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Problems in Heat Exchangers

1) Cold water enters a 1-shell and 2-tube pass heat exchanger through the tubes at the rate of 4kg/s
and a temperature of 38 C .The outlet temperature of water is 55 C .Tube diameter is 2cm.The
water is heated by hot water entering the heat exchanger on the shell side at 95 C at the rate of
2kg/s. The velocity through the tube=0.35m/s. Calculate i) exit temperature of hot fluid ii) LMTD iii)
total area required iv) the number of tubes and v) length of tube for one pass. Take U=1500W/m2K
and Cp=4186J/kg.K.

Heat transfer q mcC p ,c (tc ,o tc ,i ) 4 4186 (55 38) 284.65kW


q mcC p ,c (tc ,o tc ,i ) mhC p ,h (th ,i th ,o )
mhC p ,h (th ,i th ,o ) 284.65 , (th ,i th ,o ) 284.65 /(mhC p ,h )
Exit temperature of hot water= th ,o th ,i 284.65 /(mhC p ,h ) =61 C
t1 t2
LMTD= t m ,
t
ln 1
t2

t1 th ,i tc ,o 95 55 40C
t2 th ,o tc ,i 61 38 23C
t1 t2 40 23
t m ,cf 30.72C
t 40
ln 1 ln
t2 23

Using average velocity of water in the tubes and the flow rate, total flow area is given by
.
m AU
.
m 4
A 0.011429m2
U 1000 (.035)

This can also be put as the product of number of tubes and the flow area per tube
d2 0.022
0.011429 n n
4 4
0.011429 4
n 36.38or 37tubes
(0.02)2

If L =length of each tube, A n dL

2) Steam at is condensed in a single pass (1tube, 1shell) steam condenser consisting of 100 tubes of
2mm diameter and 2m length. Cooling water enters tubes at 10 C and leaves at 50 C . The flow
velocity through the tube is 2m/s. The condensing heat transfer coefficient, ho 5kW / m 2 K
.Calculate i) overall heat transfer coefficient, U ii) LMTD iii) heat transfer q ,and iv) condensation
rate. For heat transfer in the tubes: Nu 0.023Re0.8 Pr 0.4 .
The physical properties of water are.
995.7kg / m3 , 8 104 kg / m.s, Pr 5.41, k 0.627W / m.k. , hfg 2305kJ / kg.k

Nu 0.023Re0.8 Pr 0.4

Vd 2 0.25 995.7
Re 62231
8 104

Vd 2 0.25 995.7
Re
8 104
995.7kg / m3 , 8 104 kg / m.s, Pr 5.41, k 0.627W / m.k.
Nu 0.023 622310.8 5.410.4 309.18
hi d 0.617
Nu 309.18 hi 309.18 7630W / m 2 .
k 0.025

1 1
U 3020W / m 2 .K
1 1 1 1

hi ho 7630 5000

Heat transfer, q U A LMTD

A ( dl ) n ( 0.025 2) 100 15.707m2

t1 t2
LMTD= t m
t
ln 1
t2

t1 th ,i tc ,o 100 10 90C
t2 th ,o tc ,i 100 50 50C
t1 t2 90 50
t m ,cf 68C
t1 90
ln ln
t2 50

q U A LMTD 3020 15.707 68 3225589W 3225.6kW

Condensate rate= q / h fg =3225.6/2305=1.399kg/s

3) A condenser contains 1-shell pass and 4 tube passes with tubes 3m long, 25mm inner diameter,
each pass containing 100 tubes. Cooling water enters the tubes at 20 C at a rate of 80kg/s and the
vapour enters at 50 C .The tube is thin walled and the thermal resistance of tube wall may be
neglected. Calculate i) overall heat transfer coefficient (U) ii) NTU iii) the effectiveness of the heat
exchanger and iii) the condensation rate. For heat transfer in the tubes: Nu 0.023Re0.8 Pr 0.4 .
Properties of water: 1000kg / m3 , C p 4.19kJ / k.K , k 0.6W / m.K , 0.9 103 kg / m.s .
Heat of vaporisation hfg 300kJ / kg.k .
Mass flow of water per tube=80/100=0.8kg/s

.

m d
( / 4)d 2 .
Vd 4 m 4 0.8
Re 45270
d 0.025 0.9 103

Cp 4190 0.9 103


Pr 6.285
k 0.6

Substituting in Nu 0.023Re0.8 Pr 0.4

Nu 0.023 452700.86.2850.4 254.5


hi d 254.5 k 254.5 0.6
254.5 hi 6108W / m2 .k
k d 0.025

1 1
U 6108W / m 2 .K
1 1 1

hi ho 6108

Cmin mc C p ,c 80 4190 335200W / K


UA 608 A
NTU
Cmin 3352
A n dL 100 0.025 3 4 94.25m 2
6108 94.25
NTU 1.717
335200

Effectiveness 1 e NTU 1 e1.717 0.82

Heat transfer, q qmax Cmin (th,i tc ,i ) 0.82 335200 (50 20) 8245920W

Condensate rate= q / h fg =8245920/(300x1000)=27.486kg/s

4) a) In a counter flow heat exchanger,0.8kg/s of air is cooled from 45 C to 15 C .Cooling water


enters at 0.5kg/s flow rate at a temperature of 8 C .U= 35 W / m 2 K .Calculate i) effectiveness ii)
NTU and iii) area required using effectiveness-NTU approach. b) If the water flow rate is reduced by
50% and the same air flow rate is maintained, calculate the new area required using effectiveness-
NTU approach. Use formula for effectiveness. Take C p ,air 1005 J / kg.k , C p , water 4186 J / kg.k .

a) mc C p ,c 0.5 4186 2093W / K

mh C p ,h 0.8 1005 804W / K


Cmin 804W / K , C Cmin / Cmax 804 / 2093 0.384
q mh C p ,h (th ,i th ,o ) 0.8 1005 (45 15)
Effectiveness, 0.81
qmax Cmin (th ,i tc ,i ) 804 (45 8)

1 e
NTU (1C )
For counter flow heat exchanger, effectiveness is also given by
1 Ce
NTU (1C )

q mh C p ,h (th ,i th ,o ) 0.8 1005 (45 15)


0.81
qmax Cmin (th ,i tc ,i ) 804 (45 8)
1 e
NTU (1 0.384)
0.81
1 0.384e
NTU (1 0.384)

1
e
NTU (1C )

C 1
0.8 1 0.19
e
NTU (1 0.384)
;ln 0.616 NTU
0.384 0.81 1 0.689
Solving , NTU 2.09

UA NTU Cmin 1.92 804


NTU A 44.105m 2
Cmin U 35

b) When water flow is reduced to 0.25kg/s,

mc C p ,c 0.25 4186 1046W / K


mh C p ,h 0.8 1005 804W / K
Cmin 804W / K , C Cmin / Cmax 804 /1046 0.768
q mh C p ,h (th ,i th ,o ) 0.8 1005 (45 15)
0.81
qmax Cmin (th ,i tc ,i ) 804 (45 8)
1 e
NTU (1 0.768)
0.81
1 0.768e
NTU (1 0.768)

1
e
NTU (1C )

C 1
0.81 1 0.19
e
NTU (1 0.768)
;ln 0.232 NTU
0.768 0.81 1 0.378
Solving , NTU 2.96

UA NTU Cmin 2.96 804


NTU A 67.99m 2
Cmin U 35