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Time study

Standard time calculation


Mean Observed
Time (MOT)

Normal Time(NT)=
MOT x Rating
Factor x
Frequency

Standard Time =
NT/ (1- % of PFD
allowance)
Solve this Problem

An experienced lathe operator with a rating factor of 130% was


observed for 10 times for deciding on the standard time to
complete a turning activity. The turning activity involved five sub
tasks. The details of the sub tasks are given in the table. The
company management has decided to give 25% PFD allowance.
Compute the standard time for the turning activity and how many
components the operator should complete in one shift of 8 hours
duration?
Task 1 (Time Task 2 (Time Task 3 Task 4 Task 5
Sample Question
taken for
work piece
taken for
machining)
(Dimension
check)
(Cleaning
the bed)
(Lubrication
and regular
loading) Minutes Minutes Minutes maintenance
Minutes check)
Minutes
2.0 1.0 1.5
2.2 1.1 1.4
2.3 1.1 1.6
2.2 1.2 1.4
2.4 1.3 1.5 5
2.5 1.2 1.4
2.1 1.1 1.6
2.2 1.0 1.2
2.0 1.3 1.4
2.3 1.1 1.3 6 10
Answer
Task1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task5
MOT 2.22 1.14 1.43 5.5 10
Frequency 1 1 1 1/5 = 0.2 1/10 = 0.1
Rating 130% 130% 130% 130% 130%
Factor
PFD 25% 25% 25% 25% 25%
allowance
ST 3.848 1.976 2.479 1.907 1.733
Total ST 11.943

Number of finished parts per 8 hour shift = 480/11.943 = 40.19 units


Procedure for deciding the number of observations
Use the following formula to decide on the number of observations
required to carry out the time study process:

n Number of observations required


z Standard normal random variable corresponding to the desired confidence level
a Accuracy level desired
MOT Mean observed time

Confidence level Z

90% 1.65

95% 1.96

97 2.17

98 2.33

99 2.58
Solve this problem
An activity consisting of five sub tasks were observed. The MOT
and standard deviation for each of the sub task is given in the
table. Find out the number of times each activity should be
observed so that the calculated standard time will be with in 5%
of the true mean 97% of the time.

Sub task MOT (in seconds) s

Sub task 1 65 5
Sub task2 90 8
Sub task3 150 12
Sub task 4 50 3
Sub task 5 75 2
Sub task n
Sub task 1 {(2.17/0.05)*(5/65)}2 = 11.14
Sub task2 14.88
Sub task3 12.05
Sub task 4 6.78
Sub task 5 1.33

The maximum value among the numbers calculated is 14.88. Hence


at least 15 observations are required for each of the sub task to
achieve the desired level of accuracy and confidence level.
Work Sampling
Work sampling is used to determine the proportion of time a person is
spending on a task among the many tasks assigned.

n Number of observations required


z Standard normal random variable corresponding to the desired confidence level
a Accuracy level desired
p Proportion of time the activity was done
Solve this problem
A secretary was observed 50 times during a work sampling
study. 10 times she was found sending e-mail replies. 20 times
she was found answering telephone calls. 15 times she was
found scheduling the weekly activities for her boss. 5 times she
was found idle. How will you confirm the share of activities done
by the secretary? Declare your answer with 97% confidence
level and with an expected accuracy of 5%.

Share of activities based on fifty observations


E-mailing 10/50 = 0.2
Answering calls 20/50 = 0.4
Activity scheduling 15/50 = 0.3
Idle 5/50 = 0.1
Activity n
E-mailing (2.17/0.05)2 * {0.2(1-0.2)} = 301.3
Answering calls 452
Activity scheduling 395.5
Idle 169.5