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feature metering and dosing

Dosing pumps in practical

Metering technology is applied in the production process of many applications from
chemicals and goods to treatment plants and swimming pools. Lucjan Gogolin, manager
technical department Lutz-Jesco GmbH, introduces the dosing pump in its variations as
the heart of an installation and offers advice on the use of necessary and helpful

etering technology is The Magdos is a diaphragm dosing PVC, PP, PVDF, and stainless steels,
applied in the production pump with a solenoid drive. The i.e. 1.4571 (316SS). Check valves of
process of chemicals and solenoid is controlled by electronics different designs for suction and
goods as well as the economic and and drives with its linear movement a discharge side make the pump more
environmentally friendly application dosing diaphragm. Depending on the efficient: double ball check valves
of those in the manufacturing version, the pump can be controlled for water-like media and spring-
industry. Water and waste water externally or internally. External loaded ball valves for viscosities
treatment plants as well as swimming control inputs may be pulses coming from 400 mPas (400 cps) on.
pools are further users of metering from a water meter or an analog Different kinds and sizes of
technology. With the advancement signal. Operation with internal connections are available for
of metering technology aiming for an control is another option, where the specific purposes.
improvement in quality and economy stroke frequency can be adjusted
of processes, the demand for incrementally or linearly. The Dosing pumps of the Minidos and
specifically designed metering capacity per stroke is set with the Memdos series are motor driven
devices and accessories increases. stroke length adjustment, thus a turn diaphragm dosing pumps. A single or
down ratio of 1:1000 can be three phase electric motor drives a
achieved. single step worm gear. The gear
Design criteria
translates the motor's rotating
A very common design of a dosing The Magdos is able to evaluate the movement via an eccentric into a
pump is the diaphragm dosing pump level of chemical in the supply tank reciprocating movement of a
(Figure 2). Primary advantages are with remote indication by means of plunger that moves the dosing
freedom from leakage, resistance to an alarm relay. Depending on the diaphragm with a linear movement.
abrasive chemicals and dry run required service, the wetted end can The linear capacity adjustment at
capabilities. be provided in different materials: these pumps is achieved with a
reduced plunger travel.
Furthermore, the motor speed can be
adjusted by means of a variable
frequency drive.

More options
Another option is the electronic
remote control of the stroke length.
Here, it can be selected between
either a three-point-step control or a
control that receives an analog
signal. A unique option of control is
offered by the Memdos DX. It is
equipped with a complete electronic
Figure 1.Motor-driven diaphragm dosing pump MEMDOS DX,
solenoid-driven diaphragm dosing pump MAGDOS LT, piston dosing
control for the motor. Input control
pumps REKOS ZKR, piston dosing pump FEDOS DX (from the left to signals can be contact pulses, i.e.
the right). Figure 2. Diaphragm dosing head. from a water meter, or analog signals

26 0262 1762/05 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved WORLD PUMPS January 2005
feature metering and dosing

task (Figure 5). With the KMS, the

gear of a Rekos or Kardos is used as the
drive for the stroke generation. Here,
the plunger displaces a harmless
hydraulic medium, i.e. glycerin. The
chemical to be dosed is separated from
the glycerin by a diaphragm.
Depending on the stroke volume of
the plunger a certain amount of
glycerin is displaced. The dosing
diaphragm is displaced by exactly this
amount of glycerin. Internal valves
secure the pump from an overload

Diaphragm dosing pumps and piston

dosing pumps can be equipped with
Figure 3. Double-diaphragm dosing head. Figure 4. Piston dosing head. multiple dosing heads. Their app-
lication may have several reasons:
from a controller or PLC. This pump step worm gear reduces the motor
control is also able to receive inputs speed and generates the stroke The capacity shall be increased.
from up to two level indicators. Via a movement. The piston dosing pump The maximum capacity shall be
dry contact the pump can output Fedos DX features an integrated spread over several heads in
messages regarding the level of electronic control unit for its motor. order to meet high pressure
chemical in the supply tank as well Incoming control signals in the form requirements.
as other operating conditions. of pulses or an analog signal are The discharge pulsation is reduced.
proportionally converted into motor This is accomplished by the strokes
All larger diaphragm dosing pump operation time and pump capacity. of the different heads being set out
models can be equipped with a of phase.
double diaphragm system (Figure 3). If various media shall be dosed in
An additional dosing diaphragm is Control features parallel, the dosing heads are
placed in a chamber between the combined in a way that they work
pump drive and the dosing head. The This pump control is also able to in phase.
space between both diaphragms will receive inputs from up to two level Chemicals shall be mixed in a
be filled airfree with a neutral indicators. Via a potential free certain ratio. Dosing heads of
separation liquid. When the working contact the pump can output different sizes can be applied,
diaphragm is in motion, the dosing messages regarding the level of their capacities fine tuned via
diaphragm will follow, due to its chemical in the supply tank as well as each individual stroke length
hydraulic link via the separation other operating conditions. The adjustment.
liquid. If the dosing diaphragm fails, linear stroke length and capacity
due to wear and tear, no process adjustment at the Fedos and Rekos
liquid leaves the system. The dosing pumps is achieved with a
chemical mixes with the separation plunger return limitation. The stroke
liquid that changes its conductivity. length adjustment at the Kardos
This change of conductivity is series is realizied via the change of
detected by a leakage sensor that eccentricity of the crank shaft. The
sends an alarm to a remote control same here, stroke length and capacity
station. at these pumps can be adjusted via
electronic remote control (not Fedos
Piston dosing pumps of the Fedos and DX), thus the dosing pumps can be
Rekos as well as Kardos series are used as active elements in a closed
preferred, when pumping against loop control circuit.
high pressures and with high
accuracy. The high accuracy of piston If abrasive or aggressive media have to
dosing pumps originates from a linear be metered against high pressures, the
correlation between stroke length advantages of diaphragm and piston
and capacity (Figure 4). Pumps of dosing pumps can be combined. The
these series are driven by single or piston diaphragm system KMS
three phase electric motors. A one ensures a high accuracy of this dosing Figure 5. Piston-diaphragm system.

WORLD PUMPS January 2005 27

feature metering and dosing

(Figure 6) One solution for this pressure in a chemical feed system is

condition is the application of a fluctuating (i.e. 2 ... 6 bar / 29 ... 87
pulsation dampener PDS. It is an psig) in a potable water line, it is of
effective means to smooth pressure advantage to install a pressure
spikes to a harmless level. The loading valve that will provide the
pulsation dampener stores a portion of diaphragm dosing pump with a
the discharged fluid during the pump's consistent back pressure that is
discharge stroke that will be released always higher than the highest
back into the pipe system during the expected pressure in the dosing
suction stroke. Depending on the system.
system design, pressure oscillations are
mostly reduced and the flow is leveled. Here the pressure loading valve
Installation of the PDS in line with the should be set at 7 bar (101.5 psig).
Figure 6. Inline Pulsation Dampener PDS pipe ensures constant flushing. The pressure loading valve works as
Optimum results are achieved if an anti-siphoning device and doesn't
installed close to the dosing pump. The allow the pump to discharge at any
Dampening of installation of the PDS is possible on pressure below 7 bar bar (101.5 psig).
pulsations both sides of the dosing pump, on the The pump must always generate a
suction as well as the discharge side. pressure of 7 bar (101.5 psig) in order
Due to the reciprocating character of Certain applications are possible, when to push the process fluid through the
diaphragm or piston dosing pumps, a PDS is applied. I.e. a PDS on the valve, even at low pump capacities.
generated pulsations are carried pump's suction side improves the fluid Even with fluctuating system pressure
through the chemical feed system by dynamics, thus cavitation is avoided. conditions the dosing pump always
the discharged process fluid. At its sees a consistant back pressure of 7
peak a single head oscillating working Another opportunity to apply a PDS is bar (101.5 psig) and will work
dosing pump transfers approximately when a flow meter is implemented. according to its design criteria. The
the threefold of its nominal capacity. Most flow meters can not be used on the following diagram illustrates these
That means a pump with a nominal discharge side of a dosing pump without conditions: (Figure 7)
capacity of 100 l/h (26.4 gph) additional modification, because the
discharges at a certain moment the float would move up and down too fast. Required capacity: 100 l/h (26.4
maximum of 314 l/h (83 gph). When a pulsation dampener is installed gph)
in short lines or pressureless System pressure fluctuates between
Pressure spikes are increased when applications, an additional device 2 and 6 bar (29 to 87 psig).
long suction and discharge lines or (orifice or needle valve) has to be
small pipe diameters are installed. incorporated in order to optimize the The capacity will be adjusted via
Improperly designed pipe systems may PDS' operation. If the flow has to be stroke length a to 100 l/h (26.4 gph)
contribute to disturbed operation and measured in high pressure applications, at 6 bar (87 psig). If there wasn't a
even to damaged dosing pumps or the flow meter should be installed on pressure loading valve installed and
entire chemical feed systems. Such the dosing pump's suction side with the the system pressure dropped down to
problems can be avoided by a well PDS behind the flow meter. 2 bar (29 psig), the dosing pump
designed system. would discharge 110 l/h (29 gph),
which is too much. With the
Operating installation of a pressure loading
conditions valve that is pre-set to a pressure of 7
bar (101.5 psig) the pump's stroke
Diaphragm valves are the preferred length has to be adjusted to b so that
option as pressure loading valves. it discharges 100 l/h (26.4 gph).
They are tightly sealed (to the
outside) and offer safe operation, due If the stroke length setting remained
to their sturdy. Pressure loading at a, it would dose only 90 l/h (23.8
valves are applied mainly for four gph). With the pressure loading valve
reasons: adjusted to a certain resistance the
diaphragm dosing pump will
1. Generation of an discharge 100 l/h (26.4 gph) against 7
bar (101.5 psig). However it must be
artificial pressure load for
remembered that the pump does not
dosing pumps realize that the system pressure
The capacity of a diaphragm dosing fluctuates down stream of the
Figure 7. Output diagram of a diaphragm dosing pump. pump is pressure dependant. If the pressure loading valve.

28 WORLD PUMPS January 2005

feature metering and dosing

Figure 8. Flow diagram of "constant

pressure metering" 5 Pulsation dampener
1 Pressure sustaining and relief valve 6 Motor-diaphragm dosing pump
2 Pressure gauge 7 Strainer
3 To the injection points 8 Shut off valve
4 Shut off valves 9 Tank

2. Avoiding siphoning 4. Pressure consistancy in

Some chemical feed systems are
circulation lines
designed in a way that allows the In the process technology circulation
potential of unregulated flow of lines are used to provide one media
chemical through the dosing pump. to several end users with the same
This so called "siphoning effect" may pressure (Figure 8). A pressure
occur when the dosing pump feeds to loading valve placed at the end of
atmospheric pressure (i.e. into a tank the circulation line keeps the media
or a reservoir), while the supply tank at the same pressure within the
is above the injection point. A circulation line.
pressure loading valve installed at
the end of the discharge line and set The pump has to be sized to
at a pressure that is slightly higher accommodate enough output to
than the hydrostatic pressure satisfy the demand of a fully opened
between the completely filled supply system. If not all end users require
tank and the injection point medium, parts of it will be released
eliminates the siphoning. through the valve back to the
chemical tank. This system layout is
also helpful when solutions with
3. Dosing into vacuum suspended solids have to be in
lines constant movement in order to
A dosing pump that is supposed to avoid settling.
feed the chemical into a vacuum line
or into the suction line of a
centrifugal pump faces the danger of Lucjan Gogolin,
feeding more chemical than required. Manager technical department
Lutz-Jesco GmbH,
Here too, a pressure loading valve
Am Bostelberge 19,
that can not be opened by the 30900 Wedemark,
vacuum can be helpful. Process liquid Germany
Tel: ++49 5130 58020,
will be dosed, only when the valve
Fax: ++49 5130 580268
opens, due to the pressure generated Email:
by the dosing pump. Internet:

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