Volume I
Electric Networks
Sisteme Electroenergetice
Volumul I
Reele Electrice
Bucureti, 2005
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Foreword ............................................................................................................................ XV
Preface............................................................................................................................. XVII
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ XX
12.4.1.General considerations.....................................................................742
12.4.2.Induced voltages on long metallic structures parallel
to inducting currents ........................................................................745
12.4.3. Direct biological effects on humans and animals ..............................745
12.4.4. Indirect biological effects ..................................................................748
12.4.5. Direct perception on humans .............................................................748
12.4.6. Effects on vegetation .........................................................................748
12.4.7. Final considerations and recommendations.......................................749
12.4.8. Mitigation techniques ........................................................................752
12.5. Conclusions......................................................................................................763
Chapter references .....................................................................................................764
Electric power systems are an integral part of the way of life in modern
society. The electricity supplied by these systems has proved to be a very
convenient, safe, and relatively clean form of energy. It runs our factories, warms
and lights our homes, cooks our food and powers our computers. It is indeed one of
the important factors contributing to the relatively high standard of living enjoyed
by modern society. Electricity is an energy carrier; energy is neither naturally
available in the electrical form nor is it consumed directly in that form. The
advantage of the electrical form of energy is that it can be transported and
controlled with relative ease and high degree of efficiency and reliability.
Modern electric power systems are large complex systems with many
processes whose operations need to be optimized and with millions of devices
requiring harmonious interplay. Efficient and secure operation of such systems
presents many challenges in todays competitive, disaggregated business
environment. This is increasingly evident from the many major power grid
blackouts experienced in recent years, including the 14 August 2003 blackout of
power network in the northeast of the American continent and the 28 September
2003 blackout of the Italian power network.
The technical problems that the power engineers have to address today
appear to be very complex and demanding for the students of the subject. They will
need both the experience of the past generations and a new enlightened approach to
the theory and practice of power generation, transmission, distribution and
utilization taking into account the techniques that have evolved in other fields.
The present book includes a comprehensive account of both theoretical and
practical aspects of the performance of the individual elements as well as the
integrated power system. The contributing authors are all recognized experts in
power system engineering, either working for the electric power industry or for
universities in Romania and abroad. Together they have had a total of many
decades of experience in the technologies related to electric power systems.
Upon invitation from Professor Mircea Eremia, I had the pleasure of visiting
the Electrical Power Engineering Department at University Politehnica of
Bucharest in May 2003. I found there a powerful school of Electric Power Systems
from which about 50 students graduate yearly. During my visit, I also had the
opportunity to review and discuss the proposal for preparing this book. I am very
impressed with the outcome. I am truly honoured to write the foreword of this
book, which I believe will be an invaluable source of reference for students of
power engineering as well as practicing engineers.
The authors wish to take this opportunity to acknowledge all persons that
contributed directly or indirectly to carrying out this book, either by technical or
editorial support.
For some chapters the authors benefited from the kindness of some
institutions or companies, which permitted the reprinting or adapting of some
figures, equations or text excerpts. In this regard, special thanks are addressed to
IEEE, CIGRE particularly to the General Secretary Jean Kowal, EPRI
particularly to Dr. Aty Edris who facilitated the cooperation with EPRI, as well as
to Copper Development Association. Reprinting permission was allowed by Dr.
Roger Dugan, from EPRI, also with the kind acceptance from McGrawHill
Companies, for some excerpts in Chapter 6, and Ing. Daniel Griffel, from EdF, for
some excerpts in Chapter 5, to whom the authors address their deepest gratitude.
The authors are deeply grateful to Acad. Gleb Drgan for the constant
support and encouragements during writing the book and cooperation with the
Publishing House of the Romanian Academy.
Special thanks are addressed to some persons who contributed to the content
of the final manuscript. The authors wish to express warm thanks to Dr. Mohamed
Rashwan (President of TransGrid Solutions Inc.), who provided valuable
contributions in Chapter 4, to Prof. Petru Postolache (from University Politehnica
of Bucharest), for constructive comments in Chapter 1 and Chapter 11, and
Dr. Fnic Vatr (from Institute for Energy Studies and Design ISPE S.A.) for
valuable suggestions to Chapter 5. Special thanks are addressed to Prof. Nicolae
Golovanov (from University Politehnica of Bucharest) who reviewed the
Chapter 6 and provided many valuable contributions.
The printing of this book was made possible by the financial support of some
companies. The authors wish to express their gratitude to Ing. Viorel Gafia
(Manager of Romelectro S.A.) and Dr. Dan Gheorghiu (General Manager of ISPE
S.A.). Special thanks are also addressed to Washington Group International Inc. for
the financial support granted for printing the book, and to RIBE Group (Germany)
as well as its subsidiary in Romania, which provided valuable technical materials
and financial support for printing the book.
For contributions concerning the translation into English or the electronic
editing of some chapters, the authors wish to extend their gratitude to Dr. Andrei
Fgranu, Dr. Monica Fgranu, Dr. Cristina Popescu, Ing. Silviu Vergoti, Ing.
Ioan Giosan, Ing. Mircea Bivol and Ing. Laureniu Lipan.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the good cooperation with the Publishing
House of the Romanian Academy, and address many thanks to Dr. Ioan Ganea,
Ing. Cristina Chiriac, Mihaela Marian and Monica Stanciu, for their patience and
professionalism in carrying out the printed book.
The authors
Chapter 1
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
CONFIGURATION AND PARAMETERS
*)
Several Standards [EN50160, IEEE P1564, HD 637 S1] give definitions of the voltage
either as reference quantity or for equipment designing. The term nominal voltage of the
system Un, as a whole, is defined as a suitable value of voltage used to designate or identify
a system and to which certain operating characteristics are referred. The term rated value
represents a quantity value assigned, generally by the manufacturer, for a specified
operating condition of a component, device or equipment. Because the nominal voltage is a
reference value it is further used in definitions and formulae from theories to identify the
voltage level of the network to which equipments or installations are connected.
4 Basic computation
A B Systematic
Systematic Systematic transport
transport Compensation transport
~ ~ ~
PP IS PP
A, B consumption areas
PP power plants
IS interference station
HV / MV transformer substation
MV / LV transformer substation
The main feature of the complex looped networks is that the loads are
supplied from more than two sides (Fig. 1.5), therefore on several paths and from
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 5
several sources. These networks present great supply reliability and economical
operation, but they require more equipment and they are more expensive.
The topology of a network can be modified by the position of the circuit
breakers placed on the lines (Fig. 1.3) or on the substations busbars (Fig. 1.6).
Therefore, the opening of the circuit breaker CB from Figure 1.3 transforms the
looped network into a radial one; the same situation is also possible for the network
from Figure 1.6.
Source 2 Source 1
~ ~
CB
Fig. 1.3. Looped network. Fig. 1.4. Network supplied from two ends.
~ ~
~ ~
a. b.
Fig. 1.5. Complex looped Fig. 1.6. Open ring network topology altering in transformer
network. substations: a. without open ring; b. with open ring.
220
Transformer
substation
110
Block
transformer
Local Rural
~ power area
~ plant
20
System ~ Urban
power plant area
Industrial Urban
networks networks
(6) 10
Transformer
points
The analysis of the planes sequence emphasizes the following features of the
power system configuration:
the system elements (generators, transformers, lines, loads etc.) are placed
in different parallel planes, according to their nature and functional role;
the distance between planes is determined by the difference between the
neighbouring voltage levels;
the connection between planes is achieved through the magnetic couplings
of the transformers (in the case of different voltage levels, or in the case of
not successive planes at the same voltage level) or autotransformers (in the
case of successive planes belonging to the same voltage level);
a plane includes the longitudinal elements of the networks; the transversal
elements are connected between these planes and the neutral point;
the networks from the upper planes serve for power transmission, while
those from the lower planes serve for power distribution;
the generators of the central power plants inject the power in the system
through blocktransformers and transmission networks at medium voltage
(Fig. 1.8); if the generators power is higher, the injection is carried out at
higher voltage level;
the lower level buses and networks connected to these buses constitute a
load for the higher level networks (excepting the generator buses);
the power consumption takes place at high, medium and low voltage level
through the network coupling transformers;
moving to higher levels, the networks cover larger areas and the powers
transfer rises, while the density of the networks decreases;
the networks at the lower levels are denser, they transfer less power on
shorter distances;
the power system customers are in transversal connection between the
buses of the distribution networks (the medium voltages planes) and the
plane 0 kV; the power absorbed by the customer and the bus voltage are
smaller.
Generator Power
repartition
110 kV
~ 20 kV
10 kV Power
distribution
Local consumption
0.4 kV
0 kV
The high voltage distribution networks have a basic looped design, but they
operate in open (radial) arrangement. The networks technological consumption
determines the separation point, but other restrictions are also considered. The loop
is supplied from two different injection points or from the sectionalized busbars of
the same injection point.
Figures 1.9 to 1.11 illustrate the abovementioned aspects.
Figure 1.9 presents the architecture of a supply network requiring at the same
time substations with one transformer unit and substations with two transformer
units, connected in derivation to a mains 110 kV line.
The network from Figure 1.10 uses 110 kV overhead lines (OEL) to supply
rural areas through transformer substations with two transformer units. The A and
C substations are source substations and ensure the supply of the medium voltage
network.
A
110 kV
A
110 kV
20 kV
Fig. 1.10. Network architecture in
rural areas supplied from 110 kV
lines connected to substations
equipped with two transformer
units.
Rural
110 kV/MV
110 kV/MV
~ ~
Fig. 1.11. Architecture of 110 kV repartition networks supplying urban settlements.
110 kV ring
Transformer
substation
Deep joint
substation
400 kV/110 kV
substation 110 kV
System
Fig. 1.12. Architecture of a 110 kV urban network supplying a settlement with more than
150,000 inhabitants.
Regarding the HV/MV substations structure and the installed power, these
depend on the destination of that substation namely: public distribution, supply of
concentrated customers or both (public distribution and concentrated customers).
The public distribution substations supply domestic and residential customers.
They have a simple structure, and their dimensions depend on the requested power,
the safety level they must provide and the configuration of the 110 kV networks.
Big cities are supplied from one or two rings of 110 kV. The structure of the
12 Basic computation
110 kV
110 kV / MV
transformer
substation
a. b.
Fig. 1.13. Architecture of transformer substations supplying big cities: a. equipped
with two transformers; b. supplied from two 110 kV rings.
If the locality has great surface and load density, the supplying of some
concentrated customers can be carried out through a deep joint substation
(Fig. 1.12).
c2. Medium voltage distribution networks. High voltage substations supply
these networks in direct or indirect connection. In the first case medium voltage
lines connect the transformer points directly to the MV busbars of the supply
substations. In the second case, MV lines departing from a HV/MV substation
supply the busbars of a MV connection substation, which in turn supplies the MV
junctions through other MV lines.
The medium voltage levels, varying in the 3 to 60 kV range, are chosen in
tight relation to the networks load density and to the economical and technical
criteria. Romania adopted the 20 kV voltage as optimal.
There are several configurations of distribution systems in use today,
considering the phase number and the situation of the neutral point:
the northAmerican system (Fig. 1.14,a) employs a distributed and solidly
earthed neutral; the main line is threephase: three phases and neutral; the
derivations are singlephase or threephase according to the transmitted
power; the distribution is singlephased, between phase and neutral;
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 13
the English system (Fig. 1.14,b), has no distributed neutral, the main line is
threephase; the derivations have three or two phases;
the Australian system (Fig. 1.14,c), is an economical system; the main line
has only three phases, and no distributed neutral; the derivations have one,
two or three phases; the return path is insured by the ground;
the European system (Fig. 1.14,d) has no distributed neutral; the main line
and the derivations are threephase.
N
LV
HV/MV
MV/LV
HV/MV
CB N
3
2
1
DS N CB DS
LV 3
2
1
MV/LV LV 1P
MV/LV
N
3 N N
LV 3P
2
3
N
2
LV
LV 1P
MV/LV
1 2 3 N
N
3
1 2 3 N
a. b.
Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: a. with distributed neutral; b. without
distributed neutral, mixed with two or three phases.
14 Basic computation
HV/MV
CB DS
3 HV/MV
2
1
MV/LV LV 1P
CB DS
3
LV 3P N N 2
3 1
1 MV/LV
LV 1P
1 2 3 LV 3P N
IT N
LV 1P
1 2 3 N
c. d.
CB circuit breaker; DS disconnector switch; N neutral; IT insulating transformer
Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: c. without distributed neutral, mixed with
one, two, three phases; d. without distributed neutral, three phase.
(Fig. 1.16). Under normal operating conditions the networks operate in radial
connection. The sectioning point is imposed by the networks technological
consumption or by the networks automation. The network presents separation
capability in the middle or at its ends, according to the requirements.
MV MV
S1 S2
Fig. 1.15. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from two transformer
substations.
MV
110 kV / MV
substation
Fig. 1.16. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from the same transformer
substation.
Urban areas with big load densities of 5 to 10 MVA/km2 use cable networks
in grid type direct distribution arrangement (Fig. 1.17) or in double derivation
(Fig. 1.18).
For both arrangements the backup supply can be made from the same
substation or from different substations. This configuration of electrical drawings
can be developed when the load growing on the consumers sides.
16 Basic computation
MV
S2
Future
110 kV / MV
substation
S1
Existing
110 kV / MV
substation
MV
Working
cable
Backup
cable
Power supply
TP Head of petal
transformer point
CB1 CB2
Supply
feeder
CB
F
MV/0.4 kV
CB1 , CB2 , CB  circuit breaker
F  fuse
TP  MV/0.4 kV transformer point
a.
Working feeder
Working feeder
TP
S R
S R
R R R
Backup feeder TP
MV MV
S1 S2
110 kV / MV 110 kV / MV
substation substation
a.
Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: a. with backup from
two substation and derivation supply of the transformer points.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 19
HV/MV source
(circuit breaker bay)
Main line
Secondary line
ACB
DS
ACB
DS
DS
ACB  Automatic circuit breaker
DS  Disconnector switch
b.
Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: b. radialtree diagram.
MV MV
MV cable
MV cable
1x 400 kVA 2 x 400 kVA
or or
1x 1600 kVA 2 x1600 kVA
ABT ABT
0.4 kV 0.4 kV
a. b.
MV
MV cable MV cable
c3. Low voltage distribution networks. The low voltage networks structure is
imposed by the loads density, by the medium voltage network configuration, by
the number of MV/LV transformer points and by the consumers requirements
(allowed outages number and duration).
The rural and urban low voltage networks from the suburbs operate in normal
conditions in radial arrangement (Fig. 1.22,a) with overhead and underground
lines. A more recent solution uses aerial mounted insulated twisted wires. The
solution is very economical in rural areas, suburbs or small cities.
Central areas of the cities and some significant loads are supplied from
looped networks (Fig. 1.22,b). The diagram from Figure 1.22,b1 has the main
disadvantage that a line fault causes the outage of the entire LV line. Figure 1.22,b2
avoids this inconvenient with the help of fuse (F). If a fault occurs, the fuse
separates the network in two parts, and by melting at the faulted end, insures the
faults isolation. The diagram in Figure 1.22,b3 insures better safety. The network
operates in radial arrangement and if a fault occurs in the transformer point, the
corresponding fuse is removed and the circuit breaker is closed.
The way the transformers medium voltage side is supplied divides the
looped networks into three types: longitudinal looped (Fig. 1.23,a), transversal
looped (Fig. 1.23,b) and mixed (Fig. 1.23,c). Big cities, with big load densities (10
15 MVA/km2) have mesh type looped networks. In mesh networks the low voltage
lines are connected to all possible buses and the network is supplied through
medium voltage distribution cables departing from the busbars of the same
substation. The special technical and economical advantages of the complex looped
networks are:
high degree of supply continuity;
high quality of delivered power, since the consumers voltages are
levelled on the entire area;
proper balancing of the network, due to the loads even repartition;
adaptability to load development, because the looped networks are
designed from beginning to meet future rises in power consumption.
TP1
TP2
MV
0.4 kV
a.
MV
0.4 kV
0.4 kV
MV
b.
Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: a. longitudinal; b. transversal.
22 Basic computation
c.
Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: c. mixed.
Substation busbars
s
ble
ca
V
CB
M
Transformer
points
Distribution box
Branch
The most used expressions of the active and reactive powers have one of the
following forms, called polynomial model (1.2):
( )
P( f ,U ) = P0 a U 2 + b U + c (1 + g f )
(1.2)
Q( f ,U ) = Q (d U
0
2
)
+ e U + q (1 + h f )
where: a, d are constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
impedance;
b, e constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
current;
c, q constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
power;
g, h constants indicating the variation of P and Q with frequency;
A, B quantities calculated with the expressions (1.3), in terms of the
steady state results when U = Un, f = fn;
u, u coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and
reactive powers with the voltage;
f, f coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and
reactive powers with the frequency.
In literature, complex studies for the determination of a, b, , h and f, u,
f, u coefficients are given. The values of these coefficients depend upon:
consumer type: complex, residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural,
fluorescent lamps, arc bulbs, airconditioned installations, domestic
consumption, asynchronous motors, synchronous motors, inductive loads,
electric heating, electrochemistry factories, arc furnace, static converters,
and so on;
period of the year: summer or winter;
geographical area: north, south, east, west;
load power factor.
If information about the electric consumer is not available, average value of
the coefficients might be used (Table 1.1).
Table 1.1
coefficient f f
u u
consumer
Complex 0.7 ... 1.2 0.6 ... 1.5 1 ... 2 0.6 ... 0
Residential 1 ... 1.5 0.5 1 ... 1.4 0.7
Commercial 1.2 0.185 1.17 0.488
Industrial 0.7 ... 1.5 1 ... 2
the model where the power varies directproportional with the voltage
magnitude;
P ~U ; Q ~U (1.6)
constant power model, where power demanded by the consumer is
independent by the voltage;
P ~ const. ; Q ~ const. (1.7)
Usually, the loads are modelled through its active and reactive powers, as
shown in Figure 1.25,a. It is possible to consider the same load through series or
parallel combinations of resistance and reactance of constant values (Fig. 1.25,b,c).
U U U
RS
IS Xp IXp IRp Rp
XS
P+jQ
a. b. c.
Fig. 1.25. Load modelling: a. constant powers; b. series impedance; c. parallel
impedance.
P2 + Q2 =
(
U 4 Rs2 + X s2 ) =U 2 P
=U 2
Q
( Rs2 + X s2)2
Rs Xs
28 Basic computation
In consequence:
U 2P
Rs = (1.8)
P2 + Q2
U 2Q
Xs = (1.9)
P2 + Q2
U U2 U2
IXp = ; Q = UI Xp = ; Xp = (1.11)
Xp Xp Q
In Figure 1.26 are illustrated the series and shunt elements of a singlecircuit
threephase overhead line, operating under normal steady state conditions, for
which the following expression can be written:
V a = z aa I a + z ab I b + z ac I c = (Raa + jLaa )I a + jLab I b + jLac I c
Va Ia
Ia zaa yab
Ib
Lab Vb
Ib zbb yca
Lbc Lca Ic ybc
Vc Va Vb
zcc
yag ybg
Ic
ycg Vc
I a = y aa V a + y ab (V a V b ) + y ac (V a V c ) = Y aa V a + Y ab V b + Y ac V c
I b = y ba (V b V a ) + y bb V b + y bc (V b V c ) = Y ba V a + Y bb V b + Y bc V c (1.13)
I c = y ca (V c V a ) + y cb (V c V b ) + y cc V c = Y ca V a + Y cb V b + Y cc V c
Due to unbalance of some loads the mutual inductance has different values,
and then asymmetrical voltages appear. By manufacturing and operation (phase
transposition) means, the equality of selfimpedances and selfadmittances
respectively, and the equality of phasetophase mutual impedances and phaseto
phase mutual admittances, are achieved:
z aa = z bb = z cc = z = R + jLself
(1.14,a)
z ab = z bc = z ca = jLm
and
30 Basic computation
Y ab = Y bc = Y ca = Y m = y ab = y bc = y ca
Y aa = y aa + y ab + y ac
(1.14,b)
Y bb = y ba + y bb + y bc
Y cc = y ca + y cb + y cc
Note that, also, under normal steady state conditions, electric generators
generate an e.m.f. of a, b, c sequence also called positive or direct sequence. The
voltages, currents, impedances and admittances of this operating regime are
considerate of positive/direct sequence.
The normal steady state is considered as perfect symmetrical and balanced;
therefore, the following equalities can be defined:
V a +V b +V c = 0
(1.15)
Ia + Ib + Ic = 0
Taking into account (1.14) and (1.15), expressions (1.12) and (1.13) become:
( )
V a = ( z z m ) I a = z I a = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I a = R + jL+ I a
+
( )
V b = ( z z m ) I b = z I b = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I b = R + jL+ I b (1.16)
+
( )
V c = ( z z m ) I c = z I c = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I c = R + jL+ I c
+
I a = (Y Y m ) V a = Y V a
+
I b = (Y Y m ) V b = Y V b
+
(1.17,a)
I c = (Y Y m ) V c = Y V c
+
I a = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V a = jC + V a
I b = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V b = jC + V b (1.17,b)
I c = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V c = jC + V c
Equations (1.16) and (1.17) shows that under perfect symmetrical conditions,
by design, the scheme from Figure 1.26 can be replaced by a threephase network,
where the phases are electrically and magnetically decoupled. Under these
considerations, the series and shunt elements from Figure 1.26 are replaced as
shown in Figure 1.27, where positive/direct sequence impedances and admittances
are considered.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 31
Ia
Ib
Ic
z
Ia
z
Ib
z y y y
Ic
a. b.
Fig. 1.27. Threephase line of direct/positive sequence: a. series elements; b. shunt
elements.
Therefore, under steady state conditions, the threephase line can be replaced
by three independent singlephase lines, with no electric or magnetic coupling, and
with currents and voltages shifted only by 120 and 240 degrees. In consequence,
steady state analysis can be performed only for a singlephase line, whose
parameters are called service line parameters.
The service inductance of a threephase electric line represents the ratio of the
total magnetic field flux, generated by the currents on the three phases linking the
conductor of one phase, to the current flowing through it. The service inductance is
the positive/direct sequence inductance and is denoted by L+ or more simple by L.
The service capacitance of a threephase electric line represents the ratio of
electric charge of one phase conductor (to which contributes the electric charges
from all the others conductors) to the potential of respective conductor, measured
with respect to a reference potential (earth or metallic shell of a cable).
In this way, the threephase system (or in the general case, a multiphase
system) can be replaced with a singlephase system, which has only one
capacitance with respect to the reference potential, determined in terms of all
capacitances of the real threephase (multiphase) system. The service capacitance
represents the direct/positive sequence capacitance and is noted by C + or more
simple by C.
The service parameters or direct/positive sequence parameters are, in general,
given in per unit length, usually 1 km, called per unit length parameters and are
noted by r0 , l0 , c0 , g 0 .
where P is expressed in watts, and I represents the actual value of the current, in
ampere.
The effective resistance is equal to directcurrent resistance of the conductor
only if the distribution of current throughout the conductor is uniform.
In direct current, the expression of resistance Rdc is as follows:
l l
Rdc = = [] (1.18,b)
s s
3
Fig. 1.28. Flux linkage into a solenoid.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 35
Starting from the magnetic circuit law we express the magnetomotive force:
mmf = H dl = i (1.23)
= B d a = B cos B, d a da ( ) (1.25)
A A
where k is the sum of all fluxes linking the turn k of the solenoid. As illustrated in
Figure 1.28 this could have the expression k = 1 + 2 + 3 . The inductance of
the overhead lines can be calculated starting from the fundamental relationship
representing the ratio of the total magnetic flux, linking the surface bounded by the
contour of a circuit, to the current passing through the respective circuit, having a
linear dependency:
36 Basic computation
t
L= (1.28)
i
When there exist more circuits, in the same medium, that influence each
other, under the condition of linearity mentioned earlier, self and mutual
inductances are defined.
Specific inductance calculation for an infinite straight conductor
In order to obtain an accurate value of the inductance of an electric
transmission line, the flux linkage inside as well as outside of each conductor must
be taken into consideration.
a. Flux linkage inside the conductor
In Figure 1.29 the crosssection of a cylindrical conductor in shown.
ds
x dx
Let the magnetic field lines at a distance x meters from the centre of the
conductor and concentric distributed relative to the axis of the conductor. The
magnetic field intensity Hx is constant along these field lines and tangent to it. In
consequence, the equation (1.23) becomes:
H ds = H
x x ( 2x ) = ix (1.29)
The value of internal flux is a percent of the linkage flux due to the total
current from conductor and is calculated with formula:
r
x x 2 i
int =
0
2
i 2 dx = 0 r
2r r 8
(1.32)
1m
r
x dx R
where: R is the distance meters from the axis of the conductor to the point
where H = 0 ;
r radius of the conductor.
38 Basic computation
h
i i
r r
ground
Fig. 1.31. Twoconductors system.
Thus, we can draw the conclusion that the reactance of an electric line does
not depend upon the current passing through the line.
Total flux linkage of a conductor, from an nconductors system
Consider the general case of n parallel conductors (Fig. 1.32), representing a
multiphase system under normal steady state conditions.
Conductor 1 H=0
d1
dk
D12
D1k
Conductor 2 Conductor k
currents from the other conductors are considered zero. Finally, we apply
superposition, which takes into account the influence of magnetic flux due to the
currents from the others conductors. As it can be seen in Figure 1.32 the magnetic
field lines due to currents ik are concentric circles.
Having the previous assumptions made, we may alike the general case of a
multiphase system with the case studied earlier of a system with two conductors.
We denote by dk the distance from the centre of conductor k to the imaginary
conductor, where the magnetic flux intensity is zero, and by D1k the distance from
the centre of conductor 1 to the centre of conductor k. By applying equation (1.35),
the selfflux linking the circuit composed by conductor 1 and imaginary conductor,
due to current i1 in conductor 1, is:
0i1 d1
11 = ln [Wb/m] (1.42,a)
2 re
and the flux linking the conductor 1, due to the current flowing through conductor
k, has the following expression:
0ik d
1k = ln k (1.42,b)
2 D1k
Therefore, the total flux linking the conductor 1 due to the contributions of all
currents flowing through the n conductors is:
0 d1 d2 d d
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln k + ... + in ln n (1.43)
2 re D12 D1k D1n
0 1 1 1 1
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln
2 re D12 D1k D1n
(1.44)
+ 0 [i1 ln d1 + i2 ln d 2 + ... + ik ln d k + ... + in ln d n ]
2
Knowing that the sum of instantaneous currents through the n conductors is
zero:
i1 + i2 + ... + ik + .... + in1 + in = 0
we may express the current in in terms of the other n1 currents [1.10]:
Substituting the current in from (1.45) into (1.44) the following expression is
obtained:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 41
0 1 1 1 1
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln
2 re D12 D1k D1n
0 d1 d d d
+ i1 ln + i2 ln 2 + ... + ik ln k + ... + in1 ln n1
2 dn dn dn dn
Using self and mutual inductances, we can see that the expression (1.46)
represents the Maxwells law referring to inductances:
t1 = L11i1 + L12i2 + ... + L1k ik + ... + L1nin (1.47)
Therefore, in the general case of a system with n conductors, where the sum
of all currents is zero, the selfinductance Ljj and the mutual inductance Ljk are
given by expressions:
0 1
L jj = ln [H/m] (1.48,a)
2 re
0 1
L jk = ln [H/m] (1.48,b)
2 D jk
The above equations constitute the basis of practical evaluation of reactance
of the electric lines.
Inductance of a singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line
Let us consider a singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line (Fig. 1.33)
with unequal distances between phases.
Due to unequal spacing between phases it cannot be defined the inductivity
La assigned to the phase a that could be constant in time and cannot be say that the
flux a is proportional to the current ia (both in instantaneous quantities). For this
reason, we next consider the sinusoidal steady state so that we must express the
inductivity of a phase into the complex space:
a
La = (1.49)
Ia
By expressing the flux linking a phase it can be defined an operator, constant
in time, and an inductivity that allow coherent operations, into a complex space (of
42 Basic computation
D12
1 D23
2
Applying (1.46) for this case it results the expression of flux linkage of phase
a per unit length:
0 1 1 1
a = I a ln + I b ln + I c ln (1.50)
2 re D12 D13
0 1 1 3 1 1
+ j 3 ln 1 =
a = I a ln + I a j ln + I
2 D12 2 2 D13
a
2 re 2
0 D12 D13 3 D13
= I a ln j ln
2 re 2 D12
Therefore, the inductance per kilometre of phase a get the form:
Observation: For the case when D12 = D13 = D the imaginary part becomes
zero, so that an expression similar with (1.40), corresponding to the case of the
twoconductor system, is obtained.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 43
From (1.52) we can draw the conclusion that in the expression of inductance,
an imaginary part appears which leads to a supplementary resistance on phase:
( )
Z a = R + jL a = R + j L'a jL"a = R + L"a + jL'a (1.53)
By increasing the real part of the impedance, supplementary active power and
energy losses on the line appear. In order to avoid this, for symmetry of the circuit
and equilateral spacing between phases, the phase transposition method is used for
an electric line of length l (Fig. 1.34).
Therefore, if apply equation (1.46), the average linkage flux of phase a is:
1 1 1 1
a , av = 0 ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +
3 2 re D12 D13
(1)
0 1 1 1
+ ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +
2 re D23 D21
(2 )
1 1 1
+ 0 i a ln + ib ln + ic ln =
2 re D31 D32
(3 )
0 1 1 1
= ia ln + ib ln + ic ln =
2 re GMD GMD
0 GMD
= ia ln (1.54)
2 re
where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 is the geometric mean distance between positions 1, 2
and 3.
44 Basic computation
Knowing 0 = 410 7 H/m and considering the unit length of l = 1000 m, the
inductance per phase and kilometre is obtained:
GMD GMD
L0 = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase] (1.55,b)
re re
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a1') = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D1'2' D1'3' D1'1 D1'2 D1'3
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a2 ) = i a ln + ib + i c ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '
2 re D23 D21 D22' D23' D21'
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a2' ) = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D 2 '3 ' D2'1' D2 ' 2 D 2 '3 D2'1
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a3) = i a ln + ib + ic ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '
2 re D31 D32 D33' D31' D32'
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a3') = i a ' ln + ib ' + i c ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D3'1' D3 ' 2 ' D3 ' 3 D3'1 D3'2
(1.56)
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 45
Fig. 1.35. Doublecircuit line with phase transposition. The position of transposition
sections 1, 2 and 3.
The average linkage flux of any of the two phase conductors a or a' is:
(1) (1) (2 ) (2 )
1 a + a ' a + a ' (a3) + (a3') 1 (1)
a , av = a ', av =
3 2
+
2
+
2 3
(
= a , av + (a2, )av + (a3,)av )
(1.57)
(1) (1)
a + a ' 0 1 1
(a1,)av = (a1'), av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D11'
1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D12 D1'2' D12' D1'2 D13 D1'3' D13' D1'3
(a2 ) + (a2' ) 0 1 1
(a2, )av = (a2',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D22'
1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D23 D2'3' D23' D2 '3 D21D2'1' D21' D2 '1
(a3) + (a3') 0 1 1
(a3,)av = (a3',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D33'
1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D31D3'1' D31' D3'1 D32 D3'2' D32' D3'2
The following notations are adopted:
46 Basic computation
GMRa = re D11'
GMRb = re D22'
GMRc = re D33'
Taking into account that i a + ib + ic = 0 , we obtain:
GMD
a , av = a ', av = 2 10 7 ia ln [H/m phase] (1.58)
GMR
where geometric mean distance GMD is defined by:
GMD = 3 Dab , eq Dbc , eq Dac , eq (1.59)
6 7 r 3
10 8 2
9
13
D
D D
2
D1
1 12 2/n
D1
5 2 D 11
13
3
1 A
df 4 3 15 14
a. b.
Fig. 1.36. Electric line with bundled conductors: a. Phase spacing for the case of line
with 5 subconductors per bundle; b. subconductors spacing for the case of line with
f subconductors per bundle.
For the calculation of the total linkage flux of subconductor 1, from phase a,
by applying expression (1.46) it results:
0 ia 1 1 1 1 1
t 1 = ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +
2 5 re D12 D13 D14 D15
ib 1 1 1 1 1
+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +
5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10
ic 1 1 1 1 1
+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln = (1.62)
5 D1,11 D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15
0 ia 1 i 1
= ln + b ln +
2 5 (re D12 D13 D14 D15 ) 5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10 ( )
ic 1
+ ln
5 (
D1,11D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15 )
where D1j is the distance from the subconductor 1 to subconductor j, j = 2, 3, ..., 15.
0 1 1 1
t1 = ia ln + ib ln + ic ln (1.63)
2 GMR f GMD1b GMD1c
0 D
t 1 = ia ln (1.64)
2 GMR f
L1 0 D D
La = = ln = 2 10 4 ln [H/km phase] (1.66)
5 2 GMR f GMR f
Therefore, in this case, for the geometric mean radius and geometric mean
distances, the following expressions are obtained:
GMR f = f re A f 1 f
GMD1b = f D1, f +1D1, f + 2 " D1, 2 f (1.69)
GMD1c = f D1, 2 f +1D1, 2 f + 2 " D1,3 f
Considering that practical, the distances D1,f+1 . . . D1,2f . . . D1,3f are equal to the
distance between bundles centres, for the inductance La the same expression as in
(1.66) is obtained, where GMRf and GMDs are given by (1.69).
Application
Calculate the reactance of 750 kV singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line.
Each phase consists of AlOl conductors of 5300/69 mm2, and the conductors of bundles
are of radius r = 2.515 / 2 cm . The distance between the conductors of bundles, situated in
the corners of a pentagon, is df = 40 cm (Fig. 1.36,a). The mean distance between the
bundle centres of two different phases is D =17500 mm. Thus:
D12 = D15 = 40 cm , D13 = D14 = 2 40 cos 36 = 64.72136 cm
1/ 5
2.515 1 / 4
GMR f = e 40 2 64.72136 2 = 23.09 cm
2
Therefore, the inductance per kilometre, noted by La 0 , is:
17500
La 0 = 2 10 4 ln = 0.86559 mH km
230.9
Considering the distances D between bundles centres are not equal and perform
phase transposition, obtain an average reactance of 0.2861 /km.
Underground electric lines have the same parameters as overhead electric
line: series impedance consisting of a resistance and an inductive reactance and
shunt admittance consisting of a conductance and a susceptance.
As compared with overhead lines there are some important differences such as:
cables are much closer to each other;
in the most cases the crosssection of underground cables is not of circle
form, being of circle sectors form more or less regular;
conductors are surrounded by other metallic objects (usually grounded),
such as screens, protection sheaths or steel tubes;
insulation material between conductors is solid (in the most cases) or gas.
This insulation material is mostly mixed than uniform because, in fact, it
consists of each phase insulation, as well as the filling material between
phases.
50 Basic computation
E
r
D
R ds
Fig. 1.37. Cylindrical surface coaxial with conductor centre.
The value of electric flux density D, called also electric field induction, is
determined by applying the electric flux law along the cylindrical surface of radius
R, surrounding the conductor, as shown in Figure 1.37:
D d s = D 2Rh = q
A
(1.72)
with
q = ql h
where: D is electric flux density vector, [C/m2];
ds element area vector (perpendicular to the surface A), [m2];
A closed surface area, [m2];
q algebraic sum of all the line charges enclosed within surface A, [C];
ql charge density per unit length, [C/m];
h length of conductor, [m].
For R r , from expression (1.72) it results the magnitude of per length
electric flux density:
q
D= l (1.73)
2R
Let us imagine two points A and B located at the distance d A and d B
respectively from the centre of conductor in question. The point A is farther away
52 Basic computation
than B relative to the conductor. The potential difference between the two points A
and B is the line integral of the electric field E along any curve path joining the two
points (the potential difference is independent on the path followed in irrotational
field):
dB
VBA = VB VA = E d s
dA
(1.74)
electric field
lines
equipotential
lines
qa qb
r r
V =0
qa D r q D
Vab = ln ln = a ln (1.77,a)
2 r D r
If consider that conductor b is the image of conductor a then the potential of
conductor a relative to the point of potential zero (or to ground), that is at the half
distance between the two conductors (Fig. 1.38), is:
Vab q D
Va = = a ln (1.77,b)
2 2 r
The capacitance between the two conductors is given by:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 53
qa
Cab = = (1.78,a)
Vab ln D
r
We can also express the capacitance to ground:
qa 2
CaN = CbN = = Fm (1.78,b)
Va ln D
r
The real situations consists of multiphase systems so that let us consider the
case of n parallel conductors that carry the line charges q1 , q2 , , qn , located
above a perfectly conducting earth plane as shown in Figure 1.39.
conductor 2
M
q2 conductor k
DM1
DM2 DMk DMn
q1
qn
qk
conductor 1
conductor n
V=0
Fig. 1.39. n conductors system.
1 n 1
VM =
2 k =1
qk ln
DMk
(1.80)
where: [V] is column vector of potentials with components V1, V2, ..., Vn;
[q] column vector of electric charges with components q1 , q2 , , qn ;
[] matrix of Maxwells potential coefficients having the terms:
1 1 1 1
jj = ln ; jk = ln (1.83)
2 r 2 Dij
[q ] = [ ]1 [V ] = [C ] [V ]
Notice that the matrix [C ] includes offdiagonal terms, that is, there are also
mutual capacitances. Under symmetrical and balanced steady state conditions, the
capacitance of one conductor in the presence of the others can be expressed as an
equivalent capacitance.
Capacitance of a singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line
For better understanding of calculation of electric lines capacitance consider
now the simple case of a singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line with
transposed conductors (Fig. 1.34).
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 55
where Va(1) is the potential in a point situated on conductor a from the first
transposition section.
The conductors radii of the three phases are equal each other and equal to r.
1 1 1 1
Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln +
3 2 r D12 D13
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ qa ln + qb ln + qc ln + qa ln + qb ln + qc ln
r D23 D21 r D31 D32
or
1 1 1 1
Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln (1.85)
2 r 3 D D D 3 D D D
12 23 31 13 21 32
Under normal steady state conditions the per unit length electric charges qa ,
qb and qc of phases a, b and c satisfy the equality:
qa + qb + qc = 0 , that is qa = (qb + qc ) (1.86)
so we obtain:
1 GMD
Va , av = qa ln (1.87)
2 r
where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 .
Therefore, the per length unit average capacitance to ground is given by:
qa 2
Ca , av = = (1.88)
Va , av ln GMD
r
1
Knowing that 0 = F/m, r = 1 , length l = 1000 m and using lg
4 9 10 9
instead of ln, expression (1.88) becomes:
0.02415
Ca , av = 10 6 [F/km] (1.89)
GMD
lg
r
In a similar manner the average capacitance for a singlecircuit or double
circuit electric line with bundle conductors can be determined. In all these cases the
same mean distances and radii are used as for inductance calculation. The only one
56 Basic computation
difference is that the radius r of the conductor is replaced with an equivalent radius
Rf .
Application
For the same example of the 750 kV singlecircuit threephase overhead electric line
with bundled conductors let us calculate now the capacitive susceptance.
The average capacitance of phase a is given by:
0.02415
Ca , av = Cb, av = Cc , av = 10 6 (1.90)
GMD
lg
Rf
where the equivalent radius Rf is:
1/ 5
2.515
R f = (rD12 D13 D14 D15 )1 5 = 40 2 64.72136 2 = 242.7398 mm
2
Hereby obtain:
314 0.02415 6
ba , av = bb, av = bc , av = Ca , av = 10 = 4.0765 10 6 S/km
17500
lg
242.7398
that is a value very closed to the recommended one for an 750 kV overhead electric line, of
4.12 10 6 S/km, evaluated taking into account the inequality of the distances between
bundle centres and using the geometric mean distances.
Effect of earth on the capacitance
Consider also the case of singlecircuit overhead electric line (Fig. 1.40). The
effect of earth can be taken into account by using the method of electric charges
images. These have a charge equal but opposite in sign and are symmetrically
located below the surface of earth. By applying the phase transposition in sections
2 and 3 of the line, only the conductors change their positions, the distances
remaining the same.
By applying expression (1.81), the potential of the conductor phase a,
throughout the section 1, is:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Va(1) = qa ln qa ln + qb ln qb ln + qc ln qc ln =
2 r H1 D12 H12' D13 H13'
1 H H H
= qa ln 1 + qb ln 12' + qc ln 13' (1.91,a)
20 r D12 D13
1 H H H
Va(3) = q a ln 3 + q b ln 31' + q c ln 32' (1.91,c)
2 0 r D31 D32
qa 1 1
1
Cab a qa qc qb
Cac 2 2 2
qb b qb qa qc
qc 3 3 3q
Ccb c qc qb a
Cb0
Ca0 Cc0
H2 H1 H3
H12 H13 H2 H1 H 3 H2 H1 H3
ground
c c b a
qc 3 3 3
qb b b a c
2 2 2
a a c b
qa 1 1 1
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3
20
Ca = (1.95)
GMD H mean, m
ln ln
r H mean, s
1.2.2.4. Conductance
The conductance is the shunt parameter from the equivalent circuit of an
electric line and it corresponds to shunt active power losses, due to imperfect
insulation and corona discharge [1.1]. If note these losses by Pins , respectively by
Pcor , and line nominal voltage by U n , the conductance G L of the line is
determined with formula:
Pins + Pcor
GL = [S] (1.96)
U n2
a) Active power losses due to imperfect insulation
In the fixing points of the conductor on the electric tower, current leakages
through insulation towards ground occur, being more intensive as the atmospheric
conditions are worst.
Consider an insulators chain from an overhead electric line of nominal phase
tophase voltage Un = 220 kV that can be replaced with an insulating resistance,
under normal atmospheric conditions, of about 2.4109 /phase. Taking into
consideration that such line is equipped along one kilometre with 3 support chains,
it results that the insulating resistance is 0.8109 /phase, and the corresponding
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 59
weather, the condition for which there are no power losses by corona discharge is
formulated as U n < U cr .
The calculation of power losses due to corona discharge, by using
experimental empiric formula is performed. For voltages above 110 kV and large
diameters, Peeks formula is the most used in this evaluation:
241
Pc = ( f + 25) re (U U cr )2 105 [kW/km] (1.98)
GMD
where: f is the frequency of electric network, [Hz];
U, Ucr the phasetophase network voltage and critical voltage, [kV],
respectively.
Peeks formula provides good results only for overhead lines operating at
voltages up to 110 kV and with not too large diameters of conductor. For voltages
above 110 kV and large diameters, the Petersons formula is used:
U2
Pc = 14,7 10 6 f F [kW/km] (1.99)
GMD
ln
re
where F is Petersons function and is dependent on the value of U/Ucr ratio. For
400 kV lines, the power losses due to corona discharge reach 5 7 % from Joules
losses, and for 750 kV lines, these are 4 times bigger compared with 400 kV lines.
Corona phenomenon leads to:
increase in power and energy losses;
decreasing of life time of conductors, fittings, clamps, caused by the
corrosion process, high frequency disturbances and slight hissing noises.
The avoidance of corona discharge appearance needs increasing of critical
voltage Ucr by:
increasing in conductors radii, leading to assembling and operating
difficulties of the line;
using bundle conductors, obtaining on this approach the increasing of
apparent surface of the subconductors group and the decreasing of the
critical field intensity at the conductors surface; this is the most used
method being the most widespread.
For cables, the conductance appears due to the power losses by ionization
phenomenon in the dielectric of cables, current leakages due to imperfect insulation
or to power losses due to magnetic hysteresis loop. For power losses assessment in
dielectric material the tangent of the angle of dielectric losses tan is used. For
110 kV and 220 kV cables the power losses in insulation increase up to
5 10 kW/km.
From the above presented issues, results that the conductance GL is a value
that can be determined only through experimental approaches; it varies generally
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 61
along the line, caused by line state, meteorological conditions and the voltage
variations as well.
In practice, the value of the conductance is considered within the interval:
(
GL = 0.97 10 8 27 10 8 ) S/km
The electric lines are classified by voltage level, its length as well as the
environment. In the modelling of electric line the most used is fourterminal
network, where the shunt admittance, which represents corona losses, leakage
current and shunt capacitive currents, is split equal to both input and output ends of
the equivalent circuit.
i R X k
B G B G
2 2 2 2
ground
i zik=Rik+jXik k
Vi Vk
For medium and long lines, due to high value of shunt capacitive currents or
for the cases when corona losses become significant, the shunt admittance is no
62 Basic computation
longer neglected. Obtain thus the equivalent circuit, which represents, with good
accuracy, the electric line.
i zik k
yik0 yki0
Vi Vk
2 2
V1 N1 V1 N1
N2 V2 N2 V2
a. b.
Fig. 1.44. Simplified equivalent circuits of transformers (a) and autotransformers (b).
Autotransformers are used when the transformer turns ratio is small. These
have also a third winding of small rated power, deltaconnected, constituting
closing path for currents of the 3rd harmonic and multiple of 3, reducing on this
way the flowing of these harmonics in the network. Often, the third winding of
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 63
Ii i k Ik
Vi Vk
Ei Ek
Applying (1.101) for the two paths corresponding to the two windings and
taking as reference the direction of current I i , for instantaneous quantities the
following system of equations can be written:
d i
vi + Ri ii = d t
(1.102)
v + R i = d k
k k k
dt
The magnetic fluxes i , k are the sum of the utile and leakage fluxes:
i = N i + Li , ii
(1.103)
k = N k + Lk , i k
where: Ni, Nk are number of primary and secondary turns;
Ri, Rk resistances of primary and secondary windings;
Li , , Lk , leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings;
fascicular flux common to the two windings.
Considering the sinusoidal steady state and expressing (1.102) as phasor
form, obtain:
( )
V i + Ri I i = j N i + Li , I i
(1.102')
(
V k + Rk I = j N k + Lk , I k )
The mathematical model of the electric transformer, under sinusoidal steady
state conditions, is described by the phasor equations of the two electric circuits:
V i + z i I i = N i E
(1.102'')
V k + z k I k = N k E
where E = j is e.m.f. (electromagnetic force) per turn of winding, and the
impedances of the windings are:
z i = Ri + j Li ,
(1.104)
z k = Rk + j Lk ,
Ii zi zk Ik
Vi Ni E Nk E Vk
The transformer turns ratio defined by (1.106) is, in this case, real; normally,
this is complex because there is a phase shift between secondary and primary
voltages.
In practice, the twowinding transformer is represented either as equivalent
circuit with magnetic coupling (Fig. 1.47,a) or as equivalent circuit with
transformer operator (Fig. 1.47,b).
Ii zi zk Ik Ii zi Nik zk Ik
Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk
a. b.
Fig. 1.47. Twowinding transformer equivalent circuit: a. circuit with magnetic coupling;
b. circuit with transformer operator.
Further, if the Kirchhoffs theorem for magnetic circuits is applied along the
contour linking the magnetic circuit (Fig. 1.45):
H ds =
M
66 Basic computation
If the first equation from (1.102'') is divided to the second one, and taking
into consideration (1.108) and (1.108'), the mathematical equations of the two
winding transformer becomes:
z ik I i V i = N ik V k
(1.109)
z ki I k V k = N ki V i
where:
z ik = z i + N ik2 z k
(1.110)
z ki = z k + N ki2 z i
i z ik Nik k i Nki z ki k
Vi V i0 Vk Vi Vk0 Vk
a. b.
If express z k from the second equation of (1.110) and substitute it in the first
one, obtain:
( )
z i + N ik2 z ki N ki2 z i = z ik
and
y = N ki2 y
ik ki
2
(1.111,b)
y ki = N ik y ik
where z ik = 1 y ik and z ki = 1 y ki .
i
zi i i0 zk k
i0
Vi y i0 Vk
Vi yi0 Vk Vi y i0 Vk
a. b.
Fig. 1.50. Equivalent circuit of twowinding transformer, with transformer operator:
a. stepup transformer; b. stepdown transformer.
Into large electric power systems, into transformers from connecting
substation, during different operating regimes, the power flow can change its
direction. In this case, for more accurate assessment of power losses, the equivalent
circuit of transformer is used, where the admittance modelling the power losses
is located at the input and output terminals (Fig. 1.51). The two shunt admittances
have different values because the admittance y ik 0 will be referred to winding i
while the admittance y ki 0 will be referred to winding k.
i z ik N ik k
Vi yik 0 yki 0 Vk
2 2
Autotransformers are usually installed into electric network loops where the
direction of power flow can be changed. Threephase transformers and
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 69
wmax ik
wc
wn
V
wmin
Vregulated
V
V
V i , regulated = Vi + (wa wn )Vi (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.115,b)
100
V i , regulated
N ik = (1.116,b)
Vk ,n
Ii i m z ik N ik (1m) Nik2 z ik k Ik
yik 0 y ki 0
Vi Vk
2 2
I i = y ik (1 N ik )V i + y ik N ik (V i V k ) I i 0 + I ik (1.117)
I k = y ik N ik (N ik 1)V k + y ik N ik (V k V i ) I k 0 + I ki (1.118)
it results:
2
usc [%] U i , n 1 u [%] U i , n
zik = = sc [] (1.120)
100 3 Ii, n 100 S n
Knowing the two terms Rik and zik we can obtain the equivalent reactance of
transformer with expression:
Observation: For transformers of large rated power zik >> Rik , so the
reactance X ik is identified by impedance zik .
In the case of autotransformers with tapped windings, in the calculation of the
shortcircuit percentage voltage, the tap position is considered:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 73
u sc = A(wn wa ) + B(wn wa ) + C
2
Threewinding transformer
In the catalogues of these transformers the following characteristics are
given: rated powers of the three windings SnI, SnII, SnIII, power losses under noload
conditions P0, rated power losses under shortcircuit test Pscnom nom
I II , Psc II III ,
Pscnom
I III , percentage shortcircuit voltages u sc I II [%] , u sc II III [%] , u sc I III [%] .
Pscnom = 3 R I I I2 + 3 R II I II 2
Pscnom = 2 3 RT I n2
Pscnom U n2 U n2
RT = = Pscnom = Pscnom (1.125)
6I2 2 ( 3Un In )
2
2 S n2
2
Type b. Case S n II = S n I , S n III =
Sn I
3
At this type of transformer, the rated power losses under shortcircuit test
Psc are maximum when the transformer is full loaded on the windings I and II,
nom
while the winding III operates under noload conditions. The winding resistances
get the expression:
U n2
R I = R II = RT = Pscnom (1.126)
2 S n2
and
2
R III = RI (1.127)
3
Type c. This case is defined by two situations:
2 2
S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I
3 3
or
2 1
S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I
3 3
Pscnom = 3 I I2 R I + 3 I II 2 R II + 3 I III
2 R III
=
2 2
2 3 I 3
= 3 I I2 RI + 3 I I RI + 3 I RI =
3 2 3 2
4 23 I I2 3 1 11
= 3 I I2 R I + 3 I I RI + 3 R I = I I2 R I 3 + 2 + = I I2 R I
9 2 9 2 2 2
The resistance of the primary winding RI is given by:
RI =
2 Pscnom 2
= Pscnom
( 3Un )
2
=
6 U2
Pscnom n2 (1.128)
11 I I2 11 ( 3Un In )
2
11 Sn
and
2
R II = R III
= RI (1.129)
3
It should be mentioned that in the case of threewinding transformers, RI, RII,
RIII define the winding resistances (primary, secondary and tertiary windings),
referred to the same voltage level, different by the case of twowinding
transformers were R define the total resistance of the two windings per one phase
referred to the same voltage level.
In calculation of inductive reactance, in catalogues are given the percentage
shortcircuit voltages between two terminals being determined as follows: short
circuit voltage between the terminals I and III ( u sc I III ) is obtained by supplying
the primary winding, the tertiary one being shortcircuited, and the secondary one
operating under noload conditions. Similarly, shortcircuit voltages u sc I II and
u sc II III are determined. By analogy with the twowinding transformers, the
inductive reactances of the transformer windings can be expressed as:
u sc I II [%] U n2
X I II =
100 Sn
usc I III [%] U n2
X I III = (1.130)
100 Sn
u sc II III [%] U n2
X II III =
100 Sn
where: Un is voltage level at which the transformer parameters are referred;
Sn rated apparent power of the winding with the greatest value.
Knowing that:
X I II = X I X II ; X I III = X I X III and X II III = X II X III
76 Basic computation
it results:
X I II + X I III X II III
XI =
2
X + X I II X I III
X II = II III (1.131)
2
X + X II III X I II
X III = I III
2
The conductance and the susceptance of these types of transformers are
calculated in the same manner as for twowinding transformers.
jXS jXS
P
I
E U E U
a. b.
Fig. 1.55. Directsequence circuit representation of electric generator:
a. XS = ct., E = ct.; b. XS = ct., P = ct. and E = ct. or U = ct.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 77
P
A N
N C (I=ct)
E I UnEn
XS
Pn
jXS I UnIn
CE (E=ct)
U
O O Un2 O O
I XS
Qn
a. b.
Fig. 1.56. Phasor diagram of the synchronous generator under normal steady state.
EnU n U2
Qn = U n I n sin n = cos n n (1.135)
XS XS
The main electric quantities that characterise a synchronous generator are
rated (active or apparent) powers, rated voltage and rated power factor. When the
78 Basic computation
generator operates under a given regime different from the rated one, the previous
enumerated quantities are large scaled, and comprised in a domain constrained by
the loading limits (Fig. 1.57) referred to as loading capability curve of the
synchronous generator. This is important to the power plant operators who are
responsible for proper loading operation of the generator [1.11, 1.13].
Mechanical limit
of turbine (L3)
P
Field current
Underexcitation Pmax (L2)
limit (L4) N
Armature
current (L1)
Minimum active
power limit n
(L5)
Pmin Q
Qmin O Qmax
O
Leading Lagging
Taking into consideration the complexity of the processes from inside the
synchronous machine, in order to draw the loading capability curve of synchronous
generator, the following hypothesis are considered [1.19]:
Armature resistance R=0 is neglected;
The magnetising characteristic is assumed linear E0 = f (I ex ) ;
Power losses by Joules effect in the armature windings as well as the
power losses in the armature core are neglected;
Synchronous reactance is constant X S = ct.
Taking into account that the apparent power S must not exceed the rated
value, that is S S n , the operating point must be situated inside or on the limit
circle L1.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 79
For a value of armature current greater than the limit value, the generator can
operate under secure conditions for a short period of time depending on the
measure of how much the limit value is exceeded.
b) Field current limit (L2), Ir,max. Providers of electric equipments specify
the maximum value of the excitation current Iex, imposed by the heating limit of
rotor windings. Likewise, there is also a limit value of the excitation voltage equal
to the rated one. Also, by secure operating reasons at motor torque shocks a
minimum value of the excitation current is imposed. The limit curve of field
current is a circle of centre O' and of radius proportional to the rated internal
voltage En.
As it can be seen in Figure 1.57, for an active power less than the rated power
Pn, field current limit is more restrictive than the armature current limit. The rated
operating point of the generator is the intersecting point of the two limits L1 and
L2 when the generator is used at maximum from the generated apparent power
point of view.
c) Mechanical limit of turbine (L3), Pmax, imposed by the maximum shaft
torque of turbine. Taking into consideration that, in general, the mechanical power
of turbine is greater than the electric power of generator, this limit is a horizontal
line drawn at an active power value greater than the rated power output Pn of the
generator.
Under leading regime, the operating domain of the synchronous generator is
constrained by another three limits:
core end heating limit which is a curve determined through experimental
tests;
static stability reserve chosen so that a certain value of the internal angle
is maintained;
minimum excitation current limit that ensure a motor torque reserve to the
generator.
The generator operating point near to the three limits previous defined can be
avoided by using the underexcitation limiter so that the 4th limit can be defined:
d) Underexcitation limit (L4). By means of automatic control systems of the
generator, the operating at leading power factor is constrained by the characteristic
shown in Figure 1.57.
e) Minimum active power limit (L5), Pmin. In thermal power plants a minimal
power, Pmin, is required by combustion reasons.
If the operating point is different from the rated one, under lagging regime,
due to the limits L2 and L3, the maximum reactive power is determined with
formula:
1/ 2
E U
2
U n2
Q = Qmax = n n P2 when P Pn (1.137)
X s Xs
80 Basic computation
[ 2
Q = Qmax = S n Pn ]
2 12
when P Pn (1.138)
If information about En and XS are not available, an approximate limit of the
maximum reactive power is calculated: Qmax = 0.9 Qn where Qn = S n sin n .
Appendix
Table A1
Average values of the per kilometre parameters of the overhead electric lines
fn Un r0 x0 b0 ZC PN
[Hz] [kV] [/km] [/km] [S/km] [] [MW]
220 0.070 0.421 2.920 380 127
50 400 0.034 0.328 3.611 300 535
(Romania) 750 0.017 0.275 4.082 260 2160
230 0.050 0.488 3.371 380 140
60 345 0.037 0.367 4.518 285 420
(USA) 500 0.028 0.325 5.200 250 1000
765 0.012 0.329 4.978 257 2280
1100 0.005 0.292 5.544 230 5260
Note: the quantities ZC and PN are explained in Chapter 3.
Chapter references
[1.1] Poeat, A., Arie, A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, A., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Electric energy transmission and
distribution), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[1.2] Crian, O. Sisteme electroenergetice (Electric power systems), Editura Didactic
i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1979.
[1.3] Ionescu, T.G., Pop, O. Ingineria sistemelor de distribuie a energiei (Energy
distribution systems engineering), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1998.
[1.4] Meslier, F., Persoz, H. Rseaux de transport et dinterconnexion, D070,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.5] Carrive, P. Rseaux de distribution. Structure et planification, D4210,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.6] Gros, M., Righezza, P. Rseaux de distribution. Exploitation, D4230,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.7] Bergen, A.R. Power Systems Analysis, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey, 1986.
[1.8] Elgerd, O.I. Electric energy systems theory: An introduction, McGrawHill, 1971.
[1.9] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (Electric
networks. Electric Calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1974.
[1.10] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power Systems Analysis, McGrawHill, 1994.
[1.11] Mackowski, J., Bialek, J.W., Bumby, J.R. Power Systems Dynamics and
Stability, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York, 1997.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 81
the conductor of the phase, with the service parameters, and the return conductor is
a fictitious neutral conductor, which ensures the closing of the current.
For the short overhead lines, powered at low nominal voltages, the intensities
of the shunt currents the capacitive currents as well as the leakage ones have
low values as compared with those of the conduction current that passes through
the phase conductor. Therefore, in the case of short lines, the shunt currents can be
neglected and the corresponding equivalent circuit is a dipole with lumped
parameters (Fig. 2.1,a), where the shunt admittances have been neglected. For
more accurate results, the equivalent (or T) circuit, with lumped parameters, is
used (Fig. 2.1,b).
Z
Y Y
2 2
For the underground electric lines, powered at high nominal voltages, even
for small length cases, the leading leakage currents should be taken into account so
a proper circuit, either of lumped or uniformly distributed parameters, is chosen.
+j
C
VA
I VAB
VA
B
IA A B
I
VB
jX
0 Ia
Z=R+jX D E
IB=iB A R
I
jIr B
VA VB
iB=IB=I
VAB
DVAB
a. b.
Fig. 2.2. The radial electric network supplying one load:
a. equivalent circuit; b. fundamental phasor diagram of the voltage drops.
Its projections on the two axes correspond to the segments AD = VAB and
CD = VAB , and represent the longitudinal and the transversal components of the
voltage drop, having the following expressions:
VAB = RI cos + XI sin = RI a + XI r (2.2)
where: I a = I cos is active component of the current passing through the line;
I r = I cos reactive component of the current passing through the line;
R ohm resistance of the line;
X inductive reactance of the line.
Consider the circle sector of radius equal to the supply voltage VA , which
intersects the horizontal axis in the point E. The algebraic difference between the
voltages magnitudes (or the effective values)
Radial and meshed networks 87
DVAB = VA VB (2.4)
is called voltage drop (phasetoneutral).
For lower values of the phase angle between the two voltages, the
transversal component of the phasor voltage drop can be neglected, and the
longitudinal component is identified with the voltage drop:
DVAB V AB
If the phase angle has great values, the voltage drop can be determined
directly, with the expression:
( )
2
1 VAB 1 ( VAB )
4
where the voltage at the receiving end of the line ( V B ) is unknown. Therefore, to
simplify, the voltage V B will be approximated with the linetoneutral nominal
voltage Vn . For the singlephase system, consisting of two conductors, Vn = U n / 2 ,
and for the threephase system Vn = U n / 3 .
In this case, the expression of the voltage drop becomes:
DV AB RI cos + XI sin +
( XI cos RI sin )2 (2.7)
2 Vn
For electric lines powered at low voltage, the following expression can be
used, with good accuracy:
88 Basic computation
Therefore, the voltage drop DVAB given by (2.6) can be expressed in terms
of the components of the phasor voltage drop:
1
DVAB = Re{V AB } + (Im{V AB })2 (2.13)
2Vn
Once the value of the voltage drop DVAB is obtained, it should be compared
with the maximum admissible phasetoneutral voltage drop Vadm :
%
DVAB Vadm = Vn (2.14)
100
In order to determine the phase shift between the phasor V A and phasor V B ,
which for short lines is usually relatively small, the fundamental phasor diagram of
the voltage drops (Fig. 2.2,b) is also used:
CD V AB XI a RI r XI RI r
tan = = = a (2.15)
OD VB + V AB VB + RI a + XI r Vn
Note that between the phasetoneutral voltage drop DVAB and the phaseto
phase voltage drop DU AB , in the case of the singlephase system, there is the
following relationship:
DU AB = 2 DVAB (2.16,a)
Radial and meshed networks 89
U AB = 3 VAB (2.17,b)
By substituting the currents in terms of the threephase powers carried on the
line PB and QB and the nominal voltage of the line U B U n corresponding to the
phasetophase voltage, results:
P QB RPB + XQB RPB + XQB
U AB = 3 R B + X = (2.18,a)
3U B 3U B UB Un
DU AB B + (2.19)
Un 2U n3
Next, consider the general case where a threephase radial line supplies n
concentrated loads (Fig. 2.3).
Zn
Z2
Z1
A I1 1 I2 2 In n
z1=r1+jx1 z2=r2+jx2 zn=rn+jxn
VA i1 i2 in V
n
In Figure 2.3 the following notations have been used: i k (k = 1, 2,, n) for
nodal currents, I k (k = 1, 2, , n) for the currents flowing through the line
sections, z k = rk + jxk for the impedances of the line sections, respectively Z k
90 Basic computation
(k = 1,2, , n) for the cumulated impedances of the line sections between the
source node and each other node.
On the basis on the Kirchhoffs first theorem, written for each node, the
currents passed through the line sections can be expressed in terms of the nodal
currents:
n
I1 = i
k =1
k ; I 2 = I 1 i1 and so on.
and
n n n
V An =
k =1
Z k ik = (Rk ika + X k ikr ) + j ( X k ika Rk ikr )
k =1 k =1
(2.20,b)
respectively.
Note that the product Z k i k can be identified with the electric moment of a
load related to the supplying end of the line.
Taking into account that the electric network loads are expressed in terms of
the active and reactive powers, the expression of the phasetoneutral voltage drop
DVAn , for n loads, becomes:
2
n n
( rk Pk 0 + xk Qk 0 ) ( xk Pk 0 rk Qk 0 )
DVAn = k =1 + k =1 (2.21)
Vn 2Vn3
2
n n n n
r0 l P k k0 + x0 l Q k k0
x0 lk Pk 0 r0 lk Qk 0
DVAn = k =1 k =1
+ k =1 k =1 (2.23)
Vn 2Vn3
respectively
2
n n n n
r0 lk Pk + x0 lk Qk 0
x l P
k k r0
lk Qk
DU An = k =1 k =1
+ k =1 3
k =1 (2.24)
Un 2U n
For determination of the voltage drops expression, only series parameters of
the line have been considered. This is possible for the lines of nominal voltages
less than 110 kV (when the capacity and the conductance of the lines have low
influences).
Va
Va
Va
Fig. 2.4. The phasor diagram of the
voltage drops for unbalanced three
Ia phase line and cos =1;
O Va, Vb, Vc sending end voltages;
V'a, V'b, V'c receiving end voltages.
O V0
Ic Ib
Vc Vb
Vc Vb
Ic+Ib
Vc Vb
where: Pk 0 is active singlephase power flowing into the line sections of the
phases a, b or c;
P0 active power flowing through the neutral conductor;
Vn phasetoneutral nominal voltage;
lk , L0 lengths of the line sections and neutral conductor, respectively.
Particular cases deriving from the threephase unsymmetrical system are
singlephase and doublephase ramifications often used in practical. These lines
Radial and meshed networks 93
represent ramifications from a threephase line with four conductors that supply
singlephase loads.
Assume the case of a twophase line with two active conductors a, b and
one neutral conductor loaded with equal currents in phase with the voltages. The
phasor diagram of this line with active balanced loads is shown in Figure 2.5.
Va
ramification is the same through both conductors. The voltage drop on the going
and return conductors is:
n n
lk Pk 0
Vm = 2 r0 k =1
lk I k = 2 r0
k =1 Vn
Z Zn+1=Z
Z2 Z2 Z2
Z1 Z1 Z1
IA k IB IA B
A B A
I1 I2 Ik Ik IB I1 I2 In In+1
VA VB VA
i1 i2 ... ik ... in i1 i2 ... in1 in in+1=IB VB
Vk
a. b.
k Z
IA A B IB IA A IAB B IB
VA VB iA iB
i1 i2 ... ik ik ... in1 in VA VB
c. d.
Fig. 2.6. Electric circuit for calculation of current flows and of voltage drops into
short electric lines powered from two sources: a. initial electric circuit;
b. considering of source from node B as a load powered with a negative current;
c. representation of the network powered from both ends as two radial
networks; d. electric circuit with charges thrown to nodes.
Knowing the value of phasor voltage drop V AB , one may want to determine
the current i n +1 = I B . Taking this into consideration, the equation (2.28) can be
written as:
n
V AB = Z
k =1
k ik + Z n +1 i n +1 (2.28')
where Z n +1 = Z is the total impedance of the line. From the relationship (2.28') the
calculation expression of the current I B = i n +1 can be determined:
n
Z
k =1
k ik
V A V B
IB = (2.29,a)
Z Z
In a same manner, the calculation formula for the current intensity IA can be
established:
n
Z
k =1
'
k ik
V A V B
IA = + (2.29,b)
Z Z
'
Taking into account that Z k + Z k = Z (Fig. 2.6,b) we see that the formulae
(2.29,a) and (2.29,b) verify the relationship (2.27).
Once the currents I A and I B are calculated, the current flows I 1 , I 2 , , I n
into the considered network can be determined and thus we seek for node k of
96 Basic computation
minimum voltage. Analysing the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) it can be noticed
that each of them has two terms:
' '
I A = i A + I AB ; I B = i B I AB (2.30)
where:
n n
1 1
'
iA =
Z
k =1
'
Z k ik ;
'
iB =
Z
Z
k =1
k ik (2.31)
1
I AB = (V V B ) (2.32)
Z A
Observations:
' '
The terms i A and i B depend only upon the values of the load currents and
'
upon the cumulated impedances Z k and Z k of the network, in relation with
' '
supplying nodes A and B respectively. The currents i A and i B substitute the load
currents i k . It is as if the currents had been moved at the supplying nodes A and B
'
(Fig. 2.6,d). Thus, the current i B represent the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in
relation with node A, divided to the total impedance Z of the line. Likewise, the
' ' '
current i A represents the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in relation with node B,
divided to the total impedance Z of the line.
The additional term I AB determined only by the difference between the
voltages applied at nodes A and B, which does not depend on the load currents,
represents the balancing current or noload current, through the branch considered
between nodes A and B. If V A V B , the current I AB exists even when the line
operates under noload conditions. This balancing current cause, apart from
changes in load values, overloading of a power source compared with the other,
thus increasing the energy losses. Therefore, in exploitation it required, as much as
possible, the existence of the same voltage at the supplying nodes.
If the loads are expressed in terms of power and the power losses on the line
sections are not taken into consideration S 0 being the apparent complex power
carried on a phase and S = 3S 0 being the power carried by the threephase system
then from the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) the approximate distribution of
the powers can be obtained:
n
s
k =1
0k
'
Zk
V V B
S0A = + A Vn (2.33,a)
Z Z
n
s
k =1
0k Zk
V V B
S 0B = A Vn (2.33,b)
Z Z
Radial and meshed networks 97
End
node
In operation Out of service
branch branch
Fig. 2.7. Notations used for distribution networks with meshed topology.
The following assumptions are considered for the modelling of the electric
networks elements [2.3]:
the three phase voltages form a positivesequence symmetrical system;
the currents form a balanced threephase system;
the network parameters are homogeneous, constant in time and
independent of the supply voltage or currents;
the network operates under steady state conditions.
Under these conditions, the positivesequence oneline diagram is used for
the load flow calculation. The electric lines (overhead and underground cables) can
be represented by equivalent circuits with lumped parameters. Taking into
account the unidirectional character of the power flows, the transformers can be
represented by equivalent circuit with transformer operator (see Figure 1.50,
section 1.2.3.2).
In the absence of distributed generation, for the load flow calculation of
radial electric networks, only two of the three types of nodes existing in complex
meshed networks are considered:
load nodes, modelled through complex powers, obtained by combining
three components [2.1]:
S = ( Pc + jQc ) + 3 ( I ac + jI rc )U + ( Gc + jBc )U 2 (2.34)
where: Pc and Qc represents the components of a constant complex power,
I ac and I rc are the components of a constant complex current, Gc and Bc
are the components of a constant admittance, and U is the phasetophase
voltage magnitude of the node;
the slack node, representing the point of power injection into the radial
network (the source node), where the specified quantities are the voltage
magnitude and phase angle.
a. b.
Fig. 2.8. The steps of the load flow calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep:
a. calculation of the currents through branches; b. calculation of the nodal voltages.
nodes are obtained, and finally the powers (currents) flowing through branches are
calculated. Using the backward/forward sweep, the unknown quantities are
simultaneous obtained after performing the two steps.
100 Basic computation
The load flow solution, by the backward/forward sweep, for the linear
network model (the loads represented through constant currents, the lines and
transformers modelled through series impedances) is obtained processing only
once the two steps. In the case of the nonlinear model of the network (the loads
represented in the form given in (2.34), the electric lines modelled by equivalent
circuits, and the power transformers by circuits), the load flow solution is
obtained by iterative calculations. The convergence criterion consists in comparing
the modulus of the complex power at the source node or the voltage magnitude at
the load nodes between two successive iterations.
The load flow calculation algorithm using the backward/forward sweep
consists in the following steps [2.12]:
1. Ordering the network (indexing the ingoing node and ingoing branch
for each load node) and setting the voltages at the load nodes to the
value of the sources node voltage (S):
(0)
U k = U S , k = 1, 2,K, n, k S (2.35)
2. Set the initial iteration index: p = 1 ;
3. Backward sweep: traversing the network from the end nodes toward the
source node and performing the following operations:
3.1. Calculation of the current at the node k using the expression of the
load power given by formula (2.34):
*
( p) Sk
Ik = (2.36)
3U (k
p 1)*
5. Calculation of the power injected into the network by the source node:
( p)
S S = 3U S
jNext ( S )
*( p )
I Sj (2.40)
a.
Pgk+jQgk
PA+jQA Pk1+jQk1 Pk+jQk Pk+1+jQk+1 Pn+jQn
A 1 ... k1 k+1 n
k
z1 zk zk+1
UA
VA= s1 sk1 sk sk+1 sn
3
b.
Fig. 2.9. Distribution electric network:
a. simple radial network b. radial network with one distributed generator.
In the forward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk of the node k are
used to calculate the state quantities at the node k + 1 using the set of equations:
Pk2 + Qk2 Pk2 + Qk2
Pk +1 = Pk rk +1 p k +1 ; Qk +1 = Qk xk +1 qk +1
3Vk2 3Vk2
2 2
(2.41)
3V 2 = 3V 2 2 r P + x Q + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk
k +1 k ( k +1 k k +1 k ) k +1( k +1
3Vk2
)
102 Basic computation
Considering that the state quantities PA , QA and VA at the node A are known
or estimated, the state quantities at the other nodes can be calculated by successive
applications of equations (2.41) starting from the first node and going toward to the
node n.
In the backward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk at the node k are
used to calculate the state variables at the node k 1 , using the set of equations:
Pk'2 + Qk'2 Pk'2 + Qk'2
Pk 1 = Pk + rk + pk +1 ; Qk 1 = Qk + xk + qk +1
3Vk2 3Vk2
'2 '2
(2.42)
3V 2 = 3V 2 + 2 r P ' + x Q ' + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk
( ) ( )
k 1 k k k k k k k
3Vk2
where Pk' = Pk + pk and Qk' = Qk + qk .
Similarly to the forward sweep, in the backward sweep, considering the state
quantities Pn , Qn and Vn at the node n as known, the state quantities at the others
nodes can be calculated by successive applications of equations (2.42) starting
from the node n 1 and going toward the node A.
By successive applications of the backward and forward sweeps the load flow
solutions are achieved. The following boundary constraints are considered during
the calculation process [2.10]:
to voltage magnitude VA at the sources node A is known, and considered
constant;
the components of the apparent power flowing through a hypothetical
branch outgoing from the node n are: Pn = 0 and Qn = 0 .
PU nodes, to which the specified quantities are the generated active power
Pgsp and voltage magnitude U sp , and the unknown quantities are the
generated reactive power Qg and the voltage phase ;
U nodes, to which the specified quantities are the components of the
sp
complex voltage U (magnitude U sp and phase sp ), and the unknown
quantities are the generated active Pg and reactive Qg powers.
specified voltage U ksp at the node k. Establish the new value of the
generated reactive power Qg( ,k) in terms of its value with respect to the
p
min max
capability limits Qg,k and Qg,k :
There are several possibilities to calculate the value of the generated reactive
sp
power Qgcalc
, k necessary to achieve the specified voltage U k at the node k, i.e.:
Radial and meshed networks 105
Qgcalc ( p 1)
= Qg , k +
(U ( ) U )
k
p sp
k
,k ( p)
U k
Qk
(ii) using the secant method [2.25]:
( ) ( )
p 1 p2
( p 1) Qg , k Qg , k
Qgcalc
,k = Qg ,k + ( p 1)
Uk ( p 2)
Uk
U k( ) U ksp
p
( )
(iii) using a calculation formula based on the generated reactive current I gr , k ,
calculated by considering the constant currents model for the load:
( p 1)
Qgnec
, k = 3U k I gr ,k
A 1 2 k1 k n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk1 sk sn VB
a. Ik1,k
A 1 2 k1 k n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk1 sk sn VB
b.
A 1 2 k1 k' k'' n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk1 sk' sk'' sn VB
c.
Fig. 2.10. Calculation steps for a simple meshed electric network.
106 Basic computation
To apply the backward/forward sweep for the load flow calculation of this
network, one of the loops nodes is split (for example node k) obtaining two radial
subnetworks [2.14]. After splitting the node k, we require that the total consumed
power at the two resulted nodes k and k to be constant and equal to the power at
the node k before splitting:
s k ' + s k" = s k (2.44)
where Z AB is the cumulated impedance between nodes A and B, and the voltages
V k 1 and V k correspond to the operating state when the branch between the nodes
k 1 and k is in out of service state (Fig. 2.10,b). These voltages are calculated
by successively applying of the backward/forward sweep for the subnetworks
supplied from the source nodes A and B, respectively.
The load flow calculation is iteratively performed, by setting at each iteration
the power consumed at each node resulted after splitting and by calculating the
load flow for each radial subnetwork. The iterative process goes on until the
difference between the voltages of the two nodes k and k is less than an specified
value .
The steps followed for load flow calculation of a simple meshed network are:
1. One of the loops branches is switched to out of service state (for
instance, the branch between the nodes k 1 and k, Fig. 2.10,b), and for
the new configuration the load flow is calculated by means of the
backward/forward sweep;
2. The node k is split into nodes k and k and a new branch is introduced
between nodes k 1 and k, having the same parameters as the branch
between the nodes k 1 and k (Fig. 2.10,c). The voltages and the
powers consumed at the split nodes are set to:
V k ' = V k 1 ; V k '' = V k
(2.46)
s k ' = 0; s k '' = s k
5. The load flow is calculated for the network configuration in Figure 2.10,c;
6. If V k ' V k '' > then go to step 3, else return to the initial configuration
(Fig. 2.10,a) considering V k = V k '' and I k 1,k = I k 1,k ' .
When the network has a complex meshed configuration, the load flow
calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep is performed by introducing a
number of supplementary nodes (resulted after splitting) equal to the number of
loops. At each step, the equality of voltages at the split nodes for one single loop
has to be achieved. The calculation is repeated until the differences of the voltage
magnitudes at the split nodes in all loops is less than the specified value .
The oneline diagram of the electric network and the branch parameters are shown in
Figure 2.11,b.
The voltages at the load nodes, and current flows for this network have to be
determined.
For simplicity, the phasetophase voltages are used. The initial values of voltages at
the load nodes are:
U (0) (0)
2 = U 3 = U 1 = 20 kV
U (0)
4 = N 42 U 1 = 0.02 20 = 0.4 kV
Only the calculation of the first iteration is detailed below, the results of the whole
iterative process being presented in Table 2.1.
108 Basic computation
S1 1 2 3 s3
4
s4
a.
S1 1 I12 (1.4+j0.1) 2 I23 (2.1+j0.15) i3 3
I24 (0.8j8.72) S
N42=0.02
I'24
(0.028+j0.058)
4
s4 =(75+j50) kVA
b.
Fig. 2.11. Radial electric network: a. oneline diagram; b. equivalent circuit.
Backward sweep
Calculation of the current in the branch 2 3
i (1)
s*4 ( 75 j50 ) 103 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A
4 = =
3U (0)*
4
3 0.4 103
24 = i 4 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A
I '(1) (1)
s*2
i (1)
2 = =0A
3U (0)*
2
U (0) 20 103
I (1)
210 = y
2
= j 30 106 = j 0.346 A
210
3 3
U (0) 20 103
I (1)
230 = y
2
= j 45 106 = j 0.520 A
230
3 3
U (0) 20 103
I (1)
240 = y
2
= ( 0.8 j8.72 ) 106 = ( 0.009 j 0.101) A
240
3 3
2 + I 23 + I 230 + I 24 + I 240 + I 210 = ( 9.391 j 4.488 ) A
(1)
I 12 = i (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)
Forward sweep
Calculation of the voltage at the node 2
(1)
U 12 (1)
= 3 z12 I 12 = 3 (1.4 + j 0.1)( 9.391 j 4.488 ) 103 = ( 0.024 j 0.009 ) kV
( )
*
S 1(1) = 3U 1 I 12
(1) (1)
+ I 120 = 3 20 ( 9.391 j 4.142 ) = ( 325.314 + 143.483) kVA
Table 2.1
Results of the iterative process
Quantity Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3
0 1 2 3 4
i3 A 7.217 j 4.330 7.240 j 4.334 7.240 j 4.334
I 320 A j 0.520 0.001 + j 0.518 0.001 + j 0.518
I 23 A 7.217 j 3.810 7.241 j 3.816 7.241 j 3.816
110 Basic computation
Notes: The load flow results were achieved after 3 iterations by applying the
backward/forward sweep. The difference between voltages at the last two iterations is less
than 0.001 kV, and the difference between apparent powers at the source node is 0.1 kVA.
The same results were achieved using SeidelGauss (12 iterations) and NewtonRaphson
(3 iterations) methods.
s1
l1 = l2
s2
As equivalencing crosssectional area, the most frequent crosssectional area
from the respective network will be chosen.
b) Loads throwing at the nodes. Composing branches in parallel needs the
loads to be situated only at their ends, in nodes. If the loads are connected
everywhere along the branches, first their throwing (moving) at the ends is
performed, with the condition of keeping the voltage drop constant, in the initial
circuit as well as in the transformed circuit. In Figure 2.12 an electric line to which
the loads i1 and i 2 are connected is represented.
Z
Z2 Z2
Z1 Z1 Z
A 1 2 B A B
VA i1 i2 VB VA iA iB VB
a. b.
Fig. 2.12. Electric network diagram for the throwing of the loads at the nodes:
a. initial circuit; b. transfigured circuit.
For instance, to throw at the ends the two currents i1 and i 2 from Figure
2.12, a, two loads i A and i B applied at the lines ends in the transformed network
(Fig. 2.12,a) will be determined, such that the same voltage drop as in the initial
network is obtained:
V AB = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i B
' '
V BA = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i A
from where it results:
n
'
Z 1 i1 +
'
Z 2 i2
Z
k =1
'
k ik
iA = =
Z Z
n
(2.49)
Z i + Z 2 i2
Z
k =1
k ik
iB = 1 1 =
Z Z
' ' '
where Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k and respectively Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k represents the impedances
from the two ends to the connection points of the k loads.
112 Basic computation
In the particular case of moving only one load, the consumed current
component, moved at one of the ends, is proportional to the impedance of the line
from the point of consumption to the other end, and inversely proportional to the
line impedance.
From the expression (2.49) results that load throwing at the nodes is
performed according to the rule determined for distribution of the currents
(powers) in the case of the networks supplied from two ends, that is considering the
electric moments of the loads referred to the supplying points. For the case of the
homogenous network, in the relationships of transformation, the impedances are
substituted with the corresponding lengths.
c) Composing of several branches of different supplying voltages which
debit into a node, in a single equivalent branch. Consider the branches A, B, C
of an electric network that has different phasetoneutral voltages V A , V B , V C at
the ends and debits into a node O (Fig. 2.13).
VA
A IA
VE YA
IE
E YE
O IE
Fig. 2.13. Ramified electric
network with different VB
voltages at the ends. IB YB
B
Y VO
VC I C
C
C
respectively
Radial and meshed networks 113
V Y +V BY B +V CY C
V
k =1
kYk
VE = A A = (2.51)
Y A +YB +YC n
Y k =1
k
Z 12 (Z 23 + Z 31 ) Z (Z + Z 12 ) Z (Z + Z 23 )
Z1 + Z 2 = ; Z 2 + Z 3 = 23 31 ; Z 3 + Z 1 = 31 12
Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31
114 Basic computation
I1 I1
1 1
Z1
Z31 Z12
I12
I31
Z3 Z2
I23
3 2 3 2
I3 I2 I2
I3 Z23
a. b.
Fig. 2.14. Star and delta circuits.
Z1 Z 2 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z 3
Z 12 = Z 1 + Z 2 + ; Z 23 = Z 2 + Z 3 + ; Z 31 = Z 1 + Z 3 + (2.54)
Z3 Z1 Z2
In terms of admittances, from the equations (2.53) and (2.54) we obtain the
transformation relationships of a deltashape network into a starshape network
with three branches:
Y 12 Y 13 Y 12 Y 23 Y Y
Y 1 = Y 12 + Y 13 + ; Y 2 = Y 12 + Y 23 + ; Y 3 = Y 31 + Y 23 + 31 23 (2.53')
Y 23 Y 31 Y 12
V1 Yn Y3 V2
Instar 3 I3star Y1n
n VO
Vn V3 Inp 3 I3p
a. b.
Fig. 2.15. The general transformation of a network from star into a polygon:
a. starshape network; b. polygonshape network.
For instance, for the current injected at the node 1 into the polygonshape
network:
I 1 p = I 12 + I 13 + K + I 1n = Y 12 (V 1 V 2 ) + Y 13 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + Y 1n (V 1 V n ) (2.55)
respectively, into the starshape network:
Y Y Y Y Y Y
I 1 star = Y 1 (V 1 V O ) = n1 2 (V 1 V 2 ) + n1 3 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + n1 n (V 1 V n )
Yk
k =1
Yk Yk
k =1
k =1
(2.56)
where
n
Y
k =1
kV k
VO = n
Y
k =1
k
Notice that the polygon has not all its branches independent. Thus,
considering the transformed admittance between nodes i and j, given by (2.57), and
dividing Y ij to Y i , where:
Y iY
Y i = n
Y
k =1
k
Y ij Yj
=
Y i Y
Therefore, it results that:
Y1j Y2j Y nj Yj
= =K= =
Y 1 Y 2 Y n Y
Now, we can draw the conclusion that any complete polygon, having all
branches independent from each other, cannot be transformed into a star. The
triangle (delta) is the only polygon that allows this transformation, having all
branches dependent from each other.
e) Electric networks equivalencing by using Kron elimination. In some
cases, of interest is to hold only certain nodes in calculation (for instance: 1, 2
which are source nodes), whereas the other nonessential nodes (passive nodes,
loads passivized through Z=ct.), since not of interest, are eliminated/reduced
through stardelta transformation, taking benefit of the zero value of the current
injected into the nonessential nodes (for instance: nodes 3 and 4) (Fig. 2.16,b).
1 Y14 Y42 2 1 Y14 Y42 2
4 4
Y43 Y43
3 3
Y30
0
a. b.
1 2 1 2
4
0 0
c. d.
Fig. 2.16. Exemplification of the nonessential nodes elimination:
a. initial network; b. the network with the load from node 3 replaced with an
impedance Z=ct.; c. the circuit after the elimination of node 3; d. the circuit after the
elimination of nodes 3 and 4.
For the electric network from Figure 2.16,b, where node 4 was nonessential,
and node 3 became passive, by replacing the consumption with an impedance
Z=ct., the equation from the nodal voltages method) becomes:
I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1
I
2 = Y 22 Y 24 U 2
(2.58)
I 3 = 0 Y 33 Y 34 U 3
I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y 43 Y 44 U 4
)
As it can be seen in 2.4.2., in the framework of nodal voltages method, phasetophase
voltage is used.
Radial and meshed networks 117
In the first stage the node 3 is eliminated. In this regard, from the equation
corresponding to the current from node 3, where I 3 = 0 , U 3 is obtained and then
substituted in the equation of the current from node 4, resulting:
I 4 = 0 = Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43U 3 + Y 44 U 4 =
Y
= Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43 34 U 4 + Y 44 U 4
Y 33
or
Y Y
Y 41U 1 + Y 42U 2 + Y 44 34 43 U 4 = 0
Y 33
It can be noticed that by eliminating node 3, the term 44 has been modified:
' Y 34 Y 43
Y 44 = Y 44
Y 33
resulting the reduction of the number of equations with one unit (Fig. 2.16,c):
I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1
I = Y 22 Y 24 U 2 (2.59)
2
I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y '44 U 4
Next, in order to eliminate the node 4, U 4 is obtained from the new equation
corresponding to it and substituted in the first two equations in (2.59):
Y Y Y Y
I 1 = Y 11 14 ' 41 U 1 14 ' 42 U 2
Y 44 Y 44
Y Y Y Y
I 2 = 24 ' 41 U 1 + Y 22 24 ' 42 U 2
Y 44 Y 44
or
I 1 Y 11
'
Y 12 U 1
'
[I r ] [A] [B ] [U r ]
[I ] = [C ] [D ] = [U ] (2.61)
e e
[I r ] =
I1
[I e ] =
I3
[U r ] =
U1
where: ; for the preserved nodes, and ,
I 2 U 2 I 4
[U e ] =
U3
for the nodes that are being eliminated.
U 4
From (2.61) results:
[I r ] = [A][U r ] + [B][U e ]
[I e = 0] = [C ][U r ] + [D][U e ]
If [U e ] is expressed from latter equation and substituted into the previous
equation, it results:
[I r ] = [A][U r ] [B][D]1[C ][U r ] = [Y rr ][U r ]
where the admittance matrix reduced to the preserved nodes can be calculated with
the expression:
[Y rr ] = [A] [B][D]1[C ] (2.62)
[ S ] = U d I * = U d ([Y nn ]U n )
*
(2.64)
where [U d ] is a diagonal matrix whose elements correspond to the elements of the
vector [U n ] , but grouped into I, F and E:
(U E )
d
U d = (U F )d
(2.65)
(U I )d
By using (2.63) and (2.65), equation (2.64) becomes:
S E (U E )d
Y *
EE
Y *EF
[0] U *
E
S F = (U F )d
Y *FE
Y *FF Y *FI
U * F (2.66)
S I (U I )d [ 0] Y IF Y II
* *
U I
*
Note:
If [A] is a square matrix with only diagonal terms, [X] being a vector,
x1 0 L 0 x1
0 x2 L 0 x
[A] = ; [X ] = 2 and noting through [Xd] the diagonal matrix
L L L L M
0 0 0 xn xn
120 Basic computation
whose elements are those of the matrix [A], it can be shown that the vector
x1 y1
x y
[W ] = 2 2 can be rewritten as
xn y n
[W ] = [X d ][y ] = [Yd ][X ]
The matrix equation (2.66) can be rewritten as a system of three vector
equations:
S E = (U E )d [Y EE ] U E + [Y EF ] U F
*
(2.67,a)
S F = (U F )d [Y FE ] U E + [Y FF ] U F + [Y FI ] U I
*
(2.67,b)
S I = (U I ) d [Y IF ] U F + [Y II ] U I
*
(2.67,c)
S Ei S Ei *
= U Ei
U Ei U E2i
If we define the vector:
S E1
U 2
E1
[wE ] = M
S En
U 2
E n
then the expression from (2.68) takes another form:
(U E )d
1
( )
S E = U E
*
d
w E = (W E )d U E
*
(2.70)
( )
1
U *E = Y *EE (W ) U * Y * U *
E d E EF F
Radial and meshed networks 121
or by conjugating:
1
U E = (Y EE ) W E
*
( ) d
U E [Y EF ] U F
If in the latter relation we multiply to the left with [Y EE ] we obtain:
[Y EE ] U E = (W *E )d U E [Y EF ] U F
or
( ( ))
1
U E = [Y EE ] W E [Y EF ] U F
*
(2.71)
d
or
( ( ))
*
1
S F = (U F )d [Y FF ] [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W E d [Y EF ] U F + Y FI U I
* * * *
If in the latter equation we let [Y FF ] stand for the term that modifies the
initial matrix, then:
( ( ))
1
Y eq = [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W *E [Y EF ] (2.72)
d
consideration that the load varies from moment to moment, the values of the
electric variables, characteristic of this state, vary also from scenario to scenario.
The results obtained after the load flow calculation, being the starting point
for any analysis of transmission and distribution networks, represent [2.4]:
Necessity in the planning strategies of electric networks development for
the determination of the optimal configuration as well as in the exploitation
activity for establishing the operating regime (overloading possibilities,
voltage level, weak network areas identification, etc.);
Input data in the following activities:
(i) contingency analyses, for testing the unavailability of an electric line,
transformer or synchronous generator, known as security criteria with
(N 1) or (N 2) availabilities;
(ii) transmission capacity analysis, for testing the limits of transfer powers
(thermal limit Imax adm);
(iii) VAr voltage analysis, for assessment of necessity of VAr voltage
equipment and its regulation manner;
(iv) online control, of power system operation, using state estimators and
process computers.
Starting point in the study and the selection of the protection relays and
automations, also for static, transient and voltage stability analysis, the
optimisation of operating regimes, etc.
The mathematical model for steady state analysis is based on nodal voltages
method using either nodal admittance matrix
*
[Y nn][U n] = [I n] = S n * (2.74)
U n
or nodal impedance matrix:
[Z nn][I n]=[U n] (2.75)
For steady state analysis, assume that the electric network is symmetrical,
load balanced, and there are no magnetic couplings between its elements. In
consequence, the electric network can be modelled through a singleline diagram.
In the framework of load flow calculations phasetophase voltage is used,
which also represents the rated voltage of the networks elements given in catalogues.
a. b.
Fig. 2.18. Threenode network: a. Singleline diagram; b. Equivalent circuit.
In order to obtain the nodal admittance matrix [Ynn] and the equations from
nodal voltages method, respectively, we apply the Kirchhoffs first theorem at the
independent nodes, conventionally adopting the sign + for injected nodal
currents and the sign for consumed nodal currents:
12 13
(
y (V 1 V 2 ) + y (V 1 V 3 ) + y + y V 1 = I 1
120 130
)
( )
y 21 (V 2 V 1 ) + y 23 (V 2 V 3 ) + y 210 + y 230 V 2 = I 2 (2.76)
31 32
(
y (V 3 V 1 ) + y (V 3 V 2 ) + y + y V 3 = I 3
310 320
)
If we group the latter system of equations in terms of the nodal voltages then:
( 13 120 130
)
y + y + y + y V 1 y V 2 y V 3 = I1
12 12 13
( )
y 21V 1 + y 21 + y 23 + y 210 + y 230 V 2 y 23V 3 = I 2 (2.76')
(
y 31V 1 y 32 V 2 + y 31 + y 32 + y 310 + y 320 V 3 = I 3 )
or, as matrix form:
Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 V 1 I 1
Y
21 Y 22 Y 23 V 2 = I 2
Y 31 Y 32 Y 33 V 3 I 3
or
[Y nn ][V n ] = [I n ] (2.77)
124 Basic computation
where:
Y 11 = y12 + y13 + y120 + y130 ; Y 12 = y12 ; Y 13 = y13 ;
Y 21 = y ; Y 22 = y + y + y +y ; Y 23 = y ;
21 21 23 210 230 23
Y 31 = y ; Y 32 = y ; Y 33 = y + y + y +y
31 32 31 32 310 320
z ik i
N ik k Ik Ii i N ki z ki
Ii i Iik k Ik
Si Sk
Vi Vi Vk Vi Vk
a. b.
Fig. 2.19. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator.
If apply Kirchhoffs second theorem for the loop in Figure 2.19,a, obtain:
V i + z ik I ik + V i ' = 0
V ik = V i N ik V k (2.78)
In order to establish the relationship between currents we start from the
equality between the complex apparent powers from the input and those at the
output terminals of the ideal transformer:
* *
S i = 3V i ' I ik = S k = 3V k I k (2.79)
k ik
and taking into account that I ik = y ik V ik and considering the expression (2.78') of
V ik , obtain:
[Y ik ] = [Aik ] *t y ik [Aik ] =
1
* y ik [1 N ik ]
N ik
The nodal admittance matrix of the branch representing a transformer can
be written as:
'
Y ik y ik
' y ik N ik
[Y ik ] = Y 'ii '
= * (2.81)
Y ki Y kk y ik N ik y ik N ik2
Y ii = (y ik
) y
+ y ik 0 + ki
N ki2 (2.82)
where the first sum stands for lines elements, and the second sum stands for
transformer elements;
if the series admittance of the transformer is galvanically connected to i
node, the diagonal term is:
Y ii = y +y ik ik 0
(2.82')
where y ik
corresponds to series admittances of lines and transformers as well.
If we do not neglect the shunt components of the transformer, these are added
to the term Yii since by hypothesis these are connected on the primary winding side.
The nondiagonal terms in the case of transformer branch are expressed as
follows:
if the transformer operator N ik is connected to k node:
' ' *
Y ik = y ik N ik ; Y ki = y ik N ik (2.82")
The nondiagonal terms, in the case of line branch, are equal to the minus
sign value of admittance of the incident line to the two i and k nodes.
The nondiagonal term can be zero ( Y ik = 0 ) if there is no connection
between i and k nodes.
Y ii Y
ik
ik
[Y nn ] 3 [V n ] = 3 [I n ]
Taking into consideration the relationship between phasetoneutral voltages
and phasetophase voltages U = 3 V , and noting I = 3 I , it results the known
form of matrix equation (2.74) from nodal voltages method.
Under these conditions, the expression of threephase apparent power
becomes:
* * *
S = 3V I = 3 V 3 I = U I (2.83)
mentioning that the currents I are 3 times bigger than the real ones I.
The nodal voltages method in the case of the threephase models of the
electric lines
To calculate the asymmetrical load regimes of the phases it is useful to
consider the equivalent circuit, thus emphasizing the self and mutual parameters
(Fig. 2.20,a,b).
Note that in the equivalent circuit from Figure 2.20,c, the hypothesis from
equation (2.83) with phasetophase voltage and currents multiplied by 3 has
been applied.
128 Basic computation
i k
a
Ii a z aa
ik a
a
Ik
b z bb z ab
ik b
Ii b z acik ik
b Ik
c z ccik z bc
ik c
Ii c c Ik
yab ybc yab ybc
yac yac
y aa
ik
y bb
ik
y ccik y aa
ik
y bb y cc
ik
ik
a.
a a
I i i z aa z ab z ac k
Ik
b b
[I i ] = I i z ba z bb z bc [I k] = I k
c c
I i
z ca z cb z cc Ik
a y aa y ab y ac [Z ik] y aa y ab y ac V
a
Vi
y ba y bb y bc = [Y ik]
k
[Y ik]
[V i] = V i
b = y ba y bb y bc [V k] = V b
2 y ca y cb y cc y ca y cb y cc 2 k
c
V
c
i
V k
b.
[I i] i [Z ik] k [I k]
[Y ik] [Y ik]
[U i]= 3 [V i] [U k]= 3 [V k]
2 2
c.
Fig. 2.20. Equivalent circuit of a threephase electric line.
Using direct writing rules of the nodal admittance matrix, the relationship
between the nodal voltages and currents is (Fig. 2.20,c):
[Y ik ] [Z ]1
[I i ] [Z ik ] + 2
1
ik [U i ]
[I ] = [Y ik ] [U k ]
(2.84)
k [Z ik ]1 [Z ik ] +
1
2
Radial and meshed networks 129
For the power flow calculation on a branch, we first consider the phaseto
neutral voltages V i and V k and the current passed through the branch I ik ,
respectively.
The apparent power at the sendingend has the expression:
* * *
S ik = 3V i I ik = 3V i 3 I ik = U i I ik (2.85)
where I ik is the value of current at the sendingend, determined by
I ik = V i y ik 0 + (V i V k ) y ik =
1
3
[
U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik ] (2.86)
resulting:
not
3 I ik = U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = I ik (2.87)
( )
* *
S ik = U i I ik = U i U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = U i2 y ik 0 + y ik
* * *
U i U k y ik =
= U i yik ( cos ik j sin ik ) + gik 0 jbik 0
2
or
S ik Pik + jQik (2.85)
Equating the real and imaginary parts, the active and reactive powers flowing
on the transmission line from node i to node k are obtained:
Pik = U i2 ( g ik 0 + yik cos ik ) U iU k yik cos(i k ik )
(2.89,a)
Qik = U i2 (bik 0 + yik sin ik ) U iU k yik sin (i k ik )
The expressions of active and reactive powers flowing in opposite direction
are:
Pki = U k2 (g ki 0 + yki cos ki ) U kU i yki cos( k i ki )
(2.89,b)
Qki = U k2 (bki 0 + yki sin ki ) U kU i yki sin ( k i ki )
Transformer
Consider the case of equivalent circuit with transformer operator and real
turns ratio (Fig. 2.19,a,b) for which power losses, represented only through shunt
admittance y i 0 located on the primary winding side, are taken into consideration.
The expressions of complex powers flowing through transformer depend on
the side the taps are located.
Consider first the case of the stepup transformer (Fig. 2.22,a) where the taps
are located on the secondary winding side, and the series parameters are referred to
the lower voltage side. Adopting the same convention as for transmission line, it
can be written:
[
S ik = U i I i = U i y i 0 U i + y ik (U i N ik U k ) *=
*
]
= U i2 ( g i 0 jbi 0 + yik ) U i U k y ik N ik
* * *
where: y i 0 = gi 0 jbi 0 .
a. b.
Fig. 2.22. Equivalent circuits of transformer with shunt admittance.
a. Stepup transformer; b. Stepdown transformer.
Separating the real and imaginary parts of the latter expression yields the
active Pik and reactive Qik power flow expressions:
then it results:
Pki = U k2 yik N ik2 cos ik U kU i yik N ik cos( k i ik )
(2.90,b)
Qki = U k2 yik N ik2 sin ik U kU i yik N ik sin ( k i ik )
Likewise, if consider the case of the stepdown transformer (Fig. 2.22,b),
where the taps are located on the primary winding side, the expressions of active
and reactive powers for both directions are:
( )
Pik = U i2 g i 0 + yki N ki2 cos ki U iU k yki N ki cos(i k ki )
(2.91,a)
( )
Qik = U i2 bi 0 + yki N ki2 sin ki U iU k yki N ki sin (i k ki )
node i
Sgi=Pgi+jQgi
k (i)
Sci=Pci+jQci
or
Pi = P
k ( i )
ik ; Qi = Q
k ( i )
ik
Taking into account the expressions of powers flow on a branch (2.89), the
exchanged powers between the i node and remaining part of the network through
the nodes directly connected with it, are:
n n
Pi = U i2 (gik 0 + yik cos ik ) U i U k yik cos(i k ik )
k =1 k =1
(2.93)
n n
Qi = U i2 (b
k =1
ik 0 + yik sin ik ) U i U
k =1
k yik sin (i k ik )
(y ) [( y
n
Y ii = ik
+ y ik 0 = ik cos ik + g ik 0 ) + j ( yik sin ik + bik 0 )]
k ( i ) k =1 (2.94,a)
= Yii e j ii Gii + jBii
If equations (2.88,a) and (2.94) are used, the expression of nodal power
becomes:
n
Si =U i Ii =U i
*
Y
k =1
* *
ik U k Pi + jQi
or
n
Si = U U e
k =1
i k
j ( i k )
(Gik jBik ) =
n
= U U {G [cos(
k =1
i k ik i k ) + j sin (i k )] (2.96)
n n
(2.97,a)
= U U GG
k =1
i k ik = GiiU i2 + U U GG
k =1, k i
i k ik
respectively
n
Qi (U m , m ) = BiiU i2 U U BB
k =1, k i
i k ik (2.97,b)
where:
GGik = Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin (i k )
(2.98)
BBik = Bik cos(i k ) Gik sin (i k )
Table 2.2
Node types
Quantities
Node type Symbol
Specified Unknown
P, U
Generator node G G min , Q
pure
or (Q , Q max )
hybrid
P,Q P(Q)
C C
Load node or BC(GC) P, Q , U
C
Passive node YC P = 0, Q = 0 , U
Slack (swing)
Us, s = 0 P, Q
node S
Radial and meshed networks 135
Therefore, the slack node must be chosen so that it can undertake the
inaccuracies introduced by the power losses in the network. Usually, this role is
performed by the most important power plant of the system.
1 n
Ui =
Y ii
Ii
Y ik U k , i = 2,..., n
(2.102')
k =1, k i
which represents the fundamental equation of Gauss iterative method.
136 Basic computation
1 ( p) n
( p)
Ui
( p +1 )
=
Y ii
Ii
Y ik U k , i s
(2.102")
k =1; k i
where
( p )*
( p) Si ( p)
Ii = ; Si = Pi + jQi( p )
( p )*
Ui
In the framework of Seidel Gauss method, the finding of solution is
accelerated, by using in the (p+1) step the values of all the nodal voltages U k , with
k<i, already calculated in the same iterative step, according to the relationship:
1 Pi jQi( p ) i 1 n
Y ik U k , i s
( p +1 ) ( p +1) ( p)
U i , calc = Y U (2.103)
Y ii U ( p )
* ik k
i k =1 k = i +1
The convention of the current and powers flow is important. Currents
entering the nodes are considered positive, and thus the power into the node is also
positive. A load draws power out of the node and thus the active and inductive
reactive powers are entered in expression (2.103) with negative sign.
The iterative calculation goes on until the voltages magnitude difference
obtained after two successive iterations becomes smaller than a value imposed as
convergence test:
( p +1) ( p)
Ui U i
U
real value
Ui
p+1
p+1 U i, acc
Ui p+1 p Fig. 2.24. Exemplification
Ui Ui of the convergence process
p
Ui acceleration.
calculation step
p p+1
Radial and meshed networks 137
Usually (12), with moderate values, being preferred for the regimes
calculation, since large values could lead to divergence. The acceleration in the
initial phase can be unfavourable if the tendency towards the solution is oscillating.
It is recommended to use 34 iterations without acceleration, that is = 1 , then,
according to the number of nodes and parameters of the electric network,
= 1.2 K 1.75 , and every 10 iterations to use = 2.2.
The nonlinear relations (2.103) are applied in a different manner in terms of
node types:
(i) Voltage calculation at the slack node is omitted, the voltage at this node
is specified in magnitude and phase angle, being maintained constant during the
entire iterative process;
(ii) For the load node, the reactive power Qi( p ) = Qi is considered constant,
and the voltage is updated every iteration by using equation (2.103);
(iii) A generator node is treated differently; the voltage to be controlled at the
node is specified and the generator voltage regulator varies the reactive power
output of the generator within its reactive power capability limits to regulate the
terminal voltage.
In order to maintain the voltage at the specified value we must proceed to its
correction:
( p)
( p) U i , calc
U i , cor = U isp ( p)
(2.105)
U i , calc
Qgmax
, i ), then the ig node, of PU type, is transferred to the set of c nodes of PQ
type. The reactive power Qi is fixed at one of the violated limits as follows:
(i) if Qi( p ) < Qimin , then Qi( p ) = Qimin ;
(ii) if Qi( p ) > Qimax , then Qi( p ) = Qimax .
That means the reactive power support is not sufficient to maintain the
voltage at the specified value, and the voltage at iteration (p) is the calculated value
( p) ( p)
U i = U i , calc .
Note that after the convergence test is satisfied, generator nodes must be
again treated accordingly, that is depending on the reactive power calculated, the
final voltages are established as explained earlier.
Also, in the end of the calculation process, after the (p+1) iteration when the
convergence test is satisfied, the apparent complex power at the slack node s is
calculated with the expression:
n
( p +1) ( p +1)*
Ss
final
=Ss
*
= U s2 Y ss + U s
k =1,k s
*
Y sk U k (2.107)
Observations [2.4]:
a) If the calculated real power generation violates generator limits, the excess
(or deficiency) of slack node generation is distributed among the remaining units,
and more load flow iteration are carried out. This adjustment is repeated until slack
node generation is within acceptable limits;
b) Also, if slack node reactive power generation violates generator limits,
then a number of possibilities may be considered. One possibility is to change the
slack node to a different generator. Another is to change slack node voltage
appropriately without violating its voltage limits. A third possibility is to introduce
reactive generation and/or load by means of the switching of appropriate capacitor
and/or inductor banks.
In practice, for the control of the convergence of iterative process, there are
also other criteria to use, the most common consisting in testing the module of the
difference between the apparent powers at the slack node, calculated at two
successive iterations:
( p +1) ( p)
Ss Ss
Radial and meshed networks 139
Once the state vector is calculated we could determine the injected powers
and the load flow on the network branches.
In chapter 8 Performance methods for power flow studies, methods of
NewtonRaphson type for steady state calculation are presented.
example, consider a simple meshed electric network, which supplies n loads (Fig.
2.25). The arborescent configuration allows us to achieve n + 1 possible
arborescent configurations in operation.
Source A Source B
1 2 ... k ... n Base
network
Network
sectionalization
Configuration 1
...
Configuration k
...
Configuration n+1
Fig. 2.25. Possible arborescent configurations for a simple meshed electric network.
The reconfiguration process can be applied for all the possible operating
conditions of a distribution electric network:
normal conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network
elements, the state quantities being within the admissible operating limits;
critical conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network
elements, with some of the state quantities being at the limit of normal
operation (the thermal limit, the voltage stability limit, etc.);
emergency operation, characterized by the unavailability of one or more
elements of the network, due to operation under critical conditions on
expanded period of time or to some accidental damages emerged from
outside the network.
For the normal and critical conditions, finding the optimal configuration of an
electric network actually implies network reconfiguration, but for the emergency
operation the process becomes one of reconstruction. Usually, under normal
conditions, the purpose is to reach an optimum in operation in order to minimize
the active power losses and energy losses and to improve the security in supplying
the loads. For the critical conditions the goal of the reconfiguration process is to
restore the network normal operating state, by load reducing and balancing the
lines load as well as by reducing the voltage drops and also by obtaining uniformity
of the voltage level at the loads. For the emergency operation the goal is to supply
as many as possible loads after the detection and isolation of the fault. In this case,
the optimisation is of lower interest, more important being the restoration of the
power supply of all loads in a time as short as possible and the reducing of the
financial penalties for the electricity not supplied.
Radial and meshed networks 141
OPTIM f ( U, I, C, F ) (2.108)
g ( U, I, C, F ) = 0
(2.109)
h ( U, I, C, F ) > 0
Table 2.3
Issues used currently in the reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks
Operating state
Issue
Normal Critical Emergency
Power losses Criterion  
Manoeuvres cost Criterion  
Criterion/ Criterion/
Security in power supply Criterion
Constraint Constraint
Criterion/ Criterion/
Branch load Constraint
Constraint Constraint
Criterion/ Criterion/
Voltage drops Constraint
Constraint Constraint
Arborescent configuration Restriction Restriction Restriction
Configuration connectivity Restriction Restriction Restriction
Executing manoeuvres on certain
Restriction Restriction Restriction
electric lines and transformers
Admitted number of manoeuvres Restriction Restriction 
P = R I
lA
2
l l cl ;
lA
{
I I adm = max I l I ladm ;} U = max
kX
Zl Il ; (2.111)
lDk
ik = I c , k X;
lA k
l l lR = l n + nC ;
I l I ladm , l A; Z
lDk
l I l U adm , k X; (2.112)
adm
N man N man ;
adm
N int N int ; Tdint Tdadm
max
Mathematical Programming Artificial Intelligence Techniques Searching inside the Solution Space
Expert Systems
Petri Networks
Ik Ik
 In+1
 I1
 I2  In
 In1
 Ik1
 Ik+1
(1) (2)
of service (Fig. 2.30). While for the previous strategies the number of
intermediary steps necessary for achieving the final configuration is well defined,
for this strategy the number of steps depends on many factors, out of which the
most important are the searching manner of the substituting configuration and its
selection criterion.
Since for the branch exchange reconfiguration strategy, the path between
the initial and the final configuration is not unique, for identifying improved
configurations, several strategies can be applied (Fig. 2.31).
Local Descending
Ordered Dynamic
Random Maximal
Irrevocable Tentative
(irreversible) (reversible)
General
reversible Backtracking
Taking into account the convex variation of the curve of the branch currents
for a simple meshed network, for the criteria based on these currents, the searching
process is simplified. Therefore, starting from an out of service branch, branch
exchange is subsequently performed with the two adjacent branches. If an
improved configuration is found for one of these exchanges the search continues in
this direction with the next branch, until no improved configurations can be found.
Depending on the fact that the searches continue or not, the search is called
descending or local.
Radial and meshed networks 149
IA A 1 2 k1 k k+1 n B IB
z1 z2 zk1 zk zk+1 zn zn+1
VA i1 i2 ik1 ik ik+1 in VB
a.
A I1 1 I2 2 Ik1 k1 Ik k k+1 In n In+1 B
z1 z2 zk1 zk zn zn+1
VA i1 i2 ik1 ik ik+1 in VB
b.
Fig. 2.32. Simple distribution electric network:
a. meshed network; b. meshed electric network with radial operation.
The local load transfer of one load or of a group of loads between two
neighbouring feeders is performed by doing an elementary exchange for an out of
service branch. The selection of this branch exchange is based on using the
equation. (A2.2.8) to estimate the active power losses variation P generated by
the load transfer from one feeder to another. The condition for the load transfer is
P < 0 . For the network shown in Figure 2.32,b, consider the transfer of the load
from the node k located on the feeder supplied from node A to the feeder supplied
from node B (Fig. 2.33).
ik=ik ik=+ik
After the load transfer the currents through the line sections between the
nodes A and k will decrease with the value of i k , and the currents through the line
sections between the nodes B and k will increase with the same value. By applying
equation (A2.2.8) for the mentioned line sections, for the current flows
Radial and meshed networks 151
corresponding to the situation previous to the load transfer, and considering that
i k = i k , one obtains:
k k k
PA,k = 3 ik2 ri 2ika ri I ia 2ikr ri I ir
i =1 i =1 i =1
(2.115)
n n +1 n +1
PB ,k = 3 ik2 ri + 2ika ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir
i = k +1 i = k +1 i = k +1
By summing up the above relations, the active power losses variation, as a
result of the transfer of the node k from the feeder A to the feeder B, is [2.19]:
n +1 k
n +1 k
P = 3 ik2 RAB + 2ika ri I ia ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir ri I ir (2.116)
i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1
where RAB is the resistance between nodes A and B.
The optimal currents pattern represents the current flows through the
branches of a simple meshed electric network for which the active power losses are
minimised, in comparison with any other operating state. For a simple meshed
electric network, the optimal currents pattern corresponds to the natural repartition
of currents through the line sections, considering only their resistances, given that
the voltages at the two ends are equal [2.1, 2.14, 2.20].
Consider that the meshed electric network in Figure 2.32,a has equal voltages
at both ends. The current flows through the network branches is determined
starting from the current I A or I B and subsequently applying Kirkhoffs current
law in nodes 1, 2,K, n , or in the nodes n,K , 2,1 , respectively. The currents injected
by the two supplying nodes are calculated with the relations (2.29,a) and (2.29,b)
adapted for the situation in which only the branches resistances are considered:
n
R i
k k n +1
IA = k =1
RAB
; Rk = r
i = k +1
i
n
(2.117)
R i k k k
IB = k =1
; Rk = ri
RAB i =1
To obtain the radial configuration from Figure 2.33, the line section between
nodes k 1 and k from the meshed network is switched out of service state
(Fig. 2.33). The currents through the line sections between nodes A and k decrease
with the value of I k , and the currents through the line sections between nodes B
and k increase with the same value. By applying the relation (A2.2.8) for the
mentioned line sections, corresponding to the current flows in meshed operation
and considering that i k = I k , the active power losses variation, after
transforming the simple meshed networks into two radial subnetworks, is:
152 Basic computation
n +1 k
n +1 k
P = 3 I k2 RAB + 2 I ka ri I ia ri I ia + 2 I kr ri I ir ri I ir (2.118)
i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1
Taking into account that the current flows for the line sections of the simple
meshed network has been calculated considering only the branch resistances, the
voltage drops of the nodes A and B with respect to the node k can be written as:
k k k
V Ak = ri ( I ia + jI ir ) = ri I ia + j ri I ir
i =1 i =1 i =1
n +1 n +1 n+1
(2.119)
V Bk = r (I
i = k +1
i ia + jI ir ) = rI
i = k +1
i ia + j ri I ir
i = k +1
rI
i = k +1
i ia ri I ia = 0
i =1
n +1 k
(2.121)
r I r I
i = k +1
i ir
i =1
i ir =0
Fig. 2.34. Selecting the branch that has to be added to the network.
Theoretically, for branch load reduction, elementary branch exchanges for all
branches in out of service state can be performed. To perform only the branch
exchanges that leads to the proposed goal we consider the fact that at an elementary
branch exchange in a certain loop only the current flow through the line sections of
the loop in question will change (Fig. 2.35).
Im
m
k
n
a.
Im m
k
n
+Im
b.
Fig. 2.35. Variation of currents in a meshed network:
a. before the branch exchange; b. after the branch exchange.
Radial and meshed networks 155
I > Iadm
Fig. 2.36. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the branch load.
is that the chosen branch exchange should lead to a voltage drop decrease on the
path considered. The sufficient conditions that ensure this objective are: for a
branch exchange, a nonzero load should be transferred from a feeder to a
neighbouring one, and in the arborescent subnetwork for which the transfer was
performed no voltage drops exceeding the admissible value or the existing voltage
drops occurring on the path in question should emerge [2.12].
For a better understanding, the possible branch exchanges performed in the
Figure 2.37 to reduce the voltage drop between the source node and the node in
question, are presented.
Umin
Fig. 2.37. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the maximum voltage drop.
Appendix 2.1
EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THE FORWARD/BACKWARD
SWEEP SOLUTION
Consider a simple electric network consisting of a source node and a load node,
linked by an electric line (Fig. A2.1.1).
SA A Z=R+jX 1 S1
VA V1
For this network, the voltage V A at the source node and the complex power S 1 at
the load node are known, and the goal is to establish the operating conditions in which, by
applying the backward/forward sweep, to achieve the load flow results as well as the proof
of their uniqueness.
For the load flow calculation of this network, the voltage at the load node is first
(0)
initialised, V 1 = V A , and then the following calculations are iteratively performed:
S 1*
I ( p) =
3V 1( p 1)*
V 1( p ) = V A Z I ( p ) (A2.1.1)
S (Ap ) = 3V A I ( p )*
where I represents the line current, and p stands for the iteration index.
Radial and meshed networks 157
PA2 + QA2
PA = P1 + R
3VA2
(A2.1.2)
PA2 + QA2
QA = Q1 + X
3VA2
The voltage V 1 at the load node can be calculated in terms of the voltage V A at the
source node, by means of the relationship:
P1 jQ1
V 1 = V A ( R + jX ) (A2.1.3)
3V 1*
The following relationship exists between the magnitudes of voltages V A and V 1 at
the two ends of the line:
P12 + Q12
3VA2 = 3V12 + 2 ( RP1 + XQ1 ) + R 2 + X 2 ( ) 3V12
(A2.1.4)
A 1 (
P = P + r P2 + Q2
A A )
(
QA = Q1 + x PA + QA
2 2
) (A2.1.6)
(
v 2 1 2 ( rP1 + xQ1 ) v + r 2 + x 2 )( P 1
2
)
+ Q12 = 0
158 Basic computation
The previous system is nonlinear, having the unknown variables PA , QA and v. The
first two equations of the set (A2.1.6) define two curves in the system of PA QA co
ordinates. The crossing points ( PA1 , QA1 ) and ( PA2 , QA2 ) of these curves are in fact the
solutions for the unknown variables PA and QA (Fig. A2.1.2).
To determine the solutions analytically, from the first two equations in (A2.1.6) we
express the power losses on the line as:
(
P = PA P1 = r PA2 + QA2 ) (A2.1.7)
Q = QA Q1 = x ( PA2 + QA2 )
and, by dividing the two equations, it results:
P r
= (A2.1.8)
Q x
From equations (A2.1.7), the power losses in terms of the load power components
and the power losses components, are:
P = r ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )
2 2
(A2.1.9)
Q = x ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )
2 2
Using the equation (A2.1.8) and substituting the unknown variable Q from the
second equation in (A2.1.9) into the first one, we obtain a second order equation where the
variable is P :
r2
P 2 2
r +x
r
2
(1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) P +
r + x2
2 (P
1
2
)
+ Q12 = 0 (A2.1.10)
x (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )
Q11,2 = (A2.1.12)
(
2 r +x2 2
)
Solving the third equation in (A2.1.6), the solutions for the voltage v are obtained:
On the boundary, the above relation describes a parabola. Considering also the
restriction P1 0 (node 1 being of load type), the existence domain of the solutions of the
system of equations (A2.1.1) is given by the hatched area in Figure A2.1.3.
Q1
1
2 1
2 2
4 P'1 r + x
P1
1
2
2 2
Q'1 r + x
demonstrated that for each branch i of the electric network there is a unique relationship
between the active Pi and reactive Qi power entering (injected) into the branch and the
voltage magnitude U i +1 at the other end of the branch.
Appendix 2.2
THE ACTIVE POWER LOSSES VARIATION AS A RESULT OF A LOAD
VARIATION IN A RADIAL NETWORK
Consider a radial electric network that supplies n loads, whose oneline diagram is
illustrated in Figure A2.2.1. The loads are modelled by constant currents and the lines
sections by series impedances.
A I1 1 I2 2 k1 Ik k n1 In n
z1 z2 zk zn
VA
i1 i2 ik1 ik in1 in
For this network, the active power losses variation to a change of the load current at
any node k is of interest. In this respect, the complex power losses are firstly expressed with
the relation:
n n n n
S = 3 [ I ]t [ Z ][ I ] = 3 x I
*
z k I k I *k = 3 z k I k2 = 3 rk I k2 + j 2
k k (A2.2.1)
k =1 k =1 k =1 k =1
where z k is the impedance of the branch k, between the nodes k 1 and k, and I k is the
complex current flowing through the branch k.
In the previous relation the active power losses can be expressed as:
n n
P = 3
k =1
rk I k2 =3 r (I
k =1
k
2
ka + I kr2 ) (A2.2.2)
where I ka and I kr are the active and reactive components of the complex current I k .
The current I k ca be expressed in terms of the load currents as:
n
Ik = i
i=k
i (A2.2.3).
Expanding the equation (A2.2.2) and considering the equation (A2.2.3), it results:
{
P = 3 r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K +
2 2
(A2.2.4)
+ rk ( ika + K + ina ) + ( ikr + K + inr )
2
2 2
+ K + rn ina ( 2
+ inr )}
In the previous equation the line sections resistances are considered to be constant.
Also, consider that the load currents are constant, except the current at the load connected
Radial and meshed networks 161
to the node k. In order to calculate the power losses variation in the whole network for a
variation of the current i k , the expansion of expression of P from equation (A2.2.4)
using Taylor series is performed in the vicinity of the operating point, in terms of the
quantities ika and ikr [2.12]:
Not ( P ) ( P ) 1 ( P ) 2
2
( P ) = P = ika + ikr + ika +
ika ikr 2
2 ika
(A2.2.5)
( P )
2
( P ) 2 2
+2 ika ikr + ikr + K
ika ikr 2
ikr
The partial derivatives that emerges in this expansion have the expressions:
( P )
= 3 2r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rk ( ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rn ina
ika
( P )
= 3 2r1 ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rk ( ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rn inr
ikr
2 ( P )
2
= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn
ika
(A2.2.6)
2 ( P )
=0
ika ikr
2 ( P )
2
= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn
ika
p ( P )
= 0 () p 3, q p
q
ika ikrp q
Replacing the equations from (A2.2.6) in (A2.2.5) and taking into account (A2.2.3),
it results:
2 k k k
(
P = 3 ika 2
+ ikr ) r + 2i r I
i ka i ia + 2ikr r I i ir
(A2.2.8)
i =1 i =1 i =1
Likewise, the expression of the reactive power losses variation due to the change of
current in node k is:
162 Basic computation
2 k k k
(
Q = 3 ika 2
+ ikr ) xi + 2ika xi I ia + 2ikr x I i ir (A2.2.9)
i =1 i =1 i =1
Neglecting the reactance of the line sections, the voltage drop V Ak between the
nodes A and k becomes:
k k
V Ak = VAk + jVAk =
i =1
ri I ia + j r I
i =1
i ir (A2.2.10)
and the expression of the active power losses variation becomes [2.19]:
k
P = 3 ik2
r + 2 Re {i V }
i k
*
Ak (A.2.2.11)
i =1
where Re stands for the real part, and * indicates the complex conjugate.
Chapter references
[2.1] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (in
Romanian) (Electric networks. Electric calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,
1974.
[2.2] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power systems analysis, Mc GrawHill, 1994.
[2.3] Eremia, M., Trecat, J., Germond, A. Rseaux lectriques. Aspects actuels,
Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 2000.
[2.4] Debs, A. Modern power systems control and operation: A study of real time
operation of power utility control centers, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
[2.5] Guill, A.E., Paterson, W. Electrical power systems. Volume one. 2nd Edition,
Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1979.
[2.6] Weedy, B.M. Electrical power systems. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, New York, 1979.
[2.7] Poeat, A., Arie, A.A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, V., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Transmission and distribution of
electric energy), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[2.8] ElHawary, M. Electrical power systems. Design and analysis (Revised
printing), IEEE Press, New York, 1995.
[2.9] Eremia, M., Criciu, H., Ungureanu, B., Bulac, C. Analiza asistat de calculator
a regimurilor sistemelor electroenergetice (Computer aided analysis of the
electric power systems regimes), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1985.
[2.10] Chiang, H.D., Baran, M. On the Existence and Uniqueness of Load Flow
Solution for Radial Distribution Power Network, IEEE Transactions on Circuits
and Systems, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1990.
[2.11] Bart, A. Reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution en rgime critique et
dfaillant, Thse 1176, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, 1993.
[2.12] Tritiu, I. Reconfigurarea reelelor electrice de distribuie de medie tensiune
(Reconfiguration of distribution electric networks of medium voltage), Ph.D. Thesis,
Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 1998.
Radial and meshed networks 163
[2.13] Baran, M., Wu, F. Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems for Loss
Reduction and Load Balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.4,
No.2, April 1989.
[2.14] Goswami, S.K., Bassu, S.K. A new Algorithm for the Reconfiguration of
Distribution Feeders for Loss Minimisation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Vol.7, No.3, July 1992.
[2.15] Cherkaoui, R. Mthodes heuristiques pour la recherche de configurations
optimales d'un rseau lectrique de distribution. Thse 1052, Ecole Polytechnique
Fdrale de Lausanne, 1992.
[2.16] Tritiu, I., Eremia, M., Ulmeanu, P., Bulac, C., Bulac, A.I., Mazilu, G. Un
nouveau mode daborder la reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution urbaine,
CIGRE, Black Sea El Net Regional Meeting, Suceava, 1014 June 2001.
[2.17] Cherkaoui, R., Germond, A. Structure optimale de schma dexploitation dun
rseau lectrique de distribution. Energetica Revue, Nr.5 B, 1994.
[2.18] Florea, A.M. Elemente de Inteligen Artificial, Vol. I, Principii i Modele.
(Elements of artificial intelligence. Vol. I, Principles and models) Litografia
Universitii Politehnica din Bucureti, Bucureti, 1993.
[2.19] Cinvalar, S., Grainger, J.J., Yin, H., Lee, S.S.H. Distribution feeder
reconfiguration for loss reduction, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.3,
No.3, April 1988.
[2.20] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W. Reconfiguration on electric distribution
networks for loss reduction and load balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol.4, No.2, April 1989.
[2.21] Kashem, M.A., Ganapathy, V., Jasmon, G.B. Network reconfiguration for load
balancing in distribution networks, Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
IEE Proceedings, Volume: 146 Issue: 6, Nov. 1999.
[2.22] Potolea, E. Calculul regimurilor de funcionare a sistemelor electroenergetice
(Calculation of the operating regimes of the power systems), Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti 1977.
[2.23] Barbier, C., Barret, J.P. Analyse des phnomnes dcroulement de tension sur
un rseau de transport, Revue Gnrale dElectricit, Tome 89, No.10, October
1980.
[2.24] Augugliaro, A., Dusonchet, L., Favuzza, S., Ippolito, M.G., Riva Sanseverino, E.
A new model of PV nodes in distribution networks backward/forward analysis,
39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference UPEC 2004, 68
September 2004, Bristol, England.
[2.25] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W., Semlyen, A., Luo, G.X. A compensation
based power flow method for weakly meshed distribution and transmission
networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.2, May 1988.
Chapter 3
AC TRANSMISSION LINES
I (x + x ) I (x ) = y 0 xV ( x ) (3.2)
2
= z0
dx dx
d I ( x ) y dV ( x )
2
= 0
dx 2 dx
or taking into account equations (3.3) and (3.4) obtain:
d V (x )
2
= z 0 y 0 V (x ) (3.5)
dx 2
d I (x )
2
= z 0 y 0 I (x ) (3.6)
dx 2
AC transmission lines 167
Equations (3.5) and (3.6) are known as telegraph equations, which define the
electromagnetic energy transfer along the long lines.
The voltage V (x ) and current I (x ) are unique solutions of a secondorder
differential equation with constant coefficients. Knowing the form of a solution for
V (x ) and I (x ) , we can deduce the other solution. The general solution for V (x )
from (3.5) can be written in exponential form as:
V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)
d V (x ) 2
= (A1 e x + A2 e x ) = V (x )
2
2
(3.8)
dx 2
and equating with (3.5) we obtain:
2
= z0 y0
If consider
168 Basic computation
z0 z0 z r0 + jx0
= = 0 =
z0 y y0 g0 + jb0
0
so the ratio
z0
ZC = + (3.11)
y0
1
I (0 ) = I B = ( A1 A2 )
ZC
resulting in:
A1 = 1 2 (V B + Z C I B ) (3.12')
A2 = 1 2 (V B Z C I B ) (3.12'')
The matrix equation that gives the voltage and current in terms of the output
quantities, in a point placed at the distance x, is:
AC transmission lines 169
V (x ) cosh x Z C sinh x V B
I (x ) = Y sinh x cosh x I B
C
At the sendingend, for x = L, obtain:
V A cosh L Z C sinh L V B
I = Y sinh L cosh L I B
(3.15)
A C
The coefficients of the long lines equations are:
A = D = cosh L ; B = Z C sinh L ; C = Y C sinh L
AD BC = cosh 2 L sinh 2 L = 1
it results that any electric long line can be represented through an equivalent four
terminal network (Fig.3.2).
IA IB
A=coshL B= ZCsinhL
VA VB
C =Y CsinhL D=coshL
In the case when the input quantities V A , I A are given and output quantities
V B , I B are required we obtain:
1
V B cosh L Z C sinh L V A cosh L Z C sinh L V A
I = Y sinh L =
cosh L I A Y C sinh L cosh L I A
B C
(3.16)
V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)
I (x ) =
1
(A1 ex A2 e x ) (3.10)
ZC
where the constant A1 will be determined in terms of the input quantities, that is for
x=L:
V A = A1 e L + A2 e L
Z C I A = A1 e L A2 e L
Adding these equations the following expression results:
1
A1 = (V + Z C I A)e L (3.17)
2 A
For the constant A2 the value from (3.12''), determined in terms of the output
quantities, will be kept. Substituting (3.17) and (3.12'') in (3.7) obtain:
1
V (x ) = (V A + Z C I A)e Lex + 1 (V B Z C I B )e x
2 2
or taking into consideration Figure 3.3,a:
V ( x ) = V A e x ' + V B e x
' '
(3.18)
where
1
'
VA = (V + Z C I A) = V A' e j a
2 A
1
'
VB = (V B Z C I B ) = VB' e j b
2
Taking into account that = + j it results that:
V (x ) = V A e j (a x ) e x + V B e j (b x ) e x
' '
Thus, in any point and any instant of time, the voltage is a sum of two waves
of decreasing phase angle:
AC transmission lines 171
direct travelling wave, which propagates from the source toward the
consumer, of preponderant magnitude, V A = (V A + Z C I A ) 2 and which is
'
x'=vt
b. c.
Fig. 3.3. Travelling waves propagation along a transmission line: a. defining of line
section, b. direct travelling wave propagation, c. reflected travelling wave propagation.
It results that the direct travelling wave Vd (x' , t ) is moving in the positive
direction along the xaxis, with the same velocity = / ; for this reason Vd (x' , t )
is called direct wave.
Likewise, for the second travelling wave, obtain:
x
= =v
t
that is Vr (x, t ) is moving in the positive direction along the xaxis, thus in the
opposite direction from the direct travelling wave, with the same velocity = / .
Therefore, Vr (x, t ) is a reflected or inverse wave.
For lossless electric lines, that is for r0 0 and g 0 0 , from equation of
propagation coefficient (3.9), it results:
where = l0c0 .
I (x ) = I A e x I B e x = I A' e j a e ( + j )x I B' e j b e ( + j )x
' '
Observations:
The reflected waves of current have opposite sign with respect to the direct
current waves as compared to the voltage waves that bear the same sign;
The damping factor attached to both the direct waves ( e x ' ) and the
reflected waves ( e x ) shows that the propagation phenomenon on real lines, with
resistance and shunt admittance, operates with electric energy losses.
1
VB =
'
(V B Z C I B ) = 0
2
so that
VB V
IB = = B
Z C Z load
)
The ratio of voltage to current at any point along an infinite line is a constant equal to the
characteristic impedance of the line [3.2].
174 Basic computation
* VB2
S B 0,C = V B I B = *
ZC
VB2 VB2 V2
S B 0,C = = = B (cos + j sin )
[ZC (cos + j sin )]* Z C (cos j sin ) Z C
(
V (x ) = V B cosh x + sinh x = V B e x )
( )
I (x ) = I B sinh x + cosh x = I B e x
S 0,C (x ) = V ( x )I ( x ) = V B I B e( + )x = S B 0,C e 2x
*
* *
VB2
PB 0,C = cos
ZC
respectively:
P0,C ( x ) = PB 0,C e 2 x
Since the attenuation coefficient has a small value, the active power
P0,C ( x ) does not vary much along the line, being almost of the same value as
characteristic active power absorbed by the consumer P0,C (x ) PB 0,C .
Furthermore, in the case of lossless electric lines the attenuation coefficient is
zero, that is = 0 and thus j , and the characteristic impedance becomes a
resistance; under these circumstances PB 0,C is conserved along the line, being a
characteristic constant called natural power or surge impedance loading:
VB2
PB 0,C = P0, N =
ZC
AC transmission lines 175
For a transfer of active power, the voltage is the same along the entire length of
the line and assuming this is equal to the nominal voltage, then P0, N = Vn2 Z C . The
threephase natural power is:
PN = 3 P0, N = U n2 Z C
Table 3.1
Un [kV] 20 110 220 400 750
Overhead
1 30 120 400500 1800
PN lines
[MW] Underground
10 300 12001400 20002500 40005000
lines
r0 g 0 x0 g 0 = 2 2
(r
0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 = 2 + 2
then
=
1
(r 0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =
2
1
= z 0 y 0 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 )
2
=
1
(r 0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =
2
1
= z 0 y 0 (r0 g 0 x0b0 )
2
Trigonometric method. In this respect, the expression of complex propagation
coefficient is considered:
= z0 y0 = (r0 + j x0 )(g0 + j b0 ) = + j
AC transmission lines 177
By expressing:
z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0'
where
tan = x0 r0 ; tan ' = b0 g0
it results
'
= z 0 y 0 + =
2 2
The magnitude of propagation coefficient can be expressed as follows:
r 2 g 2
= 4 (r 2
2
+ 0 0 0
x g 2
+)(
b 2
= )x b 1 + 0 1 + 0
x0 b0
0 0 0 4
(3.23)
= x0b0 4 (1 + cot 2 )(1 + cot 2 ) = x0b0
1
sin sin
Taking into account (3.20'), the expression of magnitude becomes:
= 2 / (3.23')
where
= 0 sin sin (3.24)
is the equivalent wavelength of the line with losses, and 0 the wavelength
corresponding to the electromagnetic waves of T period, propagating on a lossless
line.
In order to simply the calculation, the following assumption can be taken into
consideration:
If neglect the shunt power losses ( g 0 0 that is tan ' , ' = 90 ,
sin ' = 1 ) the expression (3.23') becomes:
2 2
= (3.23'')
0 sin '
where
' = 0 sin (3.24')
respectively
OEL = sin = 1.05 103 [rad/km]
since r0 2 x0 << 1 and 90 .
In the case of lossless electric lines, from (3.25) and taking into account
(3.20) obtain:
r0 1 b 1 r0
= x0b0 = r0 0 (3.25')
2 x0 2 x0 2 Z C
r0 r0
UEL = UEL = [nepers/km]
2 x0 60 K 130
z0
ZC = = Z C = Z C' + j Z C"
y0
180 Basic computation
where
z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0 '
sin sin
Z C z0 = z0 0
2
or
' 6000
Z C z0 = z0 1000 z0
2 2
In terms of the value of the per length impedance z0 = (0.28 K 0.4) /km,
we obtain for overhead lines the following values Z C = (280 K 400) .
Characteristic impedance angle
Let
= ( ') 2 ( 90) 2
or
2 = 90 = (90 )
respectively
tan 2 = tan (90 ) = cot = r0 x0
AC transmission lines 181
= 1 2 atan (r0 x0 )
= r0 2x0
In the case of overhead lines when ' = 2 and r0 << x0 it results that is
negative and close to zero, that is in the interval from 15 to 0.
The components Z C' and Z C'' of the characteristic impedance are obtained as
follows:
Z C' = Z C cos Z C = z0 ( ' 2 ) = 280K 400
where have been taken into consideration that is very small, thus cos = 1 ; the
values close to 280 correspond to lossless overhead lines, with twin conductors;
the values close to 400 correspond to the lines with only one conductor per
phase.
1 r 1 r 1 r0
Z C" = Z C sin Z C sin 0 0 Z C = =
2 x0 2 x0 2 x0b0
1 6000
= r0 0 = r0 = 477 r0 []
4 4 3.14
Notice that:
the real part Z C' is dominant, the characteristic impedance behaves like a
resistance;
the imaginary part Z C'' has the minus sign, therefore it is a capacitive
reactance.
Underground electric lines have characteristic impedance much smaller than
the overhead lines. Therefore, the impedance value varies in a wider range in terms
of the cable type and the insulating material. For cables insulated with paper having
the reactance in the interval from 0.06 /km to 0.130 /km and for
0 = 3000K3150 [km] , then Z C = 30 K 65 [] .
2! 4! 6!
that is
2 2 4 4
zy z y z y
A = D = cosh z y = 1 + + + +K
2 24 720
zy
B = Z C sinh L = Z C sinh z y = Z C +
( zy) + ( zy)
3 5
+ K =
1! 3! 5!
(3.26)
=
z
zy +
( zy) ( )
3
+
zy
5
z y z 2 y 2 z3 y3
+ K = z 1 + + +
+ K
y 6 120
6 120 5040
2 2
zy z y
3 3
z y
C = Y C sinh L = y 1 + + + + K
6 120 5040
Comments:
For OEL of L < 650 km or UEL of L < 50 km, generally, the term L is
smaller than 1 (e.g. for OEL L = 1.05 10 3 650 = 0.682 ) and only the first two
terms of the series expansion can be taken into account;
For L > 1000 km the magnitude of L becomes greater than 1 and
therefore the superior order terms cannot be neglected anymore;
For L < 250 km obtain A = 1 , B = z , C = y .
Thus, for transmission lines of usual 300 500 km lengths, the first two
terms of the expansion can be used with a good approximation.
I1 Z I2
V1 Y Y V2
2 2
a. b.
Fig. 3.4. Equivalent circuits:
a. uniformly distributed parameters; b. lumped parameters.
AC transmission lines 183
Let us consider the equivalent circuit with lumped parameters (Fig. 3.4,b)
for which the matrix equation can be written as:
V 1 1 0 1 Z 1 0 V A B V 2
I = Y
Y 2 =
1 0 1 1 I 2 C D I 2
1 2 2
where the equivalent fourterminal network coefficients are given by the
expressions:
Z Y
A = 1 + ; B = Z
2
(3.27)
Z Y Z Y
C = Y 1 + ; D = 1 +
4 2
If the expression
1 1 y0 y
= = =
ZC z0 z0 y0 zy
y0
zy
2
zy
5
zy 2
tanh 2
2 1 zy 2 ... =
K2 = = +
zy zy 2 3 15
2 2
2 2
zy z y
=1 + ... for OEL longer than 300 km.
12 120
It results that the use of equivalent circuit leads to the same results for
voltage and current at the ends, as in the case of using long lines equations, only if
the parameters z and y are corrected with Kennellys coefficients K 1 and K 2 .
For a faster calculation of Kennellys coefficients, the expressions of A and B
coefficients obtained from series expansion of trigonometric functions can be used.
Therefore:
zy z y z2 y2
y1 + y 1
Y A 1 cosh z y 1 12 12 72
= = = y1 z y
2 B Z C sinh z y zy 2 12
1+ zy
6 1
6
In the case of the lossless line, that is r0 0 and g 0 0 , it results:
z j x ; y jb
zy jx jb xb
K1 = 1 + 1+ =1
6 6 6
zy jx jb xb
K 2 =1 1 =1+
12 12 12
Taking into account the simplified expression of , the other quantities can
be obtained:
2 2
cosh x = cosh j x = cos x = cos
0 0
where = 2x 0 is the angle of the line (in degrees), corresponding to the length
x measured from the consumer node:
2 2
sinh x = sinh j x = j sin x = j sin
0 0
z0 x l
ZC = 0 = 0 = ZC
y0 b0 c0
The above equation shows that the characteristic impedance for a lossless line
becomes a simple resistance.
Under these circumstances, equation (3.13) becomes:
V (x ) = V B cos + jZ C I B sin (3.30)
U A2 U2
S B = 3S B 0 = PB + jQB = sin j A (1 cos ) (3.38)
XL XL
AC transmission lines 187
that is PA = PB and QA = QB .
In the particular case when U A = U B = U n , from (3.31) obtain:
U n2 sin
PB = sin = PN (3.39)
Z C sin L sin L
I (x )
i (x ) = = j sin + i B cos
Y CV B
or as matrix form:
v(x ) cos j sin v B = 1
i (x ) = j sin
cos i B
188 Basic computation
v( x ) = cos + j sin = e j
i (x ) = cos + j sin = e j
It results that the geometric locus described by the peaks of the phasors v(x )
and i ( x ) are circles of radius equal to unity, the voltage and current remaining
constant along the line (Fig. 3.5).
AC transmission lines 189
j j
M M
2 x 2 x
= =
0 0
x)
)
i(x
v( 0 v= 0i=
vB iB
1
1
=
=
v(x)=vB i(x)=iB
Observe that v = i = , therefore the voltage and current are in phase at the
receivingend since the consumers impedance is a pure resistance Z B = Z C (being
a regime of natural power) and are maintained in phase along the entire line, being
shifted with angle with respect to the consumer quantities.
The fact that there is no voltage drop on the line and no current variation is
due, on one hand, to the hypothesis that line resistance is zero ( r0 0 ) and, on the
other hand, to the line selfcompensation phenomenon the shunt capacitive
energy compensates locally the inductive energy stored into the series elements of
the line:
1 1
Wc = C0V 2 ; Wp = L0 I 2
2 2
that is C0 V 2 = L0 I 2 therefore
V L0
= = ZC
I C0
i (x ) = pB cos + j sin
In order to draw the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) ,
for pB < 1 , two concentric circles are plotted: one of radius 1 = vB = 1 and another
one of radius 2 = pB < 1 (Fig. 3.6).
190 Basic computation
v(x) j i(x) j
2=pB m1 2=pB M
2 2 x
= x =
m2 0
M 0 0i
vB iB
1
0v 1=
1
1 =
v(x)<vB i(x)>iB
Fig. 3.6. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, for pB < 1 and qB = 0 .
From the centre of the circles a line of angular coefficient is drawn, which
intersects the circles in m1 and m2. By projecting m1 on the real axis and m2 on the
imaginary axis, the parametrical coordinates of v(x ) phasor are obtained:
x = 1 cos ; y = pB sin
or
x 1 = cos ; y pB = sin
In order to eliminate the variable , we can use:
sin 2 + cos 2 = 1
and we obtain:
2 2
x y
+ =1
1 pB
Therefore, the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) is an
ellipse with the big semiaxis equal to 1 and the small semiaxis equal to pB < 1 .
Instead
v ( x ) = cos + jpB sin = x + jy
that is, by adding the phasors x and jy, we determine the M point of the geometric
locus of the ellipse described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) in the first quadrant.
In the second quadrant, from the source ( = 90 ) toward the consumer ( = 180 )
a similar variation is obtained.
In an analogous manner, the graphic of current intensity variation i (x ) can be
also plotted:
i ( x ) = pB cos + j sin = x' + jy'
where
x' = pB cos and y' = sin
AC transmission lines 191
The peak of the phasor i (x ) also describes an ellipse, but shifted with 90.
The diameters of the ellipse are orthogonal with the ones of the ellipse described by
v(x ) phasor.
Taking into account that v < and i > , it results that i > v, which can
explain why the line voltage increases from the source toward the receivingend.
For an angle in the interval from 0 to /2 (that is, x 0 ... 1500 km) the voltage
decreases from the receivingend (M ( = 0)) toward the source (M ( = 90)). This
is due to the fact that a capacitive current passes through the line, that is in every
section of the line (except for the receivingend) the series conduction current is
shifted before the voltage.
c. The case of transmitted active power ( p B ) bigger than the natural
power: pB > 1 and qB = 0 .
In this situation the phenomenon evolves in an opposite direction compared
with the precedent case ( p B < 1 , q B = 0 ). The geometric loci described by the
peaks of the phasors v(x ) and i (x ) are ellipses with the big semiaxis equal to
pB > 1 and the small semiaxis equal to 1 (Fig. 3.7). By analyzing the geometric
loci, we notice that in this case v > and i < , resulting i < v .
j i(x) j
v(x)
M 1=1
1=1
2 x 2
= = x
0 0
0v M
vB iB
2=pB
0i
2=pB
v(x)>vB i(x)>iB
Fig. 3.7. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, in the case of p B > 1 and
qB = 0 .
in the limit, the case of the noload operating regime of the line can be obtained,
when pB = 0 and qB = 0 . It results:
v(x ) = cos
( )
v(x ) = cos 2 + pB2 sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 sin 2
i(x ) = ( )
pB2 cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 cos 2
v(x) i(x)
Once v(x) and i(x) determined in per unit, it is necessary to return to V(x) and
I(x) values. In this respect, consider the voltage VA at the sendingend of the line
known, that is for
x = L, = L and V(L) = VA
From:
v A = V A V B = cos L + jpB sin L
it results:
VA VA
VB = =
v A cos L + jpB sin L
From:
v( x ) = V ( x ) V B
AC transmission lines 193
it results:
cos + jpB sin
V (x ) = v(x )V B = V A (3.43)
cos L + jpB sin L
respectively the magnitude
2
cos + pB sin
2 2
V ( x ) = VA 2
cos L + pB sin L
2 2
V ( x) 2
cos ( L ') + pB sin ( L ')
2 2
= 2
(3.44.a)
cos L + pB sin L
2 2
VA
and
It is obvious that VA and pB being given, the voltage VB and the current IB
varies in terms of the length L of the line and of the angle L respectively (Fig. 3.9).
A particular case of the line operating for pB < 1 and qB = 0 is the noload
regime ( pB = 0 and qB = 0 ). In this case, for a given voltage VA at the sendingend,
from (3.43) it results that the voltage at the receivingend ( x = 0 ) is:
194 Basic computation
VA
V (x ) x = 0 = V B = (3.43')
cos L
V(x)
VA pB<1
pB=1
1
0 L1 x'=Lx
L2
L3
V(x)
1400 km 1400 km
VA with corona
3
1100 km
2
800 km
400 km
1
x'/L
0.15 0.5 1
Fig. 3.10. Overvoltage variation in terms of corona discharge.
Thus, the geometric locus of v(x ) peak of the voltage phasor is an ellipse
rotated with respect to the main coordinate axes x and y.
In a similar manner, an ellipse for the i(x) phasor is also obtained:
qB2 + 1 2 q
2
x' + 2x'y' B + y'2 = 1
pB pB
196 Basic computation
From the analysis of the two ellipses it results that for transferred power
PB < PN ( pB < 1 ) there can be cases when the voltage at the receivingend is bigger
than the voltage at the sendingend. Besides, the inductive reactive power transfer
qB > 0 can lead to a maximum voltage value in a certain point of the line, while the
capacitive reactive power transfer qB < 0 leads to a maximum value of the current
in a certain point of the line (Fig. 3.11).
In order to determine the position of the maximum value of the voltage,
express the magnitude of v(x ) from equation (3.45):
( )
= 1 sin 2 + qB sin 2 + pB2 + qB2 sin 2
max
v(x)
M(0)
value
1
position
L x'=Lx
[ ( )]
w2 = 1 1 pB2 + qB2 sin 2 + qB sin 2 (3.46)
then:
cot 2 max =
(
1 pB2 + qB2 ) (3.48)
2 qB
It can be observed that:
for pB and qB given, the value of max angle does not depend on the line
length;
AC transmission lines 197
Therefore, for a point x on the real axis, the quantity v 2 (x ) can be expressed in
terms of max as:
sin
v 2 (x ) = 1 + 2 q B sin (2max ) (3.49)
sin 2max
Likewise, for i 2 (x ) obtain:
cos
i (x ) = 1 2 q B
2
cos(2 max ) (3.49')
sin 2max
By analyzing the obtained relationships, notice that:
If qB is positive, that is an inductive power is transmitted on the line, for
= max the line voltage has a maximum:
sin max
v 2 (max ) = 1 + 2qB sin (2max max ) = 1 + qB tan max
2 sin max cos max
and the current a minimum, given by:
i 2 (max ) = 1 qB cot max
If q B is negative, that is a capacitive power is transmitted on the line, the
current has a maximum and the voltage a minimum.
These observations result also from the analysis of the derivatives of v(x) and
i(x) functions in the node = 0 , that is at the receivingend. From the equation
(3.47) it results:
w2
[ ( )]
= sin 2 1 pB2 + qB2 + 2 q B cos 2 = 2 q B
=0
198 Basic computation
respectively
i 2
= 2 q B
=0
Figure 3.12 gives the shape of curves v( x) , having on abscissa x ' = L x , and
i ( x) , having on abscissa the variable x, measured from the source. The maximum
value of the voltage corresponds to the minimum value of the current and viceversa.
Thus, at the receivingend the derivative has the sign of qB . For qB positive,
the voltage curves have a positive derivative in the origin; they increase up to a
maximum and then begin to decrease (Fig. 3.12,a). The current curves, for qB
positive, have a negative derivative in the origin, decrease up to a minimum and
then begin to increase (Fig. 3.12,b). In consequence, it can be said that the point
corresponding to the angle = max represents a point of separation of the reactive
power; from this point a part of the reactive power generated by the line will flow
toward the receivingend, and the remaining part will flow toward the source.
V(x) I(x)
v(x)= V i(x)= I
A pB= 0.75 B
a. b.
V(x) I(x)
v(x)= V i(x)= I
A B
1.3 pB= 0.75 pB= 1.25
1.3
pB= 1 pB= 1
qB = 0.2
1.0 1.0
pB= 1.25 pB= 0.75
0.7 0.7
0 500 1000 1500 x [km] 1500 1000 500 0
x =Lx [km]
c. d.
Fig. 3.12. The variation of v(x) and i(x) quantities on long electric lines (1500 km) for
p B < 1 , p B = 1 , p B > 1 and q B = 0.2 , respectively q B = 0.2 .
For q B positive, for the line segment situated between = 0 (at receiving
end) and = max , the voltage v(x ) leads the current i ( x ) , and for the line segment
between = max and = L (at source), the current i ( x ) leads the voltage v(x ) .
AC transmission lines 199
pB2 sin 2 L 1
qBcr = tan L + j = q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr
sin L
and the complex power is:
s Bcr = pB + j ( q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr ) = ( pB q ''Bcr ) jq 'Bcr
Thus, to obtain equal voltages at both ends, VA = VB , supplementary active
power ( q ''Bcr ) as well as capacitive reactive power ( q 'Bcr ) should be injected at the
receivingend.
For the case when 1 pB2 sin 2 L = 0 , it results that p B max = 1 sin L , that is
the maximum power which can be transmitted on the line for a capacitive
200 Basic computation
L x
For the calculation of maximum value let us return to the equation (3.49),
where we can make the substitution = L 2 (Fig. 3.14, a).
v(x) v(x)
L L
qBtan qBtan
1 2 2
2
v (x) 1 2
v (x)
1 1
L/2 x'
L L
a. b.
Fig. 3.14. Overvoltages on transmission lines: a. voltage curve for
compensation at the receivingend; b. voltage curves for lines of lengths L
and L 2 under noload conditions ( p B = 0 , q B = 0 ).
Therefore:
L
sin
v 2 ( max ) = 1 + 2q B 2 sin 2 L
L max
=
2 sin 2 max 2
L (3.52)
sin sin L
= 1 + 2q B 2 2 = 1 + q tan L
L B
2
2sin cos L
2 2
AC transmission lines 201
The most unfavourable situation occurs for the operating regime with
pB = 0 , case when the overvoltage on the line will be maximum. From the
expression (3.50) the value of qB cr results:
2 sin 2 L
1 cos 2
qB cr = = = tan L (3.53)
sin L 2
2 sin L cos L
2 2
Substituting in equation (3.52), obtain:
1
v 2 (max ) = 1 + tan 2 L =
2 cos 2 L
2
respectively
1
v(max ) = (3.54)
cos L
2
Thereby, at the operation with pB = 0 , the overvoltage occurring on a line of
length L, compensated so that VA = VB , is equal to the overvoltage that can appear
on a line of length L 2 for noload conditions ( p B = 0 , qB = 0 ). The same
equation as in (3.43') but proved for L 2 was obtained. Equal voltages at both
ends, for pB = 0 , by means of shunt compensation with reactors are obtained. If
the overvoltage exceeds a certain permitted value, an additional reactor should be
placed at the middle of the line.
In order to decrease the rated capacity of shunt compensating reactors,
assume that, under noload conditions of the line, pB = 0 , the ratio VA VB is
smaller than 1 (0.9 0.85), that is:
VA
= <1
VB
which leads to:
cos L
qB cr = (3.55)
sin L
Eg I1 L
jXS 1 2 I2
V1 V2
1' 2'
Fig. 3.15. Equivalent electric circuit.
From the physical point of view, the explanation is that the current I1, having
a capacitive character, at its passing through the lumped inductive reactance XS
generates a voltage jump Vb at the reactance terminals (Fig. 3.16,a).
v(x)
with XS
Vb without XS I1
Vb Eg Vb =jXSI1
Eg
Vb
x'
Fig. 3.16. The influence of power system reactance XS on the voltage level
on a transmission line weakly loaded.
is, that is the smaller the shortcircuit power of the system is, on the other hand, the
higher the voltage jump will be. This phenomenon appears as if the equivalent
generator at the connection node of the transmission line would be overexcited.
Usually, the electromotive force E g (e.m.f. reduced to the sendingend
terminals of the long electric line) is set by automatic voltage regulators, so that the
terminal voltage V b = V 1 is constant. In the case of too high V b variation, voltage
regulation could lead to important decreasing of E g thereby generating the
instability of the considered power system. Also, when sudden load shedding
occurs, transient phenomena appear, and the voltage regulation may not be fast
enough to eliminate in a short time the overvoltage that can appear.
Consider the equivalent circuit of a transmission electric line (having the line
2
angle L = L ) connected to a power system of finite power (Fig. 3.15). With
0
the assumption of lossless line, the matrix equation can be written:
E g 1 jX S cos L jZ C sin L V 2
I = cos L I 2
(3.56)
1 0 1 jYC sin L
If calculate the terms corresponding to t.e.m. Eg separately, obtain:
sin
cos L X S YC sin L = cos L sin L =
cos
cos L cos sin L sin cos( L + )
= =
cos cos
sin L cos + sin cos L sin ( L + )
jZ C (sin L + tan cos L ) = jZ C = jZ C
cos cos
where
XS X U2 P sin
tan = = S2 n = N =
ZC U n Z C Psc cos
Finally, it results:
E1 = E g cos = cos( L + )V 2 + jZ C sin ( L + ) I 2
(3.57)
I 1 = jYC sin L V 2 + cos L I 2
value) and high values for weak systems (having small Psc value). For example,
for a power system with Psc = PN , tan = 1 and angle = 45 (/4), an apparent
extension of the line with 750 km is obtained.
Consequently, in designing long transmission lines, the possibility or
impossibility of its connecting to an existent power system should be assessed. An
index of this possibility is the ratio PN Psc and tan respectively. In this regard,
in the relation:
E g = (cos L X SYC sin L )V 2 + jZ C (sin L + X S YC cos L ) I 2
it should be imposed the condition that, for noload conditions, when the current at
the receivingend of the line is zero I 2 = 0 , phenomenon of selfexcitation of the
generators in the system should not appear, that is E g > 0 . It results:
V2 Psc=PN
Eg
2 Psc>PN
1 Psc=
Notice that, for an electric line of 400 km length, if the power system to
which the line is connected is of infinite power, the overvoltage has a limited value,
of only 10%, while for a system with Psc = PN , the overvoltage is with 120%
higher.
In practice, if the condition given by (3.58) is not fulfilled, then the following
measures should be taken:
a compensation reactor should be installed at the source busbars;
for the socalled capacitive regime of generators, thermal limit under no
load conditions of the line should be verified.
Ic jX1
0 V2
Ic 0
V1 Vc V2 V1 jX1Ic V2 jX1Ic
Ic
V1
a. b. c.
Fig. 3.18. Compensation of voltage variations by means of series capacitors:
a. basic circuit; b. Ic current is inductive; c. Ic current is capacitive.
2+2 1+1
2 1
Eg jXS 1
X1= C
I1 1 2 I2
V1 V1 V2 V2
1 2
V(x) V1
p2<1
V2
p2=1
V2
p2>1
V1
'=L2
Fig. 3.19. The influence of series capacitors on voltage increases and decreases.
AC transmission lines 207
The following problem arises: where to install the capacitor banks station,
that is how big 1 should be, in order to maximize the transmitted power on the
line (3.35):
E gV 2
Pe = sin (3.59)
B
in other words, the B coefficient of the equivalent fourterminal to be minimum. In
this respect, the matrix equation is written as:
E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 jX 1 cos 1 jZ C sin 1 V 2
I = cos 1 I 2
1 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 0 1 jYC sin 1
(3.60)
Two situations can be considered:
a) When the lumped reactance of the power system is ignored ( X S 0 ), the
following coefficients are obtained:
A ' = cos L X 1YC sin 1 cos 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + X 1YC cos 1 cos 2 )
(3.61)
C ' = jYC ( sin L X 1YC sin 1 sin 2 ) ; D ' = cos L X 1YC sin 2 cos 1
where X 1 = X c = 1/ C .
b) If the lumped reactance of the power system is taken into account, the
operating equations of the whole structure become:
cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 ) cos(1 + 1 ) sin (1 + 1 )
E g jZ C jZ C V 2
=
I cos 2 cos 2 cos 1 cos 1
1 I2
jYC sin 2 cos 2 jYC sin 1 cos 1
(3.62)
where: tan 2 = X S / Z C = PN / Psc due to the power system reactance;
tan 1 = X 1 / Z C due to the series capacitor bank.
After the multiplications and equating of terms obtain the expression of
coefficient B that interests us that most:
sin (1+ 1) cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 )
B = jZ C + jZ C cos 1
cos 1 cos 2 cos 2
or, in absolute value:
B=
ZC
[sin (1+1 )cos(2+ 2 ) + sin (2 + 2 )cos 1 cos 1] =
cos 1 cos 2
=
ZC
[sin (L + 1+ 2 ) + sin (2+ 2 )sin 1sin 1] (3.63)
cos 1 cos 2
208 Basic computation
v(x) v(x)
1 1
L [km] L [km]
450 900 450 900
a. b.
v(x)
c.
In order to tune the natural power to the transmitted power, the control of
characteristic impedance of a transmission line by means of series or shunt
capacitors can be performed.
Compensation by series capacitors
As it has been shown, the series compensation apparently reduces the
length of the line, and the series inductive reactance (XLXc) respectively, while
keeping constant the capacitive susceptance (Bc). For the analysis of compensation
effects, the following per unit quantities are defined:
210 Basic computation
XL
where: Z C = is the characteristic impedance of the line without
Bc
compensation;
XL Xc
Z C , series = characteristic impedance of the line having series
Bc
capacitors;
k series = Xc / XL series compensation degree.
Bc
U n2
PN , series XL Xc 1
= =
PN Bc 1 k series
U n2
XL
XL
Z C , shunt Bc + Bc Bc
= = (3.67)
ZC XL Bc + Bc
Bc
Table 3.2
Compensation type Capacitors installed
Parameter series shunt
ZC
L
PN
If consider the ratio between (3.68) and (3.69) and if make it equal to 2, then
a twofold increase in the transmitted power is obtained ( PN , shunt = 2 PN ):
PN , shunt B c + Bc B
= = 1+ c = 2
PN Bc Bc
Qc = 3 BcU n2
4 1 K series = 2
AC transmission lines 213
then, it results:
K series = X c / X L = 0.75
The reactive power produced by means of series compensation is:
= 0.75 X L (2 I ) = 3 X L I 2
2 2
Qc = X c I series
a b
A B
A C B
a. b.
Fig. 3.21. Installing of compensation reactors.
Lines 400kV
1
3 400kV
10kV
35kV
400kV
110kV
2 4
220kV
a. b. c.
Fig. 3.22. Other possible connecting schemes of compensation reactors in substations.
L
Eg 2 1
jXS I1
I2
V1 Yr= jBr V2
v(x)
x'
Fig. 3.23. Electrical configuration with one shunt compensation reactor.
The operating matrix equation of the whole electrical structure can be written
as:
E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 0 cos 1
jZ C sin 1 V 2
I = 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 Y r 1 jYC sin 1
cos 1 I 2
1
(3.72)
Similarly as for series compensation, two situation are considered:
a) Considering that the lumped reactance of the power system is neglected,
the following coefficients are obtained:
A ' = cos L + Br Z C cos 1 sin 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + Br Z C sin 2 sin 1 )
(3.73)
C ' = jYC ( sin L Br Z C cos 1 cos 2 ) ; D ' = cos L + Z C Br cos 2 sin 1
For line lengths smaller than the quarter wavelength ( L < / 2 ), the absolute
value of the term B' from expression (3.73) results greater than the absolute value
of the term B = Z C sin L from (3.40). Thus, when shunt compensation by means
of reactors is performed, for V1 , V2 and constant, the maximum power
transmissible on the line is smaller than the one in the case without compensation,
reaching the minimum value at 1 = 2 = L 2 .
The shunt compensation reactor leads to a current change along the line due
to the term Vr Br , hereby compensating the capacitive currents generated by the
line. The effect of this compensation leads to a decrease of overvoltages along the
line. Figure 3.24 illustrates the voltage variation, for different placement locations
of a compensation reactor, on a transmission line of 900 km length, assuming that
the line operates under noload conditions. We see that the placement of the reactor
at the receivingend (Fig. 3.24, curve d) allows an optimal compensation of the
overvoltage that can appear in this point. Instead, a maximum stationary
overvoltage appears at the middle of the line. The reactor placement only at the
middle of the line leads to a decrease of the maximum overvoltage but will not
216 Basic computation
solve the problem at the receivingend. The most convenient voltage profile is
obtained when two reactors are symmetrically located, at 300 km and 600 km,
respectively, away from the source.
900 km
a
v(x)
3 a
pB= 0 450 km 450 km
d b
2
b
c 300 km 300 km 300 km
1 c
Fig. 3.24. Voltage variation for different positions of compensation reactors, under the
assumption of noload conditions of the line.
L
Eg 1 2 2 1
jXS I1
I2
V1 jBr jBr V2
For the electrical configuration from Figure 3.25, with two compensation
reactors symmetrically installed on the line, the line coefficients become:
AC transmission lines 217
Z C2 Br2
A = D = cos L + Z C Br sin L + sin 21 sin 22
2
B = jZ C sin L + 2 Z C Br sin 1 sin L + 2 + Z C2 Br2 sin 22 sin 2 1 (3.75)
2
C = jYC sin L 2 Z C Br cos 1 cos L + 2 Z C2 Br2 sin 22 cos 2 1
2
b) Considering the influence of the lumped reactance of the power system
(Fig. 3.23), the matrix equation (3.72) becomes:
cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 jZ C sin 1
E g jZ C V
I = cos 2 cos 2 sin ( 1 + 1 ) 2
1 jY sin Y cos 1 + jYC sin 1 I
cos 2 r sin 1 2
C 2
(3.76)
where: tan 2 = X S Z C = PN Psc due to the power system reactance;
tan 1 = X r Z C due to the shunt reactor.
or
cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 )
B = jZ C sin 1 + jZ C (3.78)
cos 2 cos 2 sin 1
or, in absolute value:
ZC
B= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =
sin 1 cos 2
ZC
=
sin 1 cos 2
{ }
cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 cos 1 cos ( 1 + 1 ) + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =
ZC
= sin ( L + 1 + 2 ) cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 sin 1
sin 1 cos 2
As also showed at case a), the value of the term B increases relative to the
case without compensation, its function having an extreme value. In order to
determine to which value of corresponds this extreme, we will differentiate B
with respect to 1 , obtaining:
218 Basic computation
B ZC
= 0 + cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + cos 1 sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1
1 sin 1 cos 2
B Z C sin 1
= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 =
1 sin 1 cos 2
(3.79)
Z C sin 1
= sin ( 1 2 2 )
sin 1 cos 2
1 P
1cr = L +atan N (3.80)
2 Psc
For strength power systems (large values of Psc ), the critical installing point
of the shunt reactor gets next to the middle of the line, while for weak power
systems (small values of Psc ) the critical installing point of the shunt reactor gets
next to the source.
Taking into consideration that the angle 2 is positive, it results that the sign
of the derivative is negative for values 1 < 1cr ( 1cr being the distance in degrees,
from the receivingend to the point where B has a maximum value), until the
extreme point is reached, beyond this point the derivative being positive.
Therefore, the function B has a maximum in the critical point 1cr where the
transmitted power is at a minimum:
EgV2
Pe = sin = minimum!
Bmax
A2 B2 A1 B1
C2 D2 C1 D1
I1 Z1=jX1 I2
V1 Y2 =jb2 Y3 =jb3 V2
( )
+ Z C ( b 2 )( sin 2 cos 1 + cos 2 sin 1 ) + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 cos 2 ] =
= j {Z C sin ( 1 + 2 ) + bZ C2 sin 1 sin 2 X 1 [ cos 2 cos 1 + Z C ( b 2 ) sin ( 1 + 2 ) +
( )
+Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 sin 2 ] } (3.86)
d) Let us consider the compensation at the middle of the line, that is
1 = 2 = L 2 . It results:
{
B' = j Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )
(3.87)
[ ( )
X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + Z C (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) ]}
respectively:
= Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )
X equiv
(3.88)
( ( )
X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) )
If expressed in per unit (by referring to Z C ), results:
( p.u.) = sin L + b sin 2 ( L 2 )
X equiv
( ( )
x1 cos 2 ( L 2) + (b 2)sin L + b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2) )
where x1 and b are expressed in per unit.
The latter expression can also be written as:
(
( p.u.) = k0 + k1b x1 k2 + k3b + k4b 2
X equiv ) (3.89)
AC transmission lines 221
where:
k0 = sin L ; k1 = sin 2 ( L 2 ); k2 = cos 2 ( L 2);
(3.90)
k3 = 1 2 sin L ; k4 = 1 4 sin 2 ( L 2)
In the particular case, when the mixed compensation is not performed, x1 = 0
and b = 0 , it results:
( p.u.) = k0 = sin L
X equiv (3.91)
corona discharge are high enough not to be neglected and singlephase active and
reactive power expressions, both for sending and receiving ends, will be further
determined on the basis of general operating equation for long lines:
V 1 A B V 2
I = (3.93)
1 C D I 2
Let us consider the simple case of a long line where node 1 is the sendingend
and node 2 is the receivingend. Let the receivingend voltage be the reference
V20 , and let the sendingend voltage be V1 .
V1 V2 0
A B
P1+jQ1 I1 C D I2
P2+jQ2
1 2
Fig. 3.27. Long line case.
Starting from the matrix equation (3.93) and taking into account the condition
of reciprocity AD BC = 1 , the expressions of sendingend and receivingend
currents are determined:
1 A
I2 = V1 V 2
B B
(3.94)
D 1
I1 = V 1 V 2
B B
Further, by using the equations (3.93) and (3.94), the expressions of single
phase complex apparent powers, draws out the sendingend and into the receiving
end, are determined:
S2 *
S 20 = = P20 + jQ20 = V 2 I 2
3
(3.95)
S *
S 10 = 1 = P10 + jQ10 = V 1 I 1
3
Substituting the expressions of currents from (3.94) in (3.95), obtain:
* * *
1 A V V A
S 20 = V 2 V 1 V 2 = 2 * 1 * V22
B B B B
(3.96)
* * *
D 1 D 2 V 2V 1
S 10 = V 1 V 1 V 2 = *
V1 *
B B B B
AC transmission lines 223
the receivingend and sendingend complex powers are given by the following
expressions:
V2V1
S 20 = [cos(b ) + j sin (b )]
B (3.97,a)
A
V22 [cos( b a ) + j sin ( b a )]
B
D 2
S 10 = V1 [cos( b d ) + j sin ( b d )]
B (3.97,b)
VV
2 1 [cos( b + ) + j sin ( b + )]
B
The real and imaginary parts are written as:
V2V1 A
P20 = cos( b ) V22 cos( b a ) (3.98,a)
B B
V2V1 A
Q20 = sin ( b ) V22 sin ( b a ) (3.98,b)
B B
D 2 VV
P10 = V1 cos( b d ) 2 1 cos( b + ) (3.98,c)
B B
D 2 VV
Q10 = V1 sin ( b d ) 2 1 sin ( b + ) (3.98,d)
B B
Taking into account that the arguments a , b and c are fixed, the active
power that can be delivered to receivingend is maximum at = b :
V2V1 A 2
P20, max = V2 cos( b a ) (3.99,a)
B B
and the reactive power corresponding to this limit is:
A
Q20, max = V22 sin ( b a ) (3.99,b)
B
As b > a and a , b > 90 it results that Q20, max has a negative value so
that, in order to increase the transmission capacity of a long electric line, leading
reactive power must be supplied.
For a lossless electric line, the network constants arguments get the values
a = b = 0 and b = 90 respectively, and equations (3.98) become:
224 Basic computation
V2V1 VV A
P20 = sin ; Q20 = 2 1 cos V22 (3.100,a,b)
B B B
V2V1 D VV
P10 = sin ; Q10 = V12 2 1 cos (3.100,c,d)
B B B
If the latter equations of active and reactive powers at sending and receiving
ends are analysed, maximum transmitted power is obtained for = b = 90 that
is:
V2V1
P20 = P10 = (3.101)
B
From equations (3.100) we see that the transmitted active power on a lossless
electric line depends on the rms voltages at both ends V1 and V2 , on phase angle
and on the coefficient B.
Analysing the expression (3.101) it can be said that by series compensation
with capacitors, the transmissible power increases in comparison with the case
without compensation since the coefficient B decreases, the reactance X 1 = 1 C
being negative, while for shunt compensation with reactor, the maximum
transmissible power will decrease in comparison with the case without
compensation.
The performance chart (circle diagram), for a long line, treated as a four
terminal network, operating with constant receivingend voltage can be obtained
starting from the operating equations written for voltages at both ends [3.1, 3.2]:
V 1 = AV 2 + B I 2 (3.102,a)
V 2 = DV 1 B I 1 (3.102,b)
In Figure 3.28,a,b the phasor diagram is drawn to a voltage scale for both the
above equations.
V1 D V1
B I2 d
D V2 V1
a 1
2 B I1
a V2 I1
I2 V2
a. b.
Fig. 3.28. Phasor diagram.
AC transmission lines 225
P0
N b +
P0 M V1V2
S10
B
V1V2
power limit
B S20
ce line
+ d referen
b d DV 2 O2
 a B 1
Q0 Q0
A V 2 b a
O1 B 2
Besides the geometric loci method, the establishing of the power losses can
be also evaluated directly, through analytical calculation starting from the
expressions:
P = 3P0 = 3(P10 P20 )
(3.103)
Q = 3Q0 = 3(Q10 Q20 )
or
S = 3 S 0 = 3(S 10 S 20 ) (3.104)
from where it results:
S 0 = S 10 S 20 =
1
B
[
AV22( b a ) + DV12( b d ) 2V1V2 cos b (3.105) ]
Identifying the real and imaginary parts, it is obtained:
1 1
P0 = P = AV22 cos( b a ) +
3 B (3.106,a)
+ DV12 cos ( b d ) 2V1V2 cos cos b
1 1
Q0 = Q = AV22 sin( b a ) +
3 B (3.106,b)
+ DV12 sin ( b d ) 2V1V2 cos sin b
Knowing the active and reactive power losses on an electric line, the
expression of transmission efficiency can be determined:
P2 P20
= = (3.107)
P2 + P P20 + P0
the minimum shortcircuit power of the system to which the line is connected
so that the selfexcitation phenomenon of the equivalent generator of the
source will not appear?
(ii) Analyse the influence of the placement position of the shunt compensation
reactor on its rated power so that, for noload conditions, to obtain equal
voltages at both ends.
(iii) Elaborate the shunt compensation solution so that the overvoltages along the
line be less than = 5% .
IV. Series compensation of the lossless transmission line under noload conditions
(i) Assuming that a capacitor bank is installed in series with the line, determine
the reactance of the capacitor bank in terms of its placement location so that,
under noload conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends;
(ii) Given the shortcircuit power of the system Psc = 10000 MW , determine the
placement location of the capacitor bank so that the maximum power transfer
on the line be possible.
V. Operation of the transmission line under different loads
(i) Calculate the transmission efficiency for different values of the power
transferred on the line (i.e. 400 MW, 500 MW, 600 MW and 700 MW, and
power factor cos = 0.98 ), and draw the voltage profile along the line for
each case. Assume that the voltage at the receivingend is fixed and equal to
U 2 = U n = 400 kV .
(ii) Elaborate the series compensation solution for the four cases from the point
(i), so that the voltage along the line be within admissible range.
Solution
I. Calculation of the transmission line parameters
(i) Propagation coefficient and characteristic impedance Z C
or
= (0.0884 + j1.0736) 103 rad/km
or
Z C = (311.68 j 6.93)
228 Basic computation
1
C= sinh L = (0.0942 + j 2.4372) 103 = 2.439 103 e j 87.786
ZC
( )
y = y L = 0.207 106 + j 3.449 106 800 = (0.1656 + j 2.7592) 103 =
0
zy z2 y2
A = D = 1+ + = 1 + 0.3713 e j170.59 + 0.02298 e j 341.18 =
2 24
= 0.6554 + j 0.05333 = 0.6576 e j 4.652
z y z2 y2
B = z 1 + + = 268.66 e j 84.02 (1 + 0.1238 e j170.59 + 0.0046 e j 341.18 ) =
6 120
= 19.688 + j 236.261 = 237.081 e j 85.236
z y z2 y2
C = y 1 + + = 2.764 103 e j 86.57 (1 + 0.1238 e j170.59 + 0.0046 e j 341.18 ) =
6 120
= ( 0.0943 + j 2.437 ) 103 = 2.439 103 e j 87.784
Analysing the results obtained for the line coefficients we find very small errors
which shows that the approximate formulae can also be used with good accuracy.
(iii) Parameters of the equivalent circuit: Z and Y
Y 1 L
= tanh = ( 0.1045 + j1.4693) 103 = 1.473 103 e j 85.93 S
2 ZC 2
I1 1 z 2 I2
y y
V1 V2
2 2
The impedance and admittance to ground calculated with the exact formulae, specific
to the long lines, gives:
Z = Z C sinh L = 19.676 + j 236.244 = 237.062 e j 85.24
Y 1 L
= tanh = ( 0.1045 + j1.4693) 103 = 1.473 103 e j 85.93 S
2 ZC 2
The parameters of the equivalent circuit can also be calculated using the approximate
formulae. Therefore, the impedance has the expression:
Z = K1 z
where the Kennellys first correction coefficient is:
zy z2 y2
K1 1 + + = 0.8823 + j 0.0188 = 0.8825 e j1.22
6 120
resulting:
Z = 0.8825 e j1.22 268.66 e j 84.02 = 237.081 e j 85.24 = (19.688 + j 236.262)
The admittance to ground has the approximate expression:
Y 1
= K y
2 2 2
where the Kennellys second correction coefficient is:
zy z2 y2
K 2 1 + = 1.0654 j 0.0116 = 1.0655 e j ( 0.62)
12 120
resulting:
Y 1
= 1.0655 e j ( 0.62) 2.764 103 e j 86.57 = 1.473 103 e j 85.94 =
2 2
= (0.104 + j1.469) 103 S
Comparing the results obtained for the line parameters with the exact and the
approximate formulae we find very small errors.
230 Basic computation
When the line is energized from the sendingend and the receivingend operates
under noload, the phasetophase voltage at the receivingend has the expression (3.43'):
U1
U2 =
cos L
Assuming that U1 = U n , then:
Un 400
U2 = = = 612.12 kV
cos L cos(49.196)
In this case, the maximum value of the voltage appears at the middle of the line,
being calculated with the expression (3.54):
1 1
umax = u ( L / 2) = = = 1.0998 p.u.
L 49.196
cos cos
2 2
Considering that the voltage at the receivingend, chosen as base voltage and phase
origin, is U 2 = U n = 400 kV , then the maximum voltage on the line will be:
representing 9.98%.
In order to avoid the selfexcitation phenomenon of the equivalent generator it is
necessary that (3.74):
PN
< cot L
Psc + Qr
and, in the limit, it results:
PN 514.15
Psc ,min = Qr = 235.38 = 360.20 MW
cot L cot(49.196)
(ii) Analyze the influence of the placement location of the compensation reactor on
its rated power so that, under noload conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends.
We denote by L1 the distance from the receivingend to the point where the reactor is
installed, and by Br 1 X r the susceptance of the compensation reactor. First we write the
matrix equation, which defines the relationship between the quantities at the sending and
receivingend.
V 1 A ' B ' V 2
I =
1 C ' D ' I 2
Neglecting the influence of the lumped reactance of the power system, and taking
into account that the line is considered without losses, the coefficient A ' is a real value
having the expression (3.73):
A ' = cos L + Br Z C cos 1 sin 2
1 cos L
Br =
ZC cos 1 sin 2
U n2 U n2 1 cos L 1 cos L
Qr = = = PN
X r Z C cos 1 sin 2 cos 1 sin 2
For example, when the reactor is installed at 200 km away from the receivingend we
have:
1 = L1 = 1.0733 103 200 = 0.2147 rad = 12.3
4002
Qr = = 303.73 MVAr
526.78
The values of the reactance X r and reactive power Qr of the compensation reactor,
in terms of the its placement location with respect to the receivingend, are presented in
Table 3.3.
Table 3.3
L1 [km] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Xr [] 679.76 609.46 526.78 435.52 339.88 244.23 152.98 70.3 0
Qr [MVAr] 235.38 262.53 303.73 367.37 470.76 655.11 1045.9 2275.9
We see that the value of the reactance of the compensation reactor decrease and tends
toward zero, and its reactive power increase and tends toward when the placement point
gets next to the source (L1 L).
Therefore, in order to obtain equal voltages at both ends, for noload conditions, the
compensation reactor has to be installed at the receivingend (the point where, under no
load conditions, the voltage is maximum).
(iii) Elaborate the shunt compensation solution so that the overvoltages along the
line be less than = 5% .
As proven earlier, it results that the installing of a single compensation reactor at the
receivingend is not sufficient to keep the maximum voltage on the line at values less than
AC transmission lines 233
U(x) 1.6
Un a.
[p.u.] 1.4
1.2 b.
1
c.c.
0.8
0.6
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
Lx
Fig. 3.31. Voltage variation along the considered line, operating under noload conditions:
a. without compensation; b. shunt compensation at the receivingend;
c. shunt compensation at the middle of the line and at the receivingend.
IV. Series compensation of the lossless transmission line under noload conditions
(i) Assuming that a capacitor bank is installed in series with the line, determine the
reactance of the capacitor bank in terms of its placement location so that, under noload
conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends.
In the case of series compensation by means of a capacitor bank, of reactance X c
and located at the distance L1 from the receivingend, we start from the matrix equation:
V 1 A ' B ' V 2
I =
1 C ' D ' I 2
234 Basic computation
The coefficient A ' is the same as in expressions (3.61), where the lumped reactance
of the power system has been neglected, with the mention that it is a real value, having the
form:
X1
A ' = cos L sin 1 cos 2
ZC
For noload conditions I 2 = 0 , and to achieve equal voltages at both ends it is
necessary that A ' = 1 , resulting:
cos L 1
X1 = X c = ZC
sin 1 cos 2
For example, when the capacitor bank installed at 200 km away from the receiving
end, the angles are (Fig. 3.19):
Table 3.4 gives the values of the reactance X c in terms of the placement location of
the compensation reactor with respect to the receivingend.
Table 3.4
L1 [km] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Xc []  1377.5 633.03 396.5 284.92 222.35 183.83 158.9 142.46
We see that the value of the reactance X c necessary to obtain equal voltages at both
ends, under noload conditions, is  when the capacitor bank is located at the receiving
end of the line ( 1 = 0 and 2 = L ), increasing toward the value given by:
cos L 1 49.196
X c = ZC = Z C tan L = 311.19 tan = 142.46
sin L 2 2
(ii) Given the shortcircuit power of the system Psc = 10000 MW , determine the
placement location of the capacitor bank so that the maximum power transfer on the line be
possible.
Using the expression (3.65), written for the case when the lumped reactance of the
power system is no longer neglected, which represents the placement location of the
capacitor bank for a maximum power transfer, it results:
1 1 P 1 514.15
L1 = = L + atan N = 0.8586 + atan = 423.93 km
2 Psc 2 1.0733 103 10000
AC transmission lines 235
Therefore:
1 = L1 = 1.0733 103 423.93 = 0.455 rad = 26.07
In this case, in order to obtain equal voltages at both ends under noload conditions,
the reactance of the capacitor bank should be:
cos L 1 cos(49.196) 1
X c = ZC = 311.19 = 266.83
sin 1 cos 2 sin(26.07) cos(23.127)
For an active power of 400 MW, the reactive power demanded at the receivingend
is:
Q2 = P2 tan 2 = P2 tan(arccos ) = 400 tan(11.478) = 81.224 MVAr
(S )
*
P2 jQ2 400 j 81.224
I2 = 2 = = = 0.5774 j 0.1172 = 0.5891 11.478 kA
3 U2 3U2 3 400
The phasetophase voltage is then easily calculated by multiplying the above value
by 3 , giving:
or
236 Basic computation
Table 3.5 gives values for the electrical quantities at the sending and receivingend
as well as the transmission efficiency for the four cases considered. We find that the
sendingend receives reactive power from the line for power transfer smaller than the
natural power, and it injects reactive power into the line for power transfer greater than the
natural power. We see also that the power transferred on the line increases, the transmission
efficiency decreases, and the necessary voltage at the sendingend increases as well.
Table 3.5
P2 Q2 U1 u1 P1 Q1 S1
Case
MW MVAr kV p.u. MW MVAr MVA
a. 400 81.224 415.945 1.04 459.12 116.47 473.66 0.8712
b. 500 101.529 466.129 1.165 574.51 31.901 575.39 0.8703
c. 600 121.835 518.513 1.296 693.21 +72.687 697.01 0.8655
d. 700 142.141 572.495 1.431 815.23 +197.29 838.76 0.8587
U ( x) = cosh( x) U 2 + Z C sinh( x) 3 I 2
we can draw the absolute value of U ( x) , where x represents the distance metered from the
sendingend to a certain point on the line. The base voltage is 400 kV.
In Figure 3.32, the variation curves of the voltage along the line are presented for the
four cases. For a power transfer of 400 MW the voltage is within admissible range. Instead,
for the other three cases, voltage values outside the admissible range would be necessary to
obtain 400 kV at the receivingend, which is not acceptable.
U(Lx) 1.5
Un 1.4 d.
[p.u.]
1.3 c.
1.2 b.
1.1 a.
0.9
0.8
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
Lx
Fig. 3.32. Voltage profile along a transmission line of 800 km length
operating under different loads: a. 400 MW; b. 500 MW; c. 600 MW; d. 700 MW.
AC transmission lines 237
(ii) Elaborate the series compensation solution for the four cases from the point (i),
so that the voltage along the line be within admissible range.
To increase the transmission capacity, while keeping the voltage in appropriate
range, the compensation of the inductive reactance of the line can be adopted by installing a
capacitor bank in series with the line.
The matrix equation used to calculate the voltage and current, when series
compensation by means of capacitor banks is performed, is:
for x [ 0, L1 ]
cosh x Z C sinh x
V ( x)
= V 2
I ( x) 1 sinh x cosh x I 2
Z
C
for x L1
Figure 3.33 illustrates the voltage variation along the line considering a capacitor
bank installed at 200 km away from the receivingend, which compensates by 40% the
inductive reactance. In this case, when 400 MW are transmitted on the line, the voltage at
the sendingend should be under the nominal voltage, and the capacitor bank should be
disconnected. When 500 MW or even 600 MW are transmitted on the line, an acceptable
voltage level results.
U(Lx) 1.2 d.
Un
[p.u.] 1.1 c.
b.
1 a.
L1
0.9
0.8
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
Lx
Fig. 3.33. Voltage profile for a compensation factor kseries = 0.4
and a power factor cos = 0.98 : a. 400 MW; b. 500 MW; c. 600 MW; d. 700 MW.
Figures 3.34,a and 3.34,b illustrates the voltage variation along the line when only
active power is demanded at the receivingend ( cos = 1 ), considering that a compensation
of 20% and 40%, respectively, of the inductive reactance of the line is performed.
Analysing the voltage variation curves we may say that it is convenient to install a switched
capacitor bank in series with the line, together with an installation for reactive power and
voltage control at the receivingend, which contributes to the increasing of the transmission
capacity up to 700 MW (Fig. 3.34,b).
1.2 1.2
d. U(Lx)
Un
[p.u.] 1.1
1.1 c. d.
b. c.
1 1
a. b.
a.
0.9 L1 0.9 L1
0.8 0.8
0 200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 800
Lx [km] Lx [km]
a. b.
Fig. 3.34. Voltage profile for a power factor cos = 1 and compensation factor:
a. kseries = 0.2 ; b. kseries = 0.4 .
Chapter references
[3.1] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (Electric
networks. Electric calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1971.
[3.2] Guill, A.E., Paterson, W. Electrical power systems. Volume one (2nd Edition),
Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1979.
[3.3] Weedy, B.M. Electrical power systems. (3rd Edition), John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, New York, 1979.
[3.4] Poeat, A., Arie, A.A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, V., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Transmission and distribution of
electric energy), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[3.5] Kimbark, E.W. A new look at shunt compensation, IEEE Trans. on Power
Systems, Vol. 102, No. 1, January 1983.
[3.6] Gnen, T. Electric power transmission system engineering. Analysis and design,
John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York, 1988.
[3.7] Das, J.C. Power system analysis. Shortcircuit load flow and harmonics, Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel, 2002.
[3.8] Anderson, P.M., Farmer, R.G. Series compensation of power systems, PBLSH!
Inc., California, USA, 1996.
[3.9] Fallou, J. Les rseaux de transmission dnergie, GauthierVillars Editeur, Paris,
1935.
Chapter 4
HVDC TRANSMISSION
4.1. Introduction
HVDC power transmission is relatively a new technology, which had a
modest beginning in 1954. The advent of thyristor valves and related technological
improvements over last 30 years has been responsible for the acceleration of the
growth of HVDC systems.
The HVDC technology is still undergoing many changes due to continuing
innovations directed at improving reliability and reducing costs of converter
stations. Nowadays, the thyristor blocking voltage has reached 8500 Volts, while
the conduction current of the device is up to 3500 Amperes. Converter ratings are
up to 500 kV and 1500 MW for a single 12 pulse valve group. The converters can
be connected in series or in parallel to achieve higher ratings.
Actually, 70000 MW of HVDC transmission capacity is installed all over the
world. For DC, there are two options: conventional high voltage direct current
(HVDC) and voltage source converter (VSC).
Three types of semiconductor devices have established themselves in the
high power segment: thyristors, GTOs (gate turn off thyristors) and IGBTs
(insulated gate bipolar transistors).
The thyristor is the oldest of switching devices in use nowadays. It can be
turned on through gate control. The thyristor returns to its off state only when the
load current goes to zero. In practice, this is accomplished through the
commutation process. On the other hand GTOs and IGBTs can be turned off via
gate signals.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission link is advantageous in
the following areas of application [4.1]:
(i) For cables crossing bodies of water wider than 30 km;
(ii) For interconnecting AC systems having different frequencies or where
asynchronous operation is desired;
(iii) For long distance, bulk power transmission by overhead lines, when the
saving in cost of a DC line would more than compensate for the cost of
converter station;
(iv) The DC systems have an inherent shorttime overload capacity that can
be used for damping system oscillations;
240 Basic computation
would have been very difficult to ensure adequate stability margins. HVDC allow
controlled transmission of power between the networks, which also retain their
independence. DC is also more economic in term of construction costs and losses
as well as the right of way.
Left bank + 500 kV, 3000 MW
14x700 MW Three Gorges  Changzhou
AC system AC system
a. b. c.
Fig. 4.3. 6, 12 and 24pulse converter units.
Two six pulse bridges can be connected in series on the DC side and in
parallel on the AC side through their respective converter transformers. If one
HVDC transmission 243
the desired voltage level. Parallel connection of thyristor levels is not required. The
thyristors in a valve are subdivided into modules. The modular concept allows
ready access for maintenance and rapid replacement of failed components. Each
module typically contains a firing system for each thyristor and a monitoring
system to indicate failures. In addition to the thyristors the module contains series
saturable reactors to limit current rateofchange as well as parallel capacitances to
limit voltage rateofchange. The restrictions on these two quantities are required to
avoid excessive current densities in semiconductor junction areas as conduction
begins.
Valves require a cooling system. Valves may be cooled by circulating air,
water, and oil. Thermal time constants are on the order of second, so sustained
overcurrents cannot be tolerated by valves.
Filters
Converters generate harmonic voltages and currents on both AC and DC
sides. These harmonics can cause overheating of capacitors and nearby generators,
and interferences with telecommunication systems.
There are three types of filters used:
(i) AC filters. These are passive circuits used to provide low impedance,
shunt paths for AC harmonic currents. Both tuned and damped filter arrangements
are used;
(ii) DC filters. These are similar to AC filters and are used for the filtering of
harmonics on DC side;
(iii)High frequency filters. These are connected between the converter
transformer and the station AC bus to suppress any high frequency currents.
Sometimes such filters are provided on highvoltage DC bus converted between the
DC filter and DC line and also on the neutral side.
Reactive power
Converters require reactive power supply that is dependent on the active
power loading. Under steadystate conditions the reactive power consumed is about
5060% of active power transferred. Reactive power sources are therefore provided
near the converters. For strong AC systems, these are usually in the form of shunt
capacitors. Depending on the demands placed on the DC link and on the AC
system, part of the reactive power source may be in the form of synchronous
condensers or static VAr compensators. Fortunately, part of this reactive power
requirement is provided by AC filters.
Smoothing reactor
A sufficient large series reactor is used on DC side to smooth direct current
and also serves as a buffer between the converters and the DC line. The sizing of
the reactor depends on various requirements: to reduce the incidence of
commutation failure in inverters caused by dips in the AC voltage at the converter
bus; to prevent the consequent commutation failures in inverters by reducing the
rate of rise of direct current in the bridge; smooth the ripple in the direct current in
order to prevent the current becoming discontinuous at light loads; decrease
HVDC transmission 245
harmonic voltages and currents in the DC lines [4.7]. The location of the
smoothing reactor can be either at the high voltage terminal or at the ground
terminal. In the latter case, it is also necessary to have a small reactor (510 mH)
on the line side, to protect the converter station from the consequences of lightning
strokes to the line.
DC lines/cables
Selection of DC line/cable voltage is made only in conjunction with converter
rating selection. Going to higher voltages will increase converter costs and
decrease line losses for a given power level. Optimisation of system voltage level is
highly dependent upon both converter costs and line/cable costs. Thus DC lines,
unlike AC lines, may not be designed at an optimum voltage level for a given
power transfer. Converter cost as a function of voltage and current must be
considered before DC voltage is selected. The evaluation should consider different
voltage levels.
Electrode systems
Biplolar DC projects are designed to use the earth as a neutral conductor for
at least brief periods of time unless they are designed as two independent
monopoles. The connection to the earth requires a large surface area conductor to
minimize current densities and surface voltage gradients.
The conductor is termed an electrode. The electrode is usually located several
kilometres from the converter station so that direct currents will not stray into the
stations ground mat or be diverted into AC transmission lines leaving the
converter station. The line connecting station to the electrode is termed an
electrode line. In some designs if ground currents are not allowed at all, a metallic
return conductor is provided. In bipolar systems during monopolar operation one of
the pole conductors is used for metallic return. This requires a metallic transfer
breaker (MRTB) at the low voltage end. This breaker has to commutate the DC
current from the electrode line to the metallic return.
These three elements: electrode, electrode line and metallic return transfer
breaker, constitute the electrode system. Each has unique characteristics which are
discussed in turn.
(i) Electrode [4.5]. Two very different types of electrodes need to be
considered: anode and cathode. The anode is the point at which conventional current
(not electron flow) enters the earth. The cathode is where it leaves the earth. At both
types of electrodes conduction is largely by ion flow in an electrolyte of water and
salts. The major difference between the types of electrodes is that at anode, metal
ions assume positive charges and are carried away from the electrode. At the
cathode, metal ions are deposited. This causes severe corrosion of the anode and
erosion of the metal. The anode is effectively sacrificed to allow current
conduction. The cathode may increase in metallic mass but that in not a problem.
Anodes are more expensive to maintain because of the corrosion effect. To reduce
costs they are usually constructed with low cost conducting material surrounding the
metallic conductors (coke and graphite are frequently used). Cathodes may consist of
246 Basic computation
just a buried array of metallic conductors, since they are not affected by corrosion, if
at least low currents flow most of time.
In practice it is usually not possible to predict which electrode will be the anode
and which will be the cathode, because the earth return usually carries the
unbalanced current of bipolar system. Electrode construction varies with the
resistivity and moisture content of the earth. Large voltage gradients must be avoided
for safety reasons and because they represent power loss and heating of the earth.
That in turn can evaporate moisture from the electrode area and increase its
resistivity in a thermal runaway.
The most compact electrodes are constructed in ocean locations where
saltwater provides a good conductor and unlimited cooling and moisture. The largest
electrodes are required on land where thousand of meters of buried conductors may
be required. The electrode at the northern end of the Pacific Intertie is constructed as
a large conducting circle with a diameter of 1036 meters [4.5].
An alternative to the surface electrode is the deep electrode. If low resistivity rock or
mineral formations are located below the surface, it is sometimes advantageous to
construct several vertical shafts to connect with those formations. A layer of coal or
iron ore, for example might be used to reduce surface voltage gradients and electrode
costs. Most electrodes are able to reduce earth contact resistance to a fraction of an
ohm using one of these methods.
A major problem with electrodes is that DC earth currents follow paths of least
resistance. Remote from the electrode this will probably be deep within the
conducting mantle of the earth. In the vicinity of the electrode it may include
following low resistance manmade facilities, such as gas or water pipelines or even
transmission lines. Currents in these facilities may create problems, such as
saturation of transformer cores. More likely they will produce corrosion problems
where the currents leave these metal objects and reenter the earth. The corrosion
problems, which affect the anode electrode, are present on a smaller scale anytime
current leaves a metal object by ionic conduction.
Electrodes may be located many kilometres away from the converter station or
other facilities to avoid these kinds of problems. Also cathodic protection can be
applied to force current to leave the buried metals only through sacrifical anodes.
(ii) Electrode line [4.5]. The electrode line requires insulation levels adequate
to withstand the voltage drop along its length. That is usually only a small fraction of
the linetoground voltage of the DC system. The electrode line may be carried as an
insulated shield wire on one of the transmission lines leaving the converter station, as
long as it has adequate capacity.
The electrode line has some unique protection problems. Faults are hard to
detect since there will be no change in current, and voltages are very low all of the
time. The effects of grounding the electrode line to a tower or the earth may be very
adverse, however. In either case sever corrosion can occur if high currents are
present. Corrosion of the tower footing can destroy the tower; corrosion of the
electrode line can cause loss of conducting capacity and failure of the electrode line.
Any break in the electrode line can cause DC arcing and severe damage. DC
arcs can be much longer and stable than AC arcs. Any tendency to extinguish is
HVDC transmission 247

Pole I Pole I 
Ground Ground
electrodes electrodes
Pole II Pole II
+ 
a. b.
c. d.
Fig. 4.4. Types of HVDC transmission systems: a. bipolar line; b. two monopolar
transmission lines forming a bipolar system; c. monopolar transmission line with
ground or sea return; d. backtoback.
F F F
F
Neutral
Id Id conductor
Ground Surge
electrode Id arrester
Cathode Anode
a. b.
Fig. 4.5. Monopolar transmission systems: a. monopolar with ground return; b. monopolar
with metallic return. Reprinted with permission from IEEE P1030.12000 IEEE Guide for
specification of HVDC systems 2000 IEEE.
HVDC transmission 249
are provided along with bypass switching of subpole valve groups, substantially
higher fractions of normal power capabilities can continue during contingencies.
The fact that both poles of a bipolar system are carried on the same overhead tower
offers savings in construction costs similar to those enjoyed by double circuit AC
lines over those of two individual circuits of the same total capacity.
Id Id
+ +
F F F F
Neutral
conductor
F F F F
 
a. b.
Id
B B
MRTB  metallic return breaker
B  bypass switch to allow
MRTB metallic return mode
B B
Id
c.
Fig. 4.6. Bipolar HVDC systems: a. bipolar system; b. bipolar metallic neutral; c. bipolar,
grounded midpoint configuration (common tower). Reprinted with permission from IEEE
P1030.12000 IEEE Guide for specification of HVDC systems 2000 IEEE.
A homopolar link has two or more conductors, all of the same polarity
(normally negative). The return path is represented by ground. If a conductor is
faulty, the entire converter is available for connection to the remaining
conductor(s).
Pointtopoint HVDC systems
Pointtopoint HVDC overland transmission is a very common application
and a well justified choice in case of power transmission over long distances or
HVDC transmission 251
Id Id
a. b.
Fig. 4.7. Backtoback systems: a. one DC smoothing reactor and one DC system ground;
b. two DC smoothing reactors and one DC system ground.
Pole I Pole II
Fig. 4.8. Solutions for transformation of single or doublecircuit lines into DC line
configuration.
HVDC transmission 253
a. b. c.
Fig. 4.9. Multiterminal HVDC systems: a. radial connections; b. mesh or ring connection;
c. series connection.
254 Basic computation
For the first two configurations and for losses lines the DC voltage is equal
throughout the system, whereas for the third one the DC current remains equal in
every part of the system.
HVDC unit connected generators
Several technical and economical reasons strongly suggest that in certain
HVDC applications it may be advantageous to simplify the rectifier station, via a
direct connection of each machine set to a separate converter group with series
parallel combinations made on the DC side. This arrangement is usually referred to
in HVDC literature as unit connection [4.8]. Unit connection schemes could be
very attractive solutions for applications as electrical generation from remote
sources of power such as hydro and low grade coal fields, pump storage schemes,
wind power station, new large generating stations near their load centre, etc.
The arrangement traditionally used is shown in Figure 4.10,a and termed
conventional scheme [4.24]. The basic feature is that the generating units feed a
common AC busbar at the secondary side of the unit transformers. This busbar also
takes the AC harmonic filters. The modified arrangement is indicated in Figure
4.10,b and termed unit connection scheme. Here the generator transformer and the
AC busbar have been removed. The generators are directly connected to the
converter transformers and, if needed, seriesparallel combinations of units are
done at the DC side.
Auxiliar
a.
Fig. 4.10. Schemes for generators connected to HVDC converters:
a. conventional scheme. Reprinted with permission from DC and AC Configurations
(Chapter 3), CIGRE, Johannesburg 1997 CIGRE.
HVDC transmission 255
Auxiliar
b.
Neutral
Pole II
Pole I
DC line
DC bus
a.
DC line
Pole I
Neutral
Pole II
DC switches
DC bus
b.
positive anode voltage. The common potential of the anodes of valves T2, T4, T6 is
equal to the most negative cathode voltage.
Id
+
V1 T1 T3 T5
va ia i1 i3 i5
N vb ib N
udr Udr
vc ic
i4 i6 i2
T4 T6 T2
The same transformer secondary windings feed two groups of three thyristor
valves each. The thyristors are in conduction two by two, depending on the voltage
variation in the secondary. With no grid control, conduction will take place
between the cathode and the anode of highest potential. For example, during t0t1
(Fig. 4.13,a), amongst the thyristors belonging to the upper group (T1, T3, T5) will
be in conduction T1, which has the most positive anode; amongst the thyristors
belonging to the lower group (T2, T4, T6) will be in conduction T6, which has the
most negative cathode. As a consequence, T1 will also remain in conduction during
t1t2 interval (i.e. as long as va > vb ). At the beginning of t2 t3 period, T3 will enter
the conducting state. Similarly, at the beginning of t1 t2, the thyristor T2, having
the most negative cathode amongst the inferior group of thyristors, will conduce,
while T6 is blocked (T2 remains in conduction during the entire interval t1 t3). The
transformer secondary linetoneutral voltages are shown in Figure 4.13,a. These
are also the voltages of the anodes of the lower group of valves and the cathodes of
the upper group, all with respect to neutral point N. The difference in ordinates
between the upper and lower envelopes is the instantaneous direct voltage on the
valve side of the smoothing reactor. This is shown in Figure 4.13,b as the envelope
of the linetoline voltages. It is immediately to be noted that the ripple of the direct
voltage is of frequency 6f and the magnitude of ripple is smaller. Each thyristor is
in conduction a T/3 period, the shape of current wave being rectangular
(Fig. 4.13,c,d,e).
The inverse voltage V1 across valve 1, appearing at the ends of T1 while T3 is
in conducting state, is uab ; during the conduction period of T5 the inverse voltage
is uac (Fig. 4.13,f).
258 Basic computation
t=0
T1 T1 T3 T3 T5 T5 T1 T1 Upper group
T6 T2 T2 T4 T4 T6 T6 T2 Lower group
v
va vb vc va
Linetoneutral
voltage 120 0 120 240 a.
180 60 60 180 300
t
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7
u Secondary linetoline voltage
Linetoline
voltage t b.
Id
t c.
Id
T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3
ib
Id
t d.
Id
T/6 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6
ic
Id
t e.
Id
T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/6
V1
uab uac
Inverse voltage
across valve T1 t f.
V1
Fig. 4.13. Voltage and current waveforms for uncontrolled rectifier.
HVDC transmission 259
where it has been chosen as time origin the instant (t=0) when the bphase
voltage reaches its maximal value (Fig. 4.14,a). Will be examined two cases: the
uncontrolled and the controlled rectifier.
The case of uncontrolled converter. We consider the sequence with the
thyristor T3 in conduction (Fig. 4.14,a); the voltage from transformers secondary
windings is:
respectively:
uba = vb va = 3 Vs sin ( t + 60) = U s sin ( t + 60) (4.1)
A 0= u d( t )
0
ba
If one divides this value by the pulse width, obtains a value that approximates
good enough the value of the ideal average direct voltage:
60 60
3 3 3 3
Ud0 = A0 = 3 Vs sin ( t + 60) d( t ) = Vs [ cos( t + 60)]
0
0
One obtains:
3 3
Ud0 = Vs = 1.653Vs (4.2)
The case of controlled rectifier (with ignition delay). The grid or gate control
can be used to delay the ignition of the valves. The delay angle is denoted by
(Fig. 4.14,b,c); it corresponds to time delay of seconds. The delay angle is
limited to 180 . If exceeds 180 , the valve fails to ignite. In Figure 4.14,b is
detailed the transfer of current from a phase to another.
260 Basic computation
i3 i3
t t
i6 i6
va vb vc va va vb vb vc va
A0 A A
o
0o 120
60
o o t t
180
va=vb
va>vb va<vb
va va
Us ia1 ia1
t
t=0
a. b. c.
Fig. 4.14. Voltage and current waveforms for the uncontrolled rectifier (a) and controlled
rectifier (b, c).
A first effect of angle is that the direct voltage is decreased by the factor
cos . Since can range from 0 to 180, cos can range from 1 to 1. As a
consequence, the voltage U d varies between + U d 0 and U d 0 . A firing with an
angle between 0 and / 2 determines the operation as rectifier. For angles
between / 2 and , the polarity of U d is negative, and because the current I d
does not change the direction, one obtains a power transfer in the opposite
direction, form DC towards AC side; the converter acts like an inverter.
For = 90 the voltage waveforms is symmetrical and consequently its value
is zero. For = 0 , the fundamental component of the alternating current from the
secondary winding of the transformer is in phase with the voltage waveform on
that phase. If the firing is delayed by , the current pulses of fundamental
component will be dephased with = as regards the voltage waveform (they are
not centred anymore on the voltage peak value).
The second effect is that the more increases, the more increases angle
between current and voltage waveforms. If the power losses inside the converter
HVDC transmission 261
are neglected, than the power entering in the converter on the AC side should be
equal to the power getting out on the DC side, meaning:
3 U s I s1 cos U d I d = U d 0 I d cos (4.4)
As a consequence:
2 3 6
I s1 = Id = I d = 0.78 I d (4.5)
2
By substituting in (4.4) the values I s1 and U d 0 obtain:
cos cos
meaning that, the closer is to /2, the smaller is the power factor. As a
consequence, the rectifier will consume more reactive power from the AC system.
Commutation process or overlap
Due to the leakage inductance of the converter transformers and the
impedance in supply network, the current in a valve cannot change suddenly and
thus commutation from one valve to the next in the same row cannot be
instantaneous. As a consequence, due to the electromagnetic inertia, the I d value
at the beginning of commutation process, as well as the decrease to zero while
blocking are not instantaneous, the time required is called the overlap or
commutation time. The overlap angle is noted and consequently the overlap time
is / seconds. In normal operation < 60 .
For example, when valve 3 is fired (fig 4.15,a), the current transfer from
valve 1 to valve 3 takes a finite period during which both valves are conducting.
Each interval of the period of supply can be divided into two subintervals. In first
subinterval, during commutation, three valves conduct simultaneously (1,2,3), and
in the second subinterval, between commutations, only two valves are conducting.
A new commutation begins every 60 and lasts for an angle . Thus the angular
262 Basic computation
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