefromindoorstooutdoors,causingdampinsulation,mold,possiblestructural
damage,andexteriorpaintblistering.
CentralhumidifiersmayberatedinaccordancewithAHRI Standard
610.Thisratingisexpressed
inthenumberofgallonsperdayevaporatedby120Fenteringair.Somemanufacturerscertifythe
performanceoftheirproducttotheAHRIstandard.Selectingthepropersizehumidifieris
importantandisoutlinedinAHRI F. Guideline
Humidifiercleaningandmaintenanceschedulesmustbefollowedtomaintainefficientoperation
andpreventbacteriabuildup.
Chapter22ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment
containsmore
informationonresidentialhumidifiers.
Dehumidifiers
Manyhomesalsousedehumidifierstoremovemoistureandcontrolindoorhumiditylevels.In
coldclimates,dehumidificationissometimesrequiredduringthesummerinbasementareasto
controlmoldandmildewgrowthandtoreducezonehumiditylevels.Traditionally,portable
dehumidifiershavebeenusedtocontrolhumidityinthisapplication.Althoughtheseportableunits
arenotalwaysasefficientascentralsystems,theirlowfirstcostandabilitytoserveasinglezone
makethemappropriateinmanycircumstances.
Inhot,humidclimates,providingsufficientdehumidificationwithsensiblecoolingisimportant.
Althoughconventionalairconditioningunitsprovidesomedehumidificationasaconsequenceof
sensiblecooling,insomecasesspacehumiditylevelscanstillexceedcomfortablelevels.
Severaldehumidificationenhancementstoconventionalairconditioningsystemsarepossibleto
improvemoistureremovalcharacteristicsandlowerthespacehumiditylevel.Somesimple
improvementsincludeloweringthesupplyairflowrateandeliminating cyclefanoperation. off
Additionalequipmentoptionssuchascondenser/reheatcoils,sensibleheatexchangerassisted
evaporators(e.g.,heatpipes),andsubcooling/reheatcoilscanfurtherimprovedehumidification
performance.Desiccants,appliedaseitherthermallyactivatedunitsorheatrecoverysystems(e.g.,
enthalpywheels),canalsoincreasedehumidificationcapacityandlowertheindoorhumiditylevel.
Somedehumidificationoptionsaddheattotheconditionedzonethat,insomecases,increasesthe
loadonthesensiblecoolingequipment.
AirFilters
Mostcomfortconditioningsystemsthatcirculateairincorporatesomeformofairfilter.Usually,
theyaredisposableorcleanablefiltersthathaverelativelylowaircleaningefficiency.Higher
efficiencyalternativesincludepleatedmediafiltersandelectronicairfilters.Thesehighefficiency
filtersmayhavehighstaticpressuredrops.Theairdistributionsystemshouldbecarefully
evaluatedbeforeinstallingsuchfilterssothatairflowratesarenotoverlyreducedwiththeiruse.
Airflowmustbeevaluatedbothwhenthefilterisnewandwhenitisinneedofreplacementor
cleaning.

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Airfiltersaremountedinthereturnairductorplenumandoperatewheneveraircirculates
throughtheductsystem.AirfiltersareratedinaccordancewithAHRI 680,whichwas Standard
basedonASHRAE Standard
52.2.Atmosphericdustspotefficiencylevelsaregenerallylessthan
20%fordisposablefiltersandvaryfrom60to90%forelectronicairfilters.However,increasingly,
theminimumefficiencyratingvalue(MERV)fromASHRAE Standard
52.2isgiveninsteadahigher
MERVimpliesgreaterparticulateremoval,butalsotypicallyincreasedairpressuredropacrossthe
filter.
Tomaintainoptimumperformance,thecollectorcellsofelectronicairfiltersmustbecleaned
periodically.Automaticindicatorsareoftenusedtosignaltheneedforcleaning.Electronicairfilters
havehigherinitialcoststhandisposableorpleatedfilters,butgenerallylastthelifeoftheair
conditioningsystem.Alsoavailablearegasphasefilterssuchasthosethatuseactivatedcarbon.
Chapter29ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment coversthedesignof
residentialairfiltersinmoredetail.
Ultraviolet(UV)germicidallightasanairfiltrationsystemforresidentialapplicationshasbecome
popularrecently.UVlighthasbeensuccessfullyusedinhealthcarefacilities,foodprocessing
plants,schools,andlaboratories.Itcanbreakorganicmolecularbonds,whichtranslatesinto
cellularorgeneticdamagesformicroorganisms.SingleormultipleUVlampsareusuallyinstalledin
thereturnductordownstreamofindoorcoilsinthesupplyduct.Directexposureofoccupantsto
UVlightisavoidedbecauseUVlightdoesnotpassthroughmetal,glass,orplastic.Thisair
purificationmethodeffectivelyreducesthetransmissionofairbornegerms,bacteria,molds,viruses,
andfungiintheairstreamswithoutincreasingductpressurelosses.Thepowerrequiredbyeach
UVlampmightrangebetween30and100W,dependingontheintensityandexposuretime
requiredtokillthevariousmicroorganisms.Chapter17ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVAC
SystemsandEquipment andChapter60ofthisvolumecoverthedesignandapplicationofUV
lampsystemsinmoredetail.
Controls
Historically,residentialheatingandcoolingequipmenthasbeencontrolledbyawallthermostat.
Today,simplewallthermostatswithbimetallicstripsareoftenreplacedbyprogrammable
microelectronicmodelsthatcansetheatingandcoolingequipmentatdifferenttemperaturelevels,
dependingonthetimeofdayorweek.Thishasledtonightsetback,workday,andvacation
controltoreduceenergydemandandoperatingcosts.Forheatpumpequipment,electronic
thermostatscanincorporatenightsetbackwithanappropriateschemetolimituseofresistance
heatduringrecovery.Severalmanufacturersofferthermostatsthatmeasureanddisplayrelative
humidityandactivelychangetheevaporatorblowerspeedtoimprovelatentcoolingduringtimes
ofhighhumidity.Chapter47containsmoredetailsaboutautomaticcontrolsystems.
Ausefulguidelineistoinstallthermostatsonaninteriorwallinafrequentlyoccupiedarea,about
5ftfromthefloorandawayfromexteriorwallsandregisters.
CommunicatingsystemsarearelativelyrecentadditiontoresidentialHVAC,afterhavingshown
theirusefulnessincommercialHVAC.Theadventofelectronicstocontroltheevaporatorcoiland
thecondensingunitmadecommunicationspossible.Communicatingsystemsareeasiertoinstall
thannoncommunicatingsystemsandoffermoreoptionsfortheHVACengineer.
Intraditional(noncommunicating)systems,thethermostatusesrelaylogic,ordiscrete / on off
voltagesignals,tocontroltheoperationoftheHVACsystem.Thisresultsinhavingtorunmany
wiresfromthethermostattotheindoorunitandoutdoorunit.Someresidentialsystemsrequire12
wirestobeconnectedandthereforehavehighriskofbeingmiswiredduringinstallation.Figure4
showstypicalfieldwiringofaresidentialheatpump.
Acommunicatingsystemreplacesthemanywireswithserialcommunicationsovertwo,three,or
fourwiresonly,asdepictedinFigure5.InacommunicatingHVACsystem,theindoorunit,outdoor
unit,andthermostatactasnodesonanetworkthatsendandreceivemessagestoandfromeach
otheracrossalimitednumberofwires.Eachnode(device)hasitsownuniqueelectronicaddress.
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Messagesarepackagedintoacommonformatcalledacommunicationsprotocolandtransported
totheirdestinationsonthenetwork.Inretrofits,thesesystemsoffertheeaseofplugandplay
installationusingexistingwiring.Ahomeownercanreplaceanexistingsinglestagefurnaceandair
conditionerwithtwostageorvariablestageequipmentandnotneedtorunadditionalwires.In
theory,communicationsbetweennodescouldalsobewirelessiftheywereequippedwithradio
transceivers.
FortheHVACdesigner,communicatingHVACsystemsallowanadvancedlevelofsystem
diagnostics.Becausenodescommunicateinmessages,notsignals,unlimitedamountsof
informationcouldbetransferredacrossthefewwiresofacommunicatingsystem.Messagescould
conveycommandsorjustcarryinformation.Thisisincontrasttohavingtoaddanewwirefor
eachadditionalsignal,asisthecaseofnoncommunicatingsystems.Forexample,ina
communicatingsystem,theoutdoorunitcouldannouncethatithasavariablespeedcompressor
andthethermostatcouldcommandthecompressortoturnonandtoramptoacertainspeed.
Thethermostatcouldasktheoutdoorunitforthemeasuredambienttemperaturetodisplayiton
itsscreen,ortheoutdoorunitcouldsendamessagetothethermostattoalertthehomeowner
thatapressureswitchisopen.
ForanHVACsystemtobecommunicating,eachdevice(node)musthaveanelectroniccircuit
boardwithamicroprocessor.TheboardgetsdatafromsensorsandotherHVACcomponentsthat
areconnectedtoit(e.g.,compressorcontactor,pressureswitches,reversingvalve,blowerfan,
indoorelectricheater).Themicroprocessorpackagesthedatacollectedfromthosecomponents
intomessagesandsendsthemtoothernodesonthenetwork.Themicroprocessorofeachnode
alsoreceivesmessagesfromothernodesintendedforthatnode.Althoughmanynewresidential
HVACsystemshavesomeelectronicsinthem,tobeconsideredcommunicating,themicroprocessor
mustbeabletohandletheadditionalburdenofimplementingthecommunicationsprotocolaswell
ashandlingthetrafficofmessagesonthenetwork.
NetworkingthecomponentsofaresidentialHVACsystemtoformacommunicatingsystem
providesaframeworkforsharinginformationwithinthenetworkaswellaswithexternaldevices.
DatatransfertoanyothermediumsuchasTCP/IP,ModBus,BacNet,Bluetooth,wifi,Z
Wave,orZigBee ispossibleusingagatewaywithanembeddedlocalserver.Thisgatewaycan
eitherbeastandalonedeviceorintegratedintoanyofthecommunicatingnodes.Thisenablesthe
HVACsystemtoberemotelyaccessiblethroughinterconnecteddevicessuchassmartphones,
laptops,mobiledevices,theelectricutilitycompanyssmartmeter,orcloudservices.Thisremote
accessibility,togetherwiththewealthofsysteminformationavailableinacommunicatingsystem,
allowinnovationsinthewayHVACsystemsaremaintainedandmanaged.Forexample,a
homeownercouldmonitorthesensedtemperatureatthethermostat,check/setthethermostatset
pointtemperature,changethermostatschedules,andreceivemaintenancenotificationsusinga
smartphone.Electricutilitiescansupplyasignaltoreduceelectricaldemand,andthe
communicatingcontrolsystemcanacknowledgeandactonthissignal.

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201761 CHAPTER1.RESIDENCES

Figure4.TypicalFieldWiringDiagramofHeatPump

4.MULTIFAMILYRESIDENCES
Attachedhomesandlowrisemultifamilyapartmentsgenerallyuseheatingandcoolingequipment
comparabletothatusedinsinglefamilydwellings.Separatesystemsforeachunitallowindividual
controltosuittheoccupantandfacilitateindividualmeteringofenergyuseseparatemeteringand
directbillingofoccupantsencouragesenergyconservation.

Figure5.CommunicatingHVACSystemsSimplifyWiring

ForcedAirSystems
Highrisemultifamilystructuresmayalsouseunitaryorminisplitheatingandcoolingequipment
comparabletothatusedinsinglefamilydwellings.Equipmentmaybeinstalledinaseparate
mechanicalequipmentroomintheapartment,inasoffitoraboveadroppedceilingoverahallway

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orcloset,orwallmounted.Splitsystemscondensingorheatpumpunitsareoftenplacedonroofs,
balconies,ortheground.
Smallresidentialwarmairfurnacesmayalsobeused,butameansofprovidingcombustionair
andventingcombustionproductsfromgasoroilfiredfurnacesisrequired.Itmaybenecessaryto
useamultipleventchimneyoramanifoldtypeventsystem.Localcodesmustbeconsulted.
Directventfurnacesthatareplacednearoronanouterwallarealsoavailableforapartments.
HydronicSystems
Individualheatingandcoolingunitsarenotalwayspossibleorpracticalinhighrisestructures.In
thiscase,appliedcentralsystemsareused.Twoorfourpipehydroniccentralsystemsarewidely
usedinhighriseapartments.Eachdwellingunithaseitherindividualroomunitsorductedfancoil
units.
Themostflexiblehydronicsystemwithusuallythelowestoperatingcostsisthefourpipetype,
whichprovidesheatingorcoolingforeachapartmentdweller.Thetwopipesystemislessflexible
becauseitcannotprovideheatingandcoolingsimultaneously.Thislimitationcausesproblems
duringthespringandfallwhensomeapartmentsinacomplexrequireheatingwhileothersrequire
coolingbecauseofsolarorinternalloads.Thisspring/fallproblemmaybeovercomebyoperating
thetwopipesysteminacoolingmodeandprovidingtherelativelylowamountofheatingthat
mayberequiredbymeansofindividualelectricresistanceheaters.
SeethesectiononHydronicHeatingSystemsfordescriptionofacombinedwaterheating/space
heatingsystemformultiorsinglefamilydwellings.Chapter13ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbook
HVACSystemsandEquipment discusseshydronicdesigninmoredetail.
ThroughtheWallUnits
Throughthewallroomairconditioners,packagedterminalairconditioners(PTACs),andpackaged
terminalheatpumps(PTHPs)canbeusedforconditioningsinglerooms.Eachroomwithanouter
wallmayhavesuchaunit.Theseunitsareusedextensivelyinrenovatingoldbuildingsbecause
theyareselfcontainedandtypicallydonotrequirecomplexpipingorductworkrenovation.
Roomairconditionershaveintegralcontrolsandmayincluderesistanceorheatpumpheating.
PTACsandPTHPshavespecialindoorandoutdoorappearancetreatments,makingthemadaptable
toawiderrangeofarchitecturalneeds.PTACscanincludegas,electricresistance,hotwater,or
steamheat.IntegralorremotewallmountedcontrolsareusedforbothPTACsandPTHPs.Further
informationmaybefoundinChapter50ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsand
Equipment andinAHRI Standard
310/380.
WaterLoopHeatPumps
Anymidorhighrisestructurehavinginteriorzoneswithhighinternalheatgainsthatrequire
yearroundcoolingcanefficientlyuseawaterloopheatpump.Suchsystemshavetheflexibility
andcontrolofafourpipesystembutuseonlytwopipes.Watersourceheatpumpsallow
individualmeteringofeachapartment.Thebuildingownerpaysonlytheutilitycostforthe
circulatingpump,coolingtower,andsupplementalboilerheat.Existingbuildingscanberetrofitted
withheatflowmetersandtimersonfanmotorsforindividualmetering.Economicspermitting,
solarorgroundheatenergycanprovidethesupplementaryheatinlieuofaboiler.Thegroundcan
alsoprovideaheatsink,whichinsomecasescaneliminatethecoolingtower.Inareaswherethe
watertableiscontinuouslyhighandthesoilisporous,groundwaterfromwellscanbeused.
SpecialConcernsforApartmentBuildings
Manyventilationsystemsareusedinapartmentbuildings.Localbuildingcodesgenerallygovern
outdoorairquantities.ASHRAE Standard
62.22010listsrequiredminimumoutdoorairquantities
forlowrisebuildings.

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Insomebuildingswithcentrallycontrolledexhaustandsupplysystems,thesystemsareoperated
ontimeclocksforcertainperiodsoftheday.Inothercases,theoutdoorairisreducedorshutoff
duringextremelycoldperiods.Ifknown,thesefactorsshouldbeconsideredwhenestimating
heatingload.
Anotherimportantload,frequentlyoverlooked,isheatgainfrompipingforhotwaterservices.
Buildingsusingexhaustandsupplyairsystems24h/daymaybenefitfromairtoairheatrecovery
devices(seeChapter26ofthe2016 ASHRAEHandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment
).Such
recoverydevicescanreduceenergyconsumptionbytransferring40to80%ofthesensibleand
latentheatbetweentheexhaustairandsupplyairstreams.
Infiltrationloadsinhighrisebuildingswithoutventilationopeningsforperimeterunitsarenot
controllableyearroundbygeneralbuildingpressurization.Whenouterwallsarepenetratedto
supplyoutdoorairtounitaryorfancoilequipment,combinedwindandthermalstackeffects
createotherinfiltrationproblems.
Interiorpubliccorridorsinapartmentbuildingsneedconditioningandsmokemanagementto
meettheirventilationandthermalneeds,andtomeettherequirementsoffireandlifesafety
codes.Stairtowers,however,arenormallykeptseparatefromhallwaystomaintainfiresafeegress
routesand,ifneeded,toserveassafehavensuntilrescue.Therefore,greatcareisneededwhen
designingbuildingswithinteriorhallwaysandstairtowers.Chapter53providesfurtherinformation.
Airconditioningequipmentmustbeisolatedtoreducenoisegenerationortransmission.The
designandlocationofcoolingtowersmustbechosentoavoiddisturbingoccupantswithinthe
buildingandneighborsinadjacentbuildings.Also,forcoolingtowers,preventionof isa Legionella
seriousconcern.FurtherinformationoncoolingtowersisinChapter40ofthe2016 ASHRAE
HandbookHVACSystemsandEquipment .
Inlargeapartmenthouses,acentralbuildingenergymanagementsystemmayallowindividual
apartmentairconditioningsystemsorunitstobemonitoredformaintenanceandoperating
purposes.

5.MANUFACTUREDHOMES
Manufacturedhomesareconstructedinfactoriesratherthansitebuilt.Fortheperiod20052010,
theyconstitutedabout6%ofallnewsinglefamilyhomessoldintheUnitedStates,downfrom
about10%forthe20002004period(DOE2012).Heatingandcoolingsystemsinmanufactured
homes,aswellasotherfacetsofconstructionsuchasinsulationlevels,areregulatedintheUnited
StatesbyHUDManufacturedHomeConstructionandSafetyStandards.Eachcompletehomeor
homesectionisassembledonatransportationframe(achassiswithwheelsandaxles)for
transport.Manufacturedhomesvaryinsizefromsmall,singlefloorsectionunitsstartingat400ft2
tolarge,multiplesections,whichwhenjoinedtogethercanprovideover2500ft2 andhavean
appearancesimilartositeconstructedhomes.
Heatingsystemsarefactoryinstalledandareprimarilyforcedairdownflowunitsfeedingmain
supplyductsbuiltintothesubfloor,withfloorregisterslocatedthroughoutthehome.Asmall
percentageofhomesinthefarsouthernandsouthwesternUnitedStatesuseupflowunitsfeeding
overheadductsintheatticspace.Typically,thereisnoreturnductsystem.Airreturnstotheair
handlerfromeachroomthroughdoorundercuts,hallways,andagrilleddoororlouveredpanel.
Thecompleteheatingsystemisareducedclearancetypewiththeairhandlingunitinstalledina
smallclosetoralcove,usuallyinahallway.Soundcontrolmeasuresmayberequirediflarge
forcedairsystemsareinstalledclosetosleepingareas.Gas,oil,andelectricfurnacesorheat
pumpsmaybeinstalledbythehomemanufacturertosatisfymarketrequirements.
Gasandoilfurnacesarecompactdirectventtypesapprovedforinstallationinamanufactured
home.Thespecialventingarrangementusedisaverticalthroughtheroofconcentricpipeinpipe
systemthatdrawsallairforcombustiondirectlyfromtheoutdoorsanddischargescombustion

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productsthroughawindproofventterminal.Gasfurnacesmustbeeasilyconvertiblefromliquefied
petroleumgas(LPG)tonaturalgasandbackasrequiredatthefinalsite.
Manufacturedhomesmaybecooledwithaddonsplitorsinglepackageairconditioningsystems
whensupplyductsareadequatelysizedandratedforthatpurposeaccordingtoHUD
requirements.Thesplitsystemevaporatorcoilmaybeinstalledintheintegralcoilcavityprovided
withthefurnace.Ahighstaticpressureblowerisusedtoovercomeresistancethroughthefurnace,
evaporatorcoil,andcompactairdistributionsystem.Singlepackageairconditionersareconnected
withflexibleairductstofeedexistingfactoryinfloororoverheadducts.Dampersorothermeans
arerequiredtopreventthecooled,conditionedairfrombackflowingthroughafurnacecabinet.
Atypicalinstallationofadownflowgasoroilfurnacewithasplitsystemairconditioneris
illustratedinFigure6.Airentersthefurnacefromthehallway,passingthroughalouvereddooron
thefrontofthefurnace.Theairthenpassesthroughairfiltersandisdrawnintothetopmounted
blower,whichduringwinterforcesairdownovertheheatexchanger,whereitpicksupheat.For
summercooling,theblowerforcesairthroughthefurnaceheatexchangerandthenthroughthe
splitsystemevaporatorcoil,whichremovesheatandmoisturefromthepassingair.Duringheating
andcooling,conditionedairthenpassesthroughacombustiblefloorbaseviaaductconnector
beforeflowingintothefloorairdistributionduct.Theevaporatorcoilisconnectedwithquick
connectrefrigerantlinestoaremoteaircooledcondensingunit.Thecondensatecollectedatthe
evaporatorisdrainedbyaflexiblehose,routedtotheexteriorthroughthefloorconstruction,and
connectedtoasuitabledrain.

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Figure6.TypicalInstallationofHeatingandCoolingEquipmentforManufactured
Home

REFERENCES
ACCA.2009.Residentialductsystems,3rded.ANSI/ACCA1 Manual D.AirConditioning
ContractorsofAmerica,Arlington,VA.
ACCA.2011.Residentialloadcalculation,v.2.10.ANSI/ACCA Manual J.AirConditioning
ContractorsofAmerica,Arlington,VA.
ACCA.2004.Residentialequipmentselection.ANSI/ACCA3 Manual S.AirConditioning
ContractorsofAmerica,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2008.Selection,installationandservicingofresidentialhumidifiers. Guideline F2008.Air
Conditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2008.Soundratingofoutdoorunitaryequipment. Standard 2702008.AirConditioning,
Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2010.Applicationofsoundratinglevelsofoutdoorunitaryequipment. Standard 2752010.
AirConditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.

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201761 CHAPTER1.RESIDENCES

AHRI.2004.Packagedterminalairconditionersandheatpumps. 310/3802004.Air Standard


Conditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2014.Centralsystemhumidifiersforresidentialapplications. 6102014.Air Standard
Conditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2009.Performanceratingresidentialairfilterequipment. 6802007.Air Standard
Conditioning,Heating,andRefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.
ASHRAE.2012.Methodoftestinggeneralventilationaircleaningdevicesforremovalefficiencyby
particlesize.ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
52.22012.
ASHRAE.2013.Thermalenvironmentalconditionsforhumanoccupancy.ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
552013.
ASHRAE.2013.Ventilationforacceptableindoorairquality.ANSI/ASHRAE 62.12013. Standard
ASHRAE.2013.Ventilationandacceptableindoorairqualityinlowriseresidentialbuildings.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
62.22013.
ASHRAE.2007.Energyefficientdesignoflowriseresidentialbuildings.ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
90.22007.
CanetaResearch.1995. Commercial/institutionalgroundsourceheatpumpengineeringmanual
.
ASHRAE.
DOE.2011.2010 Buildingsenergydatabook
.U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,OfficeofEnergy
EfficiencyandRenewableEnergy,BuildingTechnologiesProgramWashington,D.C.Available
fromhttp://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/.
EIA.2013. 2009residentialenergyconsumptionsurvey(RECS)
,FinalRelease:April2013.U.S.
EnergyInformationAdministration,Washington,D.C.Availableat
http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/index.cfm.
Kavanaugh,S.P.,andK.Rafferty.2014. Geothermalheatingandcooling:Designofgroundsource
heatpumpsystems .ASHRAE.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ACCA.2006.Residentialloadcalculation,8thed.,v.2.ANSI/ACCA2 F.AirConditioning Manual
ContractorsofAmerica,Arlington,VA.
AHRI.2008.Performanceratingofunitaryairconditioningandairsourceheatpumpequipment.
ANSI/AHRI Standard
210/2402008withAddenda1and2.AirConditioning,Heating,and
RefrigerationInstitute,Arlington,VA.

ThepreparationofthischapterisassignedtoTC8.11,UnitaryandRoomAirConditionersand
HeatPumps.

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