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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_417.

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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for common Materials
Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity - for steel, glass, wood and other common materials
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Tensile Modulus - Young's Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity - is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material. It is used to describe the elastic properties of
objects like wires, rods or columns when they are stretched or compressed.

Tensile Modulus is defined as the

"ratio of stress (force per unit area) along an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over initial length) along that axis"

It can be used to predict the elongation or compression of an object as long as the stress is less than the yield strength of the material.

Tensile Modulus
Ultimate Tensile
(Young's Modulus, Modulus of Yield Strength
Strength
Material Elasticity) - Sy -
- Su -
-E- (106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 psi) (109 N/m2, GPa)
ABS plastics 1.4 - 3.1 40
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe
331 207
- Grade A
A53 Seamless and Welded Standard Steel Pipe
414 241
- Grade B
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade A 400 248
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade B 483 345
A106 Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe - Grade C 483 276
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 1 345 207
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 2 414 241
A252 Piling Steel Pipe - Grade 3 455 310
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural
400 248
Tubing - Grade A
A501 Hot Formed Carbon Steel Structural
483 345
Tubing - Grade B
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping - Grade A 331 207
A523 Cable Circuit Steel Piping - Grade B 414 241
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy
483 345
Structural Tubing - Grade Ia & Ib
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy
414 345
Structural Tubing - Grade II
A618 Hot-Formed High-Strength Low-Alloy
448 345
Structural Tubing - Grade III
API 5L Line Pipe 310 - 1145 175 - 1048
Acetals 2.8 65
Acrylic 3.2 70
Aluminum Bronze 120
Aluminum 10.0 69 110 95
Aluminum Alloys 10.2
Antimony 11.3
Aramid 70 - 112
Beryllium (Be) 42 287
Beryllium Copper 18.0
Bismuth 4.6
170
Bone, compact 18
(compression)
Bone, spongy 76
Boron 3100
Brass 102 - 125 250
Brass, Naval 100
Bronze 96 - 120

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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_417.html

Tensile Modulus
Ultimate Tensile
(Young's Modulus, Modulus of Yield Strength
Strength
Material Elasticity) - Sy -
- Su -
-E- (106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 psi) (109 N/m2, GPa)
CAB 0.8
Cadmium 4.6
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic 150
Carbon nanotube, single-walled 1000+
Cast Iron 4.5% C, ASTM A-48 170
Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 80 - 240
Cellulose acetate, molded 12 - 58
Cellulose acetate, sheet 30 - 52
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 50
Chlorinated polyether 1.1 39
Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) 2.9
Chromium 36
Cobalt 30
Concrete 17
40
Concrete, High Strength (compression) 30
(compression)
Copper 17 117 220 70
Diamond (C) 1220
50
Douglas fir Wood 13
(compression)
Epoxy resins 3-2 26 - 85
Fiberboard, Medium Density 4
Flax fiber 58
50
Glass 50 - 90
(compression)
Glass reinforced polyester matrix 17
Gold 10.8 74
Granite 52
Graphene 1000
Grey Cast Iron 130
Hemp fiber 35
Inconel 31
Iridium 75
Iron 28.5 210
Lead 2.0
Magnesium metal (Mg) 6.4 45
Manganese 23
Marble 15
MDF - Medium-density fiberboard 4
Mercury
Molybdenum (Mo) 40 329
Monel Metal 26
Nickel 31 170
Nickel Silver 18.5
Nickel Steel 29
Niobium (Columbium) 15
Nylon-6 2-4 45 - 90 45
Nylon-66 60 - 80
Oak Wood (along grain) 11
Osmium (Os) 80 550
Phenolic cast resins 33 - 59
Phenol-formaldehyde molding compounds 45 - 52
Phosphor Bronze 116
Pine Wood (along grain) 9 40
Platinum 21.3
Plutonium 14 97
Polyacrylonitrile, fibers 200
Polybenzoxazole 3.5
Polycarbonates 2.6 52 - 62
Polyethylene HDPE (high density) 0.8 15
Polyethylene Terephthalate, PET 2 - 2.7 55
Polyamide 2.5 85

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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_417.html

Tensile Modulus
Ultimate Tensile
(Young's Modulus, Modulus of Yield Strength
Strength
Material Elasticity) - Sy -
- Su -
-E- (106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 N/m2, MPa)
(106 psi) (109 N/m2, GPa)
Polyisoprene, hard rubber 39
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 2.4 - 3.4
Polyimide aromatics 3.1 68
Polypropylene, PP 1.5 - 2 28 - 36
Polystyrene, PS 3 - 3.5 30 - 100
Polytehylene, LDPE (low density) 0.11 - 0.45
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.4
Polyurethane cast liquid 10 - 20
Polyurethane elastomer 29 - 55
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 2.4 - 4.1
Potassium
Rhodium 42
Rubber, small strain 0.01 - 0.1
Sapphire 435
Selenium 8.4
Silicon 16 130 - 185
Silicon Carbide 450 3440
Silver 10.5
Sodium
Steel, High Strength Alloy ASTM A-514 760 690
Steel, stainless AISI 302 180 860 502
Steel, Structural ASTM-A36 200 400 250
Tantalum 27
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.5
Thorium 8.5
Tin 47
Titanium 16
Titanium Alloy 105 - 120 900 730
Tooth enamel 83
Tungsten (W) 400 - 410
Tungsten Carbide (WC) 450 - 650
Uranium 24 170
Vanadium 19
Wrought Iron 190 - 210
Zinc 12

1 Pa (N/m2) = 1x10-6 N/mm2 = 1.4504x10-4 psi


1 MPa = 0.145x103 psi (lbf/in2) = 0.145 ksi
1 GPa = 0.145x106 psi (lbf/in2)
1 psi (lb/in2) = 0.001 ksi = 144 psf (lbf/ft2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2

Note! - the online pressure converter can be used to convert between Tensile modulus units.

Strain
Strain is "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as

= dL / L (1)

where

= strain (m/m) (in/in)

dL = elongation or compression (offset) of the object (m) (in)

L = length of the object (m) (in)

Stress
Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as

=F/A (2)

where

= stress (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi)

F = force (N) (lb)

A = area of object (m2) (in2)

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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_417.html

tensile stress - stress that tends to stretch or lengthen the material - acts normal to the stressed area
compressive stress - stress that tends to compress or shorten the material - acts normal to the stressed area
shearing stress - stress that tends to shear the material - acts in plane to the stressed area at right-angles to compressive or tensile stress

Young's Modulus - Tensile Modulus, Modulus of Elasticity


Young's modulus can be expressed as

E = stress / strain

= (F / A) / (dL / L) (3)

where

E = Young's modulus (N/m2) (lb/in2, psi)

named after the 18th-century English physician and physicist Thomas Young

Elasticity
Elasticity is a property of an object or material which will restore it to its original shape after distortion.

A spring is an example of an elastic object - when stretched, it exerts a restoring force which tends to bring it back to its original length. This restoring force
is in general proportional to the stretch described by Hooke's Law.

Hooke's Law
One property of elasticity is that it takes about twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That linear dependence of displacement upon stretching
force is called Hooke's law which can be expressed as

Fs = -k dL (4)

where

Fs = force in the spring (N)

k = spring constant (N/m)

dL = elongation of the spring (m)

Note that Hooke's Law can also be applied to material undergoing three dimensional stress (triaxial loading).

Yield strength
Yield strength is defined in engineering as the amount of stress (Yield point) that a material can undergo before moving from elastic deformation into plastic
deformation.

The Yield Point is in mild- or medium-carbon steel the stress at which a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. In other steels
and in nonferrous metals this phenomenon is not observed.

Ultimate Tensile Strength


The Ultimate Tensile Strength - UTS - of a material is the limit stress at which the material actually breaks, with sudden release of the stored elastic energy.

Related Topics
Mechanics - Forces, acceleration, displacement, vectors, motion, momentum, energy of objects and more
Material Properties - Material properties for gases, fluids and solids - densities, specific heats, viscosities and more
Statics - Loads - force and torque, beams and columns

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Stress, Strain and Young's Modulus - Stress is force per unit area - strain is the deformation of a solid due to stress
Plastics - Abbreviations - Commonly used plastic abbreviations
Stress in Thick-Walled Cylinders - or Tubes - Radial and tangential stress in thick-walled cylinders or tubes with closed ends - with internal and
external pressure
Compression and Tension Strength of some common Materials - Common materials and average ultimate compression and tension strength
Engineering Materials - Typical properties of engineering materials like steel, plastics, ceramics and composites
Thermal Expansion - Stress and Force - Stress and force when thermal expansion is restricted
Bolt - Stress Area - Stress area in UN and UNR bolts
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Euler's Column Formula - Buckling of columns
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Modulus of Rigidity - Shear Modulus (Modulus of Rigidity) is the elasticity coefficient for shearing or torsion force

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Modulus of Elasticity or Young's Modulus - and Tensile Modulus for ... http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/young-modulus-d_417.html

Young's Modulus of Elasticity for Metals and Alloys - Elastic properties and Young's modulus for metals and alloys like cast iron, carbon steel
and more
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