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Electric Power Systems

Volume I
Electric Networks
Sisteme Electroenergetice
Volumul I
Reele Electrice

This book was financially supported by:


S.C. ROMELECTRO S.A., Romania
Richard Bergner Elektroarmaturen & Co. KG RIBE, Germany
Washington Group International, U.S.A.
Power & Lighting Tehnorob S.A., Romania
C.N. Transelectrica S.A., Romania
S.C. ELECON PLUS S.R.L., Romania
Mircea Eremia (Editor)

Yong Hua Song Nikos Hatziargyriou


Adrian Buta Gheorghe Crin Mircea Neme
Virgil Alexandrescu Ion Stratan Bucur Lutrea
Hermina Albert George Florea Georgel Gheorghi
Ctlin Dumitriu Maria Tudose Constantin Bulac Sorin Ptrcoiu
Ion Tritiu Lucian Toma Laureniu Nicolae

ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS


Volume I
ELECTRIC NETWORKS

EDITURA ACADEMIEI ROMNE

Bucureti, 2005
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

Mircea Eremia Yong-Hua Song


University Politehnica of Bucharest Brunel University
313, Spl. Independenei Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH
060032 Bucharest, Romania London, United Kingdom
Nikos Hatziargyriou Adrian Buta
National Technical University of Athens University Politehnica of Timioara
9, Heroon Polytechniou 2, Vasile Prvan Blv.
15773 Zografou, Athens, Greece 300223 Timioara, Romania
Gheorghe Crin Mircea Neme
Technical University Gh. Asachi of Iai University Politehnica of Timioara
22, Copou Str. 2, Vasile Prvan Blv.
700497 Iai, Romania 300223 Timioara, Romania
Virgil Alexandrescu Ion Stratan
Technical University Gh. Asachi of Iai Technical University of Moldova
22, Copou Str. 168, tefan cel Mare Blv.
700497 Iai, Romania MD2004 Chiinu, Republic of Moldova
Bucur Lutrea Hermina Albert
University Politehnica of Timioara Institute for Energy Studies and Design
2, Vasile Prvan Blv. 1-3, Lacul Tei Blv.
300223 Timioara, Romania 020371 Bucharest, Romania
George Florea Georgel Gheorghi, Laureniu Nicolae
Power & Lighting Tehnorob S.A. Fichtner Romelectro Engineering
355-357, Griviei Av. 1-3, Lacul Tei Blv.
010717, Bucharest, Romania 020371, Bucharest, Romania
Ctlin Dumitriu Maria Tudose
University Politehnica of Bucharest University Politehnica of Bucharest
313, Spl. Independenei 313, Spl. Independenei
060032 Bucharest, Romania 060032 Bucharest, Romania
Constantin Bulac Sorin Ptrcoiu
University Politehnica of Bucharest TRAPEC S.A.
313, Spl. Independenei 53, Plevnei Av.
060032 Bucharest, Romania 010234 Bucharest, Romania
Ion Tritiu Lucian Toma
University Politehnica of Bucharest University Politehnica of Bucharest
313, Spl. Independenei 313, Spl. Independenei
060032 Bucharest, Romania 060032 Bucharest, Romania
CONTENTS

Volume I: ELECTRIC NETWORKS

Foreword ............................................................................................................................ XV
Preface............................................................................................................................. XVII
Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................ XX

Part one: BASIC COMPUTATION

1. ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS CONFIGURATION AND PARAMETERS


(Adrian Buta, Maria Tudose, Lucian Toma)..................................................................3
1.1. Classification and architecture of electric networks ..............................................3
1.1.1. Types of electric networks..........................................................................3
1.1.2. Architecture of electric networks ...............................................................5
1.2. Electric power systems components modelling under steady-state conditions ...23
1.2.1. Loads (consumers) modelling ..................................................................24
1.2.2. Electric lines modelling ...........................................................................28
1.2.3. Transformers modelling ...........................................................................62
1.2.4. Electric generators modelling ..................................................................76
Chapter references .......................................................................................................80

2. RADIAL AND MESHED NETWORKS (Mircea Eremia, Ion Tritiu) .....................83


2.1. General considerations ........................................................................................83
2.2. Radial and simple meshed electric networks.......................................................85
2.2.1. Current flows and voltage drops calculation
under symmetric regime...........................................................................85
2.2.2. Radial electric line with unbalanced loads on phases ..............................91
2.2.3. Simple meshed electric networks.............................................................94
2.2.4. Load flow calculation of radial electric networks ....................................97
2.3. Complex meshed electric networks...................................................................110
2.3.1. Transfiguration methods ........................................................................110
2.3.2. Load flow calculation of meshed networks............................................121
2.4. Reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks .......................................139
2.4.1. Operating issues .....................................................................................139
2.4.2. Mathematical model of the reconfiguration process ..............................141
2.4.3. Reconfiguration heuristic methods ........................................................146
Appendix 2.1. Existence and uniqueness of the forward/backward sweep solution..156
Appendix 2.2. The active power losses variation as a result of a load variation in a
radial network ........................................................................................160
Chapter references .....................................................................................................162

3. AC TRANSMISSION LINES (Mircea Eremia, Ion Stratan, Ctlin Dumitriu) .....165


3.1. Operating equations under steady state .............................................................165
3.2. Propagation of voltage and current waves on a transmission line .....................169
3.2.1. Physical interpretation............................................................................169
VIII

3.2.2. Apparent characteristic power. Natural power


(SIL surge impedance loading) ...........................................................173
3.3. Coefficients of transmission lines equations .....................................................176
3.3.1. Numerical determination of propagation coefficient .............................176
3.3.2. Numerical determination of characteristic impedance ...........................179
3.3.3. Numerical calculation of A, B, C and D coefficients.............................181
3.3.4. Kennellys correction coefficients .........................................................182
3.4. Transmitted power on the lossless line..............................................................185
3.5. Transmission lines operating regimes ...............................................................187
3.5.1. Transmission lines equations expressed in per unit ...............................187
3.5.2. Loading only with active power ( pB 0 , qB = 0 ) ...............................188
3.5.3. Loading with active and reactive power ( pB 0 , qB 0 )...................195
3.5.4. Operating regime with equal voltages at both ends ...............................199
3.6. Series and shunt compensation of transmission lines........................................201
3.6.1. Influence of power system lumped reactance ........................................202
3.6.2. Series compensation with capacitors......................................................205
3.6.3. Natural power control by capacitors ......................................................209
3.6.4. Shunt compensation with reactors .........................................................213
3.6.5. Mixed compensation of transmission lines ............................................219
3.7. Transmitted power on the line with losses ........................................................221
3.7.1. Power formulae ......................................................................................221
3.7.2. Performance chart (Circle diagram).......................................................224
3.7.3. Power losses...........................................................................................225
3.8. Application on AC long line ...............................................................................226
Chapter references .....................................................................................................238

4. HVDC TRANSMISSION (Mircea Eremia, Constantin Bulac) ...............................239


4.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................239
4.2. Structure and configurations .............................................................................242
4.2.1. Structure of HVDC links........................................................................242
4.2.2. HVDC configurations ............................................................................247
4.3. Analysis of the three-phase bridge converter ....................................................256
4.3.1. Rectifier equations .................................................................................256
4.3.2. Inverter equations...................................................................................266
4.4. Control of direct current link ..............................................................................270
4.4.1. Equivalent circuit and control characteristics ........................................270
4.4.2. Control strategies of HVDC systems .....................................................275
4.4.3. Control implementation .........................................................................277
4.5. Reactive power and harmonics..........................................................................280
4.5.1. Reactive power requirements and sources .............................................280
4.5.2. Sources of reactive power ......................................................................283
4.5.3. Harmonics and filters .............................................................................285
4.6. Load flow in mixed AC-DC systems ................................................................293
4.7. Interaction between AC and DC systems ..........................................................297
4.7.1. AC systems stabilization........................................................................297
4.7.2. Influence of AC system short-circuit ratio.............................................299
4.7.3. Effective inertia constant .......................................................................301
4.7.4. Reactive power and the strength of the AC system................................301
IX

4.8. Comparison between DC and AC transmission ................................................302


4.9. Application on HVDC link................................................................................309
Appendix 4.1. HVDC systems in the world .............................................................319
Chapter references .....................................................................................................323

5. NEUTRAL GROUNDING OF ELECTRIC NETWORKS (Adrian Buta) ..............325


5.1. General considerations ......................................................................................325
5.2. Basic electric phenomena in grounded neutral networks ..................................327
5.2.1. Network neutral potential relative to ground .........................................327
5.2.2. Single-phase-to-ground fault current .....................................................329
5.3. Isolated neutral networks...................................................................................334
5.4. Grounded neutral networks ...............................................................................338
5.4.1. Solidly grounded neutral networks ........................................................338
5.4.2. Resistor grounded neutral networks.......................................................338
5.4.3. Arc-suppression coil grounded networks (resonant grounding).............346
5.5. Neutral point situation in electric networks.......................................................358
5.5.1. Neutral grounding abroad ......................................................................359
5.5.2. Neutral grounding in Romania...............................................................361
Chapter references .....................................................................................................365

6. ELECTRICAL POWER QUALITY (Adrian Buta, Lucian Toma) ...........................367


6.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................367
6.2. Short-duration voltage variations. Voltage dips and interruptions ....................374
6.2.1. Origins of dips and interruptions............................................................374
6.2.2. Voltage dips characterization and classification ....................................375
6.2.3. Voltage dips calculation.........................................................................379
6.2.4. Mitigation solutions ...............................................................................380
6.3. Transients and overvoltages ..............................................................................392
6.3.1. Sources...................................................................................................383
6.3.2. Mitigation methods ................................................................................385
6.4. Long-duration voltage variations .....................................................................386
6.4.1. Origin and effects...................................................................................386
6.4.2. Voltage level assessment .......................................................................388
6.4.3. Mitigation solutions for the voltage regulation ......................................390
6.5. Harmonics in power systems.............................................................................395
6.5.1. Sources...................................................................................................395
6.5.2. Fundamental concepts............................................................................396
6.5.3. Effects of harmonic distortion................................................................411
6.5.4. Modelling and analysis ..........................................................................419
6.5.5. Mitigation solutions to controlling harmonics .......................................437
6.6. Voltage unbalances ...........................................................................................446
6.6.1. Unbalance indices ..................................................................................447
6.6.2. Origin and effects...................................................................................449
6.6.3. Voltage unbalance and power flow under non-symmetrical conditions 450
6.6.4. Practical definitions of powers in system with non-sinusoidal
waveforms and unbalanced loads...........................................................452
6.6.5. Mitigation solutions to the unbalanced operation ..................................456
Chapter references .....................................................................................................467
X

7. POWER AND ENERGY LOSSES IN ELECTRIC NETWORKS


(Hermina Albert) ......................................................................................................471
7.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................471
7.1.1. Background ............................................................................................471
7.1.2. Evolution and structure of the losses in the Romanian
electric networks ....................................................................................474
7.1.3. Comparison between losses in the Romanian electric networks
and other countries .................................................................................476
7.2. Own technologic power consumption ...............................................................477
7.3. Own electric energy technologic consumption .................................................481
7.3.1. Basic notions and data............................................................................481
7.3.2. Diagram integration method ..................................................................483
7.3.3. Root-mean-square current method .........................................................486
7.3.4. Losses time method................................................................................488
7.3.5. Technologic consumption in transmission installations.........................494
7.4. Economic efficiency of the electric network losses reducing............................496
7.5. Measures to reduce the own technologic consumption and the active energy
and power losses................................................................................................502
7.5.1. Measures to cut the technical losses requiring no investments ..............502
7.5.2. Measures to cut the own technologic consumption requiring
investments ............................................................................................504
Chapter references .....................................................................................................505

Part two: LOAD FLOW AND POWER SYSTEM SECURITY

8. PERFORMANCE METHODS FOR POWER FLOW STUDIES


(Virgil Alexandrescu, Sorin Ptrcoiu) ...................................................................509
8.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................509
8.2. Mathematical models ........................................................................................510
8.2.1. The balance of the nodal currents ..........................................................511
8.2.2. The balance of the nodal powers............................................................511
8.2.3. Power flow per unit computation...........................................................512
8.3. Newton-Raphson (N-R) method .......................................................................514
8.3.1. Theoretical aspects.................................................................................514
8.3.2. Computational algorithm for power flow study by N-R method ...........516
8.4. Decoupled Newton method ...............................................................................531
8.5. Fast decoupled method......................................................................................532
8.6. Direct current (DC) method ..............................................................................541
8.7. Improvements of power flow analysis methods ................................................543
8.8. Static equivalents of the power systems ............................................................545
8.8.1. Introduction............................................................................................545
8.8.2. Ward equivalent .....................................................................................546
8.8.3. REI Dimo equivalent ..........................................................................548
8.8.4. Equivalent with ideal transformers (EIT)...............................................554
8.8.5. Updating possibilities of the static equivalents ......................................556
Appendix 8.1. Specific aspects of the power flow computation of large electric
networks ...........................................................................................................558
Appendix 8.2. Structure and steady state data of the network test.............................563
Chapter references .....................................................................................................564
XI

9. STATE ESTIMATION OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS (Mircea Neme) ......567


9.1. Some general aspects ........................................................................................567
9.2. Simple application.............................................................................................569
9.3. The estimator.....................................................................................................572
9.4. Two-node system ..............................................................................................574
9.5. Detection and identification of bad data. The procedure of performance index.577
9.6. The procedure of standard deviation multiple b ...........................................580
9.7. The correction of large errors............................................................................580
9.8. The procedure of test identification...................................................................582
9.9. Application with HTI method ...........................................................................585
9.10. Power system observability .............................................................................586
9.10.1. Test of observability P ~ ..................................................................587
9.10.2. The structure of the gain matrix Q, E ~ U ..........................................590
9.10.3. Test of observability Q, E ~ U ............................................................591
Chapter references .....................................................................................................595

10. STEADY STATE OPTIMIZATION (Gheorghe Crin, Yong Hua Song).............597


10.1. Horizon of the power system optimization problems ......................................597
10.1.1. Minimization of the total generation cost (MTGC) ...........................599
10.1.2. Minimization of the active power losses (MAPL) .............................600
10.1.3. Optimization of the voltage-reactive power control (VQ) ................601
10.1.4. Optimal unit commitment (OUC) .....................................................602
10.1.5. Optimization of the strategies in deregulated market (OSDM)..........603
10.2. Optimization techniques in power systems......................................................604
10.2.1. Nonlinear programming (NLP)..........................................................604
10.2.2. Lagrange relaxation techniques (LRT) ..............................................607
10.2.3. Multiobjective optimization techniques .............................................612
10.2.4. Modern optimization techniques in operating planning.....................619
10.3. Optimal power flow (OPF) .............................................................................623
10.3.1. Optimization model............................................................................623
10.3.2. Minimization of the active power losses (MAPL) ............................626
10.3.3. Newton Lagrange method (NL) .....................................................632
10.3.4. Interiorpoint methods (IPMs)...........................................................635
10.4. Optimal unit commitment (OUC) ...................................................................643
10.4.1. Introduction........................................................................................643
10.4.2. Lagrangian relaxation genetic algorithms method (LRGA) ...........644
10.5. Optimal unit commitment in deregulated market ............................................653
10.5.1. Dynamic optimal power flow by interior-point methods ...................653
10.5.2. Power market oriented optimal power flow .......................................658
10.6. Optimization strategies in deregulated market..................................................660
10.6.1. Bidding problem formulation.............................................................660
10.6.2. Ordinal optimization method .............................................................662
10.6.3. Numerical results and discussions......................................................663
Chapter references .....................................................................................................666

11. LOAD FORECAST (Bucur Lutrea) .......................................................................671


11.1. Background......................................................................................................671
11.2. Factors that influence the energy consumption ...............................................672
XII

11.3. Stages of a forecast study ................................................................................673


11.3.1. Initial database selection, correlation and processing ........................673
11.3.2. Mathematical model of the load.........................................................673
11.3.3. Analysis of results and determining the final forecast .......................679
11.4. Error sources and difficulties met at load forecast...........................................680
11.5. Classical methods for load forecast .................................................................681
11.5.1. General aspects ..................................................................................681
11.5.2. Cyclical and seasonal components analysis .......................................682
11.5.3. Trend forecast ....................................................................................685
11.5.4. Load random component analysis......................................................697
11.6. Time series methods for load forecast .............................................................699
11.6.1. General aspects ..................................................................................699
11.6.2. Principles of methodology of the time series modelling ....................700
11.6.3. Time series adopted pattern. Components separation ........................701
11.6.4. Establishing of the time series model using
the Box Jenkins method..................................................................704
11.6.5. Time series model validation .............................................................707
11.6.6. Time series forecast ...........................................................................710
11.7. Short term load forecast using artificial neural networks ................................712
11.7.1. General aspects ..................................................................................712
11.7.2. ANN architecture ...............................................................................714
11.7.3. Case study ..........................................................................................716
Chapter references .....................................................................................................719

Part three: TECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPUTATION

12. ELECTRIC NETWORKS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT


(George Florea) ........................................................................................................723
12.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................723
12.2. Constructive impact.........................................................................................723
12.2.1. Visual impact ...................................................................................723
12.2.2. Impact on land use ...........................................................................724
12.2.3. Impact during erection and maintenance works...............................725
12.2.4. Direct impact on ecological systems................................................726
12.2.5. Final considerations .........................................................................727
12.3. Electric field impact.........................................................................................727
12.3.1. General considerations.....................................................................727
12.3.2. Induced currents in conductive objects............................................729
12.3.3. Voltages induced in not connected to ground objects......................730
12.3.4. Direct perception in humans ............................................................730
12.3.5. Direct biological effects on humans and animals ............................730
12.3.6. Effects on vegetation .......................................................................732
12.3.7. Audible noise ...................................................................................733
12.3.8. Interference on AM reception..........................................................735
12.3.9. Interference on FM reception...........................................................736
12.3.10. Ions and ozone generating ...............................................................737
12.3.11. Final considerations and recommendations .....................................739
12.3.12. Mitigation techniques ......................................................................742
12.4. Magnetic field impact ......................................................................................742
XIII

12.4.1.General considerations.....................................................................742
12.4.2.Induced voltages on long metallic structures parallel
to inducting currents ........................................................................745
12.4.3. Direct biological effects on humans and animals ..............................745
12.4.4. Indirect biological effects ..................................................................748
12.4.5. Direct perception on humans .............................................................748
12.4.6. Effects on vegetation .........................................................................748
12.4.7. Final considerations and recommendations.......................................749
12.4.8. Mitigation techniques ........................................................................752
12.5. Conclusions......................................................................................................763
Chapter references .....................................................................................................764

13. OVERHEAD TRANSMISSION LINES TECHNICAL DESIGN


(Georgel Gheorghi, Laureniu Niculae) .................................................................767
13.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................767
13.1.1. Changes of the operational environment ...........................................767
13.1.2. Environmental changes......................................................................768
13.1.3. Changing business environment ........................................................768
13.1.4. New technological possibilities .........................................................769
13.2. Opportunities and threats.................................................................................769
13.3. Objectives and strategy....................................................................................770
13.3.1. Ambitions and objectives ..................................................................770
13.3.2. Strategic technical directions.............................................................770
13.4. The future of overhead transmission lines (OTL)............................................771
13.4.1. Overhead transmission lines today ....................................................771
13.4.2. Overhead transmission lines medium and long terms forecasting.
New overhead transmission lines ......................................................799
Chapter references .....................................................................................................802

14. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION (Nikos Hatziargyriou) .........................................805


14.1. General issues ..................................................................................................805
14.2. Technical issues of the integration of DG in distribution networks ................808
14.2.1. Introduction........................................................................................808
14.2.2. Network voltage changes ...................................................................809
14.2.3. Increase in network fault levels..........................................................812
14.2.4. Effects on power quality ....................................................................813
14.2.5. Protection issues.................................................................................815
14.2.6. Effects on stability .............................................................................816
14.2.7. Effects of DG connection to isolated systems....................................817
14.3. Commercial issues in distribution systems containing DG .............................818
14.3.1. Introduction........................................................................................818
14.3.2. Present network pricing arrangements ...............................................819
14.4. Conclusions .....................................................................................................827
Chapter references .....................................................................................................827
XIV

Volume II: POWER SYSTEMS STABILITY AND ELECTRICITY MARKETS

Part one: POWER SYSTEM STABILITY AND CONTROL

Part two: ELECTRICITY MARKETS. DEREGULATION

Volume III: ADVANCED TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES

Part one: FACTS TECHNOLOGIES

Part two: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES

Part three: INFORMATION AND COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES


FOREWORD

Electric power systems are an integral part of the way of life in modern
society. The electricity supplied by these systems has proved to be a very
convenient, safe, and relatively clean form of energy. It runs our factories, warms
and lights our homes, cooks our food and powers our computers. It is indeed one of
the important factors contributing to the relatively high standard of living enjoyed
by modern society. Electricity is an energy carrier; energy is neither naturally
available in the electrical form nor is it consumed directly in that form. The
advantage of the electrical form of energy is that it can be transported and
controlled with relative ease and high degree of efficiency and reliability.
Modern electric power systems are large complex systems with many
processes whose operations need to be optimized and with millions of devices
requiring harmonious interplay. Efficient and secure operation of such systems
presents many challenges in todays competitive, disaggregated business
environment. This is increasingly evident from the many major power grid
blackouts experienced in recent years, including the 14 August 2003 blackout of
power network in the north-east of the American continent and the 28 September
2003 blackout of the Italian power network.
The technical problems that the power engineers have to address today
appear to be very complex and demanding for the students of the subject. They will
need both the experience of the past generations and a new enlightened approach to
the theory and practice of power generation, transmission, distribution and
utilization taking into account the techniques that have evolved in other fields.
The present book includes a comprehensive account of both theoretical and
practical aspects of the performance of the individual elements as well as the
integrated power system. The contributing authors are all recognized experts in
power system engineering, either working for the electric power industry or for
universities in Romania and abroad. Together they have had a total of many
decades of experience in the technologies related to electric power systems.
Upon invitation from Professor Mircea Eremia, I had the pleasure of visiting
the Electrical Power Engineering Department at University Politehnica of
Bucharest in May 2003. I found there a powerful school of Electric Power Systems
from which about 50 students graduate yearly. During my visit, I also had the
opportunity to review and discuss the proposal for preparing this book. I am very
impressed with the outcome. I am truly honoured to write the foreword of this
book, which I believe will be an invaluable source of reference for students of
power engineering as well as practicing engineers.

Prabha Kundur, Ph.D., FIEEE, FCAE


President & CEO, Powertech Labs Inc.

Surrey, British Columbia, Canada


August 2005
PREFACE

Modern power systems are the result of continuous development and


improvement which, over the years, have led to highly sophisticated and complex
technologies. Their reliable operation is a tribute to the work of dedicated
scientists, innovative engineers and experienced business leaders.
The relatively fast development of the electrical systems and networks has
given rise to ceaseless discussions regarding safe operation and provision of power
quality at the customer. Moreover, the energy policy concerning the promotion of
renewable energy sources as well as the electricity market creation to stimulate the
competition among generation companies have caused new problems in the
transmission and distribution networks. It is clear that the initial destination of
electrical networks to ensure the unidirectional transmission of power from the
power plants towards consumers has changed, since by the installation of dispersed
generation sources into the distribution network the power flow became
bidirectional, with the possibility of injecting power into the transmission network.
In the present work the authors tried to cover in the best way possible the
basic knowledge that the experienced engineer as well as the young graduate
student in electrical power systems should be able to handle. The work Electric
Networks is the first volume of the treatise Electric Power Systems. It consists
of 14 chapters grouped in 3 parts.
The first part entitled Basic Computation introduces the basic topics related
to electrical energy transmission to the reader. In chapter 1, the architecture of
electrical networks and the steady state mathematical modelling of the network
elements are described in detail. The student should be aware that the network
modelling represents the starting point for any application.
The electrical networks are designed for transmission, repartition and
distribution of electrical energy, so that they present various structures. The
transmission and repartition networks operate in complex meshed structure while
distribution networks operate in simple meshed but mostly in radial configuration.
In chapter 2, issues related to radial networks are presented, such as voltage drop or
currents flow calculation. Also this chapter deals with issues related to meshed
networks, such as nodal admittance matrix construction and steady state
formulation and calculation by using the Seidel-Gauss method as well as the
forward/backward sweep adapted for distributed generation.
To use the energetic potential of the Earth, especially the might of water, as
efficiently as possible, but also because of the continuous increase of the inhabited
or industrialized areas, we are forced to transmit the electrical energy for longer
and longer distances. However, the alternating current transmission for long
distances presents special concerns related to voltage. With the exception of the
ideal case when the reactive power consumed in the series inductive component of
the lines is compensated by the reactive power generated by the shunt component,
formed between the line conductors and earth, while the natural power is
transmitted on the line, the voltage can vary in a wide range with respect to the
XVIII

nominal value. Chapter 3 presents the theory of alternating current long


transmission lines, together with the problems related to their operation and,
correspondingly, their solution by means of series or shunt compensation with
capacitor banks or reactors.
The advanced technology in power electronics proves to be the necessary
support for power transmission at long distances, but at direct current. Although the
direct current discovered by Edison, which constituted the revolution of the
electricity industry, has lost the race to electrify the world over the alternating
current discovered by Tesla, however, the direct current transmission and power
electronics based devices, respectively, is the only solution to make undersea links
or to interconnect two systems operating at different frequencies. Chapter 4 reveals
the technical and economical secrets of the direct current transmission.
The modern power systems are probably the most complex systems man has
ever built. Secure operation of the power systems is a very important issue since
unwanted interruptions of power delivery have a large economical impact on
customers and utilities. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with issues related to electrical
network security and also to the quality of the power supplied to the consumers.
The electrical network undergoes permanently disturbances, having different
causes and consequences. Chapter 5 presents the efficient measures, which must be
taken so that the network could cope with the faults, that is, the neutral grounding
of the electric networks. It is disagreeable to find that the intensity of the light
provided by the incandescent lamp flickers, or that our refrigerator is out of order
due to an overvoltage, or even worse, to get stuck in the elevator due to an
interruption in electricity. Chapter 6 deals with problems related to power quality
and electromagnetic compatibility issues giving at the same time mitigation
solutions.
The power systems engineer must be a very good technician but also an
economist. The calculation of power losses, presented in Chapter 7, as well as their
reducing methodologies, supplements the knowledge of the engineer in designing
and optimising of the system operation.
To ensure a proper operation of power systems and the continuity in
supplying the consumer, the engineer is challenged and at the same time stimulated
to develop efficient concepts and technologies. This is the reason why magnificent
ideas of some great engineers, as is the case of the famous Paul Dimos suggestion
to interconnect the power systems at a large scale, where the partners are based on
Trust, Solidarity and Common Interest, are nowadays put into practice.
But, the power networks have become more meshed, and the specialists
activities in the analysis of power system operation more complicated. Therefore,
there is a need for analytical and simulation tools in the power systems operation
and planning. In the second section of the book entitled Load flow and power
system security, performance methods for off-line assessment of a power system
operating state, by using Newton-Raphson type methods and network static
equivalents, are presented Chapter 8. Due to the fast speed at which the electric
phenomena are evolving, the system operator needs powerful tools that can
XIX

respond in real time; state estimation, provided in Chapter 9, is an efficient


approach useful in this respect.
The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented change in its
structure worldwide. With the open market environment and competition in the
electrical industry, after the restructuring of the system into separate generation,
transmission and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and
planning are inevitable. One of the questions the engineer ponders over is: How to
minimize the production and transmission costs to obtain the lowest price possible
for the final consumer?. The answer is tentatively given in Chapter 10 that offers
proposals for optimisation of power system operation in the conditions imposed by
the competitive environment present in the electricity market.
The maintenance of system frequency at a certain value is performed by a
permanent balance between generation and consumption. System operator
performs the power balancing by appropriate auxiliary services. That is the system
operator must know a priori the load consumption from the system so that to
appropriately contract with the qualified producers. Distribution companies are
faced with the same situation since they function as intermediates between
generators and captive consumers. Chapter 11 comes up in help with load
forecasting methods.
The power increase has led to the expansion of networks, including the high
voltage and medium voltage powered transmission and distribution systems.
However, for reasons concerning the conservation of the environment, the
protection against electromagnetic fields or for aesthetic reasons, the installation of
new electrical lines or supplementary capacities in mammoth power plants is, as
much as possible, avoided. The third part of the book, entitled Technical and
environmental computation comes up with ideas of how to solve the possible
problems concerning the environment, presented in Chapter 12, by efficient and
ecological solutions for overhead lines designing, given in Chapter 13.
The negative impact on the environment along with the limited resources of
the Earth, such as coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel, have forced the man to
think of tireless resources, such as wind and the sunlight. The evolution of
technology facilitated the manufacturing of small size high efficiency sources of
power, which can be installed into the distribution network, and in the majority of
cases are even found at the consumers disposal. Chapter 14 presents issues
concerning the impact of distributed generation on the electrical network.
The work is addressed to the undergraduate and graduate students in the
electrical engineering fields but also to specialists from design, research and
services companies.
Hoping that exploring this book will be an exciting endeavour, the authors
apologize to the reader and native English speaker for the language and printing
inaccuracies that inevitably exist.

Mircea Eremia, Professor


University Politehnica of Bucharest
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to take this opportunity to acknowledge all persons that
contributed directly or indirectly to carrying out this book, either by technical or
editorial support.
For some chapters the authors benefited from the kindness of some
institutions or companies, which permitted the reprinting or adapting of some
figures, equations or text excerpts. In this regard, special thanks are addressed to
IEEE, CIGRE particularly to the General Secretary Jean Kowal, EPRI
particularly to Dr. Aty Edris who facilitated the cooperation with EPRI, as well as
to Copper Development Association. Reprinting permission was allowed by Dr.
Roger Dugan, from EPRI, also with the kind acceptance from McGraw-Hill
Companies, for some excerpts in Chapter 6, and Ing. Daniel Griffel, from EdF, for
some excerpts in Chapter 5, to whom the authors address their deepest gratitude.
The authors are deeply grateful to Acad. Gleb Drgan for the constant
support and encouragements during writing the book and cooperation with the
Publishing House of the Romanian Academy.
Special thanks are addressed to some persons who contributed to the content
of the final manuscript. The authors wish to express warm thanks to Dr. Mohamed
Rashwan (President of TransGrid Solutions Inc.), who provided valuable
contributions in Chapter 4, to Prof. Petru Postolache (from University Politehnica
of Bucharest), for constructive comments in Chapter 1 and Chapter 11, and
Dr. Fnic Vatr (from Institute for Energy Studies and Design ISPE S.A.) for
valuable suggestions to Chapter 5. Special thanks are addressed to Prof. Nicolae
Golovanov (from University Politehnica of Bucharest) who reviewed the
Chapter 6 and provided many valuable contributions.
The printing of this book was made possible by the financial support of some
companies. The authors wish to express their gratitude to Ing. Viorel Gafia
(Manager of Romelectro S.A.) and Dr. Dan Gheorghiu (General Manager of ISPE
S.A.). Special thanks are also addressed to Washington Group International Inc. for
the financial support granted for printing the book, and to RIBE Group (Germany)
as well as its subsidiary in Romania, which provided valuable technical materials
and financial support for printing the book.
For contributions concerning the translation into English or the electronic
editing of some chapters, the authors wish to extend their gratitude to Dr. Andrei
Fgranu, Dr. Monica Fgranu, Dr. Cristina Popescu, Ing. Silviu Vergoti, Ing.
Ioan Giosan, Ing. Mircea Bivol and Ing. Laureniu Lipan.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the good cooperation with the Publishing
House of the Romanian Academy, and address many thanks to Dr. Ioan Ganea,
Ing. Cristina Chiriac, Mihaela Marian and Monica Stanciu, for their patience and
professionalism in carrying out the printed book.

The authors
Chapter 1
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
CONFIGURATION AND PARAMETERS

1.1. Classification and architecture of electric networks

1.1.1. Types of electric networks


The power flow from power plants to consumption areas and customers is
ensured by transmission and distribution networks.
The criteria that determine the types of electric networks are:
destination: transmission, interconnection, distribution and utility
networks;
nominal voltage *): extra high voltage (400 kV, 750 kV), high voltage (35
to 220 kV), medium voltage (1 to 35 kV) and low voltage (< 1 kV);
covered area: national, regional, urban and rural networks;
configuration: radial, looped and complex looped (meshed) networks;
the situation of the neutral point: networks with earth insulated neutral,
networks with solidly earthed neutral and networks with treated neutral;
the presence of the neutral wire: networks with available/not available
neutral;
current frequency: alternative current networks and direct current
networks.
a. The destination criterion networks takes into account the functional role of
the electric networks. Thus, transmission networks provide systematic power
transfer from the production areas to the consumption areas. The power transferred
in time corresponds to the determinist component of the forecasting values. The

*)
Several Standards [EN50160, IEEE P1564, HD 637 S1] give definitions of the voltage
either as reference quantity or for equipment designing. The term nominal voltage of the
system Un, as a whole, is defined as a suitable value of voltage used to designate or identify
a system and to which certain operating characteristics are referred. The term rated value
represents a quantity value assigned, generally by the manufacturer, for a specified
operating condition of a component, device or equipment. Because the nominal voltage is a
reference value it is further used in definitions and formulae from theories to identify the
voltage level of the network to which equipments or installations are connected.
4 Basic computation

interconnection networks provide the compensation transfer (Fig. 1.1). This


transfer is realized in different direction and sense as compared to the systematic
transfer and it corresponds to the random component of the forecasting powers, as
well as to some fault situations of the generator groups or of the elements of
systematic transmission networks. The Repartition networks supply the distribution
networks or big customers (which have their own distribution networks). The
distribution networks provide power to the loads and their components power
customers. The distribution networks belonging to the customers are called utility
networks (industrial, domestic).
b. The networks configuration (topology). The radial networks consist of
elements (lines, substations, transformer points) beginning in a power injection
node and ending in a consumption node. As a result, the loads cannot be supplied
on more than a single path (Fig. 1.2).
The looped networks are composed from many loops. The consumption
nodes of these networks are supplied from two sides. Thus, the network in Figure
1.3 becomes a looped network when the circuit breaker CB is closed and both lines
L1 and L2 are supplied.
In this case, the supply continuity of the loads is provided even during the
disconnection of a source or the failure of some network sections. If the network is
supplied by two sources placed at the networks ends then the network is called
supplied from two ends (Fig. 1.4) and it may be regarded as a particular case of the
looped network.

A B Systematic
Systematic Systematic transport
transport Compensation transport

~ ~ ~
PP IS PP

A, B consumption areas
PP power plants
IS interference station
HV / MV transformer substation
MV / LV transformer substation

Fig. 1.1. Definition of systematic and Fig. 1.2. Radial networks.


compensation power transfer.

The main feature of the complex looped networks is that the loads are
supplied from more than two sides (Fig. 1.5), therefore on several paths and from
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 5

several sources. These networks present great supply reliability and economical
operation, but they require more equipment and they are more expensive.
The topology of a network can be modified by the position of the circuit
breakers placed on the lines (Fig. 1.3) or on the substations busbars (Fig. 1.6).
Therefore, the opening of the circuit breaker CB from Figure 1.3 transforms the
looped network into a radial one; the same situation is also possible for the network
from Figure 1.6.

Source 2 Source 1
~ ~

CB

Fig. 1.3. Looped network. Fig. 1.4. Network supplied from two ends.

~ ~
~ ~
a. b.
Fig. 1.5. Complex looped Fig. 1.6. Open ring network topology altering in transformer
network. substations: a. without open ring; b. with open ring.

1.1.2. Architecture of electric networks


The architecture of electric networks includes the electric networks
configuration and structure, the voltage levels, as well as the calculated loads, the
specific consumptions and the safety degree, all in tight relation to the functional
role of the network elements, the design features, but also with the other elements
of the power system. It is useful to emphasize some architecture features of whole
power system before presenting the electric networks configuration [1.1], [1.2].
a. Architecture of power system features. The main element that can be taken
into consideration at power system configuration analysis is the voltage level.
Within the limits of a system, several voltage levels emerge from this point of view
(Fig. 1.7), each of these having a well-determined role.
6 Basic computation

Voltage level [kV]


750
400

220

Transformer
substation

110

Block
transformer

Local Rural
~ power area
~ plant
20
System ~ Urban
power plant area

Industrial Urban
networks networks

(6) 10

Transformer
points

0.4 Low voltage


distribution networks

Fig. 1.7. The architecture of the national power system.


Electric power systems configuration and parameters 7

The analysis of the planes sequence emphasizes the following features of the
power system configuration:
the system elements (generators, transformers, lines, loads etc.) are placed
in different parallel planes, according to their nature and functional role;
the distance between planes is determined by the difference between the
neighbouring voltage levels;
the connection between planes is achieved through the magnetic couplings
of the transformers (in the case of different voltage levels, or in the case of
not successive planes at the same voltage level) or autotransformers (in the
case of successive planes belonging to the same voltage level);
a plane includes the longitudinal elements of the networks; the transversal
elements are connected between these planes and the neutral point;
the networks from the upper planes serve for power transmission, while
those from the lower planes serve for power distribution;
the generators of the central power plants inject the power in the system
through block-transformers and transmission networks at medium voltage
(Fig. 1.8); if the generators power is higher, the injection is carried out at
higher voltage level;
the lower level buses and networks connected to these buses constitute a
load for the higher level networks (excepting the generator buses);
the power consumption takes place at high, medium and low voltage level
through the network coupling transformers;
moving to higher levels, the networks cover larger areas and the powers
transfer rises, while the density of the networks decreases;
the networks at the lower levels are denser, they transfer less power on
shorter distances;
the power system customers are in transversal connection between the
buses of the distribution networks (the medium voltages planes) and the
plane 0 kV; the power absorbed by the customer and the bus voltage are
smaller.

750 kV, 400 kV


Power
220 kV transmission

Generator Power
repartition
110 kV
~ 20 kV

10 kV Power
distribution
Local consumption
0.4 kV

0 kV

Fig. 1.8. Main power transmission and distribution chart


of the Romanian power system.
8 Basic computation

b. Transmission networks structure. The reason why transmission networks


are a necessary part of the power system is the big (physical and electrical) distance
between consumption centres and power plants. The transmission network is an
inherent part of the power system because it insures the significant power flow
from power plants to consumption centres and it constitutes the support for the
other electric networks.
The transmission networks structure, components and arrangement varies in
time, evolving from one development stage of the system to another, influenced
mainly by the development of power consumption. Thus, the 110 kV, 220 kV and
400 kV Romanian networks first operating as radial transmission networks, were
later (since 1985) transformed into repartition networks (110 kV) and looped
networks (220 and 400 kV).
The looped network is the optimum solution for transmission networks in
countries with well-determined power flow, considering both the consumption and
the power sources placement.
The loop structure provides several paths of power transfer from one bus to
another and it allows better coordination of power plants. This way, the generators
operating at any given moment are the economical ones, and further more, during
failure of some generators, the required power is still supplied by the big number of
operating generators. The design also insures network operation even with a cut-off
connection between two buses, because theres always a backup path of supply for
those two buses.
c. Distribution networks architecture. The distribution network must ensure
the same requirements as any other electric network (reliability, supply continuity,
power transfer quality, adaptation capability during operation, possibility of future
development, cost-effective operation, minimal impact on the environment), but
the neighbouring customers networks raise special problems concerning the supply
continuity and the power quality.
The electric networks present certain design features depending on the
customer or the consumption area properties: the load and population density, the
urban or rural area, the networks impact on the environment, and so on.
The main features of a distribution network are the nominal voltage, the
transfer capacity and its length. The nominal voltage is adopted according to: the
power quantity requested by the loads, the consumers position relative to the
existing electric networks, the utility type.
The International Electrotechnics Commission recommends the following
levels for the public distribution networks:
low voltage: 400 V (230 V);
medium voltage: 1013 kV; 2025 kV; 3335 kV (the voltage of 6 and
10 kV is mainly used to supply big engines and industrial networks);
high voltage: 110 kV.
The amount of power transferred through distribution networks depends on
the nominal voltage of the network and on the loads it supplies. Thus:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 9

low voltage: under 50 kW, it supplies domestic, residential and tertiary


customers;
medium voltage: up to 2000 kW, it supplies customers from tertiary and
commercial domains;
high voltage: customers with absorbed powers exceeding 5 MW.
As for the length of the distribution networks, it depends on the number and
the arrangement of the distribution stations as well as on the number and the
location of the transformer points. If the number of transformer substations and
points is increased, then the maximum length of the distribution lines is reduced.
On the other hand the length of the distribution networks is in tight relation with
the voltage level. The solution for energy loss reduction is to adopt shorter lengths
for the low and medium voltage networks, bringing the consumer as close as
possible to the high voltage level (deep connection), but this solution isnt always
cost-effective.
Two important elements considered for the design of distribution networks
are the dynamics of the power consumption and the increased concern for the
environment.
Regarding the consumption dynamics, the network structure must be
adaptable, especially for the medium voltage networks, providing extension
possibilities through the addition of new lines and the connection of new injection
points, while maintaining the initial and unitary character of the network. Usually
the solution is not costly, necessary changes are an integrating part of the
configuration development.
The distribution networks must comply with the environment protection. This
raises special problems concerning the aesthetic protection of the landscape and the
elimination of accident hazards determined by the electric current influence
(presence).
The distribution networks architecture can be analyzed from two points of
view: the voltage level and the networks location. The architecture of the
distribution networks is presented in which follows considering the voltage levels
and emphasizing the features of urban and networks.
c1. High voltage distribution networks. They usually include networks with
110 kV voltage, but in some countries higher voltage levels may also appear (for
example 225 kV in France).
These networks serve for: the supply of some urban and rural areas
presenting several customer types, the supply of some concentrated customers with
a power demand that requests a 110 kV/MV substation, the power evacuation from
local power plants generating medium powers (from 50 up to 200 MW). The
transmission networks supply the high voltage networks from the 400 kV/110 kV
or 220 kV/110 kV substations called injection substations/ points. The 110 kV
distribution system consists of lines and transformer substations of 110 kV/20 kV
and 110 kV/10 kV that supply the urban and rural consumption areas. Its features
are determined by the customers power, the surface of the supplied area, and by
the configuration of the adjacent networks (transmission and distribution).
10 Basic computation

The high voltage distribution networks have a basic looped design, but they
operate in open (radial) arrangement. The networks technological consumption
determines the separation point, but other restrictions are also considered. The loop
is supplied from two different injection points or from the sectionalized busbars of
the same injection point.
Figures 1.9 to 1.11 illustrate the above-mentioned aspects.
Figure 1.9 presents the architecture of a supply network requiring at the same
time substations with one transformer unit and substations with two transformer
units, connected in derivation to a mains 110 kV line.
The network from Figure 1.10 uses 110 kV overhead lines (OEL) to supply
rural areas through transformer substations with two transformer units. The A and
C substations are source substations and ensure the supply of the medium voltage
network.

A
110 kV

Fig. 1.9. Architecture of supply


networks in areas where the
substations are equipped with
OEL one or two transformer units
110 kV supplied from the same 110 kV
line.

A
110 kV

20 kV
Fig. 1.10. Network architecture in
rural areas supplied from 110 kV
lines connected to substations
equipped with two transformer
units.

Figure 1.11 presents the architecture of a repartition network of 110 kV that


supplies an urban settlement.
Some concentrated loads are supplied by means of deep joint transformer
substations and lines. The lines have double circuit structure; each of these circuits
is connected to another bus-bar section of the substation (Fig. 1.12).
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 11

Rural

110 kV/MV

110 kV/MV

400 kV/110 kV 110 kV/MV


substation
110 kV/MV 6 kV/110 kV
substation

~ ~
Fig. 1.11. Architecture of 110 kV repartition networks supplying urban settlements.

110 kV ring
Transformer
substation

Deep joint
substation

400 kV/110 kV
substation 110 kV
System

Fig. 1.12. Architecture of a 110 kV urban network supplying a settlement with more than
150,000 inhabitants.

Regarding the HV/MV substations structure and the installed power, these
depend on the destination of that substation namely: public distribution, supply of
concentrated customers or both (public distribution and concentrated customers).
The public distribution substations supply domestic and residential customers.
They have a simple structure, and their dimensions depend on the requested power,
the safety level they must provide and the configuration of the 110 kV networks.
Big cities are supplied from one or two rings of 110 kV. The structure of the
12 Basic computation

110 kV/MV transformer substations is presented in Figure 1.13. The transformer


substation in Figure 1.13,a is equipped with two transformer units of 1025 MVA
rated power, backing up each other. The 110 kV busbars are simple, sectionalized
by bus breakers or by isolators only, depending on the networks operating diagram
and the protection system. Figure 1.13,b presents the situation of a repartition
network with two 110 kV lines. In this case each busbar section is connected to a
different ring.

Ring 1, 110 kV Ring 2, 110 kV

110 kV

110 kV / MV
transformer
substation

a. b.
Fig. 1.13. Architecture of transformer substations supplying big cities: a. equipped
with two transformers; b. supplied from two 110 kV rings.

If the locality has great surface and load density, the supplying of some
concentrated customers can be carried out through a deep joint substation
(Fig. 1.12).
c2. Medium voltage distribution networks. High voltage substations supply
these networks in direct or indirect connection. In the first case medium voltage
lines connect the transformer points directly to the MV busbars of the supply
substations. In the second case, MV lines departing from a HV/MV substation
supply the busbars of a MV connection substation, which in turn supplies the MV
junctions through other MV lines.
The medium voltage levels, varying in the 3 to 60 kV range, are chosen in
tight relation to the networks load density and to the economical and technical
criteria. Romania adopted the 20 kV voltage as optimal.
There are several configurations of distribution systems in use today,
considering the phase number and the situation of the neutral point:
the north-American system (Fig. 1.14,a) employs a distributed and solidly
earthed neutral; the main line is three-phase: three phases and neutral; the
derivations are single-phase or three-phase according to the transmitted
power; the distribution is single-phased, between phase and neutral;
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 13

the English system (Fig. 1.14,b), has no distributed neutral, the main line is
three-phase; the derivations have three or two phases;
the Australian system (Fig. 1.14,c), is an economical system; the main line
has only three phases, and no distributed neutral; the derivations have one,
two or three phases; the return path is insured by the ground;
the European system (Fig. 1.14,d) has no distributed neutral; the main line
and the derivations are three-phase.

N
LV
HV/MV

MV/LV
HV/MV

CB N
3
2
1
DS N CB DS
LV 3
2
1
MV/LV LV 1P
MV/LV

N
3 N N
LV 3P
2
3
N
2
LV
LV 1P

MV/LV

1 2 3 N
N
3

1 2 3 N
a. b.

Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: a. with distributed neutral; b. without
distributed neutral, mixed with two or three phases.
14 Basic computation

HV/MV

CB DS
3 HV/MV
2
1

MV/LV LV 1P

CB DS
3
LV 3P N N 2
3 1
1 MV/LV
LV 1P

1 2 3 LV 3P N
IT N

LV 1P

1 2 3 N
c. d.
CB circuit breaker; DS disconnector switch; N neutral; IT insulating transformer
Fig. 1.14. Medium voltage distribution types: c. without distributed neutral, mixed with
one, two, three phases; d. without distributed neutral, three phase.

The medium voltage networks are composed of MV/0.4 kV lines and


transformer points. Urban areas have mainly underground lines, while the suburbs
and rural areas have overhead lines.
The transformer points in urban environment are encased, while in rural
environment they are placed on poles or on the ground.
The medium voltage networks with underground lines and direct distribution
can have backed-up from two substations (Fig. 1.15) or from the same substation
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 15

(Fig. 1.16). Under normal operating conditions the networks operate in radial
connection. The sectioning point is imposed by the networks technological
consumption or by the networks automation. The network presents separation
capability in the middle or at its ends, according to the requirements.

MV MV

S1 S2

Fig. 1.15. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from two transformer
substations.

MV

110 kV / MV
substation

Fig. 1.16. MV direct distribution through cables, with backup from the same transformer
substation.

Urban areas with big load densities of 5 to 10 MVA/km2 use cable networks
in grid type direct distribution arrangement (Fig. 1.17) or in double derivation
(Fig. 1.18).
For both arrangements the backup supply can be made from the same
substation or from different substations. This configuration of electrical drawings
can be developed when the load growing on the consumers sides.
16 Basic computation

MV

S2
Future
110 kV / MV
substation

S1
Existing
110 kV / MV
substation

Fig. 1.17. MV direct distribution through grid type cables.

MV
Working
cable
Backup
cable

Fig. 1.18. MV direct distribution through underground lines in double derivation.


Electric power systems configuration and parameters 17

The French MV underground distribution network uses interrupted artery


arrangements. A transformer substation cable feeder supplies several MV/0.4kV
transformer points and then it connects to another substation, to the same
substation or to a backup cable. The interrupted artery is used for the loop, spindle
and ear arrangements (Fig. 1,19).
The cable from each MV/0.4 kV transformer point is passed through two
circuit breakers (CB1 and CB2) in series connection.
An artery has all its circuit breakers in normal close position, except the one
corresponding to the loops normal opening (interruption) bus, thus avoiding
parallel operation of two supply sources (transformer substations).
In the case of the loops (daisy petals, Fig. 1.19,a), each artery (cable) returns
to the same HV/MV source substation, and there arent any transversal connections
between the loops.
In the case of the spindle structure (Fig. 1.19,b), all cables are supplied from
the same transformer substation source (S) and their ends converge to a common
bus, called reflecting bus (R).
A specialized complex device allows the connection of a backup cable that
brings the source substation to the reflecting node.
In the case of the ear structure (Fig. 1.19,c), the source substation supplies
one end of the working cable while the other end lies on a backup cable. The
networks using degree is good. The development around the same transformer
substation is economic and its performed in time. The length of the cables, their
number and the number of transformer points can be adopted according to the
loads evolution.
Direct distribution arrangements with overhead lines are used in rural areas.
They supply transformer points in derivation (Fig. 1.20,a) or radial tree
arrangement (Fig. 1.20,b).
In the first case different transformer substations back up the supply and there
is the possibility of separation at the middle of network. In the second case there is
only one supply source; during network faults the number of customers not
supplied is limited with the aid of circuit breakers and isolators mounted along the
main line or on some derivations.
The North American medium voltage network presents special features. They
result from the existence of single-phased MV/LV transformer points and from the
presence of the neutral wire and its ground connection. The medium voltage
network tree begins with a three-phase structure (3P+N), continues through three-
phase or double-phase ramifications (antennas), which in turn develop into single-
phase lines (1P+N). The MV and LV network, the public lighting and the
telephony network use the same poles.
The MV/0.4 kV transformer points can be of network type, which supply
domestic consumers or the low voltage public network, and of customer type,
which supply a single consumer: industrial, commercial, public utility or mixed.
Figure 1.21 presents the diagrams of some customers or mixed type transformer
points.
18 Basic computation

Power supply

TP Head of petal
transformer point

CB1 CB2
Supply
feeder
CB
F

MV/0.4 kV
CB1 , CB2 , CB - circuit breaker
F - fuse
TP - MV/0.4 kV transformer point
a.
Working feeder
Working feeder

TP
S R

S R
R R R

Backup feeder TP

S - power supply (source) Backup feeder


R - reflection point
TP - transformer points
b. c.
Fig. 1.19. MV underground networks in interrupted artery arrangement (EdF).

MV MV

S1 S2
110 kV / MV 110 kV / MV
substation substation

a.
Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: a. with backup from
two substation and derivation supply of the transformer points.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 19

HV/MV source
(circuit breaker bay)

Main line
Secondary line

ACB

DS

ACB

DS

DS
ACB - Automatic circuit breaker
DS - Disconnector switch
b.
Fig. 1.20. Direct distribution through medium voltage overhead lines: b. radial-tree diagram.
MV MV

MV cable
MV cable
1x 400 kVA 2 x 400 kVA
or or
1x 1600 kVA 2 x1600 kVA
ABT ABT

0.4 kV 0.4 kV

a. b.
MV

ABT Automatic Bus Transfer

MV cable MV cable

Fig. 1.21. Diagram of customer and mixed


ABT type transformer point: a. one transformer;
0.4 kV b. two transformers and common low
voltage busbars; c. two transformers and
c. sectionalised low voltage busbars.
20 Basic computation

c3. Low voltage distribution networks. The low voltage networks structure is
imposed by the loads density, by the medium voltage network configuration, by
the number of MV/LV transformer points and by the consumers requirements
(allowed outages number and duration).
The rural and urban low voltage networks from the suburbs operate in normal
conditions in radial arrangement (Fig. 1.22,a) with overhead and underground
lines. A more recent solution uses aerial mounted insulated twisted wires. The
solution is very economical in rural areas, suburbs or small cities.
Central areas of the cities and some significant loads are supplied from
looped networks (Fig. 1.22,b). The diagram from Figure 1.22,b1 has the main
disadvantage that a line fault causes the outage of the entire LV line. Figure 1.22,b2
avoids this inconvenient with the help of fuse (F). If a fault occurs, the fuse
separates the network in two parts, and by melting at the faulted end, insures the
faults isolation. The diagram in Figure 1.22,b3 insures better safety. The network
operates in radial arrangement and if a fault occurs in the transformer point, the
corresponding fuse is removed and the circuit breaker is closed.
The way the transformers medium voltage side is supplied divides the
looped networks into three types: longitudinal looped (Fig. 1.23,a), transversal
looped (Fig. 1.23,b) and mixed (Fig. 1.23,c). Big cities, with big load densities (10-
15 MVA/km2) have mesh type looped networks. In mesh networks the low voltage
lines are connected to all possible buses and the network is supplied through
medium voltage distribution cables departing from the busbars of the same
substation. The special technical and economical advantages of the complex looped
networks are:
high degree of supply continuity;
high quality of delivered power, since the consumers voltages are
levelled on the entire area;
proper balancing of the network, due to the loads even repartition;
adaptability to load development, because the looped networks are
designed from beginning to meet future rises in power consumption.

TP1

TP1 TP2 TP1 TP2 TP1 TP2

TP2

a. b1. b2. b3.


Fig. 1.22. Low voltage networks: radial (a); looped (b1, b2, b3).
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 21

MV

0.4 kV

a.

MV

0.4 kV

0.4 kV

MV
b.
Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: a. longitudinal; b. transversal.
22 Basic computation

c.
Fig. 1.23. Looped low voltage networks: c. mixed.

Substation busbars
s
ble
ca
V

CB
M

Transformer
points

Distribution box

Branch

Fig. 1.24. Complex looped network of mesh type.


Electric power systems configuration and parameters 23

1.2. Electric power systems components modelling


under steady-state conditions
Generally, the components of an electric circuit are resistors, reactors,
capacitors and conductors to which correspond the following parameters:
resistance R, inductance L, capacitance C and conductance G. The same elements
can be found in various combinations in electric receivers, electric lines,
transformers and generator units.
The property of a circuit element to absorb electromagnetic energy and
transform it into thermal energy is called resistance. When an electric current is
passed through a conductor, this is getting heated and in the same time along it a
voltage drop occurs. In the case of an iron core coil (i.e., transformers,
autotransformers, generators, electric motors, etc.), this is getting heated also due to
the iron losses through hysteresis phenomenon and eddy current. Heat losses also
occur in the dielectric of capacitors pertaining of a circuit element when an
alternating current is passed through it.
Any circuit section is linked by a magnetic flux when an electric current
passes the circuit. In alternating-current circuits, the magnetic flux varies in time
and therefore in every circuit section appears a self-induced or mutual e.m.f. and
consequently, this circuit section is characterised by self and/or mutual inductance.
In any dielectric insulation surrounding one of the electric circuit elements
operating at alternating voltage there is always an alternating potential difference,
which generates an electric field of density D, which varies in time, and therefore a
displacement current = D t appears. Likewise, in the case of an electric line
powered at alternating voltage, the alternating current value along the conductors is
not constant because the current is split in every line section as displacement
currents.
Similarly with what happened into electric capacitors we can say that, in the
case of an electric line, there are electric phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground
capacitances. The same situation can be observed at the winding wires of
transformers and autotransformers. Between windings there is an alternating
potential difference and therefore there is an electric field variable in time and thus
a displacement currents also appear. This situation is similar to the loads
characterised by pure resistance where, due to the voltage drop across their
conductors generates an electric field around the conductors and thus displacement
currents.
Because the resistance of the dielectric insulation is not infinite and also due
to corona discharge, other active power losses occur, different from the losses in
resistance R, and thus another parameter is defined. This is called conductance,
noted by G, having inverse dimension of the electric resistance. This parameter is
due to the leakage currents in the insulators of the overhead electric lines, between
phases or between phases and ground, and in the insulation of underground cables.
The intensity of these leakage currents is highly dependent on the state of
24 Basic computation

conductors, atmosphere condition or operating conditions. When these currents are


negligible, the conductance G is also negligible.
The parameters of an electric circuit are dependent on the characteristics of
materials from which the circuit is made: resistivity , magnetic permeability and
electric permittivity . These material quantities are not constant and depend on
other values such as temperature, the current passing through the circuit or the
terminal voltage (especially, in the case of iron core saturation of electric
equipment). In some cases this dependence is small and can be negligible, so it can
be assumed that the electric circuit parameters are irrespective of the current or
voltage. Under these considerations the circuits are called linear circuits; otherwise
the circuits are nonlinear. In this chapter we will consider only the case of linear
circuits.

1.2.1. Loads (consumers) modelling


An electric consumer consists of a set of electric receivers. In an electric
receiver the electromagnetic energy is transformed into other forms of energy.
The load modelling is a difficult issue due to some objective factors such as:
huge number of electric receivers from complex consumer structure;
lack of accurate information related to the consumer components;
fluctuation of consumer structure in terms of day time, climatic conditions,
evolution of technology, etc.;
uncertain characteristics of the consumer components, respectively of
electric receivers in terms of voltage and frequency variation.
In terms of the goal of the proposed analysis, the load modelling has distinct
forms and specific approaches. In power systems practice three classes of issues
are identified, every one necessitating an adequate modelling of the load: steady
states calculation, emergency conditions calculation and the power systems
planning and design, respectively.
In this chapter the load modelling under steady state conditions is considered,
being symmetrical and balanced regime. Nowadays, in most of the cases the load
modelling for the steady state calculation is based on deterministic approach,
neglecting the random character of the power consumption. Instead, there are also
studies based on probabilistic approaches.
The power receivers of a complex consumer have variations of demanded
power, more or less time pronounced, by the hours of the day (hourly variations) or
by the days of the year (seasonal variations). These variations in time of the power
demand by a consumer are illustrated in daily load curves, respectively in yearly
load curves.
Based on these curves and using specific analysis, it can be determined the
calculation load of a certain consumer. It should be mentioned that it is about a
constant calculation load value determined for a balanced consumer, at a certain
instant of time and under nominal voltage and frequency conditions as well.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 25

Basically, the deterministic model of the load assumes providing information


related to the power demand by the consumer at a certain instant of time. Although
the determination procedure uses static analysis and admits the randomness of the
nodal consumer, the calculation load obtained in this way is specific only for a
certain instant of time, decreasing the accuracy of the model.
Because in most cases the voltage at the consumer terminals is different from
the nominal voltage, and also the frequency is different from the nominal one, the
load modelling through static load characteristics is performed. In terms of the
dependence of the power on the terminal voltage and frequency, two load models
are defined:
Static load model, which expresses active and reactive powers at any
instant of time, in terms of voltage and frequency at that instant of time,
either as polynomial form or exponential form. The static model is
currently used for normal steady state calculation;
Dynamic load model, which expresses active and reactive powers at any
instant of time, in terms of voltage and frequency at that instant of time as
well as at the foregoing times, by using differential equations. The
dynamic models are used for emergency operating conditions.
The static characteristics have the following general form:
P = P ( f , U ) , Q = Q( f , U ) (1.1)

The most used expressions of the active and reactive powers have one of the
following forms, called polynomial model (1.2):
( )
P( f ,U ) = P0 a U 2 + b U + c (1 + g f )
(1.2)
Q( f ,U ) = Q (d U
0
2
)
+ e U + q (1 + h f )

respectively exponential model (1.3) and (1.4):


U f
U f
P( f , U ) = A
U nom f nom
(1.3)
U f
U f
Q( f , U ) = B
U nom f nom
or
u
U
P = P0 (1 + g f )
U nom
(1.4)
u
U
Q = Q0 (1 + h f )
U nom
26 Basic computation

where: a, d are constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
impedance;
b, e constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
current;
c, q constants deriving from the load modelling through constant
power;
g, h constants indicating the variation of P and Q with frequency;
A, B quantities calculated with the expressions (1.3), in terms of the
steady state results when U = Un, f = fn;
u, u coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and
reactive powers with the voltage;
f, f coefficients that take into account the variation of the active and
reactive powers with the frequency.
In literature, complex studies for the determination of a, b, , h and f, u,
f, u coefficients are given. The values of these coefficients depend upon:
consumer type: complex, residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural,
fluorescent lamps, arc bulbs, air-conditioned installations, domestic
consumption, asynchronous motors, synchronous motors, inductive loads,
electric heating, electrochemistry factories, arc furnace, static converters,
and so on;
period of the year: summer or winter;
geographical area: north, south, east, west;
load power factor.
If information about the electric consumer is not available, average value of
the coefficients might be used (Table 1.1).
Table 1.1
coefficient f f
u u
consumer
Complex 0.7 ... 1.2 0.6 ... 1.5 1 ... 2 0.6 ... 0
Residential 1 ... 1.5 0.5 1 ... 1.4 0.7
Commercial 1.2 0.185 1.17 0.488
Industrial 0.7 ... 1.5 1 ... 2

Generally, active power consumption modelling is a compromise between the


consumption by resistive loads type and by electric motors type (closer to constant
power modelling). In terms of the complex consumer structure (preponderance of
resistance consumption or of motors) impedance or constant power modelling
might be used.
From the general model (1.2) the following particular static models results:
constant impedance model, where the power vary direct-proportional with
the voltage magnitude square;
P ~U2; Q ~U2 (1.5)
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 27

the model where the power varies direct-proportional with the voltage
magnitude;
P ~U ; Q ~U (1.6)
constant power model, where power demanded by the consumer is
independent by the voltage;
P ~ const. ; Q ~ const. (1.7)
Usually, the loads are modelled through its active and reactive powers, as
shown in Figure 1.25,a. It is possible to consider the same load through series or
parallel combinations of resistance and reactance of constant values (Fig. 1.25,b,c).

U U U
RS
IS Xp IXp IRp Rp

XS
P+jQ
a. b. c.
Fig. 1.25. Load modelling: a. constant powers; b. series impedance; c. parallel
impedance.

In the case of complex apparent power S s = P + jQ modelling through


series impedance Z s = R s + jX s , the values of resistance Rs and of reactance Xs
can be inferred from the expressions of the current:
U
Is =
R s + jX s
and of the complex power:
U2 U2
*
S s = P + jQ = U I s = = 2 (Rs + jX s )
R s jX s R s + X s2

Equating the real and imaginary parts it results:


U 2 Rs U 2Xs
P= ; Q=
R s2 + X s2 R s2 + X s2
then:

P2 + Q2 =
(
U 4 Rs2 + X s2 ) =U 2 P
=U 2
Q
( Rs2 + X s2)2
Rs Xs
28 Basic computation

In consequence:
U 2P
Rs = (1.8)
P2 + Q2

U 2Q
Xs = (1.9)
P2 + Q2

where: Rs is resistance of the load series connected, [] ;


Xs reactance of the load series connected, [] ;
Zs impedance of the load series connected, [] ;
U phase-to-phase (line-to-line) voltage, [V];
P single-phase active power of the load, [W];
Q single-phase reactive power of the load, [VAr].
If the load is modelled through a resistance in parallel with an inductive
reactance:
U U2 U2
I Rp = ; P = UI Rp = ; Rp = (1.10)
Rp Rp P

U U2 U2
IXp = ; Q = UI Xp = ; Xp = (1.11)
Xp Xp Q

where: Rp is load resistance parallel connected, [] ;


Xp load reactance parallel connected, [] .

1.2.2. Electric lines modelling


An electric line is characterised by four parameters, having different physical
causes: resistance R, caused by electric resistivity of currents paths, inductance L,
which is the effect of the magnetic field, capacitance C, which is the effect of the
electric field, conductance G, caused by defective insulation and corona discharge
losses.
The resistance and inductance are included in the series impedance
z = R + jL , and the conductance and capacitance are included in the shunt
admittance y = G + jC . The presence of the impedance consisting of resistance
and inductive reactance leads to voltage variations along the line so the impedances
are so called series parameters, while the presence the admittance consisting of
conductance and capacitive susceptance C, modifies the currents flowing through
the lines conductors, through leakage currents appearance, and therefore they are
also called shunt parameters.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 29

In Figure 1.26 are illustrated the series and shunt elements of a single-circuit
three-phase overhead line, operating under normal steady state conditions, for
which the following expression can be written:
V a = z aa I a + z ab I b + z ac I c = (Raa + jLaa )I a + jLab I b + jLac I c

V b = z ba I a + z bb I b + z bc I c = jLba I a + (Rbb + jLbb )I b + jLbc I c (1.12)

V c = z ca I a + z cb I b + z cc I c = jLca I a + jLcb I b + (Rcc + jLcc )I c

Va Ia
Ia zaa yab
Ib
Lab Vb
Ib zbb yca
Lbc Lca Ic ybc
Vc Va Vb
zcc
yag ybg
Ic
ycg Vc

Fig. 1.26. Series and shunt parameters of a single-circuit


overhead line without shield wire.

I a = y aa V a + y ab (V a V b ) + y ac (V a V c ) = Y aa V a + Y ab V b + Y ac V c

I b = y ba (V b V a ) + y bb V b + y bc (V b V c ) = Y ba V a + Y bb V b + Y bc V c (1.13)

I c = y ca (V c V a ) + y cb (V c V b ) + y cc V c = Y ca V a + Y cb V b + Y cc V c

Due to unbalance of some loads the mutual inductance has different values,
and then asymmetrical voltages appear. By manufacturing and operation (phase
transposition) means, the equality of self-impedances and self-admittances
respectively, and the equality of phase-to-phase mutual impedances and phase-to-
phase mutual admittances, are achieved:
z aa = z bb = z cc = z = R + jLself
(1.14,a)
z ab = z bc = z ca = jLm
and
30 Basic computation

Y ab = Y bc = Y ca = Y m = y ab = y bc = y ca

Y aa = y aa + y ab + y ac
(1.14,b)
Y bb = y ba + y bb + y bc

Y cc = y ca + y cb + y cc

Note that, also, under normal steady state conditions, electric generators
generate an e.m.f. of a, b, c sequence also called positive or direct sequence. The
voltages, currents, impedances and admittances of this operating regime are
considerate of positive/direct sequence.
The normal steady state is considered as perfect symmetrical and balanced;
therefore, the following equalities can be defined:
V a +V b +V c = 0
(1.15)
Ia + Ib + Ic = 0
Taking into account (1.14) and (1.15), expressions (1.12) and (1.13) become:

( )
V a = ( z z m ) I a = z I a = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I a = R + jL+ I a
+

( )
V b = ( z z m ) I b = z I b = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I b = R + jL+ I b (1.16)
+

( )
V c = ( z z m ) I c = z I c = R + j ( Lself Lm ) I c = R + jL+ I c
+

I a = (Y Y m ) V a = Y V a
+

I b = (Y Y m ) V b = Y V b
+
(1.17,a)
I c = (Y Y m ) V c = Y V c
+

If the conductance is neglected, the admittance y becomes of jC form, and


thus the expressions (1.17,a) become:

I a = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V a = jC + V a
I b = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V b = jC + V b (1.17,b)
I c = j ( Cself + 3Cm ) V c = jC + V c

Equations (1.16) and (1.17) shows that under perfect symmetrical conditions,
by design, the scheme from Figure 1.26 can be replaced by a three-phase network,
where the phases are electrically and magnetically decoupled. Under these
considerations, the series and shunt elements from Figure 1.26 are replaced as
shown in Figure 1.27, where positive/direct sequence impedances and admittances
are considered.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 31

Ia
Ib
Ic
z
Ia
z
Ib
z y y y
Ic

a. b.
Fig. 1.27. Three-phase line of direct/positive sequence: a. series elements; b. shunt
elements.

Therefore, under steady state conditions, the three-phase line can be replaced
by three independent single-phase lines, with no electric or magnetic coupling, and
with currents and voltages shifted only by 120 and 240 degrees. In consequence,
steady state analysis can be performed only for a single-phase line, whose
parameters are called service line parameters.
The service inductance of a three-phase electric line represents the ratio of the
total magnetic field flux, generated by the currents on the three phases linking the
conductor of one phase, to the current flowing through it. The service inductance is
the positive/direct sequence inductance and is denoted by L+ or more simple by L.
The service capacitance of a three-phase electric line represents the ratio of
electric charge of one phase conductor (to which contributes the electric charges
from all the others conductors) to the potential of respective conductor, measured
with respect to a reference potential (earth or metallic shell of a cable).
In this way, the three-phase system (or in the general case, a multi-phase
system) can be replaced with a single-phase system, which has only one
capacitance with respect to the reference potential, determined in terms of all
capacitances of the real three-phase (multi-phase) system. The service capacitance
represents the direct/positive sequence capacitance and is noted by C + or more
simple by C.
The service parameters or direct/positive sequence parameters are, in general,
given in per unit length, usually 1 km, called per unit length parameters and are
noted by r0 , l0 , c0 , g 0 .

1.2.2.1. Electric resistance


The electric resistance of electric lines conductors is the most important
cause of the active power losses ( P ) in electric lines. The effective resistance of a
conductor is given by formula:
P
R = 2 [ ] (1.18,a)
I
32 Basic computation

where P is expressed in watts, and I represents the actual value of the current, in
ampere.
The effective resistance is equal to direct-current resistance of the conductor
only if the distribution of current throughout the conductor is uniform.
In direct current, the expression of resistance Rdc is as follows:
l l
Rdc = = [] (1.18,b)
s s

where: is electric resistivity of conductor, [ mm2/m];


conductivity of material, [m/ mm2];
l conductors length, [m];
s cross-sectional area, [mm2].
On the hypothesis of specific resistance varying linear with temperature, its
value at a certain temperature C is determined in terms of electric resistivity
at 20 C:
= 20 [1 + 20 ( 20 )] (1.19)
where 20 is temperature coefficient at 20 C. For usual calculations the following
values are considered: Cu = 0.00393 ; Al = 0.00403 ; Fe = 0.0062 .
The electric resistance R2 of a conductor at the temperature 2 can also be
determined with formula:
R 2 T0 + 2
= (1.19')
R1 T0 + 1

where: R1 is resistance of conductor at temperature 1, in ;


R2 resistance of conductor at temperature 2, in ;
1, 2 conductor temperatures, in C;
T0 constant depending on the material type having the values: 234.5 C
for annealed copper, 241 C for hard-drawn copper, 228 C for
hard-drawn aluminium.
At temperature of 20 C, the electric resistivity of annealed copper is
1/58 mm2/m, and of hard-drawn aluminium is 1/33.44 mm2/m. The electric
resistivity of hard-drawn conductors is different form the above-mentioned
values due to the treatment applied.
In general, the conductors are manufactured in a stranded form (aluminium
conductor, steel reinforced ACSR). A stranded conductor is made from wires
disposed in layers, tight and spiralled in opposite directions. The resistance in
direct current of such conductor is calculated taking into account that the average
length of wire is 2 4% greater than the real length of conductor, for overhead
lines, and 2 5% greater for underground cables, and the cross-sectional area used
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 33

in equation (1.18,b) is determined by multiplying the cross-sectional area of one


wire with the number of wires.
The alternating current resistance is the different from direct current
resistance due to the following issues [1.16], [1.17]:
Skin effect consisting in non-uniformity distribution of current in the
cross-section of an electric conductor mostly when this is made from one or more
concentric circular elements. When a current is passed through a conductor this
generates a magnetic field that is stronger inside the conductor and its intensity
decrease towards the surface. In consequence, the self-induced e.m.f. in conductor
is higher towards centre of cross-section. Accordingly to Lenzs law the magnetic
field push the current to flow near the outer surface of conductor, thus total density
of current is smaller in interior and higher towards the surface. As the frequency of
alternating current increases so does the effect becomes more pronounced. Thus,
skin effect increases the effective resistance of conductor by reducing the effective
cross-section of conductor from which flow the current. Skin effect depends upon
the cross-sectional area, material type of conductor, frequency and magnetic
permeability. In literature, the influence of skin effect on the electric resistance is
given by Rac Rdc ratio, in curves or tables, in terms of the above-mentioned
parameters. For instance, for steel-reinforced conductor (ACSR) of 400 mm2 area,
Rac Rdc is equal to 1.0055.
Proximity effect leads also to a non-uniformity distribution of current, in
cross-sectional area of an electric conductor. For instance, in a single-phase electric
line consisting of two conductors (go and return conductors), the nearest parts of
the conductors are sweep by a stronger magnetic field than in the farthest parts.
Therefore, the parts of the conductor nearest each other have a lower inductance
value compared with the farthest ones. The result is an increased current density in
the parts of the conductor nearest each other, and a lower one in farthest ones. This
non-uniformity density of current increases the effective resistance. For usual
distances of the overhead lines operating at frequency of 50 Hz, this effect is
negligible.
The resistance of the conductor made from magnetic materials varies with
current magnitude because in the steel-core of the Al-Ol rope conductor the power
losses increase, especially when the number of layers is odd. Magnetic conductor
tables, such as ACSR conductors, contain values of electric resistance for two
values of the carried current, emphasizing this effect.
As regards the underground cables with high cross-sectional area, the above-
mentioned causes have a more pronounced character. Therefore, in alternating
current, power losses in conductors can be calculated with expression:
Pac = Pdc + Ps + Pp + Psc + Psh + Pt (1.20)

Expression (1.20) can be rewritten as:


(
Pac = 3Rac I 2 = 3I 2 Rdc + Rs + R p + Rsc + Rsh + Rt ) (1.21)
34 Basic computation

where: Rac is effective alternating current resistance;


Rdc direct current resistance;
I effective value of current flowing through conductor;
Rs , R p , Rsc , Rsh , Rt are incremental resistances due to skin effect,
proximity effect, screen wire losses, outer sheath losses and
protection tube losses.
In practice, for the calculation of Rs and Rp quantities, having a prevailing
effect, semiempiric formulae are used. When the cables are disposed in steel tubes,
due to the increase in magnetic flux, skin effect and proximity effect become more
pronounced.

1.2.2.2. Inductive reactance


For determination of inductive reactance, the following simplifying
hypotheses are considered:
(i) the distances between phase conductors are bigger compared with their
radius;
(ii) the current is uniformly distributed within the cross-sectional area of
each conductor;
(iii) there is no ferromagnetic material inside or outside the conductor;
(iv) the current in every conductor is constant along its length;
(v) the sum of instantaneous currents flowing through the n conductors is
zero, that is:
i a + ib + ic + .... + i n = 0
Under these assumptions, we may apply superposition for the magnetic
circuit of a solenoid with N turns.
The inductive reactance of a single phase from a multiphase electric line is
given by formula:
X = L = 2fL (1.22)
where: f is frequency, [Hz];
L inductance of a single phase, [H].
We next consider a multiphase electric line as a set of turns passed by
reciprocal influenced currents; first, the basic formula necessary for calculation of
the inductance of a solenoid with N turns (Fig. 1.28) [1.18] is determined, then the
general case of a multiphase system is treated.
2

3
Fig. 1.28. Flux linkage into a solenoid.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 35

Starting from the magnetic circuit law we express the magneto-motive force:


mmf = H dl = i (1.23)

where: H is magnetic field intensity, [ampere-turns/m];


dl length element, [m];
i instantaneous current linking the solenoid.
According to Biot-Savarts law, the magnetic field intensity in any spatial
point is a linear function of all the currents that generates the respective field and
therefore it can be calculated by using superposition. The relationship law between
the magnetic flux density and magnetic field intensity (material law), in magnetic
medium with linear characteristic, is:
B = H (1.24)
where: B is magnetic flux density, [Wb/m2];
r relative magnetic permeability, [H/m];
0 magnetic permeability of vacuum, [H/m];
= r 0 absolute magnetic permeability of medium, [H/m].
The total flux through a surface of area A is the surface integral of the
magnetic field B, that is:


= B d a = B cos B, d a da ( ) (1.25)
A A

where d a is a vector perpendicular to the area element da.

When the vector B is perpendicular to the surface of area A, the relationship


(1.25) becomes:
= BA (1.26)
Due to the solenoid shape several magnetic fluxes appear, some of theme
linking only some parts of the solenoid, called leakage fluxes, as it can be seen in
Figure 1.28. The total leakage flux is determined by considering the contribution of
each turn:
N
t =
k =1
k (1.27)

where k is the sum of all fluxes linking the turn k of the solenoid. As illustrated in
Figure 1.28 this could have the expression k = 1 + 2 + 3 . The inductance of
the overhead lines can be calculated starting from the fundamental relationship
representing the ratio of the total magnetic flux, linking the surface bounded by the
contour of a circuit, to the current passing through the respective circuit, having a
linear dependency:
36 Basic computation

t
L= (1.28)
i
When there exist more circuits, in the same medium, that influence each
other, under the condition of linearity mentioned earlier, self- and mutual
inductances are defined.
Specific inductance calculation for an infinite straight conductor
In order to obtain an accurate value of the inductance of an electric
transmission line, the flux linkage inside as well as outside of each conductor must
be taken into consideration.
a. Flux linkage inside the conductor
In Figure 1.29 the cross-section of a cylindrical conductor in shown.

ds

x dx

Fig. 1.29. Cross-section of the conductor.

Let the magnetic field lines at a distance x meters from the centre of the
conductor and concentric distributed relative to the axis of the conductor. The
magnetic field intensity Hx is constant along these field lines and tangent to it. In
consequence, the equation (1.23) becomes:

H ds = H
x x ( 2x ) = ix (1.29)

where ix is the current flowing through inside the area x 2 .

On the basis of assumption of uniformly distribution of current, the current ix


is obtained by multiplying the total current i from the conductor with the ratio of
the cross-sectional area, passed by the current ix, to the total cross-sectional area of
the conductor:
x 2
ix = i (1.30)
r 2
from where it results the expression of the magnetic field intensity:
x
Hx = i (1.31)
2r 2
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 37

The value of internal flux is a percent of the linkage flux due to the total
current from conductor and is calculated with formula:
r
x x 2 i
int =
0
2
i 2 dx = 0 r
2r r 8
(1.32)

Results thus the internal inductance of a conductor:


int 0 r
Lint = = (1.33)
i 8
b. Flux linkage outside the conductor
Consider a cylinder of radius R , made from magnetic flux lines surrounding
an infinite length conductor of radius r. The flux linkage outside the conductor is
determined as volume integral inside the cylinder considered from radius r to
distance R where the magnetic field intensity has no longer influence.

1m

r
x dx R

Fig. 1.30. Flux crossing surface element da = dx 1.

If we denote by Hx the magnetic field intensity of the tubular element which


is x meters from the centre of the conductor, the magneto-motive force becomes:
2x H x = i (1.34)
where i is the current passed through the conductor.
Knowing that the relative magnetic permeability of air is r 1 and taking
into consideration equations (1.24), (1.25) and (1.34), the flux linkage outside the
conductor is:
R
i 0i R Wb

ext = B d a = 0
A
2x dx = 2 ln
r
r m
(1.35)

where: R is the distance meters from the axis of the conductor to the point
where H = 0 ;
r radius of the conductor.
38 Basic computation

The inductance corresponding to the flux outside the conductor is calculated


with expression:
R H
Lext = ext = 0 ln (1.36)
i 2 r m
Therefore, the generalised self-inductance of a massive conductor is:
0 R 1
L = Lext + Lint = ln + r (1.37)
2 r 4
Consider a system of two conductors of radii equal to r situated at the
distance D from each other, where one conductor is the return path of current for
the other. The two-conductors system forms a contour that bounds a surface linked
by the magnetic flux.

h
i i

r r

ground
Fig. 1.31. Two-conductors system.

Assuming that D is much greater than r, the inductance can be calculated


with formula:
D 1
L = 0 ln + r (1.38)
2 r 4
Relation (1.38) can also be written as:
0 D 4 D
L= ln + ln e r = 0 ln r (1.39)
2 r 2 r e
4

The expression of inductivity can be put in a more simple form noting by


re = r e r 4 the equivalent radius of conductor. Therefore:
0 D
L= ln (1.40)
2 re
For r = 1 (non-magnetic material) and massive conductor, it results
re = 0.7788 r . For stranded conductor, made from non-magnetic material, the
following ratios are obtained:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 39

conductors with 7 wires re r = 0.725 ;


conductors with 19 wires re r = 0.757 ;
and for aluminium-steel conductors:
conductors with 7 wires re r = 0.770 ;
conductors with 30 wires re r = 0.826 .

Using the international system of units SI, where 0 = 410 7 H/m, r = 1


for dry air, and l = 1000 m, the inductance per unit length is obtained:
D D
L0 = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase]
re re

At frequency of 50 Hz the reactance per unit length is:


D D
x0 = L0 = 314 0.46 lg = 0.1445 lg [/km phase] (1.41)
re re

Thus, we can draw the conclusion that the reactance of an electric line does
not depend upon the current passing through the line.
Total flux linkage of a conductor, from an n-conductors system
Consider the general case of n parallel conductors (Fig. 1.32), representing a
multi-phase system under normal steady state conditions.

Conductor 1 H=0
d1

dk
D12
D1k

Conductor 2 Conductor k

Fig. 1.32. Contribution of current ik to the total linkage flux of conductor 1.

In order to define a contour, consider first an imaginary conductor that


constitutes the return path for the sum of currents from all phases (under normal
operating conditions the intensity of current flowing through the imaginary
conductor is zero). For symmetry reasons, this imaginary conductor is considered
parallel with the other conductors.
The distance between the real conductors is small enough so that they
influence each other. For simplicity, consider only the calculation of magnetic flux
linking the conductor 1, due to existence of the current from conductor k, the
40 Basic computation

currents from the other conductors are considered zero. Finally, we apply
superposition, which takes into account the influence of magnetic flux due to the
currents from the others conductors. As it can be seen in Figure 1.32 the magnetic
field lines due to currents ik are concentric circles.
Having the previous assumptions made, we may alike the general case of a
multi-phase system with the case studied earlier of a system with two conductors.
We denote by dk the distance from the centre of conductor k to the imaginary
conductor, where the magnetic flux intensity is zero, and by D1k the distance from
the centre of conductor 1 to the centre of conductor k. By applying equation (1.35),
the self-flux linking the circuit composed by conductor 1 and imaginary conductor,
due to current i1 in conductor 1, is:
0i1 d1
11 = ln [Wb/m] (1.42,a)
2 re

and the flux linking the conductor 1, due to the current flowing through conductor
k, has the following expression:
0ik d
1k = ln k (1.42,b)
2 D1k

Therefore, the total flux linking the conductor 1 due to the contributions of all
currents flowing through the n conductors is:

0 d1 d2 d d
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln k + ... + in ln n (1.43)
2 re D12 D1k D1n

Expression (1.43) can be written as:

0 1 1 1 1
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln
2 re D12 D1k D1n
(1.44)

+ 0 [i1 ln d1 + i2 ln d 2 + ... + ik ln d k + ... + in ln d n ]
2
Knowing that the sum of instantaneous currents through the n conductors is
zero:
i1 + i2 + ... + ik + .... + in1 + in = 0

we may express the current in in terms of the other n-1 currents [1.10]:

in = i1 i2 ... ik .... in1 (1.45)

Substituting the current in from (1.45) into (1.44) the following expression is
obtained:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 41

0 1 1 1 1
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln
2 re D12 D1k D1n
0 d1 d d d
+ i1 ln + i2 ln 2 + ... + ik ln k + ... + in1 ln n1
2 dn dn dn dn

Considering the imaginary conductor is located at infinite distance with


respect to the real conductors, the logarithms of ratios of distances from real
conductors to the imaginary conductor tend toward zero so that the expression of
the total flux linking the conductor 1 get the form:
0 1 1 1 1
t1 = i1 ln + i2 ln + ... + ik ln + ... + in ln (1.46)
2 re D12 D1k D1n

Using self and mutual inductances, we can see that the expression (1.46)
represents the Maxwells law referring to inductances:
t1 = L11i1 + L12i2 + ... + L1k ik + ... + L1nin (1.47)
Therefore, in the general case of a system with n conductors, where the sum
of all currents is zero, the self-inductance Ljj and the mutual inductance Ljk are
given by expressions:
0 1
L jj = ln [H/m] (1.48,a)
2 re

0 1
L jk = ln [H/m] (1.48,b)
2 D jk

The above equations constitute the basis of practical evaluation of reactance
of the electric lines.
Inductance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line
Let us consider a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line (Fig. 1.33)
with unequal distances between phases.
Due to unequal spacing between phases it cannot be defined the inductivity
La assigned to the phase a that could be constant in time and cannot be say that the
flux a is proportional to the current ia (both in instantaneous quantities). For this
reason, we next consider the sinusoidal steady state so that we must express the
inductivity of a phase into the complex space:
a
La = (1.49)
Ia
By expressing the flux linking a phase it can be defined an operator, constant
in time, and an inductivity that allow coherent operations, into a complex space (of
42 Basic computation

pulsation ), that establish relationships between flux and current, electromotive


voltage and the derivative of current, etc.

D12

1 D23
2

D13 3 Fig. 1.33. Tower phase spacing of a


single-circuit three-phase overhead line.

Applying (1.46) for this case it results the expression of flux linkage of phase
a per unit length:
0 1 1 1
a = I a ln + I b ln + I c ln (1.50)
2 re D12 D13

In a three-phase electric system, symmetrical and balanced, the dependency


between the currents on the three phases is given by relationships:
I a = I a ; I b = a2 I a ; I c = aI a (1.51)
where
1 3 1 3
a = e j 2 / 3 = + j ; a 2 = e j 2 / 3 = j
2 2 2 2
Substituting expressions (1.51) into (1.50) obtain:

0 1 1 3 1 1
+ j 3 ln 1 =
a = I a ln + I a j ln + I
2 D12 2 2 D13
a
2 re 2
0 D12 D13 3 D13
= I a ln j ln
2 re 2 D12
Therefore, the inductance per kilometre of phase a get the form:

a 0 D12 D13 3 D13 '


La = = ln j ln La jL"a (1.52)
I a 2 re 2 D12

Observation: For the case when D12 = D13 = D the imaginary part becomes
zero, so that an expression similar with (1.40), corresponding to the case of the
two-conductor system, is obtained.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 43

From (1.52) we can draw the conclusion that in the expression of inductance,
an imaginary part appears which leads to a supplementary resistance on phase:
( )
Z a = R + jL a = R + j L'a jL"a = R + L"a + jL'a (1.53)
By increasing the real part of the impedance, supplementary active power and
energy losses on the line appear. In order to avoid this, for symmetry of the circuit
and equilateral spacing between phases, the phase transposition method is used for
an electric line of length l (Fig. 1.34).

l/3 l/3 l/3


a c b
Ia
Fig. 1.34. Transposition
of the phases, without Ib b a c
return to the initial state, c b a
for a single-circuit three- Ic
phase overhead line. Section 2 Section 3
Section 1
Transposition cycle

Therefore, if apply equation (1.46), the average linkage flux of phase a is:

1 1 1 1
a , av = 0 ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +
3 2 re D12 D13


(1)

0 1 1 1
+ ia ln + ib ln + ic ln +

2 re D23 D21


(2 )

1 1 1
+ 0 i a ln + ib ln + ic ln =
2 re D31 D32


(3 )

0 1 1 1
= ia ln + ib ln + ic ln =
2 re GMD GMD

0 GMD
= ia ln (1.54)
2 re

where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 is the geometric mean distance between positions 1, 2
and 3.
44 Basic computation

Based on equation (1.54), the expression of average inductance per phase


becomes:
0 GMD
La , av = ln (1.55,a)
2 re

Knowing 0 = 410 7 H/m and considering the unit length of l = 1000 m, the
inductance per phase and kilometre is obtained:
GMD GMD
L0 = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase] (1.55,b)
re re

At frequency of 50 Hz the reactance per unit length is:


GMD
x0 = L0 = 0.1445 lg [/km phase]
re
Inductance of a double-circuit three-phase overhead electric line
Consider a double-circuit electric line with phase transposition, as shown in
Figure 1.35.
Considering that the two circuits are identical from manufacturing and
loading point of view then i a = i a ' , ib = ib ' , ic = ic ' .
The total linkages flux of phase conductor a from the circuit abc and of phase
conductor a' from the circuit a'b'c' on all the three transposition sections, is:
0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a1) = i a ln + ib + i c ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '
2 re D12 D13 D11' D12' D13'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a1') = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D1'2' D1'3' D1'1 D1'2 D1'3

0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a2 ) = i a ln + ib + i c ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '
2 re D23 D21 D22' D23' D21'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a2' ) = i a ' ln + ib ' + ic ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D 2 '3 ' D2'1' D2 ' 2 D 2 '3 D2'1

0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a3) = i a ln + ib + ic ln + ia' + ib ' ln + ic '
2 re D31 D32 D33' D31' D32'

0 1 1 1 1 1 1
(a3') = i a ' ln + ib ' + i c ' ln + ia + ib ln + ic
2 re D3'1' D3 ' 2 ' D3 ' 3 D3'1 D3'2

(1.56)
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 45

l/3 l/3 l/3


a c b
Ia
b a c
Ib
c b a
Ic
c b a
Ic
b a c
Ib
a c b
Ia
1 3 1 3 1 3
2 a 2 2 b 2 2 b a 2
b 3 1 b a 3 1 a c 3 1
a b a b
Section1 Section 2 Section 3
Transposition cycle

Fig. 1.35. Double-circuit line with phase transposition. The position of transposition
sections 1, 2 and 3.

The average linkage flux of any of the two phase conductors a or a' is:
(1) (1) (2 ) (2 )
1 a + a ' a + a ' (a3) + (a3') 1 (1)
a , av = a ', av =
3 2
+
2
+
2 3
(
= a , av + (a2, )av + (a3,)av )

(1.57)
(1) (1)
a + a ' 0 1 1
(a1,)av = (a1'), av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D11'

1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D12 D1'2' D12' D1'2 D13 D1'3' D13' D1'3

(a2 ) + (a2' ) 0 1 1
(a2, )av = (a2',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D22'

1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D23 D2'3' D23' D2 '3 D21D2'1' D21' D2 '1

(a3) + (a3') 0 1 1
(a3,)av = (a3',)av = = i a ln 2 2 +
2 2 2 re D33'

1 1
+ ib ln + ic ln
D31D3'1' D31' D3'1 D32 D3'2' D32' D3'2
The following notations are adopted:
46 Basic computation

Dab , eq = 4 D12 D1'2' D12' D1'2

Dbc , eq = 4 D23 D3'2 ' D23' D2'3

Dac , eq = 4 D31 D3'1' D31' D3'1

GMRa = re D11'
GMRb = re D22'

GMRc = re D33'
Taking into account that i a + ib + ic = 0 , we obtain:
GMD
a , av = a ', av = 2 10 7 ia ln [H/m phase] (1.58)
GMR
where geometric mean distance GMD is defined by:
GMD = 3 Dab , eq Dbc , eq Dac , eq (1.59)

and geometric mean radius GMR is:


GMR = 3 GMRaGMRbGMRc (1.60)

According to equation (1.58), the expression of average inductance per phase


becomes:
GMD GMD
La , av = 0.2 ln = 0.46 lg [mH/km phase] (1.61)
GMR GMR
Inductance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line, with
bundle conductors
In the case of extra high voltage powered electric lines, power losses due to
corona discharge and their influence on telecommunication lines become
excessively high if a single conductor per phase is used. The voltage gradient is
considerable decreased if instead of a single conductor per phase more conductors
are used, and the distance between the conductors of each phase is small as
compared with the distance between phases. Such conductors are called bundled
conductors.
Assume that instead of a single conductor, there are f conductors on each
phase, also called sub-conductors. In the following we consider the case of a phase
consisting of f = 5 sub-conductors, as shown in Figure 1.36,a [1.14].
The following assumptions are considered:
all the sub-conductors from the bundle have the same radius r, and the
current in each phase splits equally among the f parallel sub-conductors;
the distance D between bundle centres is much greater than the distance df
between the sub-conductors of the same phase.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 47

6 7 r 3
10 8 2
9

13
D
D D

2
D1
1 12 2/n
D1

5 2 D 11
13
3

1 A
df 4 3 15 14

a. b.
Fig. 1.36. Electric line with bundled conductors: a. Phase spacing for the case of line
with 5 sub-conductors per bundle; b. sub-conductors spacing for the case of line with
f sub-conductors per bundle.

For the calculation of the total linkage flux of sub-conductor 1, from phase a,
by applying expression (1.46) it results:

0 ia 1 1 1 1 1
t 1 = ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +
2 5 re D12 D13 D14 D15

ib 1 1 1 1 1
+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln +

5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10

ic 1 1 1 1 1
+ ln + ln + ln + ln + ln = (1.62)
5 D1,11 D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15

0 ia 1 i 1
= ln + b ln +
2 5 (re D12 D13 D14 D15 ) 5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1,10 ( )
ic 1
+ ln
5 (
D1,11D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15 )

where D1j is the distance from the sub-conductor 1 to sub-conductor j, j = 2, 3, ..., 15.

0 1 1 1
t1 = ia ln + ib ln + ic ln (1.63)
2 GMR f GMD1b GMD1c

where the following definitions have been introduced:


GMR f = 5 re D12 D13 D14 D15 is geometric mean radius of the bundle;
GMD1b = 5 D16 D17 D18 D19 D1 10 geometric mean distance from conductor 1 to
phase b;
GMD1c = 5 D1,11D1,12 D1,13 D1,14 D1,15 geometric mean distance from conductor 1 to
phase c.
48 Basic computation

Considering the phases are located in an equilateral triangle corners that is


GMD1b = GMD1c = D , and ia + ib + ic = 0 , the expression (1.63) becomes:

0 D
t 1 = ia ln (1.64)
2 GMR f

In order to calculate the inductance per kilometre of conductor 1, we take into


account the fact that the intensity of current passed through the conductor 1 is 1/5
from the total current per phase. Thus:
t1 5 0 D
L1 = = ln (1.65)
ia 2 RMG f
5
Next, calculating the total linkage flux t 2 of conductor 2, we find the same
geometric mean radius GMRf. Due to the large distances between phases, we can
consider that the inductances of the five parallel conductors of a phase are
approximately equal L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 , so that:

L1 0 D D
La = = ln = 2 10 4 ln [H/km phase] (1.66)
5 2 GMR f GMR f

In the particular case of f conductors per bundle, symmetrical spaced along a


circle of radius A, the distances between the sub-conductors of a phase, from
equation (1.62), can be calculated with:

D12 = 2 A sin
f
2
D13 = 2 A sin
f
#
( f 1)
D1 f = 2 A sin
f
respectively
2 ( f 1)
D12 D13 " D1 f = A f 1 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin = A f 1 f (1.67)
f
f
f
where the following trigonometric identity has been used:
2 ( f 1)
2 sin 2 sin " 2 sin = f (1.68)
f f f
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 49

Therefore, in this case, for the geometric mean radius and geometric mean
distances, the following expressions are obtained:

GMR f = f re A f 1 f
GMD1b = f D1, f +1D1, f + 2 " D1, 2 f (1.69)
GMD1c = f D1, 2 f +1D1, 2 f + 2 " D1,3 f

Considering that practical, the distances D1,f+1 . . . D1,2f . . . D1,3f are equal to the
distance between bundles centres, for the inductance La the same expression as in
(1.66) is obtained, where GMRf and GMDs are given by (1.69).
Application
Calculate the reactance of 750 kV single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line.
Each phase consists of Al-Ol conductors of 5300/69 mm2, and the conductors of bundles
are of radius r = 2.515 / 2 cm . The distance between the conductors of bundles, situated in
the corners of a pentagon, is df = 40 cm (Fig. 1.36,a). The mean distance between the
bundle centres of two different phases is D =17500 mm. Thus:
D12 = D15 = 40 cm , D13 = D14 = 2 40 cos 36 = 64.72136 cm
1/ 5
2.515 1 / 4
GMR f = e 40 2 64.72136 2 = 23.09 cm
2
Therefore, the inductance per kilometre, noted by La 0 , is:

17500
La 0 = 2 10 4 ln = 0.86559 mH km
230.9

xa 0 = La 0 = 314 0.86559 103 = 0.272 km

Considering the distances D between bundles centres are not equal and perform
phase transposition, obtain an average reactance of 0.2861 /km.
Underground electric lines have the same parameters as overhead electric
line: series impedance consisting of a resistance and an inductive reactance and
shunt admittance consisting of a conductance and a susceptance.
As compared with overhead lines there are some important differences such as:
cables are much closer to each other;
in the most cases the cross-section of underground cables is not of circle
form, being of circle sectors form more or less regular;
conductors are surrounded by other metallic objects (usually grounded),
such as screens, protection sheaths or steel tubes;
insulation material between conductors is solid (in the most cases) or gas.
This insulation material is mostly mixed than uniform because, in fact, it
consists of each phase insulation, as well as the filling material between
phases.
50 Basic computation

All factors enumerated earlier tend to complicate the calculation of lines


constants.
The closeness between phase conductors and the irregular forms of cross-
sectional areas tend to make non-uniform the distribution of field lines into cross-
sectional area as well as the displacement currents around the dielectric surface.
The non-uniform distribution of currents, eddy currents, secondary currents
induced in screens, sheaths, tubes, etc., modify the inductive, respectively
capacitive reactance, and adds supplementary active power losses. When the cables
have a mixed insulation, in addition to power losses by corona discharge that occur
in insulating gas, power losses in dielectric also occur. The complexity of
constants line calculation for underground cables is compensate by the fact that all
dimensions are kept at standard values and thus, the constants once determined are
available in tables and charts.
Therefore, if for overhead lines, in terms of the voltage level, the average
inductive reactance ranges in the interval:
x0 = 0.306 0.45 /km
for underground lines this value is:
x0 = 0.074 0.154 /km

1.2.2.3. Capacitive susceptance


Two conductors of an overhead electric line, have a capacitance, which once
connected to an alternating voltage leads to the appearance of a current even for
no-load conditions. This current is bigger at the sending-end of the line and
decrease to zero towards the receiving-end of the line. Consequently, the receiving-
end of an electric line operating under no-load conditions has a capacitive power
factor.
An electric line has an intricate structure, such as the double-circuit three-
phase overhead line, with two bundled conductors, forming an assembly of 12
conductors, one or two shield conductors as well as the ground, which has
capacitances between pairs of conductors and between conductors and ground.
No matter how intricate is the geometry of a line an effective capacitance to
ground can be obtained. The determination manner of this effective capacitance is
presented in the following.
The capacitive susceptance per phase of a multi-phase line, is given by
formula:
B = C = 2fC (1.70)
where: f is frequency, [Hz];
C effective capacitance per phase, [Farad].
Consider first the case of an infinite straight conductor of radius r (Fig. 1.37),
belonging to an electric line, and then define a Gaussian cylindrical surface coaxial
with conductor axis, charged with instantaneous electric charge q.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 51

E
r
D
R ds
Fig. 1.37. Cylindrical surface coaxial with conductor centre.

In homogeneous medium, the law of dependency between the electric field


intensity E [Volt/metre] and the electric field density D [Coulomb/metre2], is given
by relationship:
D = E (1.71)
where: = 0 r is electric permittivity, [F/m];
1
0 permittivity of vacuum, 0 = F/m;
4 9 109
r relative permittivity of medium, r = 1 F/m for dry air.

The value of electric flux density D, called also electric field induction, is
determined by applying the electric flux law along the cylindrical surface of radius
R, surrounding the conductor, as shown in Figure 1.37:

D d s = D 2Rh = q
A
(1.72)

with
q = ql h
where: D is electric flux density vector, [C/m2];
ds element area vector (perpendicular to the surface A), [m2];
A closed surface area, [m2];
q algebraic sum of all the line charges enclosed within surface A, [C];
ql charge density per unit length, [C/m];
h length of conductor, [m].
For R r , from expression (1.72) it results the magnitude of per length
electric flux density:
q
D= l (1.73)
2R
Let us imagine two points A and B located at the distance d A and d B
respectively from the centre of conductor in question. The point A is farther away
52 Basic computation

than B relative to the conductor. The potential difference between the two points A
and B is the line integral of the electric field E along any curve path joining the two
points (the potential difference is independent on the path followed in irrotational
field):
dB


VBA = VB VA = E d s
dA
(1.74)

Taking account of equations (1.71) and (1.73) equation (1.74) becomes:


dB
ql ql dA
VBA = VB VA = 2R dR = 2 ln d
dA B
(1.75)

Consider now two parallel conductors a and b of equal radii ra = rb = r


located at the distance D from each other (Fig. 1.38).

electric field
lines
equipotential
lines

qa qb
r r
V =0

Fig. 1.38. Cross section of a two-conductor system.

The voltage between the two conductors is determined considering the


contribution of the electric charge from each conductor:
qa D q r
Vab = ln + b ln (1.76)
2 r 2 D
Since the two conductors are charged with electric charges of equal values
but opposite in sign, that is qa = qb , obtain:

qa D r q D
Vab = ln ln = a ln (1.77,a)
2 r D r
If consider that conductor b is the image of conductor a then the potential of
conductor a relative to the point of potential zero (or to ground), that is at the half
distance between the two conductors (Fig. 1.38), is:
Vab q D
Va = = a ln (1.77,b)
2 2 r
The capacitance between the two conductors is given by:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 53

qa
Cab = = (1.78,a)
Vab ln D
r
We can also express the capacitance to ground:
qa 2
CaN = CbN = = Fm (1.78,b)
Va ln D
r
The real situations consists of multiphase systems so that let us consider the
case of n parallel conductors that carry the line charges q1 , q2 , , qn , located
above a perfectly conducting earth plane as shown in Figure 1.39.

conductor 2
M

q2 conductor k
DM1
DM2 DMk DMn
q1
qn
qk
conductor 1
conductor n

V=0
Fig. 1.39. n conductors system.

In this case the following assumptions are considered:


the distance between conductors is much greater than their radius; in
consequence, the distribution of a charge on a conductor is not influenced
by the presence of the charges from the other conductors;
charges are uniformly distributed on conductors;
the dielectric is assumed to be linear, so that superposition for fields and
potentials can be applied;
the sum of instantaneous values of the n electric charges from the n
conductors is zero:
q1 + q 2 + ... + q k + ... + q n = 0 (1.79)
because the regime studied is assumed to be normal steady state.
The real overhead electric lines have the parallel conductors so that the cross
sections are located in the same plane (two-dimensional space), therefore, we may
define the potential of a point M relative to the n conductors system by formula:
54 Basic computation

1 n 1
VM =
2 k =1
qk ln
DMk
(1.80)

The individual terms in expression (1.80) are referred to as logarithmic


potentials and can be viewed as the individual contributions of each conductor
charge to the total potential of point M [1.8, 1.18]. Notice that the theory of the
logarithmic potential is valid in a plane-parallel space.
The main application of (1.80) is to calculate the transmission line
capacitance in terms of potentials and electric charges of conductors. For example,
the voltage of a point on the surface of conductor 1 with respect to the whole
system of charges is easily determined if consider that the point M is located on
conductor 1:
1 1 1 1 1
V1 = q1 ln + q2 ln + ... + qk ln + ... + qn ln (1.81)
2 r D12 D1k D1n

where: r is the conductors radius;


D12 distance from the considered point on conductor 1, to the centre of
conductor 2, and so on.
A similar expression as (1.81) can be written for any from the n conductors
(Fig. 1.39). Therefore, for the general case, we obtain n expressions as in (1.81),
which can be written as matrix form:
[V ] = [] [q] (1.82)

where: [V] is column vector of potentials with components V1, V2, ..., Vn;
[q] column vector of electric charges with components q1 , q2 , , qn ;
[] matrix of Maxwells potential coefficients having the terms:
1 1 1 1
jj = ln ; jk = ln (1.83)
2 r 2 Dij

The capacitances can be calculated by calculating the inverse of matrix []:

[q ] = [ ]1 [V ] = [C ] [V ]
Notice that the matrix [C ] includes off-diagonal terms, that is, there are also
mutual capacitances. Under symmetrical and balanced steady state conditions, the
capacitance of one conductor in the presence of the others can be expressed as an
equivalent capacitance.
Capacitance of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line
For better understanding of calculation of electric lines capacitance consider
now the simple case of a single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line with
transposed conductors (Fig. 1.34).
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 55

Consider the expression of the average potential on the entire length of a


transposition cycle:
1
(
Va , av = Va(1) + Va(2 ) + Va(3 )
3
) (1.84)

where Va(1) is the potential in a point situated on conductor a from the first
transposition section.
The conductors radii of the three phases are equal each other and equal to r.
1 1 1 1
Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln +
3 2 r D12 D13
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ qa ln + qb ln + qc ln + qa ln + qb ln + qc ln
r D23 D21 r D31 D32
or
1 1 1 1
Va , av = qa ln + qb ln + qc ln (1.85)
2 r 3 D D D 3 D D D
12 23 31 13 21 32
Under normal steady state conditions the per unit length electric charges qa ,
qb and qc of phases a, b and c satisfy the equality:
qa + qb + qc = 0 , that is qa = (qb + qc ) (1.86)
so we obtain:
1 GMD
Va , av = qa ln (1.87)
2 r
where GMD = 3 D12 D23 D31 .

Therefore, the per length unit average capacitance to ground is given by:
qa 2
Ca , av = = (1.88)
Va , av ln GMD
r
1
Knowing that 0 = F/m, r = 1 , length l = 1000 m and using lg
4 9 10 9
instead of ln, expression (1.88) becomes:
0.02415
Ca , av = 10 6 [F/km] (1.89)
GMD
lg
r
In a similar manner the average capacitance for a single-circuit or double-
circuit electric line with bundle conductors can be determined. In all these cases the
same mean distances and radii are used as for inductance calculation. The only one
56 Basic computation

difference is that the radius r of the conductor is replaced with an equivalent radius
Rf .

Application
For the same example of the 750 kV single-circuit three-phase overhead electric line
with bundled conductors let us calculate now the capacitive susceptance.
The average capacitance of phase a is given by:
0.02415
Ca , av = Cb, av = Cc , av = 10 6 (1.90)
GMD
lg
Rf
where the equivalent radius Rf is:
1/ 5
2.515
R f = (rD12 D13 D14 D15 )1 5 = 40 2 64.72136 2 = 242.7398 mm
2
Hereby obtain:
314 0.02415 6
ba , av = bb, av = bc , av = Ca , av = 10 = 4.0765 10 6 S/km
17500
lg
242.7398
that is a value very closed to the recommended one for an 750 kV overhead electric line, of
4.12 10 6 S/km, evaluated taking into account the inequality of the distances between
bundle centres and using the geometric mean distances.
Effect of earth on the capacitance
Consider also the case of single-circuit overhead electric line (Fig. 1.40). The
effect of earth can be taken into account by using the method of electric charges
images. These have a charge equal but opposite in sign and are symmetrically
located below the surface of earth. By applying the phase transposition in sections
2 and 3 of the line, only the conductors change their positions, the distances
remaining the same.
By applying expression (1.81), the potential of the conductor phase a,
throughout the section 1, is:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Va(1) = qa ln qa ln + qb ln qb ln + qc ln qc ln =
2 r H1 D12 H12' D13 H13'

1 H H H
= qa ln 1 + qb ln 12' + qc ln 13' (1.91,a)
20 r D12 D13

Likewise, the potentials of conductor phase a, throughout the transposition


sections 2 and 3, can be obtained:
1 H H H
Va(2 ) = q a ln 2 + q b ln 23' + q c ln 21' (1.91,b)
2 0 r D23 D21
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 57

1 H H H
Va(3) = q a ln 3 + q b ln 31' + q c ln 32' (1.91,c)
2 0 r D31 D32

qa 1 1
1
Cab a qa qc qb
Cac 2 2 2
qb b qb qa qc
qc 3 3 3q
Ccb c qc qb a
Cb0
Ca0 Cc0
H2 H1 H3
H12 H13 H2 H1 H 3 H2 H1 H3
ground

c c b a
qc 3 3 3
qb b b a c
2 2 2
a a c b
qa 1 1 1
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3

Fig. 1.40. Single-circuit three-phase line (with phase transposition)


considering the influence of earth.

The average potential of phase a, taking into consideration the expressions


(1.84) and (1.86), is given by:
3 D D D 3 H H H
qa 12 23 31 1 2 3
Va , av = ln (1.92)
2 0 r H12 ' H13' H 23'
3

From expression (1.92), the resultant capacitance of phase a can be expressed


as:
20
Ca =
GMD 3 H1H 2 H 3
ln
r 3 H12 ' H13' H 23'

If we define the geometric mean distances:


H mean, s = 3 H1H 2 H 3
(1.93)
H mean, m = 3 H12' H13' H 23'
it results:
20
Ca = (1.94)
GMD H mean, s
ln + ln
r H mean, m
or
58 Basic computation

20
Ca = (1.95)
GMD H mean, m
ln ln
r H mean, s

Notice that, by considering the influence of earth in expression (1.95), a


bigger value for capacitance compared with (1.88) is obtained, since
H mean, m > H mean, s .
Likewise, we can determine the influence of earth on service capacitance, of
a double-circuit line, of a line with bundled conductor, etc.
For the determination of service capacitance of a three-phase underground
line, the equipotential surface of conductors (plumbum or aluminium cover
surrounding the three phases) is replaced with a system of charges qa ' , qb ' , qc ' (the
images of charges qa , qb , qc with respect to a surface S), so that, in the resulted
electric field of the real charges and of their images, the surface S to remain
equipotential. The calculation goes on using the method presented earlier. The
service capacitance of a three-phase overhead line is much smaller than the service
capacitance of a three-phase underground line.
If the average capacitance per unit length for a single-circuit overhead line is:
C = (8 9.5) F/km
then for a three-phase underground electric line this has a value of:
C 23 F/km

1.2.2.4. Conductance
The conductance is the shunt parameter from the equivalent circuit of an
electric line and it corresponds to shunt active power losses, due to imperfect
insulation and corona discharge [1.1]. If note these losses by Pins , respectively by
Pcor , and line nominal voltage by U n , the conductance G L of the line is
determined with formula:
Pins + Pcor
GL = [S] (1.96)
U n2
a) Active power losses due to imperfect insulation
In the fixing points of the conductor on the electric tower, current leakages
through insulation towards ground occur, being more intensive as the atmospheric
conditions are worst.
Consider an insulators chain from an overhead electric line of nominal phase-
to-phase voltage Un = 220 kV that can be replaced with an insulating resistance,
under normal atmospheric conditions, of about 2.4109 /phase. Taking into
consideration that such line is equipped along one kilometre with 3 support chains,
it results that the insulating resistance is 0.8109 /phase, and the corresponding
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 59

conductance is GL=1.25 nS/km. In consequence, this conductance produces losses


2
9 220 103
per phase of Pins = GLU 2f = 1.25 10 20 W/km.
3
During unfavourable atmospheric conditions (rain, moist), the values of
losses increase 5-6 times, but remain negligible for calculations of operating
regimes. In polluted areas, due to intensive dirt deposition on the lines elements,
the conductance increases very much, up to 20 40 nS/km, but, taking into
consideration that by designing insulators chain that do not favour dirt deposition
are chosen, with self-cleaned glazed surface, or are periodically washed, in practice
the value of Pins is negligible.
b) Power losses due to corona discharge
These losses must be taken into account from the designing stage of the line.
Corona phenomenon is an incomplete and autonomous electric discharge and
occurs at the conductors surface, as a luminous corona accompanied by a
characteristic noise. This electric discharge appears when the electric field intensity
among conductors surface exceeds the critical value Ecr=21.1 kVrms/cm. It must be
mentioned that local increments of electric field may occur due to non-uniform
surface of conductors caused by mechanical damages, dust deposition, spots of
rain, wires spiralling or even by roughness of conductors surface.
Corresponding to critical electric field intensity, the critical phase-to-phase
voltage at which corona phenomenon occurs can be calculated with the following
formula:
GMD
U cr = 84 m1 m2 r n lg [ kV ] (1.97)
re
where: m1 is coefficient that take into account the conductors surface state,
being equal to 1 for smooth surface, 0.88 0.99 for roughness
surface and 0.72 0.89 for stranded conductor;
m2 coefficient that takes into account the atmospheric conditions; is
equal to 1 for nice weather and 0.8 for moisture and rainy
weather;
air relative density; under standard conditions of temperature and
pressure ( t = 25 C, p = 760 mmHg), =1;
r conductor radius;
n number of conductors from bundle;
GMD geometric mean distance between phases, [cm];
re equivalent radius of the conductor, [cm].
Expression (1.97) is valid when phases are equilateral spaced in the corners
of a triangle. Whether the conductors are placed in the same plane, the critical
voltage for the conductor from middle is with 4% less than, and for the conductors
from exterior is with 6% greater than the value calculated with expression (1.97).
In designing of overhead electric lines, corona discharge is verified for
operating regimes at voltages above 60 kV. The standards indicate that on dry
60 Basic computation

weather, the condition for which there are no power losses by corona discharge is
formulated as U n < U cr .
The calculation of power losses due to corona discharge, by using
experimental empiric formula is performed. For voltages above 110 kV and large
diameters, Peeks formula is the most used in this evaluation:
241
Pc = ( f + 25) re (U U cr )2 105 [kW/km] (1.98)
GMD
where: f is the frequency of electric network, [Hz];
U, Ucr the phase-to-phase network voltage and critical voltage, [kV],
respectively.
Peeks formula provides good results only for overhead lines operating at
voltages up to 110 kV and with not too large diameters of conductor. For voltages
above 110 kV and large diameters, the Petersons formula is used:
U2
Pc = 14,7 10 6 f F [kW/km] (1.99)
GMD
ln
re
where F is Petersons function and is dependent on the value of U/Ucr ratio. For
400 kV lines, the power losses due to corona discharge reach 5 7 % from Joules
losses, and for 750 kV lines, these are 4 times bigger compared with 400 kV lines.
Corona phenomenon leads to:
increase in power and energy losses;
decreasing of life time of conductors, fittings, clamps, caused by the
corrosion process, high frequency disturbances and slight hissing noises.
The avoidance of corona discharge appearance needs increasing of critical
voltage Ucr by:
increasing in conductors radii, leading to assembling and operating
difficulties of the line;
using bundle conductors, obtaining on this approach the increasing of
apparent surface of the sub-conductors group and the decreasing of the
critical field intensity at the conductors surface; this is the most used
method being the most widespread.
For cables, the conductance appears due to the power losses by ionization
phenomenon in the dielectric of cables, current leakages due to imperfect insulation
or to power losses due to magnetic hysteresis loop. For power losses assessment in
dielectric material the tangent of the angle of dielectric losses tan is used. For
110 kV and 220 kV cables the power losses in insulation increase up to
5 10 kW/km.
From the above presented issues, results that the conductance GL is a value
that can be determined only through experimental approaches; it varies generally
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 61

along the line, caused by line state, meteorological conditions and the voltage
variations as well.
In practice, the value of the conductance is considered within the interval:

(
GL = 0.97 10 8 27 10 8 ) S/km

1.2.2.5. Equivalent circuit of the electric lines


So far, the calculation manner of electrical lines parameters on length unit
has been shown, instead, the total impedance and admittance of the line is
calculated in terms of length l and the number of circuits n operating in parallel:
1
z= (r0 + jx0 )l = R + jX
n (1.100)
y 0 = n(g 0 + jb0 )l = G0 + jB0

The electric lines are classified by voltage level, its length as well as the
environment. In the modelling of electric line the most used is four-terminal
network, where the shunt admittance, which represents corona losses, leakage
current and shunt capacitive currents, is split equal to both input and output ends of
the equivalent circuit.

i R X k

B G B G
2 2 2 2

ground

Fig. 1.41. Equivalent model of electric lines.

In literature, overhead lines of length less than 80 km are classified as short


lines, for which the conductance and capacitive susceptance can be neglected
without influencing the accuracy of operating regimes of power systems
calculation. Thereby, the equivalent circuit of electric line is:

i zik=Rik+jXik k

Vi Vk

Fig. 1.42. Series equivalent line model.

For medium and long lines, due to high value of shunt capacitive currents or
for the cases when corona losses become significant, the shunt admittance is no
62 Basic computation

longer neglected. Obtain thus the equivalent circuit, which represents, with good
accuracy, the electric line.

i zik k

yik0 yki0
Vi Vk
2 2

Fig. 1.43. Equivalent circuit.

A more detailed theory of long lines parameters determination is presented in


Chapter 3.

1.2.3. Transformers modelling


The existence of electric transformers and autotransformers in the electric
networks makes possible obtaining different voltage levels. In actual electric power
systems, the transmitted power can suffer 4-5 voltage and current transformations
that make the rated power of all transformers from the system be 4-5 times bigger
than the rated power of all generators.
An important part of the transformers and autotransformers are manufactured
with two or more three-phase windings disposed either on common magnetic cores
constituting three-phase units or on magnetic cores individual to each phase,
constituting single-phase units.
Many transformers from the system are used for voltage and reactive power
control and because of that one winding is tapped.
In Figure 1.44, the simplified equivalent circuits of transformer and
autotransformer are presented.

V1 N1 V1 N1
N2 V2 N2 V2

a. b.
Fig. 1.44. Simplified equivalent circuits of transformers (a) and autotransformers (b).

Autotransformers are used when the transformer turns ratio is small. These
have also a third winding of small rated power, delta-connected, constituting
closing path for currents of the 3rd harmonic and multiple of 3, reducing on this
way the flowing of these harmonics in the network. Often, the third winding of
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 63

autotransformers is used for connecting synchronous compensators for reactive


power compensation.
Nowadays electric power systems, high voltage and ultra high voltage loops
often occur. The power flow control in these loops and preventing of electric
lines overloading are performed by means of special transformers with complex
turns ratio that modifies not only the voltage magnitude but also voltage phase
angle.
The transformers from electric power systems can be ordered on three
categories [1.11]:
step-up transformers, by means of which the generators are connected to
transmission network and transformers supplying auxiliary services;
coupling transformers which links different parts of the transmission
network, usually with different voltage levels, or which links the
transmission and distribution networks;
distribution step-down transformers which decrease the voltage level
according to the desired consumers voltage level.

1.2.3.1. Mathematical model and equivalent circuits


To study the two-winding three-phase transformers the model of a single-
phase transformer can be considered. This approach is based on the fact that the
magnetic core and the electric circuits are symmetrically manufactured, so that the
study of three-phase transformers, under symmetrical regime of phases a, b and c
can be performed by using the direct-sequence equivalent circuit of a single-phase
transformer.
Let us consider the magnetic circuit of a transformer with two windings
disposed on a common magnetic circuit called magnetic core (Fig. 1.45). One part
from the magnetic field lines are focused in the magnetic core, made from
ferromagnetic material with magnetic permeability > 0, constituting the utile
magnetic flux, and one part of them are closing through air constituting leakage
magnetic flux. By convention the winding that receive the energy from the network
is called primary winding and the one that send is toward the network is called
secondary winding.
Ni Nk

Ii i k Ik

Vi Vk
Ei Ek

Fig. 1.45. Two-winding transformer model.


64 Basic computation

By applying the law of electromagnetic induction along the magnetic circuits


Ei and Ek respectively, crossing the paths of primary and secondary windings,
obtain:
d


E ds=
dt
(1.101)
E

Applying (1.101) for the two paths corresponding to the two windings and
taking as reference the direction of current I i , for instantaneous quantities the
following system of equations can be written:
d i
vi + Ri ii = d t

(1.102)
v + R i = d k
k k k
dt
The magnetic fluxes i , k are the sum of the utile and leakage fluxes:

i = N i + Li , ii
(1.103)
k = N k + Lk , i k
where: Ni, Nk are number of primary and secondary turns;
Ri, Rk resistances of primary and secondary windings;
Li , , Lk , leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings;
fascicular flux common to the two windings.
Considering the sinusoidal steady state and expressing (1.102) as phasor
form, obtain:
( )
V i + Ri I i = j N i + Li , I i
(1.102')

(
V k + Rk I = j N k + Lk , I k )
The mathematical model of the electric transformer, under sinusoidal steady
state conditions, is described by the phasor equations of the two electric circuits:
V i + z i I i = N i E
(1.102'')
V k + z k I k = N k E
where E = j is e.m.f. (electromagnetic force) per turn of winding, and the
impedances of the windings are:
z i = Ri + j Li ,
(1.104)
z k = Rk + j Lk ,

Based on the system of equations (1.102"), we can draw a simplified model


of the two-winding transformer (Fig. 1.46).
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 65

Ii zi zk Ik

Vi Ni E Nk E Vk

Fig. 1.46. Simplified transformer model.

On the hypothesis of z i = z k = 0 , from (1.102") the equations of the ideal


transformer are obtained:
V i 0 = N i E
(1.105)
V k 0 = N k E
Based on the equations (1.105) it can be defined the transformer turns ratio
Nik, which is equal to the ratio between the number of turns of the two windings or
to the ratio of the no-load voltages at the two terminals:
N i V i0
N ik = = (1.106)
Nk V k0

The transformer turns ratio defined by (1.106) is, in this case, real; normally,
this is complex because there is a phase shift between secondary and primary
voltages.
In practice, the two-winding transformer is represented either as equivalent
circuit with magnetic coupling (Fig. 1.47,a) or as equivalent circuit with
transformer operator (Fig. 1.47,b).

Ii zi zk Ik Ii zi Nik zk Ik

Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk Vi V i0 Vk 0 Vk

a. b.
Fig. 1.47. Two-winding transformer equivalent circuit: a. circuit with magnetic coupling;
b. circuit with transformer operator.

Further, if the Kirchhoffs theorem for magnetic circuits is applied along the
contour linking the magnetic circuit (Fig. 1.45):

H ds =
M
66 Basic computation

we obtain the expression of intensity of the total current (ampere-turns):


ik = N i I i + N k I k (1.107)

If assume that ik remain constant, because the permeability of magnetic


core is assumed infinite, for the load regime ( I k 0 ) as well as for no-load regime
( I k = 0 ), we can write ik N i I i 0 and ik N k I k 0 respectively. In the previous
relationships I i 0 is the no-load current if the transformer is supplied at the winding
i, and I k 0 is no-load current if the transformer is supplied at winding k.
Because the no-load current can be negligible compared with the load
current, we achieve:
Ni I i N k I k
and the turns ratio get the expression
Ni I
N ik = k (1.108)
Nk Ii
or
Nk I
N ki = i (1.108')
Ni Ik

If the first equation from (1.102'') is divided to the second one, and taking
into consideration (1.108) and (1.108'), the mathematical equations of the two-
winding transformer becomes:
z ik I i V i = N ik V k
(1.109)
z ki I k V k = N ki V i
where:
z ik = z i + N ik2 z k
(1.110)
z ki = z k + N ki2 z i

Under these circumstances, the two-winding transformer can be modelled


through an impedance series with an ideal transformer, for which two cases are
defined:
a. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator Nik and impedance z ik
referred to winding i (impedance z ik is galvanically connected to node i)
(Fig. 1.48,a);
b. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator Nki and impedance z ki
referred to winding k (impedance z ki is galvanically connected to node k)
(Fig. 1.48,b);
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 67

i z ik Nik k i Nki z ki k

Vi V i0 Vk Vi Vk0 Vk

a. b.

Fig. 1.48. Two-winding transformer equivalent circuit, with transformer operator:


a. step-up transformer; b. step-down transformer.

In consequence, the two-winding transformer is drawn as a branch


characterised by two parameters: either impedance z ik and turns ratio Nik or
impedance z ki and turns ratio Nki satisfying the system of equations (1.110). In
literature, the turns ratio is also defined as a:1 where a = N ik , respectively 1:a
1
where = N ki . Conventionally, the transformer operator replaces the ideal
a
transformer (without power losses).

If express z k from the second equation of (1.110) and substitute it in the first
one, obtain:
( )
z i + N ik2 z ki N ki2 z i = z ik

Knowing that N ik N ki = 1 we can obtain the relationship between


impedances and admittances referred to the two windings:
z ik = N ik2 z ki
(1.111,a)
z ki = N ki2 z ik

and
y = N ki2 y
ik ki
2
(1.111,b)
y ki = N ik y ik

where z ik = 1 y ik and z ki = 1 y ki .

If the admittance y i 0 = I i 0 V i 0 , noted with a supplementary subscript 0,


which represents the no-load power losses, is connected on the primary winding
side of the ideal transformer, then the turns ratio becomes (Fig. 1.49):
Ni Ik
N ik = (1.112)
Nk I i I i0
68 Basic computation

i
zi i i0 zk k

i0

Vi y i0 Vk

Fig. 1.49. The modelling of no-load power losses


in the two-winding transformer.
Further, if the admittance y i 0 is moved from the ideal transformer terminals
at the real transformer terminals, the product z i I i 0 can be negligible as compared
with the product z i I i . Keeping the no-load admittance y i 0 connected at i 0
terminals, then we obtain the equivalent circuit of two-winding single-phase
transformer (Fig. 1.50).
i zik Nik k i Nki z ki k

Vi yi0 Vk Vi y i0 Vk

a. b.
Fig. 1.50. Equivalent circuit of two-winding transformer, with transformer operator:
a. step-up transformer; b. step-down transformer.
Into large electric power systems, into transformers from connecting
substation, during different operating regimes, the power flow can change its
direction. In this case, for more accurate assessment of power losses, the equivalent
circuit of transformer is used, where the admittance modelling the power losses
is located at the input and output terminals (Fig. 1.51). The two shunt admittances
have different values because the admittance y ik 0 will be referred to winding i
while the admittance y ki 0 will be referred to winding k.

i z ik N ik k

Vi yik 0 yki 0 Vk
2 2

Fig. 1.51. Equivalent circuit of two-winding transformer


with transformer operator.

Autotransformers are usually installed into electric network loops where the
direction of power flow can be changed. Three-phase transformers and
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 69

autotransformers can be manufactured so that to provide both voltage magnitude


and phase angle regulation.
Phase-shift transformers provide a phase angle shift of secondary vectors
V k , I k related to the primary ones V i , I i (Fig. 1.52). Under these conditions, a
transformer has complex turns ratio N ik and provides phasor shift of angles
determined by the connection class:
N ik = N ik e j ik = N ik (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.113)

where Nik is absolute value of turns ratio:


Vi ,n
N ik = (1.114)
Vk ,n

ik transformer turns ratio angle, [radians].

wmax ik
wc
wn
V
wmin

Vregulated
V

Fig. 1.52. Regulating voltage diagram of phase-shift transformer.


Phase shift transformers (known also as phase shifters), having a particular
connection of windings, are installed into electric network loops in order to change
the active and reactive powers flows.
Two cases are defined [1.12]:
a) Step-up transformer, with the secondary winding k tapped, having the
possibility to modify the number of turns (regulated winding), the regulated voltage
and the turns ratio values being calculated with formula:
V
V k , regulated = Vk + (wa wn )Vk (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.115,a)
100
Vi ,n
N ik = (1.116,a)
V k , regulated

b) Step-down transformer, with the primary winding i tapped, having the


possibility to modify the number of turns (regulated winding), the regulated voltage
and the turns ratio values being calculated with formula:
70 Basic computation

V
V i , regulated = Vi + (wa wn )Vi (cos ik + j sin ik ) (1.115,b)
100
V i , regulated
N ik = (1.116,b)
Vk ,n

where: Vi, Vk are rated voltages of transformer windings connected at nodes i


and k;
wa actual tap label;
wn median tap label;
V percentage voltage step size.
If ik = 0 , transformer provides only voltage control;
If ik = 2 , transformer provides only shift in phase angle control and
thus active power redispatching;
If 0 < ik < 2 , transformer provides both active power and voltage
control.
To be mentioned that, usually, the winding with voltage control possibilities
is that of higher voltage because this is more accessible, and the current is lower.
For a better understanding of drawing manner of the two-winding transformer
equivalent circuit, let us consider the equivalent circuit case with impedance z ik ,
referred to i node, and complex turns ratio N ik , being the case of step-up
transformer, then we can design the generalised equivalent circuit (Fig. 1.53).

Ii i m z ik N ik (1-m) Nik2 z ik k Ik
yik 0 y ki 0
Vi Vk
2 2

Fig. 1.53. Generalised equivalent circuit with transformer operator.

The generalised model of the transformer with transformer operator consists


of an ideal transformer with complex turns ratio N ik , in series with an impedance
or admittance. The series impedance consists of two terms: m z ik , referred to
winding i, and (1 m ) N ik2 z ik which is proportional with the impedance z ik ,
referred to winding i.
It can be seen that by using the generalised equivalent circuit we can achieve
the transformer equivalent circuits corresponding to the two cases: m = 1 for step-
up transformer and m = 0 for step-down transformer.
For easier implementation of two-winding transformer mathematical model
into professional software for load flow calculation, galvanic equivalent circuit can
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 71

be used. In this respect, we consider the equivalent circuits of two-winding


transformer, with real turns ratio Nik (Fig. 1.48,a,b) and equations (1.109).
If the current I i is expressed from the first equation of (1.109) to which we
add and subtract the term y ik N ik V i , after rearranging the terms we obtain:

I i = y ik (1 N ik )V i + y ik N ik (V i V k ) I i 0 + I ik (1.117)

In a similar manner, if from the second equation of (1.109) we express the


current I k to which we add and subtract the term y ik N ik V k , then we obtain:

I k = y ik N ik (N ik 1)V k + y ik N ik (V k V i ) I k 0 + I ki (1.118)

where the equality y ik N ik = y ki N ki has been used.


Following the equations (1.117) and (1.118), the galvanic equivalent circuit
of two-winding transformer is achieved (Fig. 1.54).
yik Nik
Ii i k Ik

Vi yik (1-Nik ) yik Nik (Nik -1) Vk

Fig. 1.54. Galvanic equivalent circuit of two-winding transformer.

1.2.3.2. Transformer parameters


Two-winding transformer
Let us consider the equivalent circuit with transformer operator of the
transformer with parameters referred to winding i, for which we consider the two
operating regimes: no-load and short-circuit (Fig. 1.50,a).
Transformer parameters, series impedance z ik = Rik + jX ik and shunt
admittance y i 0 = Gi 0 jBi 0 respectively, are calculated in terms of its
manufacturing parameters.
In general, in catalogues the following specific parameters of the transformer
are given:
Sn is rated power of transformer, respectively autotransformer;
Ui,n rated phase-to-phase voltage of winding i;
Uk,n rated phase-to-phase voltage of winding k;
Psc active power losses under short-circuit test;
nom

usc [%] percentage voltage under short-circuit test;


P0 active power losses under no-load test;
72 Basic computation

i0 [%] percentage current under no-load test;


u p percentage voltage variation on tap;
wn median tap label.
In order to calculate the equivalent resistance Rik of the transformer consider
the short-circuit test, that is k 0 winding is short-circuited and the transformer is
supplied at i 0 terminals, so that the current from winding i is equal to the rated
current I i ,n . Based on the above-mentioned hypothesis, we obtain the expression
of active power losses:
Pscnom = 3 Rik I i2, n

Taking into consideration the relationship:


Sn Sn
Ii, n = =
3Vi , n 3 U i, n

it results that the transformer resistance is calculated with formula:


U i2, n
Rik = Pscnom [] (1.119)
S n2

In order to calculate the equivalent reactance X ik of the transformer, we


depart from the short-circuit voltage value:
usc [%]
Vsc = Vi , n
100
and taking into consideration that:
Vsc = zik I i , n

it results:
2
usc [%] U i , n 1 u [%] U i , n
zik = = sc [] (1.120)
100 3 Ii, n 100 S n
Knowing the two terms Rik and zik we can obtain the equivalent reactance of
transformer with expression:

X ik = zik2 Rik2 zik [ ] (1.121)

Observation: For transformers of large rated power zik >> Rik , so the
reactance X ik is identified by impedance zik .
In the case of autotransformers with tapped windings, in the calculation of the
short-circuit percentage voltage, the tap position is considered:
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 73

u sc = A(wn wa ) + B(wn wa ) + C
2

where A, B, C are constants given into autotransformers catalogues.


Concerning the equivalent conductance Gi of the transformer, consider the
no-load test characterised by the fact that k 0 winding operates under no-load
conditions and at i 0 terminals the voltage Vi , n = U i , n 3 is applied. For this
regime, the three-phase active power losses are given by:
2
U i, n
P0 = 3 Gi 0 Vi ,2n = 3 Gi 0 = Gi 0 U i2, n
3
from where it results the conductance of the two-winding transformer:
P0
Gi 0 = [S] (1.122)
U i2, n

In practice, the equivalent inductive susceptance Bi0 is calculated departing


from the transformer magnetising losses, therefore:

I0 i [%] 1 i [%] 3 U i , n I i , n i [%] S n


yi 0 = = 0 Ii, n = 0 = [S] (1.123)
Vi , n 100 U i, n 100 U i2, n 100 U i2, n
3
and the susceptance is determined with formula:

Bi 0 = yi20 Gi20 yi 0 [S] (1.124)

Three-winding transformer
In the catalogues of these transformers the following characteristics are
given: rated powers of the three windings SnI, SnII, SnIII, power losses under no-load
conditions P0, rated power losses under short-circuit test Pscnom nom
I II , Psc II III ,

Pscnom
I III , percentage short-circuit voltages u sc I II [%] , u sc II III [%] , u sc I III [%] .

In calculating the equivalent resistances of transformer windings, the rated


powers of the three windings must be taken into account. Hereby, three types of
transformers are defined [1.1]:
Type a. Case S n I = S n II = S n III
At this type of transformer, the winding resistances are referred to the same
voltage level and are calculated departing from the expression of power losses
under short-circuit test Pscnom , that are maximum at the rated loading of windings I
and II, winding III being no-loaded:
74 Basic computation

Pscnom = 3 R I I I2 + 3 R II I II 2

where: R I , R II are resistances of windings I and II referred to the same voltage


level;
I I , I II rated currents of windings I and II referred to the same voltage
level.
Since the rated powers of the two windings (I and II) are equal, the secondary
current I II referred to the primary winding is equal to the primary current.
Therefore, the expression of the rated power losses under short-circuit conditions
becomes:

Pscnom = 2 3 RT I n2

We can obtain, thus, the expression of the resistance

Pscnom U n2 U n2
RT = = Pscnom = Pscnom (1.125)
6I2 2 ( 3Un In )
2
2 S n2

2
Type b. Case S n II = S n I , S n III =
Sn I
3
At this type of transformer, the rated power losses under short-circuit test
Psc are maximum when the transformer is full loaded on the windings I and II,
nom

while the winding III operates under no-load conditions. The winding resistances
get the expression:
U n2
R I = R II = RT = Pscnom (1.126)
2 S n2

and
2
R III = RI (1.127)
3
Type c. This case is defined by two situations:
2 2
S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I
3 3
or
2 1
S n II = S n I , S n III = S n I
3 3

Similar to the previous cases, Pscnom is calculated as it follows:


Electric power systems configuration and parameters 75

Pscnom = 3 I I2 R I + 3 I II 2 R II + 3 I III
2 R III
=
2 2
2 3 I 3
= 3 I I2 RI + 3 I I RI + 3 I RI =
3 2 3 2
4 23 I I2 3 1 11
= 3 I I2 R I + 3 I I RI + 3 R I = I I2 R I 3 + 2 + = I I2 R I
9 2 9 2 2 2
The resistance of the primary winding RI is given by:

RI =
2 Pscnom 2
= Pscnom
( 3Un )
2

=
6 U2
Pscnom n2 (1.128)
11 I I2 11 ( 3Un In )
2
11 Sn
and
2
R II = R III
= RI (1.129)
3
It should be mentioned that in the case of three-winding transformers, RI, RII,
RIII define the winding resistances (primary, secondary and tertiary windings),
referred to the same voltage level, different by the case of two-winding
transformers were R define the total resistance of the two windings per one phase
referred to the same voltage level.
In calculation of inductive reactance, in catalogues are given the percentage
short-circuit voltages between two terminals being determined as follows: short-
circuit voltage between the terminals I and III ( u sc I III ) is obtained by supplying
the primary winding, the tertiary one being short-circuited, and the secondary one
operating under no-load conditions. Similarly, short-circuit voltages u sc I II and
u sc II III are determined. By analogy with the two-winding transformers, the
inductive reactances of the transformer windings can be expressed as:
u sc I II [%] U n2
X I II =
100 Sn
usc I III [%] U n2
X I III = (1.130)
100 Sn

u sc II III [%] U n2
X II III =
100 Sn
where: Un is voltage level at which the transformer parameters are referred;
Sn rated apparent power of the winding with the greatest value.
Knowing that:
X I II = X I X II ; X I III = X I X III and X II III = X II X III
76 Basic computation

it results:
X I II + X I III X II III
XI =
2
X + X I II X I III
X II = II III (1.131)
2
X + X II III X I II
X III = I III
2
The conductance and the susceptance of these types of transformers are
calculated in the same manner as for two-winding transformers.

1.2.4. Electric generators modelling


The electric generators are synchronous machines that represent the main
source of energy from the electric power plants. These can be divided into two
categories by the design model: hydro-generators, with isotropic rotor on the
directions of d and q axes, and turbo-generators, with anisotropic rotor on the
directions of the two axes. To simplify, we next consider a turbo-generator where
the synchronous reactances along the direct and quadrature axes are equal,
X S = X d = X q . The synchronous reactance of the generator is calculated with
formula:
x[%] U n2
XS = [ ] (1.132)
100 S ng
where: x[%] is percentage synchronous reactance;
Un phase-to-phase rated stator voltage, [kV];
Sng rated apparent power of generator, [MVA].
The synchronous generator is represented, in the direct-sequence circuit,
through an impedance, where the armature resistance is neglected, in series with an
electromotive force (Fig. 1.55,a). By optimum operating reasons in the system, the
generator is represented, under steady state conditions, through constant active
power, P = ct. , and constant terminal voltage, U = ct. (Fig. 1.55,b).

jXS jXS
P
I
E U E U

a. b.
Fig. 1.55. Direct-sequence circuit representation of electric generator:
a. XS = ct., E = ct.; b. XS = ct., P = ct. and E = ct. or U = ct.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 77

The operating equation under normal steady state is:


E = U + jX S I (1.133)
Based on this equation, the phasor diagram is drawn, where the terminal
voltage of the generator is taken as reference (Fig. 1.56) [1.12].

P
A N
N C (I=ct)
E I UnEn
XS
Pn
jXS I UnIn
CE (E=ct)

U
O O Un2 O O
I XS
Qn
a. b.
Fig. 1.56. Phasor diagram of the synchronous generator under normal steady state.

To study the generator, the inductive operating regime is analysed, when


voltage lags the current by degrees. Under the hypothesis of constant terminal
voltage, a semicircle CE of centre O' and radius O'N is drawn, which represents the
geometric locus of the operating points with constant electromotive force.
Likewise, the circle CI of centre O and radius ON, which represents the geometric
locus of the operating points with constant stator current I = I or with constant
apparent power, is drawn.
Considering the rated operating regime, the powers diagram is obtained by
multiplying each of phasors, U n , X S I n and En by U n X S , where the phasor ON
becomes equal to the rated apparent power Sn. The intersection point of the two
circles represents the rated operating point, for which both the internal voltage E
and the armature current I are maximum. In order to draw the powers diagram, the
Cartesian coordinates system of axes P and Q of centre O, where the imaginary
axis is overlapped on the phasor U = U , has been chosen. The projections of Sn on
the horizontal and vertical axes represent the rated reactive power Qn , and the
rated active power Pn , having the expressions (Fig. 1.56,b):
EnU n
Pn = U n I n cos n = sin n (1.134)
XS

EnU n U2
Qn = U n I n sin n = cos n n (1.135)
XS XS
The main electric quantities that characterise a synchronous generator are
rated (active or apparent) powers, rated voltage and rated power factor. When the
78 Basic computation

generator operates under a given regime different from the rated one, the previous
enumerated quantities are large scaled, and comprised in a domain constrained by
the loading limits (Fig. 1.57) referred to as loading capability curve of the
synchronous generator. This is important to the power plant operators who are
responsible for proper loading operation of the generator [1.11, 1.13].

Mechanical limit
of turbine (L3)
P
Field current
Underexcitation Pmax (L2)
limit (L4) N
Armature
current (L1)
Minimum active
power limit n
(L5)
Pmin Q
Qmin O Qmax
O
Leading Lagging

Fig. 1.57. Loading capability curve of a synchronous generator.

Taking into consideration the complexity of the processes from inside the
synchronous machine, in order to draw the loading capability curve of synchronous
generator, the following hypothesis are considered [1.19]:
Armature resistance R=0 is neglected;
The magnetising characteristic is assumed linear E0 = f (I ex ) ;
Power losses by Joules effect in the armature windings as well as the
power losses in the armature core are neglected;
Synchronous reactance is constant X S = ct.

Starting from these hypotheses, the following operating limits of the


synchronous generator are defined.
a) Armature current limit (L1), Is,max, imposed by the heating limit of stator
windings. This limit is a circle of centre O and of radius UnIn that represents the
geometric locus of the operating points given by the expression:

S n2 = Pn2 + Qn2 = ( 3UnIn )2


(1.136)

Taking into account that the apparent power S must not exceed the rated
value, that is S S n , the operating point must be situated inside or on the limit
circle L1.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 79

For a value of armature current greater than the limit value, the generator can
operate under secure conditions for a short period of time depending on the
measure of how much the limit value is exceeded.
b) Field current limit (L2), Ir,max. Providers of electric equipments specify
the maximum value of the excitation current Iex, imposed by the heating limit of
rotor windings. Likewise, there is also a limit value of the excitation voltage equal
to the rated one. Also, by secure operating reasons at motor torque shocks a
minimum value of the excitation current is imposed. The limit curve of field
current is a circle of centre O' and of radius proportional to the rated internal
voltage En.
As it can be seen in Figure 1.57, for an active power less than the rated power
Pn, field current limit is more restrictive than the armature current limit. The rated
operating point of the generator is the intersecting point of the two limits L1 and
L2 when the generator is used at maximum from the generated apparent power
point of view.
c) Mechanical limit of turbine (L3), Pmax, imposed by the maximum shaft
torque of turbine. Taking into consideration that, in general, the mechanical power
of turbine is greater than the electric power of generator, this limit is a horizontal
line drawn at an active power value greater than the rated power output Pn of the
generator.
Under leading regime, the operating domain of the synchronous generator is
constrained by another three limits:
core end heating limit which is a curve determined through experimental
tests;
static stability reserve chosen so that a certain value of the internal angle
is maintained;
minimum excitation current limit that ensure a motor torque reserve to the
generator.
The generator operating point near to the three limits previous defined can be
avoided by using the underexcitation limiter so that the 4th limit can be defined:
d) Underexcitation limit (L4). By means of automatic control systems of the
generator, the operating at leading power factor is constrained by the characteristic
shown in Figure 1.57.
e) Minimum active power limit (L5), Pmin. In thermal power plants a minimal
power, Pmin, is required by combustion reasons.
If the operating point is different from the rated one, under lagging regime,
due to the limits L2 and L3, the maximum reactive power is determined with
formula:
1/ 2
E U
2
U n2
Q = Qmax = n n P2 when P Pn (1.137)
X s Xs

80 Basic computation

[ 2
Q = Qmax = S n Pn ]
2 12
when P Pn (1.138)
If information about En and XS are not available, an approximate limit of the
maximum reactive power is calculated: Qmax = 0.9 Qn where Qn = S n sin n .

Appendix
Table A1
Average values of the per kilometre parameters of the overhead electric lines
fn Un r0 x0 b0 ZC PN
[Hz] [kV] [/km] [/km] [S/km] [] [MW]
220 0.070 0.421 2.920 380 127
50 400 0.034 0.328 3.611 300 535
(Romania) 750 0.017 0.275 4.082 260 2160
230 0.050 0.488 3.371 380 140
60 345 0.037 0.367 4.518 285 420
(USA) 500 0.028 0.325 5.200 250 1000
765 0.012 0.329 4.978 257 2280
1100 0.005 0.292 5.544 230 5260
Note: the quantities ZC and PN are explained in Chapter 3.

Chapter references
[1.1] Poeat, A., Arie, A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, A., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Electric energy transmission and
distribution), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[1.2] Crian, O. Sisteme electroenergetice (Electric power systems), Editura Didactic
i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1979.
[1.3] Ionescu, T.G., Pop, O. Ingineria sistemelor de distribuie a energiei (Energy
distribution systems engineering), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1998.
[1.4] Meslier, F., Persoz, H. Rseaux de transport et dinterconnexion, D070,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.5] Carrive, P. Rseaux de distribution. Structure et planification, D4210,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.6] Gros, M., Righezza, P. Rseaux de distribution. Exploitation, D4230,
Techniques de lIngnieur, Trait de Gnie lectrique, EdF, Paris, 1992.
[1.7] Bergen, A.R. Power Systems Analysis, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs,
New Jersey, 1986.
[1.8] Elgerd, O.I. Electric energy systems theory: An introduction, McGraw-Hill, 1971.
[1.9] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (Electric
networks. Electric Calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1974.
[1.10] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power Systems Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1994.
[1.11] Mackowski, J., Bialek, J.W., Bumby, J.R. Power Systems Dynamics and
Stability, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, New York, 1997.
Electric power systems configuration and parameters 81

[1.12] Potolea, E. Regimurile de funcionare a sistemelor electrice (Operating regimes


of electric power systems), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1977.
[1.13] Adibi, M.M., Milanicz, D.P. Reactive Capability limitation of synchronous
machine, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No.1, February 1994.
[1.14] El-Hawary, M. Electrical power systems. Design and analysis (Revised
printing), IEEE Press, New York, 1995.
[1.15] Persoz, H., Santucci, G., Lemoine, J.C., Sapet, P. La planification des rseaux
lectriques, Edition Eyrolles, 1984.
[1.16] Morgan, V.T., Findlay, F.D. The effect of frequency on the resistance and
internal inductance of bare ACSR conductors, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery,
Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. l391l396, July 1991.
[1.17] Morgan, V.T., Zhang, B., Findlay, R.D. Effect of magnetic induction in a steel-
cored conductor on current distribution, resistance and power loss, IEEE Trans.
on Power Delivery, Vol. 12, pp. 12991308, July 1997.
[1.18] Mocanu, C.I. Teoria cmpului electromagnetic (The theory of electromagnetic
field), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1984.
[1.19] Ghi, C. Maini i acionri electrice (Electric machines and operation),
Volume I, Institutul Politehnic din Bucureti, Bucureti, 1992.
Chapter 2
RADIAL AND MESHED NETWORKS

2.1. General considerations


In order to ensure a proper operation of the load, a certain level of power
quality is required, respectively the continuity in supplying, keeping the frequency
and voltage near the nominal values and a waveform of the voltage as sinusoidal as
possible as well. One of the restrictive conditions for the networks operation is the
magnitude voltage deviation with respect to the reference voltage, called nominal
voltage. Of importance is how much the voltage in a point of the network is
deviated from the nominal value, and also the voltage drop between two nodes,
galvanically connected to an electric network. In this respect, there are two notions
used: phasor voltage drop and algebraic voltage drop.
The phasor voltage drop refers to the phasor difference of two voltages, from
two different nodes of the network.
The algebraic voltage drop refers to the algebraic difference between the rms
voltages into two nodes of the network, of the same nominal voltage. For
simplicity, in this paperwork, the algebraic voltage drop is further called voltage
drop and will not be underlined.
In terms of the type and the importance of the load, the admissible deviations
of the voltage in a node of the network are given in standards. These deviations
must not be exceeded during exploitation, because they would lead to an unsuitable
operation of the load.
The electric networks operation is strongly influenced by the loads behaviour
to different changes. The load modelling through static characteristics presents
importance for network analysis. In this respect, some simplifying hypotheses are
used [2.1]:
a. Constant impedance (the values of the impedance will be constant in time
and independent of the currents passed through them or the terminal
voltage). The active and reactive powers absorbed by these loads are
proportional with the square of the terminal voltage;
b. Constant active and reactive powers (these are independent of the terminal
voltage and current passing through the load);
c. Constant active and reactive currents.
84 Basic computation

It should be mentioned that these hypotheses of load modelling through static


characteristics are ideal conditions. In practical cases, the network loads are
complex, including electric engines, arc furnaces, rectifiers, illumination, etc.,
which leads to a non-linear load characteristic.
Generally, the network calculation under constant impedance hypothesis
leads to more optimistic results than the real ones. Instead, the hypothesis of
constant powers leads to more pessimistic results than the real ones. For short
electric lines, the third hypothesis of the load modelling through constant current
leads to results closer to reality.
The modelling of the power sources generators, in the calculation of the
normal operation regime, by using one of the following simplifying hypotheses can
be performed:
Constant electromotive voltage characteristic;
Constant current characteristic. In this case, the network must have a
specific node equilibrium node where the currents generated or
absorbed into different nodes of the network are closing;
Furthermore, in one of the networks nodes, must be fixed a voltage related
to the neutral conductor. This node, called reference node, can coincide or
not with the equilibrium node;
Constant active power and constant voltage magnitude characteristic. In
this case, in one of the network nodes must be applied a voltage source,
constant as magnitude and phase angle, which is considered reference
voltage. If in this node the active and reactive powers generated by the
source are left to vary freely, this node coincides with the equilibrium
node;
Constant reactive power characteristic.
If the constant voltage or current characteristics for the power sources as well
as for the loads are used, then systems of linear equations for the steady state
calculation are obtained. This type of modelling does not express the real situation,
where the generators from the power system operates according to a characteristic
Pg = ct. and V g = ct .
For the other hypotheses, closer to reality for large power systems, systems of
non-linear equations (of second degree) result. For short electric networks the
linear hypothesis that leads to results closer to reality are used.
The electric lines can be classified, in terms of their length, into short lines
respectively long lines (generally longer than 250 km). The long electric lines
operate at 220 kV, 400 kV or 750 kV and serve for the transmission of the electric
energy. The short electric lines usually operate at voltages below 110 kV being
used for the repartition and distribution of electric energy.
Consider a three-phase electric line that satisfies the conditions of
homogeneity and symmetry as well as symmetric voltages and balanced currents
on all the three phases. Under these conditions it is sufficient to study the operation
of a single phase, with a double-wire circuit, where the going conductor represents
Radial and meshed networks 85

the conductor of the phase, with the service parameters, and the return conductor is
a fictitious neutral conductor, which ensures the closing of the current.
For the short overhead lines, powered at low nominal voltages, the intensities
of the shunt currents the capacitive currents as well as the leakage ones have
low values as compared with those of the conduction current that passes through
the phase conductor. Therefore, in the case of short lines, the shunt currents can be
neglected and the corresponding equivalent circuit is a dipole with lumped
parameters (Fig. 2.1,a), where the shunt admittances have been neglected. For
more accurate results, the equivalent (or T) circuit, with lumped parameters, is
used (Fig. 2.1,b).

Phase conductor Phase conductor


Z

Z
Y Y
2 2

Neutral conductor Neutral conductor


a. b.
Fig. 2.1. Equivalent circuits for short lines.

For the underground electric lines, powered at high nominal voltages, even
for small length cases, the leading leakage currents should be taken into account so
a proper circuit, either of lumped or uniformly distributed parameters, is chosen.

2.2. Radial and simple meshed electric networks

2.2.1. Current flows and voltage drops calculation


under symmetric regime
Assume a radial electric network operating at alternating voltage, supplying
only one load, represented through a dipole with the impedance Z = R + jX
(Fig.2.2,a). Being given the current at the receiving end i B , of i B = ct. and source
voltage V A = ct. characteristic, it is required to determine the current I A at the
sending end and the voltage at the receiving end V B , which can be kept within
admissible limits only if the voltage drop does not exceed the recommended
values. In Figure 2.2,b the fundamental phasor diagram of the voltage drop is
plotted.
86 Basic computation

+j
C
VA
I VAB
VA
B
IA A B

I
VB

jX
0 Ia
Z=R+jX D E
IB=iB A R
I
-jIr B
VA VB
iB=IB=I
VAB

DVAB

a. b.
Fig. 2.2. The radial electric network supplying one load:
a. equivalent circuit; b. fundamental phasor diagram of the voltage drops.

The voltage V B is chosen as phase reference, and the current i B = I B = I


(lagging load) lags behind the voltage with an angle B = . Due to the current
passing through the line, an active phase-to-neutral voltage drop R I in phase with
I occurs, and an inductive voltage drop jX I , which leads the current by 90 as
well.
The sum of these two phase-to-neutral voltage drops is the phasor voltage
drop represented in the diagram by the segment AC , which represents the phasor
difference between the voltage at the sending and at the receiving end of the line,
that is:
V AB = V A V B = Z I (2.1)

Its projections on the two axes correspond to the segments AD = VAB and
CD = VAB , and represent the longitudinal and the transversal components of the
voltage drop, having the following expressions:
VAB = RI cos + XI sin = RI a + XI r (2.2)

V = XI cos RI sin = XI a RI r (2.3)

where: I a = I cos is active component of the current passing through the line;
I r = I cos reactive component of the current passing through the line;
R ohm resistance of the line;
X inductive reactance of the line.
Consider the circle sector of radius equal to the supply voltage VA , which
intersects the horizontal axis in the point E. The algebraic difference between the
voltages magnitudes (or the effective values)
Radial and meshed networks 87

DVAB = VA VB (2.4)
is called voltage drop (phase-to-neutral).
For lower values of the phase angle between the two voltages, the
transversal component of the phasor voltage drop can be neglected, and the
longitudinal component is identified with the voltage drop:
DVAB V AB
If the phase angle has great values, the voltage drop can be determined
directly, with the expression:

DVAB = VA VB = (VB + VAB )2 + (VAB )2 VB


Since VAB << VB + VAB , if the expansion of the square root by means of
Newtons binomial theorem is performed, the voltage drop expression become:

( )
2
1 VAB 1 ( VAB )
4

DVAB VAB + +L (2.5)


2 VB + VAB 8 (VB + VAB )3
For the lines powered at medium voltages, only the first two terms of the
relation (2.5) can be hold, with good accuracy. Taking into account the expressions
(2.2) and (2.3) and the fact that VAB for normal operating conditions of the line
should not exceed a few percentages out of the voltage VB , the term in the
denominator of the expression (2.5) can be neglected, resulting:
1 (VAB )
2
DVAB VAB +
2 VB
or

DVAB RI cos + XI sin +


( XI cos RI sin )2 (2.6)
2VB

where the voltage at the receiving end of the line ( V B ) is unknown. Therefore, to
simplify, the voltage V B will be approximated with the line-to-neutral nominal
voltage Vn . For the single-phase system, consisting of two conductors, Vn = U n / 2 ,
and for the three-phase system Vn = U n / 3 .
In this case, the expression of the voltage drop becomes:

DV AB RI cos + XI sin +
( XI cos RI sin )2 (2.7)
2 Vn
For electric lines powered at low voltage, the following expression can be
used, with good accuracy:
88 Basic computation

DV AB V AB = RI cos + XI sin (2.8)


If the loads are replaced with their single-phase active and reactive powers,
then the expressions of the line-to-neutral voltage drops become:
RP0 + XQ0
V AB (2.9)
Vn
XP0 RQ0
VAB (2.10)
Vn

RP0 + XQ0 ( XP0 RQ0 )


2
DV AB + (2.11)
Vn 2Vn3
In terms of the total powers P and Q carried on the line, the powers
P0 = P / 2 and Q0 = Q / 2 for the single-phase system respectively P0 = P / 3 and
Q0 = Q / 3 for the three-phase system are used.
The relationship between the phasor voltage drop V AB and the longitudinal
and transversal components, VAB and VAB , is defined as:
V AB = VAB + jVAB (2.12)

Therefore, the voltage drop DVAB given by (2.6) can be expressed in terms
of the components of the phasor voltage drop:
1
DVAB = Re{V AB } + (Im{V AB })2 (2.13)
2Vn

Once the value of the voltage drop DVAB is obtained, it should be compared
with the maximum admissible phase-to-neutral voltage drop Vadm :

%
DVAB Vadm = Vn (2.14)
100
In order to determine the phase shift between the phasor V A and phasor V B ,
which for short lines is usually relatively small, the fundamental phasor diagram of
the voltage drops (Fig. 2.2,b) is also used:
CD V AB XI a RI r XI RI r
tan = = = a (2.15)
OD VB + V AB VB + RI a + XI r Vn

Note that between the phase-to-neutral voltage drop DVAB and the phase-to-
phase voltage drop DU AB , in the case of the single-phase system, there is the
following relationship:
DU AB = 2 DVAB (2.16,a)
Radial and meshed networks 89

and for the three-phase system:


DU AB = 3 DVAB (2.16,b)

where DU AB = U A U B , U A and U B being the phase-to-phase voltages, at the


nodes A and B.
The components of the phase-to-phase voltage drop can be determined with
the expressions:
U AB = 3 VAB (2.17,a)

U AB = 3 VAB (2.17,b)
By substituting the currents in terms of the three-phase powers carried on the
line PB and QB and the nominal voltage of the line U B U n corresponding to the
phase-to-phase voltage, results:
P QB RPB + XQB RPB + XQB
U AB = 3 R B + X = (2.18,a)
3U B 3U B UB Un

PB QB XPB RQB XPB RQB


U AB = 3 X R = (2.18,b)
3U B 3U B UB Un

RP + XQB ( XPB RQB )


2

DU AB B + (2.19)
Un 2U n3
Next, consider the general case where a three-phase radial line supplies n
concentrated loads (Fig. 2.3).
Zn
Z2
Z1
A I1 1 I2 2 In n
z1=r1+jx1 z2=r2+jx2 zn=rn+jxn
VA i1 i2 in V
n

Fig. 2.3. The main electric circuit of a radial electric line,


supplying n concentrated loads.

In Figure 2.3 the following notations have been used: i k (k = 1, 2,, n) for
nodal currents, I k (k = 1, 2, , n) for the currents flowing through the line
sections, z k = rk + jxk for the impedances of the line sections, respectively Z k
90 Basic computation

(k = 1,2, , n) for the cumulated impedances of the line sections between the
source node and each other node.
On the basis on the Kirchhoffs first theorem, written for each node, the
currents passed through the line sections can be expressed in terms of the nodal
currents:
n
I1 = i
k =1
k ; I 2 = I 1 i1 and so on.

The generalized expression of the phasor voltage drop becomes:


n n n
V An =
k =1
zk I k = (rk I ka + xk I kr ) + j (xk I ka rk I kr )
k =1 k =1
(2.20,a)

and
n n n
V An =
k =1
Z k ik = (Rk ika + X k ikr ) + j ( X k ika Rk ikr )
k =1 k =1
(2.20,b)

respectively.
Note that the product Z k i k can be identified with the electric moment of a
load related to the supplying end of the line.
Taking into account that the electric network loads are expressed in terms of
the active and reactive powers, the expression of the phase-to-neutral voltage drop
DVAn , for n loads, becomes:
2
n n

( rk Pk 0 + xk Qk 0 ) ( xk Pk 0 rk Qk 0 )
DVAn = k =1 + k =1 (2.21)
Vn 2Vn3

respectively for the phase-to-phase voltage drop DU An :


2
n n
r P x Q
( k k k k ) ( xk Pk rk Qk )
+
DU An = k =1 + k =1 3
(2.22)
Un 2U n

where: Pk 0 , Qk 0 and Pk , Qk are single-phase powers, respectively the three-phase


powers of the loads;
Vn, Un nominal phase-to-neutral, respectively phase-to-
phase voltage.
If the electric network is homogeneous, that is, it is designed with conductors
of the same cross-sectional area, of the same material, and by design the
conductors are spaced symmetrically between them and related to ground, the next
relationships are defined:
Radial and meshed networks 91

2
n n n n

r0 l P k k0 + x0 l Q k k0
x0 lk Pk 0 r0 lk Qk 0
DVAn = k =1 k =1
+ k =1 k =1 (2.23)
Vn 2Vn3
respectively
2
n n n n


r0 lk Pk + x0 lk Qk 0
x l P
k k r0
lk Qk
DU An = k =1 k =1
+ k =1 3
k =1 (2.24)
Un 2U n
For determination of the voltage drops expression, only series parameters of
the line have been considered. This is possible for the lines of nominal voltages
less than 110 kV (when the capacity and the conductance of the lines have low
influences).

2.2.2. Radial electric line with unbalanced loads on phases


The calculation formula for the voltage drops from paragraph 2.2.1
referred to balanced three-phase lines powered at alternating voltage, assumption
that has allowed studying the behaviour of a single phase. The results can be
generalized.
There are situations when the line is differently loaded on the three phases,
which leads to an asymmetrical operating regime. In these cases, the electric lines
are designated with four conductors, three of them being active conductors and the
other one neutral, as is the case of the low voltage powered networks.
Next, consider a low voltage powered network of unbalanced loads. Let us
first consider a particular case where the currents are in phase with the voltages and
the network is equally loaded on two phases (b, c), and on the other phase (a) the
loading is bigger (Fig. 2.4).
The phasor diagram of the voltage drops for such a network is represented in
Figure 2.4. As a consequence of the unbalanced load on phases, in the neutral
conductor a current I 0 appears, corresponding to the geometrical sum of the three
currents from the active phases and the phase-to-neutral voltage drops
V a = Z a I a , V b = Z b I b , V c = Z c I c are numerically not equal. By this effect,
the neutral point at the loads will change its position from O to O', and will have a
potential which corresponds to the voltage drop in the neutral conductor
V 0 = Z 0 I 0 , corresponding to the OO' segment. This voltage drop is called the
displacement of the neutral.
The voltage drop on each phase can be obtained by adding the phasor voltage
drop on the corresponding phase to the voltage drop on the neutral conductor:
V m = Z m I m + Z 0 I 0 (2.25)
92 Basic computation

where: I m is the current passing through the conductors phases a, b or c;


I0 the current passing through the neutral conductor;
Zm impedance of the phase;
Z0 impedance of the neutral conductor.

Va

Va
Va
Fig. 2.4. The phasor diagram of the
voltage drops for unbalanced three-
Ia phase line and cos =1;
O Va, Vb, Vc sending end voltages;
V'a, V'b, V'c receiving end voltages.
O V0
Ic Ib
Vc Vb
Vc Vb
Ic+Ib
Vc Vb

For the unbalanced three-phase lines supplying loads of power factor


cos = 1 , the voltage drop on each phase (in the phase conductor and the neutral
conductor) becomes:
n
Vm = r0 l I
k =1
k k + r0L0 I 0 (2.26)

where r0 and r0 represent the specific resistances corresponding to the active


conductors and to the neutral conductor.
If the loads are expressed in terms of powers, expression (2.26) becomes:
n
lk Pk 0 P
Vm = r0
k =1 Vn
+ r0L0 0
Vn

where: Pk 0 is active single-phase power flowing into the line sections of the
phases a, b or c;
P0 active power flowing through the neutral conductor;
Vn phase-to-neutral nominal voltage;
lk , L0 lengths of the line sections and neutral conductor, respectively.
Particular cases deriving from the three-phase unsymmetrical system are
single-phase and double-phase ramifications often used in practical. These lines
Radial and meshed networks 93

represent ramifications from a three-phase line with four conductors that supply
single-phase loads.
Assume the case of a two-phase line with two active conductors a, b and
one neutral conductor loaded with equal currents in phase with the voltages. The
phasor diagram of this line with active balanced loads is shown in Figure 2.5.
Va

Fig. 2.5. Phasor diagram


of the voltage drops for a
double-phase line with
active balanced loads. O
Ic Ib
V0
O
I0
Vc Vc O Vb Vb
Vc Vb
For unity power factor, the voltage drops due to the currents I b and I c are:
V b = Rb I b
V c = Rc I c
The current passing through the neutral conductor corresponds to the
geometrical sum of the currents from the b and c phases, and give rise to a voltage
drop V 0 = R0 I 0 , which also represents the displacement voltage of the neutral
point from O to O'. From the graphical design results that the effective value of the
current passing through the neutral conductor is equal to the value of the currents
from the other phases, that is I 0 = I b = I c . Taking this into account, the total
voltage drop on the phase conductor b (or c) and on the neutral conductor has the
following value:
n
I0
Vm = Vb + V0 cos 60 = r0 l I
k =1
k k + r0L0
2
or, if the loads are expressed in terms of powers:
n
lk Pk 0 LP
Vm = r0
k =1 V n
+ r0 0 0
2Vn
In the case of the single-phase ramification, the phase conductor and the
neutral conductor have the same cross-sectional area because the current from the
94 Basic computation

ramification is the same through both conductors. The voltage drop on the going
and return conductors is:
n n
lk Pk 0
Vm = 2 r0 k =1
lk I k = 2 r0
k =1 Vn

2.2.3. Simple meshed electric networks


Consider a short electric line that links the nodes A and B, of given voltages
VA and VB, respectively. If assume the line to be symmetric, homogeneous, and
powered by symmetric voltages and supplying itself symmetric loads, then the
equivalent circuit for calculation is the one shown in Figure 2.6, where the phase
conductor and the fictitious neutral conductor have been represented.

Z Zn+1=Z
Z2 Z2 Z2
Z1 Z1 Z1
IA k IB IA B
A B A
I1 I2 Ik Ik IB I1 I2 In In+1
VA VB VA
i1 i2 ... ik ... in i1 i2 ... in-1 in in+1=-IB VB
Vk

a. b.
k Z
IA A B IB IA A IAB B IB

VA VB iA iB
i1 i2 ... ik ik ... in-1 in VA VB

c. d.
Fig. 2.6. Electric circuit for calculation of current flows and of voltage drops into
short electric lines powered from two sources: a. initial electric circuit;
b. considering of source from node B as a load powered with a negative current;
c. representation of the network powered from both ends as two radial
networks; d. electric circuit with charges thrown to nodes.

In such an electric structure appears the problem of determining the current


flows through the line sections and the voltage drops. Also, of interest is to
determine of node k, where the service voltage V k has the lowest value, the load
from this node being supplied from both sources.
To determine the current flows through the line sections, it is necessary and
sufficient to know one of the intensity currents supplied by the sources,
respectively I A or I B . Thus, for example, knowing the current I B and taking into
account that the intensities of the currents i k absorbed by the loads are given, the
Radial and meshed networks 95

current I A can be inferred on the basis of Kirchhoffs first theorem, by means of


the following formula:
n
IA = i
k =1
k IB (2.27)

The currents I 1 , I 2 , , I n can be determined by applying Kirchhoffs first


theorem in each of the nodes 1, 2, , n (Fig. 2.6,a).
The network powered from both ends, A and B, can be considered as a radial
network, powered from only one end, for instance from source A, source B being
considered as a load powered through the respective network with a negative
current (Fig. 2.6,b), that is I B = i n +1 .
Phasor voltage drop, corresponding to this case, can be expressed in terms of
the cumulated impedances (referred to source A) Z k and the derived currents i k ,
resulting:
n +1
V AB = V A V B = Z
k =1
k ik (2.28)

Knowing the value of phasor voltage drop V AB , one may want to determine
the current i n +1 = I B . Taking this into consideration, the equation (2.28) can be
written as:
n
V AB = Z
k =1
k ik + Z n +1 i n +1 (2.28')

where Z n +1 = Z is the total impedance of the line. From the relationship (2.28') the
calculation expression of the current I B = i n +1 can be determined:
n

Z
k =1
k ik
V A V B
IB = (2.29,a)
Z Z
In a same manner, the calculation formula for the current intensity IA can be
established:
n

Z
k =1
'
k ik
V A V B
IA = + (2.29,b)
Z Z
'
Taking into account that Z k + Z k = Z (Fig. 2.6,b) we see that the formulae
(2.29,a) and (2.29,b) verify the relationship (2.27).
Once the currents I A and I B are calculated, the current flows I 1 , I 2 , , I n
into the considered network can be determined and thus we seek for node k of
96 Basic computation

minimum voltage. Analysing the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) it can be noticed
that each of them has two terms:
' '
I A = i A + I AB ; I B = i B I AB (2.30)
where:
n n
1 1
'
iA =
Z
k =1
'
Z k ik ;
'
iB =
Z
Z
k =1
k ik (2.31)

1
I AB = (V V B ) (2.32)
Z A
Observations:
' '
The terms i A and i B depend only upon the values of the load currents and
'
upon the cumulated impedances Z k and Z k of the network, in relation with
' '
supplying nodes A and B respectively. The currents i A and i B substitute the load
currents i k . It is as if the currents had been moved at the supplying nodes A and B
'
(Fig. 2.6,d). Thus, the current i B represent the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in
relation with node A, divided to the total impedance Z of the line. Likewise, the
' ' '
current i A represents the sum of electric moments Z k i k , in relation with node B,
divided to the total impedance Z of the line.
The additional term I AB determined only by the difference between the
voltages applied at nodes A and B, which does not depend on the load currents,
represents the balancing current or no-load current, through the branch considered
between nodes A and B. If V A V B , the current I AB exists even when the line
operates under no-load conditions. This balancing current cause, apart from
changes in load values, overloading of a power source compared with the other,
thus increasing the energy losses. Therefore, in exploitation it required, as much as
possible, the existence of the same voltage at the supplying nodes.
If the loads are expressed in terms of power and the power losses on the line
sections are not taken into consideration S 0 being the apparent complex power
carried on a phase and S = 3S 0 being the power carried by the three-phase system
then from the expressions (2.29,a) and (2.29,b) the approximate distribution of
the powers can be obtained:
n

s
k =1
0k
'
Zk
V V B

S0A = + A Vn (2.33,a)
Z Z
n

s
k =1
0k Zk
V V B

S 0B = A Vn (2.33,b)
Z Z
Radial and meshed networks 97

where s 0 k represents the single-phase apparent complex powers absorbed by the


loads i = 1, 2, , n.
Analysing the current flows given by the relations (2.29,a,b) or the power
flows given by (2.33,a,b), we see that some of the loads are supplied from source
A, and another part from the source B. There will also be a load supplied from end
' ''
A (with I k ) and from end B (with I k ) as well. The connection point of the load is
called point of powers separation and is shown in the circuit as k (Fig. 2.6,c). In
this point, the electric line can be sectioned obtaining two radial lines A-k and B-k,
where the voltage drops are calculated with the relations established for the cases
of radial networks or the lines powered from one end. It is possible to obtain two
points of separation, one for the active powers and the other for the reactive
powers. In the point of powers separation, line voltage is the lowest and because of
that it is necessary to perform voltage drops verification up to the points of powers
separation.

2.2.4. Load flow calculation of radial electric networks


The radial configurations are specific to the distribution electric networks of
medium and low voltage. These networks, especially the urban ones, can be
strongly meshed, but, for technical and economical reasons, under normal
conditions they operate radially. During short periods of time, these networks can
operate in meshed configuration, especially when usual manoeuvres are done for
configuration changes.

2.2.4.1. Particularities of the radial electric networks


The radial electric networks have some particularities, which make possible
the use of some appropriate analysing methods of their operation, among which the
load flow calculation can be mentioned.
The main particularity of the radial electric networks is related to the power
(current) flow through branches. Assuming that within a radial network there are
no local generators (distributed generation), the network is supplied from only one
power injection point, called source node. Under these conditions, the power flow
through network branches has a well-determined character, the flow being
unidirectional in any natural operating state. In conclusion, in a radial network, any
node k called derivation (parent) node, except the source node, receives electrical
energy from only one node, called up stream node, through only one branch called
ingoing branch and can transmit electrical energy to one or more next nodes, or to
none of them, case in which the node k is called end node (Fig. 2.7).
When a meshed network is subjected to radial operation (the case of
distribution networks), the network opening is done in a well determined number
of points, obtaining one or more distinct radial sub-networks. Every sub-network
consists of a source node and one or more load nodes, including also the derivation
nodes, which may have no consumption.
98 Basic computation

Source Derivation Sub-network 1 Sub-network 2


node node

End
node
In operation Out of service
branch branch
Fig. 2.7. Notations used for distribution networks with meshed topology.

The following assumptions are considered for the modelling of the electric
networks elements [2.3]:
the three phase voltages form a positive-sequence symmetrical system;
the currents form a balanced three-phase system;
the network parameters are homogeneous, constant in time and
independent of the supply voltage or currents;
the network operates under steady state conditions.
Under these conditions, the positive-sequence one-line diagram is used for
the load flow calculation. The electric lines (overhead and underground cables) can
be represented by equivalent circuits with lumped parameters. Taking into
account the unidirectional character of the power flows, the transformers can be
represented by equivalent circuit with transformer operator (see Figure 1.50,
section 1.2.3.2).
In the absence of distributed generation, for the load flow calculation of
radial electric networks, only two of the three types of nodes existing in complex
meshed networks are considered:
load nodes, modelled through complex powers, obtained by combining
three components [2.1]:
S = ( Pc + jQc ) + 3 ( I ac + jI rc )U + ( Gc + jBc )U 2 (2.34)
where: Pc and Qc represents the components of a constant complex power,
I ac and I rc are the components of a constant complex current, Gc and Bc
are the components of a constant admittance, and U is the phase-to-phase
voltage magnitude of the node;
the slack node, representing the point of power injection into the radial
network (the source node), where the specified quantities are the voltage
magnitude and phase angle.

2.2.4.2. Backward/forward sweep


In the case of a radial (arborescent) electric network, with n nodes and l
branches and only one injection node, the number of closed loops (independent
cycles) is equal to zero, all branches being of tree type. Under these conditions
Radial and meshed networks 99

l n + 1 = 0 , which leads to l = n 1 . The unknown steady state quantities of this


network are: the voltages of the n 1 load nodes and the currents (powers) flowing
through the l = n 1 branches. Therefore, there are 2 ( n 1) unknown quantities,
whose determination requires an equal number of equations. By applying the
Kirchhoffs current law in the n 1 load nodes, considered as being independent,
the currents flowing through branches can be obtained. The Kirchhoffs voltage
law cannot be applied because l n + 1 = 0 . Instead, by applying Ohms law on the
l = n 1 tree branches, the voltage drops at their ends can be obtained. Considering
the voltage at the source node as reference, and using the voltage drop on network
branches, the voltages at the load nodes can be calculated.
Based on the previous issues, the load flow calculation in radial electric
networks can be performed using a specific method, known in literature as the
backward/forward sweep [2.10], [2.11]. Basically, this method consists of two
steps:
Backward sweep, where, starting from the end nodes and going toward the
source node S, using the Kirchhoffs current law, the current at each load
node as well as the current flowing through its ingoing branch are
calculated (Fig. 2.8,a);
Forward sweep, where, starting in the opposite direction, from the source
node S (whose constant voltage is taken as reference) and going toward the
end nodes, using the Ohms law, the voltage drop on each branch as well
as the voltage at each load node are calculated (Fig. 2.8,b).
1 14
S 2 S 13
7 5 8 10
4 11
6 3 9 12

a. b.
Fig. 2.8. The steps of the load flow calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep:
a. calculation of the currents through branches; b. calculation of the nodal voltages.

To understand this method the following specifications are to be mentioned:


1) When the electric network consists of more arborescent sub-networks,
the backward/forward algorithm is independently applied for each sub-network,
considering its source node as reference;
2) The load flow calculation in radial electric networks can be also
performed by means of the nodal voltages method. Solving the equations (2.74),
having the form [Y nn ][U n ] = [ I n ] , for the linear model (see 2.3.2.1), or
[Y nn ][U n ] = S *n U n for the non-linear model, the voltages of the independent
*

nodes are obtained, and finally the powers (currents) flowing through branches are
calculated. Using the backward/forward sweep, the unknown quantities are
simultaneous obtained after performing the two steps.
100 Basic computation

The load flow solution, by the backward/forward sweep, for the linear
network model (the loads represented through constant currents, the lines and
transformers modelled through series impedances) is obtained processing only
once the two steps. In the case of the non-linear model of the network (the loads
represented in the form given in (2.34), the electric lines modelled by equivalent
circuits, and the power transformers by circuits), the load flow solution is
obtained by iterative calculations. The convergence criterion consists in comparing
the modulus of the complex power at the source node or the voltage magnitude at
the load nodes between two successive iterations.
The load flow calculation algorithm using the backward/forward sweep
consists in the following steps [2.12]:
1. Ordering the network (indexing the ingoing node and ingoing branch
for each load node) and setting the voltages at the load nodes to the
value of the sources node voltage (S):
(0)
U k = U S , k = 1, 2,K, n, k S (2.35)
2. Set the initial iteration index: p = 1 ;
3. Backward sweep: traversing the network from the end nodes toward the
source node and performing the following operations:
3.1. Calculation of the current at the node k using the expression of the
load power given by formula (2.34):
*
( p) Sk
Ik = (2.36)
3U (k
p 1)*

3.2. Calculation of the current flowing through the branch ingoing to


node k:
1 ( p)
( p)
I ik = Ik +
N ik
( p)
I kj

(2.37)
jNext ( k )
where: i is the index of the node up stream to the node k;
Next ( k ) the set of nodes next to the node k;
N ik the turns ratio of the i k branch ( N ik = 1 for
lines).
4. Forward sweep: the calculation of voltages at the nodes, traversing the
network from the source node toward the end nodes. For the actual
iteration p, considering the traversing direction of a branch from node i
toward node k, the calculation is performed in the following manner:
4.1. Calculation of the voltage drop on the i k branch:
( p) ( p)
U ik = 3 Z ik I ik (2.38)
4.2. Calculation of the voltage at the node k:
( p)
Uk =
1
N ik
(
( p) ( p)
U i U ik ) (2.39)
Radial and meshed networks 101

5. Calculation of the power injected into the network by the source node:
( p)
S S = 3U S
jNext ( S )
*( p )
I Sj (2.40)

6. If the network model is linear or if p > 1 and S (S ) S (S ) then go


p p 1

to the next step, else update p = p + 1 and go to step 3.


7. Calculation of power losses through the network branches.
In literature, there are also others calculation algorithms for the unknown
state quantities by means of the backward/forward sweep. The principle of one of
these algorithms consists in the use of a recursive set of equations to calculate all
the unknown state quantities (nodal voltages and power flows) after processing the
forward and backward sweeps [2.13]. In order to test this algorithm, consider the
radial network with n loads in Figure 2.9, with the line sections represented by
series impedances z k = rk + jxk , and the loads by complex constant powers
s k = pk + jqk . The powers Pn and Qn represents the components of the complex
power flowing through a fictive branch outgoing from the node n. The voltage V A
of the source node of the network is constant.

PA+jQA Pk-1+jQk-1 Pk+jQk Pk+1+jQk+1 Pn+jQn


A 1 ... k-1 k k+1 n
z1 zk zk+1
UA
VA= s1 sk-1 sk sk+1 sn
3

a.
Pgk+jQgk
PA+jQA Pk-1+jQk-1 Pk+jQk Pk+1+jQk+1 Pn+jQn
A 1 ... k-1 k+1 n
k
z1 zk zk+1
UA
VA= s1 sk-1 sk sk+1 sn
3

b.
Fig. 2.9. Distribution electric network:
a. simple radial network b. radial network with one distributed generator.

In the forward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk of the node k are
used to calculate the state quantities at the node k + 1 using the set of equations:
Pk2 + Qk2 Pk2 + Qk2
Pk +1 = Pk rk +1 p k +1 ; Qk +1 = Qk xk +1 qk +1
3Vk2 3Vk2
2 2
(2.41)
3V 2 = 3V 2 2 r P + x Q + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk
k +1 k ( k +1 k k +1 k ) k +1( k +1
3Vk2
)

102 Basic computation

Considering that the state quantities PA , QA and VA at the node A are known
or estimated, the state quantities at the other nodes can be calculated by successive
applications of equations (2.41) starting from the first node and going toward to the
node n.
In the backward sweep, the state quantities Pk , Qk and Vk at the node k are
used to calculate the state variables at the node k 1 , using the set of equations:
Pk'2 + Qk'2 Pk'2 + Qk'2
Pk 1 = Pk + rk + pk +1 ; Qk 1 = Qk + xk + qk +1
3Vk2 3Vk2
'2 '2
(2.42)
3V 2 = 3V 2 + 2 r P ' + x Q ' + r 2 + x 2 Pk + Qk
( ) ( )
k 1 k k k k k k k
3Vk2
where Pk' = Pk + pk and Qk' = Qk + qk .
Similarly to the forward sweep, in the backward sweep, considering the state
quantities Pn , Qn and Vn at the node n as known, the state quantities at the others
nodes can be calculated by successive applications of equations (2.42) starting
from the node n 1 and going toward the node A.
By successive applications of the backward and forward sweeps the load flow
solutions are achieved. The following boundary constraints are considered during
the calculation process [2.10]:
to voltage magnitude VA at the sources node A is known, and considered
constant;
the components of the apparent power flowing through a hypothetical
branch outgoing from the node n are: Pn = 0 and Qn = 0 .

2.2.4.3. Backward/forward sweep adaptation for the case of


distributed generation
Usually, the distributed generators are used to produce locally, in
consumption areas, relatively reduced amounts of power and are connected in
medium and low voltage distribution networks. The main differences with respect
to the classical power plants (thermal, nuclear, and hydro) are related to the
location and the installed capacity.
These sources can generate active power and sometimes can generate or
consume reactive power, having the possibility to maintain the nodal voltage at a
set value by means of an automatic voltage regulator. The distributed generators
capable to vary their output active power can contribute to the frequency control
into the power system. Taking into account these considerations, the nodes to
which these generators are connected can be classified in:
PQ nodes, to which the specified quantities are the generated active Pgsp
and reactive Qgsp (capacitive or inductive) powers, and the unknown
quantities are the components of the complex voltage U ;
Radial and meshed networks 103

PU nodes, to which the specified quantities are the generated active power
Pgsp and voltage magnitude U sp , and the unknown quantities are the
generated reactive power Qg and the voltage phase ;
U nodes, to which the specified quantities are the components of the
sp
complex voltage U (magnitude U sp and phase sp ), and the unknown
quantities are the generated active Pg and reactive Qg powers.

In order to consider these types of nodes in the backward/forward sweep for


the radial electric networks which include distributed generators, some
specifications and adaptations are necessary. Therefore, the distributed generators
should be modelled by PQ nodes, where the specified quantities Pgsp and Qgsp are
considered as being components of a constant complex power with negative sign
S = ( Pgsp + jQgsp ) , because the backward/forward sweep, presented above, cannot
be applied for the PU and U nodes. This inconvenience is due to the fact that for
these types of nodes, one or both components of the voltage are specified, which is
not appropriate to the backward/forward sweep algorithm where the voltage
components are specified only at the source node. Starting from the voltage of this
node, chosen as reference, the voltages of the others nodes are calculated in terms
of the voltage drops on the line sections. However, in order to apply the
backward/forward sweep algorithm for the PU and U nodes, some adaptations are
required, which are based on the decoupling of the four state quantities, i.e. the
interdependences P and Q U, respectively. These adaptations are presented
below.
As previously explained, the PU nodes are characterized by the specification of
the generated active power Pgsp and the voltage magnitude U sp . In the load flow
calculation process, by backward/forward sweep, these nodes are assimilated with
PQ type nodes. The active and reactive powers are equal to the specified values
Pgsp and Qg , considered with negative sign. To maintain the nodal voltage at the
specified value U sp , the interdependence relationship between the voltage and the
reactive power is used, i.e. appropriate change of the reactive power Qg , between
the limits Qgmin and Qgmax , is adopted. Depending on the model used for the nodes,
two situations could be encountered:
in the case of modelling by constant currents, the reactive component of
the complex current I gr is determined based on the condition that the
nodal voltage should be equal to the specified value U sp [2.24]; for the
backward/forward sweep algorithm, the nodal current is considered as
(
I = I ga
sp
)
+ jI gr , where I ga
sp
represents the specified value of the
generated active current;
104 Basic computation

in the case of modelling by constant powers, the generated reactive power


Qg is determined based on the condition that the nodal voltage should be
equal to the specified value U sp ; in the backward/forward sweep
algorithm, the nodal power is considered as S = Pgsp + jQg . ( )
The use of the second model for the load modelling requires a non-linear
mathematical model for load flow calculation. Like the global load flow calculation
methods, for the backward/forward sweep algorithm, the calculation of the
generated reactive power and its comparison with the capability limits at every step
is performed.
For better understanding of the modified backward/forward method applied
when PU nodes are present within the network, a radial electric network with only
one generator located at the node k is considered (2.9,b). The calculation steps are
presented in the following:
1. Initialise the iterative step p = 0 and establish the initial value of the
0 (0)
(
reactive power Qg( ,k) = 0 , so that S k = Pc ,k + jQc ,k Pgsp, k + jQg( , k) ,
0
)
where Pc ,k and Qc ,k are the components of a complex constant power
consumed at the node k, and Pgsp,k is the specified active power
generated at the node k;
2. Update the iterative step p = p + 1 ;
3. Perform load flow calculation by backward/forward sweep;
4. If U k( ) U ksp < U the iterative process stops;
p

5. Calculate the generated reactive power Qgcalc


, k necessary to achieve the

specified voltage U ksp at the node k. Establish the new value of the
generated reactive power Qg( ,k) in terms of its value with respect to the
p

min max
capability limits Qg,k and Qg,k :

Qg( p, k) = Qgcalc min calc max


, k if Qg , k Qg , k Qg , k

( p) min calc min
Qg , k = Qg ,k if Qg ,k < Qg , k (2.43)

Qg( p, k) = Qgmax calc max
, k if Qg , k > Qg , k

6. Calculate the new value of the complex power at the node k by formula
( )
S k = Pc ,k + jQc ,k Pgsp,k + jQg( ,k) and go to step 2.
( p) p

There are several possibilities to calculate the value of the generated reactive
sp
power Qgcalc
, k necessary to achieve the specified voltage U k at the node k, i.e.:
Radial and meshed networks 105

(i) using the voltage sensitivity to the reactive power variation U k Q k ,


obtained from the sensitivity matrix:

Qgcalc ( p 1)
= Qg , k +
(U ( ) U )
k
p sp
k
,k ( p)
U k

Qk
(ii) using the secant method [2.25]:
( ) ( )
p 1 p2
( p 1) Qg , k Qg , k
Qgcalc
,k = Qg ,k + ( p 1)
Uk ( p 2)
Uk
U k( ) U ksp
p
( )
(iii) using a calculation formula based on the generated reactive current I gr , k ,
calculated by considering the constant currents model for the load:
( p 1)
Qgnec
, k = 3U k I gr ,k

2.2.4.4. Backward/forward sweep adaptation for meshed


distribution electric network
The backward/forward algorithm presented earlier can be used only for load
flow calculation of arborescent networks. By convenient changes that imply
additional computation, the method can be expanded for load flow calculation of
simple or complex meshed electric networks.
Consider a simple meshed electric network, supplied at two ends (Fig.2.10,a).

A 1 2 k-1 k n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk sn VB

a. Ik-1,k
A 1 2 k-1 k n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk sn VB

b.
A 1 2 k-1 k' k'' n B
z1 z2 zk zn zn+1
VA s1 s2 sk-1 sk' sk'' sn VB

c.
Fig. 2.10. Calculation steps for a simple meshed electric network.
106 Basic computation

To apply the backward/forward sweep for the load flow calculation of this
network, one of the loops nodes is split (for example node k) obtaining two radial
sub-networks [2.14]. After splitting the node k, we require that the total consumed
power at the two resulted nodes k and k to be constant and equal to the power at
the node k before splitting:
s k ' + s k" = s k (2.44)

The calculation of the powers consumed at each node is performed in terms


of the balancing current that appears at the loop closing, given by the relation:
V k 1 V k
I k 1,k = (2.45)
Z AB

where Z AB is the cumulated impedance between nodes A and B, and the voltages
V k 1 and V k correspond to the operating state when the branch between the nodes
k 1 and k is in out of service state (Fig. 2.10,b). These voltages are calculated
by successively applying of the backward/forward sweep for the sub-networks
supplied from the source nodes A and B, respectively.
The load flow calculation is iteratively performed, by setting at each iteration
the power consumed at each node resulted after splitting and by calculating the
load flow for each radial sub-network. The iterative process goes on until the
difference between the voltages of the two nodes k and k is less than an specified
value .
The steps followed for load flow calculation of a simple meshed network are:
1. One of the loops branches is switched to out of service state (for
instance, the branch between the nodes k 1 and k, Fig. 2.10,b), and for
the new configuration the load flow is calculated by means of the
backward/forward sweep;
2. The node k is split into nodes k and k and a new branch is introduced
between nodes k 1 and k, having the same parameters as the branch
between the nodes k 1 and k (Fig. 2.10,c). The voltages and the
powers consumed at the split nodes are set to:
V k ' = V k 1 ; V k '' = V k
(2.46)
s k ' = 0; s k '' = s k

3. The balancing current through the loop is calculated as:


V k ' - V k ''
I k ', k '' = (2.47)
Z AB
n +1
where Z AB = Z
i=1
i is the total impedance of the loop;

4. Updating the powers at the nodes k and k with the relations:


Radial and meshed networks 107

s k ' = s k ' + 3V k ' I *k ',k ''


(2.48)
s k '' = s k - s k '

5. The load flow is calculated for the network configuration in Figure 2.10,c;
6. If V k ' V k '' > then go to step 3, else return to the initial configuration
(Fig. 2.10,a) considering V k = V k '' and I k 1,k = I k 1,k ' .

When the network has a complex meshed configuration, the load flow
calculation by means of the backward/forward sweep is performed by introducing a
number of supplementary nodes (resulted after splitting) equal to the number of
loops. At each step, the equality of voltages at the split nodes for one single loop
has to be achieved. The calculation is repeated until the differences of the voltage
magnitudes at the split nodes in all loops is less than the specified value .

2.2.4.5. Advantages of the backward/forward sweep


The backward/forward sweep load flow algorithm has some advantages as
compared to the global methods based on the nodal voltages:
for the nonlinear model of the network, the number of the iterations is
smaller than the one required by Seidel-Gauss and Newton-Raphson
methods, and the calculation effort during each iteration is smaller, too;
the calculation of the nodal admittance matrix is not necessary;
the introducing of switches and shunts (elements of reduced impedance) do
not cause convergence problems.
Application
Consider the radial electric network from Figure 2.11,a, given that:
the voltage at the source node U 1 = 20 kV ;
the complex powers at the loads: s 2 = 0 kVA , s 3 = ( 250 + j150 ) kVA and
s 4 = ( 75 + j 50 ) kVA .

The one-line diagram of the electric network and the branch parameters are shown in
Figure 2.11,b.
The voltages at the load nodes, and current flows for this network have to be
determined.
For simplicity, the phase-to-phase voltages are used. The initial values of voltages at
the load nodes are:

U (0) (0)
2 = U 3 = U 1 = 20 kV

U (0)
4 = N 42 U 1 = 0.02 20 = 0.4 kV

Only the calculation of the first iteration is detailed below, the results of the whole
iterative process being presented in Table 2.1.
108 Basic computation

S1 1 2 3 s3

4
s4
a.
S1 1 I12 (1.4+j0.1) 2 I23 (2.1+j0.15) i3 3

I120 I210 I230 I320 s3=(250+j150) kVA


j30 S j30 S j45 S j45 S
I240

I24 (0.8-j8.72) S
N42=0.02
I'24

(0.028+j0.058)

4
s4 =(75+j50) kVA

b.
Fig. 2.11. Radial electric network: a. one-line diagram; b. equivalent circuit.

Backward sweep
Calculation of the current in the branch 2 3

s*3 ( 250 j150 ) 103


i 3(1) = = = ( 7.217 j 4.330 ) A
3U 3(0)* 3 20 103
U 3(0) 20 103
(1)
I 320 =y = j 45 106 = j 0.520 A
320
3 3
23 = i 3 + I 320 = ( 7.217 j 3.810 ) A
I (1) (1) (1)

Calculation of the current in the branch 2 4

i (1)
s*4 ( 75 j50 ) 103 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A
4 = =
3U (0)*
4
3 0.4 103

24 = i 4 = (108.253 j 72.169 ) A
I '(1) (1)

24 = N 42 I 24 = 0.02 (108.253 j 72.169 ) = ( 2.165 j1.443 ) A


I (1) '(1)
Radial and meshed networks 109

Calculation of the current in the branch 1 2

s*2
i (1)
2 = =0A
3U (0)*
2

U (0) 20 103
I (1)
210 = y
2
= j 30 106 = j 0.346 A
210
3 3
U (0) 20 103
I (1)
230 = y
2
= j 45 106 = j 0.520 A
230
3 3
U (0) 20 103
I (1)
240 = y
2
= ( 0.8 j8.72 ) 106 = ( 0.009 j 0.101) A
240
3 3
2 + I 23 + I 230 + I 24 + I 240 + I 210 = ( 9.391 j 4.488 ) A
(1)
I 12 = i (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)

Forward sweep
Calculation of the voltage at the node 2
(1)
U 12 (1)
= 3 z12 I 12 = 3 (1.4 + j 0.1)( 9.391 j 4.488 ) 103 = ( 0.024 j 0.009 ) kV

2 = U 1 U 12 = 20 ( 0.024 j 0.009 ) = (19.976 + j 0.009 ) kV


U (1) (1)

Calculation of the voltage at the node 3

23 = 3 z 23 I 23 = 3 ( 2.1 + j 0.15 )( 7.217 j 3.810 ) 10 = ( 0.027 j 0.012 ) kV


3
U (1) (1)

2 U 23 = (19.976 + j 0.009 ) ( 0.027 j 0.012 ) = (19.949 j 0.021) kV


U 3(1) = U (1) (1)

Calculation of the voltage at the node 4

24 = 3 z 24 I 24 = 3 ( 0.028 + j 0.058 )(108.253 j 72.169 ) 10 = ( 0.013 + j 0.007 ) kV


3
U (1) '(1)

4 = N 42 U 4 U 24 = 0.02 (19.949 j 0.021) ( 0.013 + j 0.007 ) = ( 0.386 j 0.007 ) kV


U (1) (1) (1)

Calculation of the power injected at the source node


U1 20 103
(1)
I 120 =y = j 30 106 = j 0.346 A
120
3 3

( )
*
S 1(1) = 3U 1 I 12
(1) (1)
+ I 120 = 3 20 ( 9.391 j 4.142 ) = ( 325.314 + 143.483) kVA

S1(1) = 355.551 kVA

Table 2.1
Results of the iterative process
Quantity Iteration 1 Iteration 2 Iteration 3
0 1 2 3 4
i3 A 7.217 j 4.330 7.240 j 4.334 7.240 j 4.334
I 320 A j 0.520 0.001 + j 0.518 0.001 + j 0.518
I 23 A 7.217 j 3.810 7.241 j 3.816 7.241 j 3.816
110 Basic computation

Table 2.1 (continued)


0 1 2 3 4
I '24 = i 4 A 108.253 j 72.169 113.498 j 72.728 113.681 j 72.430
I 24 A 2.165 j1.443 2.270 j1.455 2.274 j1.455
i2 A 0 0 0
I 210 A j 0.346 j 0.346 j 0.346
I 230 A j 0.520 j 0.519 j 0.519
I 240 A 0.009 j 0.101 0.009 j 0.101 0.009 j 0.101
I 12 A 9.391 j 4.488 9.520 j 4.507 9.524 j 4.507
U 12 kV 0.024 j 0.009 0.024 j 0.009 0.024 j 0.009
U2 kV 19.976 + j 0.009 19.976 + j 0.009 19.976 + j 0.009
U 23 kV 0.027 j 0.012 0.027 j 0.012 0.027 j 0.012
U3 kV 19.949 j 0.021 19.949 j 0.021 19.949 j 0.021
U 24 kV 0.013 + j 0.007 0.013 + j 0.008 0.013 + j 0.008
U4 kV 0.386 j 0.007 0.386 j 0.008 0.386 j 0.008
S1 kVA 325.314 + 143.483 329.782 + 144.141 329.921 + 144.141
S1 kVA 355.551 359.907 360.021

Notes: The load flow results were achieved after 3 iterations by applying the
backward/forward sweep. The difference between voltages at the last two iterations is less
than 0.001 kV, and the difference between apparent powers at the source node is 0.1 kVA.
The same results were achieved using Seidel-Gauss (12 iterations) and Newton-Raphson
(3 iterations) methods.

2.3. Complex meshed electric networks

2.3.1. Transfiguration methods


In the following, several commonly used transfiguration methods will be
presented.
a) The reduction of a conductor of a certain length and cross-sectional
area, to an equivalent conductor of a different length and cross-sectional area.
In calculation of a network, sometimes it is advantageous that portions of line with
different cross-sectional areas be transformed into sections of line with the same
cross-sectional area. Thus, the conductor of cross-sectional area s1 and length l1 can
be substituted with another conductor of cross-sectional area s2 and length l2,
provided that the distribution of the loads and the voltage drop along the
conductors remains the same. In other words, the resistances of the two conductors
must remain unchanged; thereby the equivalencing condition emerges:
Radial and meshed networks 111

s1
l1 = l2
s2
As equivalencing cross-sectional area, the most frequent cross-sectional area
from the respective network will be chosen.
b) Loads throwing at the nodes. Composing branches in parallel needs the
loads to be situated only at their ends, in nodes. If the loads are connected
everywhere along the branches, first their throwing (moving) at the ends is
performed, with the condition of keeping the voltage drop constant, in the initial
circuit as well as in the transformed circuit. In Figure 2.12 an electric line to which
the loads i1 and i 2 are connected is represented.

Z
Z2 Z2
Z1 Z1 Z
A 1 2 B A B

VA i1 i2 VB VA iA iB VB

a. b.
Fig. 2.12. Electric network diagram for the throwing of the loads at the nodes:
a. initial circuit; b. transfigured circuit.

For instance, to throw at the ends the two currents i1 and i 2 from Figure
2.12, a, two loads i A and i B applied at the lines ends in the transformed network
(Fig. 2.12,a) will be determined, such that the same voltage drop as in the initial
network is obtained:
V AB = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i B
' '
V BA = Z 1 i1 + Z 2 i 2 = Z i A
from where it results:
n

'
Z 1 i1 +
'
Z 2 i2
Z
k =1
'
k ik
iA = =
Z Z
n
(2.49)

Z i + Z 2 i2
Z
k =1
k ik
iB = 1 1 =
Z Z
' ' '
where Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k and respectively Z 1 , Z 2 , ..., Z k represents the impedances
from the two ends to the connection points of the k loads.
112 Basic computation

In the particular case of moving only one load, the consumed current
component, moved at one of the ends, is proportional to the impedance of the line
from the point of consumption to the other end, and inversely proportional to the
line impedance.
From the expression (2.49) results that load throwing at the nodes is
performed according to the rule determined for distribution of the currents
(powers) in the case of the networks supplied from two ends, that is considering the
electric moments of the loads referred to the supplying points. For the case of the
homogenous network, in the relationships of transformation, the impedances are
substituted with the corresponding lengths.
c) Composing of several branches of different supplying voltages which
debit into a node, in a single equivalent branch. Consider the branches A, B, C
of an electric network that has different phase-to-neutral voltages V A , V B , V C at
the ends and debits into a node O (Fig. 2.13).

VA
A IA
VE YA
IE
E YE
O IE
Fig. 2.13. Ramified electric
network with different VB
voltages at the ends. IB YB
B
Y VO
VC I C
C
C

These branches can be substituted with a single equivalent branch of


admittance Y E and voltage V E at the end E. In order to determine the quantities of
the equivalent branch E-O, the relations of equivalencing between the real circuit
with three branches and the equivalent circuit with a single branch are written:
IE = I A + IB + IC (2.50)
Kirchhoffs first theorem will be written as:
(V E V O )Y E = (V A V O )Y A + (V B V O )Y B + (V C V O )Y C
or
V E Y E V O Y E = V A Y A + V B Y B + V C Y C V O (Y A + Y B + Y C )

Equating the left and right terms, obtain:


n
Y E =Y A +Y B +YC = Y
k =1
k

respectively
Radial and meshed networks 113

V Y +V BY B +V CY C
V
k =1
kYk
VE = A A = (2.51)
Y A +YB +YC n

Y k =1
k

It should be mentioned that the replacing of the parallel branches with an


equivalent branch is possible only if along them there are no derivations with
supplementary loads.
Instead, in the case of inverse transformations, the current passed through the
equivalent branch is known and the currents passed through the branches of the
initial network, not transfigured, are required. In this case, voltage drops
expressions are written:
I I I I
V A V O = A ; V B V O = B ; V C V O = C ; V E V O = E
YA YB YC YE
From the last relationship, the voltage of the node O can be determined:
I
VO =VE E
YE
which, after substituting in the other three equations, enable us to determine the
currents passed through the component branches:
Y
I A = I E A + (V A V E )Y A (2.52,a)
YE
YB
IB = IE + (V B V E )Y B (2.52,b)
YE
YC
IC = I E + (V C V E )Y C (2.52,c)
YE
It is obvious that if the voltages of the branches are equal, the relations are
still correct, with the observation that the voltage of the equivalent branch is equal
to that of the component branches. In this case, in expressions (2.52) the second
term of the right side will disappear.
d) Star delta transformation. Another structure, which comes as a sub-
assembly into a meshed network, is the star structure, in the simplest case powered
from three nodes (Fig. 2.14).
The condition of equivalencing of the two circuits (Fig. 2.14,a,b): the
impedances measured at the pairs of terminals 1 2, 2 3 and 3 1 of the star-
shape network must be equal to the impedances measured at the same pairs of
terminals of the delta-shape network:

Z 12 (Z 23 + Z 31 ) Z (Z + Z 12 ) Z (Z + Z 23 )
Z1 + Z 2 = ; Z 2 + Z 3 = 23 31 ; Z 3 + Z 1 = 31 12
Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31
114 Basic computation

I1 I1
1 1

Z1

Z31 Z12
I12
I31
Z3 Z2
I23
3 2 3 2
I3 I2 I2
I3 Z23
a. b.
Fig. 2.14. Star and delta circuits.

Next, solve this system of three equations with unknown quantities Z 1 , Z 2 ,


Z3 :
Z 12 Z 13 Z 23 Z 12 Z 31 Z 23
Z1 = ; Z2 = ; Z3 = (2.53)
Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31 Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 31

If the system of equations is solved in terms of the unknown quantities Z 12 ,


Z 23 , Z 31 obtain:

Z1 Z 2 Z2 Z3 Z1 Z 3
Z 12 = Z 1 + Z 2 + ; Z 23 = Z 2 + Z 3 + ; Z 31 = Z 1 + Z 3 + (2.54)
Z3 Z1 Z2

In terms of admittances, from the equations (2.53) and (2.54) we obtain the
transformation relationships of a delta-shape network into a star-shape network
with three branches:
Y 12 Y 13 Y 12 Y 23 Y Y
Y 1 = Y 12 + Y 13 + ; Y 2 = Y 12 + Y 23 + ; Y 3 = Y 31 + Y 23 + 31 23 (2.53')
Y 23 Y 31 Y 12

respectively, the expressions of the admittances resulted from the star-delta


transformation:
Y 1Y 2 Y 2Y 3 Y 3Y1
Y 12 = ; Y 23 = ; Y 31 = (2.54')
Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3 Y1 + Y 2 + Y 3

Observation: In the case of general transformation, a star network having 1,


2, , n supplying terminals, can be transformed into a polygon with n(n 1) 2
branches, connecting its terminals two by two.
Since the two networks (Fig. 2.15,a,b), initial and transformed, are
equivalent, it results that the terminal voltages V 1 , V 2 , ..., V n and the currents I 1 ,
I 2 , ..., I n , which enter into the terminals, must be identical in the two cases.
Radial and meshed networks 115

I1star 1 2 I2star I1p 1 I12 Y12 2 I2p


Y1 Y2 I1
O I1n 3

V1 Yn Y3 V2
Instar 3 I3star Y1n
n VO
Vn V3 Inp 3 I3p
a. b.
Fig. 2.15. The general transformation of a network from star into a polygon:
a. star-shape network; b. polygon-shape network.

For instance, for the current injected at the node 1 into the polygon-shape
network:
I 1 p = I 12 + I 13 + K + I 1n = Y 12 (V 1 V 2 ) + Y 13 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + Y 1n (V 1 V n ) (2.55)
respectively, into the star-shape network:
Y Y Y Y Y Y
I 1 star = Y 1 (V 1 V O ) = n1 2 (V 1 V 2 ) + n1 3 (V 1 V 3 ) + K + n1 n (V 1 V n )
Yk
k =1
Yk Yk
k =1

k =1
(2.56)
where
n

Y
k =1
kV k
VO = n

Y
k =1
k

Equating the two currents from (2.55) and (2.56), obtain:


Y 1Y j
Y1 j = n
Yk k =1
or, in the general case
Y iY j
Y ij = n
(2.57)
Y
k =1
k

Notice that the polygon has not all its branches independent. Thus,
considering the transformed admittance between nodes i and j, given by (2.57), and
dividing Y ij to Y i , where:
Y iY
Y i = n

Y
k =1
k

whatever i might be, obtain:


116 Basic computation

Y ij Yj
=
Y i Y
Therefore, it results that:
Y1j Y2j Y nj Yj
= =K= =
Y 1 Y 2 Y n Y
Now, we can draw the conclusion that any complete polygon, having all
branches independent from each other, cannot be transformed into a star. The
triangle (delta) is the only polygon that allows this transformation, having all
branches dependent from each other.
e) Electric networks equivalencing by using Kron elimination. In some
cases, of interest is to hold only certain nodes in calculation (for instance: 1, 2
which are source nodes), whereas the other non-essential nodes (passive nodes,
loads passivized through Z=ct.), since not of interest, are eliminated/reduced
through star-delta transformation, taking benefit of the zero value of the current
injected into the non-essential nodes (for instance: nodes 3 and 4) (Fig. 2.16,b).
1 Y14 Y42 2 1 Y14 Y42 2
4 4
Y43 Y43
3 3
Y30
0
a. b.
1 2 1 2
4

0 0
c. d.
Fig. 2.16. Exemplification of the non-essential nodes elimination:
a. initial network; b. the network with the load from node 3 replaced with an
impedance Z=ct.; c. the circuit after the elimination of node 3; d. the circuit after the
elimination of nodes 3 and 4.

For the electric network from Figure 2.16,b, where node 4 was non-essential,
and node 3 became passive, by replacing the consumption with an impedance
Z=ct., the equation from the nodal voltages method) becomes:
I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1
I
2 = Y 22 Y 24 U 2
(2.58)
I 3 = 0 Y 33 Y 34 U 3

I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y 43 Y 44 U 4

)
As it can be seen in 2.4.2., in the framework of nodal voltages method, phase-to-phase
voltage is used.
Radial and meshed networks 117

In the first stage the node 3 is eliminated. In this regard, from the equation
corresponding to the current from node 3, where I 3 = 0 , U 3 is obtained and then
substituted in the equation of the current from node 4, resulting:
I 4 = 0 = Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43U 3 + Y 44 U 4 =
Y
= Y 41U 1 + Y 42 U 2 + Y 43 34 U 4 + Y 44 U 4
Y 33
or
Y Y
Y 41U 1 + Y 42U 2 + Y 44 34 43 U 4 = 0
Y 33
It can be noticed that by eliminating node 3, the term 44 has been modified:
' Y 34 Y 43
Y 44 = Y 44
Y 33
resulting the reduction of the number of equations with one unit (Fig. 2.16,c):
I 1 Y 11 Y 14 U 1
I = Y 22 Y 24 U 2 (2.59)
2
I 4 = 0 Y 41 Y 42 Y '44 U 4

Next, in order to eliminate the node 4, U 4 is obtained from the new equation
corresponding to it and substituted in the first two equations in (2.59):
Y Y Y Y
I 1 = Y 11 14 ' 41 U 1 14 ' 42 U 2
Y 44 Y 44

Y Y Y Y
I 2 = 24 ' 41 U 1 + Y 22 24 ' 42 U 2
Y 44 Y 44

or
I 1 Y 11
'
Y 12 U 1
'

I = ' ' (2.60)


2 Y 21 Y 22 U 2
where:
Y 14 Y 41 ' Y 14 Y 42
; Y 12 =
'
Y 11 = Y 11 ' '
Y 44 Y 44
' Y 24 Y 41 ' Y 24 Y 42
Y 21 = '
; Y 22 = Y 22 '
Y 44 Y 44
respectively the new electric circuit from Figure 2.16,d.
118 Basic computation

Observation: to minimize the calculation effort, the order of elimination of


the nodes must not be random. Thus, first are eliminated the non-essential nodes
with the smallest number of connections, that is with the smallest number of terms
in the nodal admittance matrix; the nodes with many connections will be
considered at the end of the elimination process. In the example shown, the
elimination first of node 3 has been performed by connecting two admittances
(Y 34 + Y 30 ) , followed by a transformation star-delta. If would have been eliminated
first node 4, two transformations star-delta would have been necessary, which
means an increased calculation effort.
In the general case, by using the method of partitioning into blocks, the
equation (2.58) can be written as:

[I r ] [A] [B ] [U r ]
[I ] = [C ] [D ] = [U ] (2.61)
e e

[I r ] =
I1
[I e ] =
I3
[U r ] =
U1
where: ; for the preserved nodes, and ,
I 2 U 2 I 4

[U e ] =
U3
for the nodes that are being eliminated.
U 4
From (2.61) results:
[I r ] = [A][U r ] + [B][U e ]
[I e = 0] = [C ][U r ] + [D][U e ]
If [U e ] is expressed from latter equation and substituted into the previous
equation, it results:
[I r ] = [A][U r ] [B][D]1[C ][U r ] = [Y rr ][U r ]
where the admittance matrix reduced to the preserved nodes can be calculated with
the expression:
[Y rr ] = [A] [B][D]1[C ] (2.62)

f) A general reduction method [2.4]. The general method takes into


consideration the expanding of the partitioning method in the case of expressing
the nodal currents, from the nodal voltages method, in terms of nodal powers and
reduction or equivalencing only a certain zone from the whole network, the
reduced zone can contain load (consumer) and/or generator nodes.
The electric network is divided into two sub-networks (Fig. 2.17):
Internal sub-network (having I nodes), where all quantities are known in
real time (voltage Ui and phase angle i , current flows on electric lines, generated
powers Pg , Qg , consumed powers Pc , Qc , network structure);
Radial and meshed networks 119

External sub-network (having E nodes) that will be reduced/equivalated,


where there is a lack of on-line information (only the power flow on
interconnection tie-lines, electric lines state and the most important generators are
known);
A number of frontier nodes (F), connected to nodes I and E, from both
sub-networks; there are no connections between nodes I and E.
Internal External
System System
I E
F
Fig. 2.17. The division of the electric network.
Because the state of the external sub-network is not fully known, its reducing
or equivalencing is performed. The matrix equation from the nodal voltages
method applied in the divided network is:
[Y EE ] [Y EF ] [0] U E [ I E ]
Y
[ FE ] [Y FF ] [Y FI ] U F = [ I F ]
(2.63)
[ 0] [Y IF ] [Y II ] U I [ I I ]

Next, equation (2.63) is expressed in terms of the vector [S ] of injected


complex powers. In this regard, the vector [S ] is written as:

[ S ] = U d I * = U d ([Y nn ]U n )
*
(2.64)
where [U d ] is a diagonal matrix whose elements correspond to the elements of the
vector [U n ] , but grouped into I, F and E:
(U E )
d

U d = (U F )d
(2.65)
(U I )d
By using (2.63) and (2.65), equation (2.64) becomes:

S E (U E )d
Y *
EE
Y *EF
[0] U *
E

S F = (U F )d
Y *FE

Y *FF Y *FI

U * F (2.66)


S I (U I )d [ 0] Y IF Y II
* *
U I
*

Note:
If [A] is a square matrix with only diagonal terms, [X] being a vector,
x1 0 L 0 x1
0 x2 L 0 x
[A] = ; [X ] = 2 and noting through [Xd] the diagonal matrix
L L L L M

0 0 0 xn xn
120 Basic computation

whose elements are those of the matrix [A], it can be shown that the vector
x1 y1
x y
[W ] = 2 2 can be rewritten as


xn y n
[W ] = [X d ][y ] = [Yd ][X ]
The matrix equation (2.66) can be rewritten as a system of three vector
equations:

S E = (U E )d [Y EE ] U E + [Y EF ] U F
*
(2.67,a)

S F = (U F )d [Y FE ] U E + [Y FF ] U F + [Y FI ] U I
*
(2.67,b)

S I = (U I ) d [Y IF ] U F + [Y II ] U I
*
(2.67,c)

The reduction procedure of the network consists in manipulating the equation


(2.67,a):
(U E )d
1
S E = Y U *E + Y *EF U *F
*
(2.68)
EE
or
1
U *E = Y *EE (U E )1 S E Y *EF U *F (2.69)
d
Component i of the term (U E )d [S E ] is given by
1

S Ei S Ei *
= U Ei
U Ei U E2i
If we define the vector:
S E1
U 2
E1
[wE ] = M
S En
U 2
E n
then the expression from (2.68) takes another form:

(U E )d
1
( )
S E = U E
*
d
w E = (W E )d U E
*
(2.70)

By substituting (2.70) in (2.69) it results:

( )
1
U *E = Y *EE (W ) U * Y * U *
E d E EF F
Radial and meshed networks 121

or by conjugating:
1
U E = (Y EE ) W E
*
( ) d

U E [Y EF ] U F
If in the latter relation we multiply to the left with [Y EE ] we obtain:

[Y EE ] U E = (W *E )d U E [Y EF ] U F
or

( ( ))
1
U E = [Y EE ] W E [Y EF ] U F
*
(2.71)
d

By substituting (2.71) in (2.67,b) obtain:

[S F ] = (U F )d [Y FF ][U F ] + [Y FE ] ([Y EE ] (W *E )d ) [Y EF ][U F ] + [Y FI ][U I ]


1
*


or

( ( ))
*
1

S F = (U F )d [Y FF ] [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W E d [Y EF ] U F + Y FI U I
* * * *


If in the latter equation we let [Y FF ] stand for the term that modifies the
initial matrix, then:

( ( ))
1
Y eq = [Y FE ] [Y EE ] W *E [Y EF ] (2.72)
d

where Y eq corresponds to an equivalent network connected to the frontier nodes.


If assume that the voltage magnitudes at the external nodes and the injected powers
remain constant, then (W E )d = S E / U E2 is constant. As a consequence, the
injections at the external nodes can be represented by equivalent admittances given
by:
*
Si
yi = i (external network) (2.73)
U i2
Observations: for the validity of the resulted equivalent it is necessary that all
the terms Wi remain constant after considering a contingency inside the network.
But this contradicts the classical approach where the load injections into the
external nodes were represented through constant impedances.

2.3.2. Load flow calculation of meshed networks


2.3.2.1. Formulation of the load flow problem
The load flow defines the state of a power system at a certain instant of time
and corresponds to a given generation and consumption pattern. Taking into
122 Basic computation

consideration that the load varies from moment to moment, the values of the
electric variables, characteristic of this state, vary also from scenario to scenario.
The results obtained after the load flow calculation, being the starting point
for any analysis of transmission and distribution networks, represent [2.4]:
Necessity in the planning strategies of electric networks development for
the determination of the optimal configuration as well as in the exploitation
activity for establishing the operating regime (overloading possibilities,
voltage level, weak network areas identification, etc.);
Input data in the following activities:
(i) contingency analyses, for testing the unavailability of an electric line,
transformer or synchronous generator, known as security criteria with
(N 1) or (N 2) availabilities;
(ii) transmission capacity analysis, for testing the limits of transfer powers
(thermal limit Imax adm);
(iii) VAr voltage analysis, for assessment of necessity of VAr voltage
equipment and its regulation manner;
(iv) on-line control, of power system operation, using state estimators and
process computers.
Starting point in the study and the selection of the protection relays and
automations, also for static, transient and voltage stability analysis, the
optimisation of operating regimes, etc.
The mathematical model for steady state analysis is based on nodal voltages
method using either nodal admittance matrix

*

[Y nn][U n] = [I n] = S n * (2.74)
U n
or nodal impedance matrix:
[Z nn][I n]=[U n] (2.75)

For steady state analysis, assume that the electric network is symmetrical,
load balanced, and there are no magnetic couplings between its elements. In
consequence, the electric network can be modelled through a single-line diagram.
In the framework of load flow calculations phase-to-phase voltage is used,
which also represents the rated voltage of the networks elements given in catalogues.

2.3.2.2. Nodal admittance matrix


Generally, an electric network consists of branches electric lines,
transformers and nodes to which the generators and/or loads are connected. The
branches are represented through impedances/admittances, the generators through
injected currents/powers at nodes and the loads through impedances or
currents/powers coming out from the nodes.
Radial and meshed networks 123

In electric power systems and networks analysis in order to define the


parameters and the structure of their elements the so-called system matrix is used
nodal admittance matrix ([Ynn]) or nodal impedance matrix ([Znn]).
(i) Nodal admittance matrix in the case of the network without
transformers
Consider the single-line diagram and the equivalent circuit of an electric
network, respectively (Fig. 2.18).
1 y13 3
I1 1 3 I
3 I1 y130 y310 I3

V1 V3 y120 y12 y23 y320


2
V2 I2 y210 y230
I2 2

a. b.
Fig. 2.18. Three-node network: a. Single-line diagram; b. Equivalent circuit.

In order to obtain the nodal admittance matrix [Ynn] and the equations from
nodal voltages method, respectively, we apply the Kirchhoffs first theorem at the
independent nodes, conventionally adopting the sign + for injected nodal
currents and the sign for consumed nodal currents:

12 13
(
y (V 1 V 2 ) + y (V 1 V 3 ) + y + y V 1 = I 1
120 130
)

( )
y 21 (V 2 V 1 ) + y 23 (V 2 V 3 ) + y 210 + y 230 V 2 = I 2 (2.76)

31 32
(
y (V 3 V 1 ) + y (V 3 V 2 ) + y + y V 3 = I 3
310 320
)
If we group the latter system of equations in terms of the nodal voltages then:

( 13 120 130
)
y + y + y + y V 1 y V 2 y V 3 = I1
12 12 13
( )
y 21V 1 + y 21 + y 23 + y 210 + y 230 V 2 y 23V 3 = I 2 (2.76')

(
y 31V 1 y 32 V 2 + y 31 + y 32 + y 310 + y 320 V 3 = I 3 )
or, as matrix form:
Y 11 Y 12 Y 13 V 1 I 1
Y
21 Y 22 Y 23 V 2 = I 2
Y 31 Y 32 Y 33 V 3 I 3
or
[Y nn ][V n ] = [I n ] (2.77)
124 Basic computation

where:
Y 11 = y12 + y13 + y120 + y130 ; Y 12 = y12 ; Y 13 = y13 ;
Y 21 = y ; Y 22 = y + y + y +y ; Y 23 = y ;
21 21 23 210 230 23

Y 31 = y ; Y 32 = y ; Y 33 = y + y + y +y
31 32 31 32 310 320

(ii) Nodal admittance matrix in the case of the networks with


transformers [2.9, 2.22]
Consider the case of the series ik branch of a transformer (shunt losses are
neglected) with complex transformer turns ratio N ik (Fig. 2.19,a) where
V
N ik = i ' is the complex transformer turns ratio.
Vk

z ik i
N ik k Ik Ii i N ki z ki
Ii i Iik k Ik
Si Sk
Vi Vi Vk Vi Vk

a. b.
Fig. 2.19. Equivalent circuit with transformer operator.

If apply Kirchhoffs second theorem for the loop in Figure 2.19,a, obtain:
V i + z ik I ik + V i ' = 0

Knowing that V ik = z ik I ik the relationship between voltages results:

V ik = V i N ik V k (2.78)
In order to establish the relationship between currents we start from the
equality between the complex apparent powers from the input and those at the
output terminals of the ideal transformer:
* *
S i = 3V i ' I ik = S k = 3V k I k (2.79)

Then, considering V i ' V i , obtain:


*
Vi I
= N ik = k
(2.80)
Vk I ik
respectively
I k = N *ik I ik
(2.80')
I i = I ik
Radial and meshed networks 125

Using the matrix form, the relationship of voltages becomes:


V V
V ik = [1 N ik ] i = [ Aik ] i (2.78')
V k V k
where [ Aik ] is known as quasi-incidence matrix of the ik branch to i and k nodes.
In this case, when the branch is directional from i to k, that is the ideal
transformer (of transformer turns ratio N ik ) is connected to the k node, the quasi-
incidence matrix is written as:
i k
[ Aik ] = ik [1 N ik ]
Expressing the relationship between currents as matrix form:
Ii 1
I = N * I ik = [ Aik ] t I ik
*

k ik

and taking into account that I ik = y ik V ik and considering the expression (2.78') of
V ik , obtain:

[Aik ] *t I ik = [Aik ] *t y ik V ik = [Aik ] *t y ik [Aik ]


Vi V
= [Y ik ] i
V k V k
where:

[Y ik ] = [Aik ] *t y ik [Aik ] =
1
* y ik [1 N ik ]
N ik
The nodal admittance matrix of the branch representing a transformer can
be written as:
'
Y ik y ik
' y ik N ik
[Y ik ] = Y 'ii '
= * (2.81)
Y ki Y kk y ik N ik y ik N ik2

with the mention that the admittance y ik is referred to winding i.


If the branch is directional from k to i, that is the ideal transformer (of
transformer turns ratio N ki ) is connected to i node (Fig. 2.19,b),
[ Aki ] = ik [ N ki 1] , then nodal admittance matrix becomes:
y N2 y ki N ki
*
[Y ik ] = ki ki (2.81')
y ki N ki y ki

with the mention that the admittance y ki is referred to winding k.


It is clear that, in the case of a transformer with complex transformer turns
' '
ratio ( N ik or N ki ), the matrix [ Y ik ] is asymmetrical since Y ik Y ki , and for a
126 Basic computation

transformer with real transformer turns ratio ( N ik ), the matrix [ Y ik ] is symmetrical


' '
since Y ik = Y ki .
(iii) General rules for writing the nodal admittance matrix [Ynn]
Any diagonal term Y ii is equal to the sum of the series and shunt
admittances of the branches (lines, transformers, others) galvanically connected to i
node. If at the respective node a transformer branch is connected, we have two
cases:
if the ideal transformer is connected to i node, the series admittance of the
transformer is multiplied by the square of transformer turns ratio:

Y ii = (y ik
) y
+ y ik 0 + ki
N ki2 (2.82)

where the first sum stands for lines elements, and the second sum stands for
transformer elements;
if the series admittance of the transformer is galvanically connected to i
node, the diagonal term is:
Y ii = y +y ik ik 0
(2.82')

where y ik
corresponds to series admittances of lines and transformers as well.
If we do not neglect the shunt components of the transformer, these are added
to the term Yii since by hypothesis these are connected on the primary winding side.
The non-diagonal terms in the case of transformer branch are expressed as
follows:
if the transformer operator N ik is connected to k node:
' ' *
Y ik = y ik N ik ; Y ki = y ik N ik (2.82")

if the transformer operator N ki is connected to i node:


' * '
Y ik = y ki N ki ; Y ki = y ki N ki (2.82"')

The non-diagonal terms, in the case of line branch, are equal to the minus
sign value of admittance of the incident line to the two i and k nodes.
The non-diagonal term can be zero ( Y ik = 0 ) if there is no connection
between i and k nodes.

(iv) What is essential or specific for the [Ynn] matrix?


First, for a network without transformers, this is a square and symmetrical
matrix of size equal to the number of independent (n) nodes.
Second, the module of self-admittance of the nodes diagonal term is
bigger or at least equal to the sum of the modules of the non-diagonal terms:
Radial and meshed networks 127

Y ii Y
ik
ik

Sometimes, due to phase-shift transformers and capacitive susceptances of


the lines it is possible that the previous inequality is not true. If we neglect the

shunt components then Y ii = Y ik .
ik
The number of null terms on rows and columns is equal to the number of
branches incident to node plus 1 (corresponding to the self-admittance of the node).
Third, in the real networks, the number of non-zero elements from matrix
[Ynn] is low, being about 2%. The matrix [Ynn] is said to have a high degree of
sparsity or to be a sparse matrix.
Considering for instance a power system of 1000 nodes the number of
incident branches to a node does not exceed 1015 (electric lines and
transformers). In consequence from 1000 terms of any row or column only
11...16 terms are non-zero the others 989...984 being equal to zero.
For general case, of electric network, the relationship between nodal voltages
and currents are expressed as:
[Y nn ][V n ] = [I n ] (2.77)
In practice, in power systems operation analysis, three-phase powers and
phase-to-phase voltages are used. In this respect, the expression (2.77) is
multiplied by 3 resulting:

[Y nn ] 3 [V n ] = 3 [I n ]
Taking into consideration the relationship between phase-to-neutral voltages
and phase-to-phase voltages U = 3 V , and noting I = 3 I , it results the known
form of matrix equation (2.74) from nodal voltages method.
Under these conditions, the expression of three-phase apparent power
becomes:
* * *
S = 3V I = 3 V 3 I = U I (2.83)

mentioning that the currents I are 3 times bigger than the real ones I.
The nodal voltages method in the case of the three-phase models of the
electric lines
To calculate the asymmetrical load regimes of the phases it is useful to
consider the equivalent circuit, thus emphasizing the self and mutual parameters
(Fig. 2.20,a,b).
Note that in the equivalent circuit from Figure 2.20,c, the hypothesis from
equation (2.83) with phase-to-phase voltage and currents multiplied by 3 has
been applied.
128 Basic computation

i k
a
Ii a z aa
ik a
a
Ik

b z bb z ab
ik b
Ii b z acik ik
b Ik

c z ccik z bc
ik c
Ii c c Ik
yab ybc yab ybc
yac yac

y aa
ik
y bb
ik
y ccik y aa
ik
y bb y cc
ik
ik

a.
a a
I i i z aa z ab z ac k
Ik
b b
[I i ] = I i z ba z bb z bc [I k] = I k
c c
I i
z ca z cb z cc Ik
a y aa y ab y ac [Z ik] y aa y ab y ac V
a
Vi
y ba y bb y bc = [Y ik]
k
[Y ik]
[V i] = V i
b = y ba y bb y bc [V k] = V b
2 y ca y cb y cc y ca y cb y cc 2 k
c
V
c
i
V k

b.
[I i] i [Z ik] k [I k]

[Y ik] [Y ik]
[U i]= 3 [V i] [U k]= 3 [V k]
2 2

c.
Fig. 2.20. Equivalent circuit of a three-phase electric line.

Using direct writing rules of the nodal admittance matrix, the relationship
between the nodal voltages and currents is (Fig. 2.20,c):
[Y ik ] [Z ]1
[I i ] [Z ik ] + 2
1
ik [U i ]
[I ] = [Y ik ] [U k ]
(2.84)
k [Z ik ]1 [Z ik ] +
1

2
Radial and meshed networks 129

2.3.2.3. Active and reactive power flow


Transmission line [2.3]
In this section the expressions for the active and reactive power flows in
transmission lines are derived. In this respect, consider the equivalent circuit
from Figure 2.21.

Sik i Iik yik k Ski

Vi yik0 yki0 Vk Fig. 2.21. Equivalent circuit of the


transmission line.

For the power flow calculation on a branch, we first consider the phase-to-
neutral voltages V i and V k and the current passed through the branch I ik ,
respectively.
The apparent power at the sending-end has the expression:
* * *
S ik = 3V i I ik = 3V i 3 I ik = U i I ik (2.85)
where I ik is the value of current at the sending-end, determined by

I ik = V i y ik 0 + (V i V k ) y ik =
1
3
[
U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik ] (2.86)

resulting:
not
3 I ik = U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = I ik (2.87)

where U i and U k are the phase-to-phase voltages.


Next, we express the voltages as polar coordinates:
ji
U i = Uie = U i (cos i + j sin i )
(2.88,a)
jk
U k = Uke = U k (cos k + j sin k )
and the series and shunt admittances as Cartesian or polar coordinates:
y ik = g ik + jbik = yik e j ik = yik (cos ik + j sin ik )
(2.88,b)
y ik 0 = y ki 0 = g ik 0 + jbik 0

Thus, the expression of the power flow on a branch is calculated as follows:

( )
* *
S ik = U i I ik = U i U i y ik 0 + (U i U k ) y ik = U i2 y ik 0 + y ik
* * *
U i U k y ik =

= U i yik ( cos ik j sin ik ) + gik 0 jbik 0
2

U iU k yik cos ( i k ik ) + j sin ( i k ik )


130 Basic computation

or
S ik Pik + jQik (2.85)

Equating the real and imaginary parts, the active and reactive powers flowing
on the transmission line from node i to node k are obtained:
Pik = U i2 ( g ik 0 + yik cos ik ) U iU k yik cos(i k ik )
(2.89,a)
Qik = U i2 (bik 0 + yik sin ik ) U iU k yik sin (i k ik )
The expressions of active and reactive powers flowing in opposite direction
are:
Pki = U k2 (g ki 0 + yki cos ki ) U kU i yki cos( k i ki )
(2.89,b)
Qki = U k2 (bki 0 + yki sin ki ) U kU i yki sin ( k i ki )
Transformer
Consider the case of equivalent circuit with transformer operator and real
turns ratio (Fig. 2.19,a,b) for which power losses, represented only through shunt
admittance y i 0 located on the primary winding side, are taken into consideration.
The expressions of complex powers flowing through transformer depend on
the side the taps are located.
Consider first the case of the step-up transformer (Fig. 2.22,a) where the taps
are located on the secondary winding side, and the series parameters are referred to
the lower voltage side. Adopting the same convention as for transmission line, it
can be written:
[
S ik = U i I i = U i y i 0 U i + y ik (U i N ik U k ) *=
*
]
= U i2 ( g i 0 jbi 0 + yik ) U i U k y ik N ik
* * *

where: y i 0 = gi 0 jbi 0 .

Ii i Iik y ik i Nik k I Ii i Nki k y ki k Ik


k
Sik Ski Sik Ski
Vi yi0 Vi Vk Vi yi0 V k Vk

a. b.
Fig. 2.22. Equivalent circuits of transformer with shunt admittance.
a. Step-up transformer; b. Step-down transformer.

Expressing in polar coordinates, obtain:


[ ]
Pik + jQik = U i2 (g i 0 + jbi 0 ) + yik e j ik U iU k yik N ik e j ( i k ik )
Radial and meshed networks 131

Separating the real and imaginary parts of the latter expression yields the
active Pik and reactive Qik power flow expressions:

Pik = U i2 (g i 0 + yik cos ik ) U iU k yik N ik cos(i k ik )


(2.90,a)
Qik = U i2 ( bi 0 + yik sin ik ) U iU k yik N ik sin (i k ik )
The expressions of active Pki and reactive Qki powers flowing in opposite
direction are:
*
[ ]
S ki = U i ' I k = N ik U k y ik (N ik U k U i ) *= U k2 y ik N ik2 U k U i y ik N ik
* * *

Expressing in polar coordinates, obtain:

Pki + jQki = U k2 yik N ik2 e j ik U kU i yik N ik e j ( k i ik )

then it results:
Pki = U k2 yik N ik2 cos ik U kU i yik N ik cos( k i ik )
(2.90,b)
Qki = U k2 yik N ik2 sin ik U kU i yik N ik sin ( k i ik )
Likewise, if consider the case of the step-down transformer (Fig. 2.22,b),
where the taps are located on the primary winding side, the expressions of active
and reactive powers for both directions are:
( )
Pik = U i2 g i 0 + yki N ki2 cos ki U iU k yki N ki cos(i k ki )
(2.91,a)
( )
Qik = U i2 bi 0 + yki N ki2 sin ki U iU k yki N ki sin (i k ki )

Pki = U k2 yki cos ki U kU i yki N ki cos( k i ki )


(2.91,b)
Qki = U k2 yki sin ki U kU i yki N ki sin ( k i ki )
Analysing the expressions of powers flow through both step-up and step-
down transformers observe that these are identical, taking also into consideration
the relationships (1.111,b). Furthermore, if consider the transformer operates on the
median tap, and introducing the quantities in per units, that is N ik N ki 1 , obtain
the expressions of powers flow similar to the ones for transmission line.

2.3.2.4. Nodal equations


By definition, the nodal power is the difference between the generated and
consumed powers into a node.
Taking into consideration that one set of generator units (noted by g) and one
set of loads (noted by c) are connected at i node, the expression of the nodal
complex power is (Fig. 2.23):
S i = Pi + jQi = S gi S ci (2.92)
132 Basic computation

node i
Sgi=Pgi+jQgi

k (i)

Sci=Pci+jQci

Fig. 2.23. Nodal powers balance.

According to conservation of powers at node i it results:


Si S
k ( i )
ik =0

or
Pi = P
k ( i )
ik ; Qi = Q
k ( i )
ik

Taking into account the expressions of powers flow on a branch (2.89), the
exchanged powers between the i node and remaining part of the network through
the nodes directly connected with it, are:
n n
Pi = U i2 (gik 0 + yik cos ik ) U i U k yik cos(i k ik )
k =1 k =1
(2.93)
n n
Qi = U i2 (b
k =1
ik 0 + yik sin ik ) U i U
k =1
k yik sin (i k ik )

Next, we express equations (2.93) in terms of nodal admittance matrix


elements. According to Figure 2.23, the terms of nodal admittance matrix are:

(y ) [( y
n
Y ii = ik
+ y ik 0 = ik cos ik + g ik 0 ) + j ( yik sin ik + bik 0 )]
k ( i ) k =1 (2.94,a)
= Yii e j ii Gii + jBii

Y ik = y ik = yik e j ik = Yik e j ik Gik + jBik (2.94,b)

Therefore, the two equations of balance powers become:


n
Pi = U i2 Re{Y ii } + U i U Yk =1
k ik cos(i k ik )
(2.95)
n
Qi = U i2 Im{Y ii } + U i U Y
k =1
k ik sin (i k ik )
Radial and meshed networks 133

If equations (2.88,a) and (2.94) are used, the expression of nodal power
becomes:
n
Si =U i Ii =U i
*
Y
k =1
* *
ik U k Pi + jQi

or
n
Si = U U e
k =1
i k
j ( i k )
(Gik jBik ) =
n
= U U {G [cos(
k =1
i k ik i k ) + j sin (i k )] (2.96)

jBik [cos(i k ) + j sin (i k )]}


The expressions for active and reactive power injections are obtained by
identifying the real and imaginary parts of equation (2.96), yielding:
n
Pi (U m , m ) = U U [G
k =1
i k ik cos(i k ) + Bik sin (i k )] =

n n
(2.97,a)
= U U GG
k =1
i k ik = GiiU i2 + U U GG
k =1, k i
i k ik

respectively
n
Qi (U m , m ) = BiiU i2 U U BB
k =1, k i
i k ik (2.97,b)

where:
GGik = Gik cos(i k ) + Bik sin (i k )
(2.98)
BBik = Bik cos(i k ) Gik sin (i k )

and Um and m are vectors of state variables.


From (2.92) and (2.97) results the mathematical model of steady state:
Pgi Pci = Pi (U m , m )
(2.99)
Q gi Qci = Qi (U m , m )

2.3.2.5. Power losses


For a branch i-k, the total power losses are simply calculated with formula:
S ik = S ik + S ki (2.100)
or, by separating the real and imaginary parts obtain the active and reactive power
losses:
134 Basic computation

Pik = Pik + Pki (2.101,a)


Qik = Qik + Qki (2.101,b)
For the transmission line, the reactive power losses can have negative sign,
due to the capacitive shunt currents, that means the line generates reactive power.

2.3.2.6. Basic load flow problem


Problem variables
The load flow problem can be formulated as a set of non-linear algebraic
equality/inequality constraints. These constraints represent both Kirchhoffs
theorems and network operation limits. In the basic formulation of the load flow
problem, four variables are associated to each node i: Ui voltage magnitude (node i);
i voltage angle; Pi and Qi net active and reactive powers (algebraic sum of
generation and load).
Basic node types
Depending on which of the above four variables are known (given) and
which ones are unknown (to be calculated), three basic types of nodes can be
defined (Table 2.2).
The major problem in the definition of node types is to guarantee that the
resulting set of power flow equations contains the same number of equations and
unknown quantities, as are normally necessary for solvability. For each node we
have four unknown state quantities P, Q, U, , and only two equations (for active
and reactive power balance). This requires that two of the state quantities to be
specified, the other two resulting after the steady state calculation.

Table 2.2
Node types
Quantities
Node type Symbol
Specified Unknown
P, U
Generator node G G min , Q
pure
or (Q , Q max )
hybrid
P,Q P(Q)
C C
Load node or BC(GC) P, Q , U

C
Passive node YC P = 0, Q = 0 , U

Slack (swing)
Us, s = 0 P, Q
node S
Radial and meshed networks 135

These nodes are explained as follows:


At generator node (PU node), active power P, voltage magnitude U as
well as reactive power limits (Qmin and Qmax) are specified. Fixing a certain voltage
level U sp at this type of node is possible due to the control possibilities through
reactive power support from generators. After calculation, the generated reactive
power Qg and the angle voltage are determined.
At hybrid generator node, the injected power is equal to the algebraic sum
of the power produced by the generator unit and the power absorbed by local load.
Load node (PQ node) must have either both active and reactive powers
specified or only one of the powers plus a parameter such as conductance (Gc) or
susceptance (Bc). The passive nodes of zero injected powers are also included in
this category. In these nodes there are no connected loads or, if any, they are
represented through constant admittance (Yc) or impedance (Zc).
Slack (swing) node (U node), where the voltage magnitude Us and the
phase angle s = 0 are specified, has a double function in the basic formulation of
the power flow problem: it serve as the voltage angle reference and since power
losses S are unknown in advance, the active and reactive powers generation of
the U node are used to balance generation, load and losses, and are determined at
the end of steady state calculation. The apparent power at the slack node should be:
Ss = S
jc
cj + S S
i g
gi

Therefore, the slack node must be chosen so that it can undertake the
inaccuracies introduced by the power losses in the network. Usually, this role is
performed by the most important power plant of the system.

2.3.2.7. Seidel Gauss method


Let us consider the expression of the injected current in i g c node [2.9]:
* n
Si
Ii=
Ui
*
= Y
k =1
ik U k (2.102)

and by separating the current corresponding to one of the independent nodes,


namely i node, it becomes:
n
I i = Y ii U i + Y
k =1, k i
ik U k , i = 2,..., n ; i s (= 1)

Thus, the voltage at i node can be written as:

1 n
Ui =
Y ii
Ii
Y ik U k , i = 2,..., n

(2.102')
k =1, k i
which represents the fundamental equation of Gauss iterative method.
136 Basic computation

For the beginning, a set of initial voltages U i( 0) is considered. Usually these


voltages are equal to the nominal ones, except for the specified voltages, as
magnitude, at the slack node and generator nodes, which are constant during the
calculation process. For the (p+1) step following any given p step in the iterative
process, the linear relationship (2.102') becomes:

1 ( p) n
( p)
Ui
( p +1 )
=
Y ii
Ii
Y ik U k , i s

(2.102")
k =1; k i
where
( p )*
( p) Si ( p)
Ii = ; Si = Pi + jQi( p )
( p )*
Ui
In the framework of Seidel Gauss method, the finding of solution is
accelerated, by using in the (p+1) step the values of all the nodal voltages U k , with
k<i, already calculated in the same iterative step, according to the relationship:

1 Pi jQi( p ) i 1 n
Y ik U k , i s

( p +1 ) ( p +1) ( p)
U i , calc = Y U (2.103)
Y ii U ( p )
* ik k
i k =1 k = i +1
The convention of the current and powers flow is important. Currents
entering the nodes are considered positive, and thus the power into the node is also
positive. A load draws power out of the node and thus the active and inductive
reactive powers are entered in expression (2.103) with negative sign.
The iterative calculation goes on until the voltages magnitude difference
obtained after two successive iterations becomes smaller than a value imposed as
convergence test:
( p +1) ( p)
Ui U i

The Seidel Gauss method leads to a solution in a large number of iterations;


instead, it can be improved through convergence acceleration, under the hypothesis
of a non-periodic evolution of the process (Fig. 2.24).

U
real value
Ui
p+1
p+1 U i, acc
Ui p+1 p Fig. 2.24. Exemplification
Ui Ui of the convergence process
p
Ui acceleration.

calculation step
p p+1
Radial and meshed networks 137

Therefore, by applying the convergence acceleration factor , the updated


voltage expression gets the form:
( p +1) ( p)
( ( p +1)
U i , acc = U i + U i , calc U i
( p)
), i s (2.104)

Usually (12), with moderate values, being preferred for the regimes
calculation, since large values could lead to divergence. The acceleration in the
initial phase can be unfavourable if the tendency towards the solution is oscillating.
It is recommended to use 3-4 iterations without acceleration, that is = 1 , then,
according to the number of nodes and parameters of the electric network,
= 1.2 K 1.75 , and every 10 iterations to use = 2.2.
The non-linear relations (2.103) are applied in a different manner in terms of
node types:
(i) Voltage calculation at the slack node is omitted, the voltage at this node
is specified in magnitude and phase angle, being maintained constant during the
entire iterative process;
(ii) For the load node, the reactive power Qi( p ) = Qi is considered constant,
and the voltage is updated every iteration by using equation (2.103);
(iii) A generator node is treated differently; the voltage to be controlled at the
node is specified and the generator voltage regulator varies the reactive power
output of the generator within its reactive power capability limits to regulate the
terminal voltage.
In order to maintain the voltage at the specified value we must proceed to its
correction:
( p)
( p) U i , calc
U i , cor = U isp ( p)
(2.105)
U i , calc

Note that, by applying expression (2.105), the corrected voltage magnitude


( p)
U i , cor becomes equal to the specified voltage U isp .
For the calculation of reactive power at iteration (p), as support to maintain the
voltage at generator terminals to the specified value, the most updated values of
voltages are used:
*

( p ) ( p )
( )
i 1 n
Qi( p) ( p) 2 *

k =1
( p +1)
= Im U i , cor Y ii + U i , cor Y ik U k +
Y ik U k

(2.106)
k = i +1

where Im stands for the imaginary part of the equation.


For a PU node the upper and lower limits of VAr generation to maintain the
nodal voltage constant are also given. The calculated reactive power is checked for
the specified limits:
Qimin < Qi( p ) < Qimax
138 Basic computation

If at the generator node i there is reactive power consumption, this must be


taken into account in defining the capability limits.
If the calculated reactive power Qi( p ) falls within the specified limits
( p) ( p)
(between Qimin and Qimax ), then at iteration (p) the voltage is set to U i = U i , cor ,
( p +1)
then at iteration (p+1) the new value of voltage U i , calc is calculated by using the
expression (2.103);
If the calculated reactive power Qi( p ) is outside the specified limits ( Qgmin
,i ,

Qgmax
, i ), then the ig node, of PU type, is transferred to the set of c nodes of PQ

type. The reactive power Qi is fixed at one of the violated limits as follows:
(i) if Qi( p ) < Qimin , then Qi( p ) = Qimin ;
(ii) if Qi( p ) > Qimax , then Qi( p ) = Qimax .
That means the reactive power support is not sufficient to maintain the
voltage at the specified value, and the voltage at iteration (p) is the calculated value
( p) ( p)
U i = U i , calc .
Note that after the convergence test is satisfied, generator nodes must be
again treated accordingly, that is depending on the reactive power calculated, the
final voltages are established as explained earlier.
Also, in the end of the calculation process, after the (p+1) iteration when the
convergence test is satisfied, the apparent complex power at the slack node s is
calculated with the expression:
n
( p +1) ( p +1)*
Ss
final
=Ss
*
= U s2 Y ss + U s
k =1,k s
*
Y sk U k (2.107)

Observations [2.4]:
a) If the calculated real power generation violates generator limits, the excess
(or deficiency) of slack node generation is distributed among the remaining units,
and more load flow iteration are carried out. This adjustment is repeated until slack
node generation is within acceptable limits;
b) Also, if slack node reactive power generation violates generator limits,
then a number of possibilities may be considered. One possibility is to change the
slack node to a different generator. Another is to change slack node voltage
appropriately without violating its voltage limits. A third possibility is to introduce
reactive generation and/or load by means of the switching of appropriate capacitor
and/or inductor banks.
In practice, for the control of the convergence of iterative process, there are
also other criteria to use, the most common consisting in testing the module of the
difference between the apparent powers at the slack node, calculated at two
successive iterations:
( p +1) ( p)
Ss Ss
Radial and meshed networks 139

Once the state vector is calculated we could determine the injected powers
and the load flow on the network branches.
In chapter 8 Performance methods for power flow studies, methods of
Newton-Raphson type for steady state calculation are presented.

2.4. Reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks


Usually, the urban distribution electric networks consist of underground
cables. These cables rise some problems concerning the repairing of insulation
damages or braking of conductors. The time necessary to detect and repair the
damages can be important, time in which many loads can remain not supplied. In
order to cope with this inconvenient, a back-up supply is recommended, which
implies the existence of at least two supply paths for each consumption point, from
the same source or from different sources. In order to limit the number of loads
affected by a short circuit emerging into the electric networks with such
configurations, the networks are operated in radial configuration.
The rural distribution electric networks mainly consist of overhead electric
lines. This type of lines do not present special problems in detecting and repairing
the damages. In addition, the density of the loads supplied by these networks is
much smaller than the one in urban networks. A reserve in the power supply of
these loads is not economically justified, the structure of the rural distribution
electric network being usually arborescent or radial. Although these networks have
a meshed structure they are operated in radial configuration.
In practice, for short periods of time, the distribution electric networks can de
operated in a meshed configuration, especially when reconfiguration manoeuvres
are performed within the network.

2.4.1. Operating issues


Generally, by reconfiguration of a physical system is understood the
modification of the operational connections that exist among its components, in
order to improve the system operation as a whole or just a part of it, without
modifying the characteristic parameters of the system components.
In the particular case of distribution electric networks, the reconfiguration
aims at improving and optimising the operating state by changing only the
topological state in operation / out of service of some electric lines. The
network reconfiguration is possible only for meshed networks, for which the
arborescent operation is recommended. For such configuration, the set of electric
lines in operation and out of service have a well determined number of
elements, the number of the electric lines in operation being equal to the number
of load nodes. The elements of these two sets can be exchanged subject to the
arborescent operation of the network. The advantage is the possibility of achieving
the most suitable configuration in order to improve or optimise the operating state,
in terms of the strategy of network configuration and of the electricity demand. For
140 Basic computation

example, consider a simple meshed electric network, which supplies n loads (Fig.
2.25). The arborescent configuration allows us to achieve n + 1 possible
arborescent configurations in operation.

Source A Source B
1 2 ... k ... n Base
network

Network
sectionalization

Configuration 1

...
Configuration k

...
Configuration n+1

Fig. 2.25. Possible arborescent configurations for a simple meshed electric network.

The reconfiguration process can be applied for all the possible operating
conditions of a distribution electric network:
normal conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network
elements, the state quantities being within the admissible operating limits;
critical conditions, characterized by the availability of all the network
elements, with some of the state quantities being at the limit of normal
operation (the thermal limit, the voltage stability limit, etc.);
emergency operation, characterized by the unavailability of one or more
elements of the network, due to operation under critical conditions on
expanded period of time or to some accidental damages emerged from
outside the network.
For the normal and critical conditions, finding the optimal configuration of an
electric network actually implies network reconfiguration, but for the emergency
operation the process becomes one of reconstruction. Usually, under normal
conditions, the purpose is to reach an optimum in operation in order to minimize
the active power losses and energy losses and to improve the security in supplying
the loads. For the critical conditions the goal of the reconfiguration process is to
restore the network normal operating state, by load reducing and balancing the
lines load as well as by reducing the voltage drops and also by obtaining uniformity
of the voltage level at the loads. For the emergency operation the goal is to supply
as many as possible loads after the detection and isolation of the fault. In this case,
the optimisation is of lower interest, more important being the restoration of the
power supply of all loads in a time as short as possible and the reducing of the
financial penalties for the electricity not supplied.
Radial and meshed networks 141

At least two arguments are supporting of the reconfiguration process:


the operating state of the network can be improved by a reduced
coordination effort, achieving considerable results. The advantages mainly
consist in decreasing the active power losses and, in most cases, in
decreasing the reactive power losses as well as the decreasing of the line
load, the decreasing of the voltage drops and the improvement of the
voltage level at loads. The effort done for network reconfiguration is
related to the cost of the manoeuvres necessary to change the present
configuration and, eventually, the cost of the electricity not supplied during
these manoeuvres;
a second aspect refers to the dynamics of the power energy demanded by
the loads. The load curve can be significantly changed either for long or for
shorter periods of time, causing the change of the load gravity centre and
thus of the operating state of the network. Therefore, specific (normal)
operating configurations can be defined for each period of time in terms of
the season and the characteristics of the consumer activity during the
week-days.

2.4.2. Mathematical model of the reconfiguration process


The reconfiguration process of a distribution electric network can be seen as
an optimisation problem. To define the mathematic model, we start from the
observation that to any electrical network, consisting of n nodes and l branches, a
graph G ( X, A ) can be assigned, where X is the set of nodes and A is the set of
branches. To these sets, state or operational quantities can be also assigned, which
characterize the operating state of the network.
Therefore, to the set A of the branches it can be assigned:
the set I of state quantities, representing the branches currents;
the set C of decision quantities, representing the topological states of the
branches; for any branch l from the set A , the topological state can be:
cl = 1 , if the branch l is in operation;
cl = 0 , if the branch l is out of service.

To the set X of the nodes, it can be assigned:


the set U of state quantities representing the nodal voltages;
the set F of quantities representing the reliability indices of the nodes.
Based on these notations, the mathematical model of the reconfiguration
optimisation problem has the general form [2.15], [2.16]:

OPTIM f ( U, I, C, F ) (2.108)

subject to equality and inequality constraints:


142 Basic computation

g ( U, I, C, F ) = 0
(2.109)
h ( U, I, C, F ) > 0

In equation (2.108), f ( U, I, C, F ) represents the objective function, which, in


the general case, it can be written as:
f ( U, I, C, F ) = 1 f1 ( U, I, C, F ) + 2 f 2 ( U, I, C, F ) + K + n f n ( U, I, C, F ) (2.110)

where: f1 , f 2 ,K, f n represent the weighting of criteria taken into account;


1 , 2 ,K, n weight coefficients of every criterion.
The criteria that can be used in the objective function for the electric
distribution network reconfiguration problem are:
real power losses decrease;
decrease and balancing the branch load;
voltage drops decrease;
improve the safety in power supply of the loads;
decrease the manoeuvres cost.
Analysing the criteria shown above, it can be seen that, in most of the cases,
for the mathematic model solution, the main goal is the minimization of the
objective function. There can be also situations when the goal is to find the
maximum of the objective function.
In terms of the number of criteria taken into account, the objective function is
of single-criterion type, when only one criterion is considered, or multi-criterion
type, when two or more criteria are considered.
The constraints can be related to the network exploitation or operation:
the network connectivity or the supply of all loads, constraint checked by
applying the Kirchhoffs current law in all load nodes;
the arborescent configuration of the network;
the security in operation, which refers to branch load, voltage drops as well
as nodal voltage level;
the reliability level in the power supply of the loads;
the possibility of the network branches to be subjected to manoeuvres;
the maximum number admitted for manoeuvres to change the network
operating configuration.
A synthesis on the issues that can be taken into consideration in the
reconfiguration process is presented in Table 2.3.
Of the many issues presented above, that can be taken into account in the
mathematical model of the reconfiguration problem, only the following aspects are
of interest in operation:
active power losses ( P );
branch load ( I I adm );
voltage drops ( U );
Radial and meshed networks 143

maximum yearly number of interruptions ( N int );


duration of the supply restoration ( Tdint ).

Table 2.3
Issues used currently in the reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks
Operating state
Issue
Normal Critical Emergency
Power losses Criterion - -
Manoeuvres cost Criterion - -
Criterion/ Criterion/
Security in power supply Criterion
Constraint Constraint
Criterion/ Criterion/
Branch load Constraint
Constraint Constraint
Criterion/ Criterion/
Voltage drops Constraint
Constraint Constraint
Arborescent configuration Restriction Restriction Restriction
Configuration connectivity Restriction Restriction Restriction
Executing manoeuvres on certain
Restriction Restriction Restriction
electric lines and transformers
Admitted number of manoeuvres Restriction Restriction -

The objective functions assigned to these issues are:

P = R I
lA
2
l l cl ;


lA
{
I I adm = max I l I ladm ;} U = max
kX
Zl Il ; (2.111)
lDk

N int = max { N ( ek , ek )} ; Tdint = max {Td ( ek , ek )}


kX kX

where: Z l = Rl + jX l is the impedance of the branch l;


I ladm the admissible current (thermal limit) of the branch l;
Dk the path between the node k and the source node;
e k the equivalent failure rate of the node k with respect to the source
node;
e k the inverse of the mean time to repair of the node k with respect to
the source node.
The reconfiguration process constraints can be written under the form:
144 Basic computation

ik = I c , k X;
lA k
l l lR = l n + nC ;

I l I ladm , l A; Z
lDk
l I l U adm , k X; (2.112)
adm
N man N man ;
adm
N int N int ; Tdint Tdadm
max

where: i k is the complex load current at the node k;


Ak the set of branches adjacent to the node k;
lR the number of out of service branches;
nC the number of load nodes;
U adm the admissible voltage drop in the network;
N man the number of manoeuvres necessary to obtain the final
configuration;
adm
N man the maximum admissible number of manoeuvres necessary to
obtain the final configuration;
adm
N int maximum yearly number of interruptions in the load supply;
Tdadm
max
maximum admissible duration of the supply restoration.
In order to identify the theoretical and practical possibilities for
reconfiguration problem solution we start from some remarks regarding the
mathematical model. In the case when the problem solution does not involve the
voltage change at the source node, the size of the sets U , I and F implicitly
depend on the quantities of the set C , so that the objective function can be written
as:
OPTIM f ( U ( C ) , I ( C ) , F ( C ) ) (2.113)

Therefore, in solving the optimisation reconfiguration problem, the final goal


is to explicitly determine the decision variables cl , l A . These are discrete binary
variables, which can be equal to 1 or 0. Under these conditions, the mathematical
model has the form of a general mathematical programming problem with discrete
variables. Furthermore, for the previously discussed issues, the functions assigned
to each criterion, as well as the ones that describe the constraints, have a convex
character. Hereby, the mathematical model takes the form of a convex
programming problem with discrete variables.
Out of the previous remarks, the conclusion that comes out is that a
theoretical possibility to solve the mathematical model consists in the use of tools
specific to the mathematical programming: linear programming, convex
programming, dynamic programming, etc.
Radial and meshed networks 145

A modern and relatively new possibility in solving the reconfiguration


optimisation problem is based on artificial intelligence techniques, such as decision
trees, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, expert systems, Petri nets, etc.
A practical possibility to obtain the solution to the reconfiguration process
consists in searching within the solutions space, which is the set of all arborescent
configurations that can be generated for an electric network with a meshed
structure. The number of elements of the solutions space is directly influenced by
the complexity and the geographical spread of the electric network.
Only a small part of the possible arborescent configurations of an electric
network, that form the solutions space, fulfil the inequality constraints, and they
form what is called the set of allowed operating configurations. Because the
optimum is related to various issues, the final configurations obtained after the
reconfiguration process can be different. The goal of reconfiguration is to identify
those optimal configurations which fulfil all the technical and operational
constraints.
The methods based on searching within the solutions space, used for
reconfiguration problem solution, can be systematic or heuristic.
In the frame of the systematic methods (uninformed searching methods) all
the possible arborescent configurations of a distribution electric network are
individually generated and analysed. The configuration corresponding to the
optimal operation subjected to the main objective is further considered. As far as
this principle is concerned, the systematic search methods are optimal methods,
which ensure finding the global optimal solution. This is the main advantage of the
systematic searching methods. Although there are only two possible values for
each variable, it is rather difficult to apply this kind of methods for most of the
distribution networks because of the very large number of arborescent
configurations which have to be generated and analysed. This is the main
disadvantage on the systematic methods.

Solving the mathematical model

Mathematical Programming Artificial Intelligence Techniques Searching inside the Solution Space

Linear Programming Decision trees Systematic Search (uninformed)

Convex Programming Genetic Algorithms Heuristic Search (informed)

Dynamic Programming Fuzzy Logic

Expert Systems

Petri Networks

Fig. 2.26. Possibilities of solving the reconfiguration problem.

The heuristic methods (informed searching methods) are used in order to


decrease the number of configurations that should be analysed to achieve the
146 Basic computation

reconfiguration solution. These methods use a number of observations that allow


filtering for analysing only the intermediary configurations that lead to a final
solution close to or even identical to the optimal global solution. The advantage
consists in a considerable reduced computation time and effort to the detriment of
the fact that they are not optimal.
The theoretical and practical possibilities of solving the reconfiguration
optimisation problem are synthetically presented in Figure 2.26.

2.4.3. Reconfiguration heuristic methods


A heuristic method is a searching procedure that allows for an easy solving of
a combinative problem. The existence of the heuristic methods is based on the use
of a set of observations, rules and knowledge, gained from previous experience or
theoretically developed, that allow filtering for analysis only the solutions that lead
to a final solution close to or even identical to the optimal global one.
For the reconfiguration of the distribution electric networks, the main issue
that allows the use of heuristic methods is related to the variation of the currents
curve within network branches for different arborescent configurations. For a
simple meshed network consisting of an electric line supplying n loads (Fig. 2.27),
consider that the network splitting is performed by opening the line between the
nodes k 1 and k, the currents flowing through the other line sections increase
toward the source nodes A and B. The increase of these currents has a convex form.
When the line section chosen for network splitting is changed, the currents curve is
moved up or down, whilst preserving the shape.

Ik Ik
| In+1|
| I1|

| I2| | In|

| In-1|
| Ik-1|
| Ik+1|

A I1 1 I2 2 Ik-1 k-1 k Ik+1 k+1 In-1 n-1 In n In+1 B

VA i1 ik-1 ik ik+1 in-1 in VB

Fig. 2.27. Variation of currents flowing through the branches


of a simple meshed network that operates radially.
Radial and meshed networks 147

The heuristic methods starts from an initial configuration, chosen based on


specific requirements, and scan for improved configurations. If there is at least one
improved configuration, the selection criterion replaces the actual configuration
with the improved one. The procedure ends when no improved configuration ca be
found by applying the searching mechanism for the actual configuration. An
improved configuration of the actual one is defined as being that configuration
which leads to the evolution of the objective function value in the desired direction.

2.4.3.1. Reconfiguration strategies


The heuristic reconfiguration methods of the distribution electric networks
are based on three strategies [2.15], [2.17]:
constructive strategy, in which all the branches of the initial
configuration are in out of service state. By successively transitions to the in
operation state of some branches, the desired arborescent configuration is
achieved (Fig. 2.28). Because each load node can be supplied by just one branch,
the number of intermediary steps necessary to achieve the final configuration is
equal to the number of the load nodes.

(1) (2) (3)

Fig. 2.28. Principle of the constructive strategy.

destructive strategy, in which all branches of the initial configuration are


in operation state. By successive transition to the out of service state of some
branches the desired arborescent configuration is achieved (Fig. 2.29). The number
of intermediary steps necessary to achieve the final configuration is equal to
difference between the total number of branches and the number of the load nodes.

(1) (2)

Fig. 2.29. Principle of the destructive strategy.

the branch exchange strategy starts from an initial arborescent


configuration and preserves the arborescent character during the process. For the
transition from one configuration to another, a branch is switched in operation
and than another one, from the loop resulted from this manoeuvre, is switched out
148 Basic computation

of service (Fig. 2.30). While for the previous strategies the number of
intermediary steps necessary for achieving the final configuration is well defined,
for this strategy the number of steps depends on many factors, out of which the
most important are the searching manner of the substituting configuration and its
selection criterion.

(1) (2) (3)

Fig. 2.30. Principle of the branch exchange strategy.

Since for the branch exchange reconfiguration strategy, the path between
the initial and the final configuration is not unique, for identifying improved
configurations, several strategies can be applied (Fig. 2.31).

Local Descending

Ordered Dynamic

Strategy for search


of improved configurations

Random Maximal

Irrevocable Tentative
(irreversible) (reversible)

General
reversible Backtracking

Fig. 2.31. Strategies for searching improved configurations [2.12].

Taking into account the convex variation of the curve of the branch currents
for a simple meshed network, for the criteria based on these currents, the searching
process is simplified. Therefore, starting from an out of service branch, branch
exchange is subsequently performed with the two adjacent branches. If an
improved configuration is found for one of these exchanges the search continues in
this direction with the next branch, until no improved configurations can be found.
Depending on the fact that the searches continue or not, the search is called
descending or local.
Radial and meshed networks 149

In a complex meshed network the number of out of service branches can be


greater or equal to 2. Examination of out of service branches can be random or
ordered; in the second case various ordering criteria can be used, such as: the
voltage drop at the terminals of these branches, the resistance of the loop to which
the branch is assigned, etc.
If for a complex meshed network, starting from the actual configuration,
different improved configurations can be found, the substitution configuration can
be decided upon by choosing the best of them (maximal strategy) or the first
configuration encountered (dynamic strategy).
The main disadvantage of the heuristic methods consists in the fact that the
global optimal solution is not guaranteed. The search around local optimums is
avoided by returning to a previous improved configuration and restarting the search
on a different path. For this procedure the search strategies can be irrevocable
(irreversible) or tentative (reversible) [2.18]. In an irreversible search once a
certain improved configuration is found the search mechanism does not return to
previous improved configurations. A tentative search strategy returns to a previous
configuration by following either exactly the path between the initial and the final
configuration (backtracking search) or any other path (general reversible search).

2.4.3.2. Heuristic methods for active power losses reducing


Reducing the active power losses is the main objective of the reconfiguration
process of the distribution electric networks operated under normal conditions. The
improved configurations are strictly subjected to the inequality constraints,
especially to those referring to line load, nodal voltage level and voltage drops.
Power losses include three components, namely (see Chapter 7):
own technologic consumption;
technical losses;
commercial losses.
The reduction that can be achieved by reconfiguration is aimed at Joule
losses, that belong to own technologic consumption, the objective function of this
criterion having the form:


MIN [ P ] = MIN Rl I l2 cl
lA
(2.114)

Minimization of the active power losses by reconfiguration requires,


irrespective of the strategy employed, to start from an initial configuration and
adopting some intermediary configurations to reach the final configuration.
Theoretically, the analysis of the objective function while passing from one
configuration to another is performed by load flow calculation and evaluating the
total active power losses of the network. For the linear model of the network, the
evaluation of the active power losses variation can be performed without load flow
calculation. In this regard, the results obtained in Appendix 2.2 are used further on
to describe some heuristic methods for active power losses reduction.
150 Basic computation

A. Branch exchange strategy


Consider a simple meshed electric network supplying n loads (Fig. 2.32,a).
The initial radial configuration from which the branch exchange strategy starts is
the one in which the splitting is done between the nodes k and k + 1 (Fig. 2.32,b).

IA A 1 2 k-1 k k+1 n B IB
z1 z2 zk-1 zk zk+1 zn zn+1
VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

a.
A I1 1 I2 2 Ik-1 k-1 Ik k k+1 In n In+1 B
z1 z2 zk-1 zk zn zn+1
VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

b.
Fig. 2.32. Simple distribution electric network:
a. meshed network; b. meshed electric network with radial operation.

The local load transfer of one load or of a group of loads between two
neighbouring feeders is performed by doing an elementary exchange for an out of
service branch. The selection of this branch exchange is based on using the
equation. (A2.2.8) to estimate the active power losses variation P generated by
the load transfer from one feeder to another. The condition for the load transfer is
P < 0 . For the network shown in Figure 2.32,b, consider the transfer of the load
from the node k located on the feeder supplied from node A to the feeder supplied
from node B (Fig. 2.33).

ik=-ik ik=+ik

A I1-ik 1 I2-ik 2 Ik-1-ik k-1 k Ik=ik k+1 In+ik n In+1+ik B


z1 z2 zk-1 zk+1 zn zn+1
VA i1 i2 ik-1 ik ik+1 in VB

Fig. 2.33. Simple meshed electric network after the transfer


of the node k from the feeder A to the feeder B.

After the load transfer the currents through the line sections between the
nodes A and k will decrease with the value of i k , and the currents through the line
sections between the nodes B and k will increase with the same value. By applying
equation (A2.2.8) for the mentioned line sections, for the current flows
Radial and meshed networks 151

corresponding to the situation previous to the load transfer, and considering that
i k = i k , one obtains:
k k k

PA,k = 3 ik2 ri 2ika ri I ia 2ikr ri I ir
i =1 i =1 i =1
(2.115)
n n +1 n +1

PB ,k = 3 ik2 ri + 2ika ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir
i = k +1 i = k +1 i = k +1
By summing up the above relations, the active power losses variation, as a
result of the transfer of the node k from the feeder A to the feeder B, is [2.19]:
n +1 k
n +1 k

P = 3 ik2 RAB + 2ika ri I ia ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir ri I ir (2.116)
i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1
where RAB is the resistance between nodes A and B.
The optimal currents pattern represents the current flows through the
branches of a simple meshed electric network for which the active power losses are
minimised, in comparison with any other operating state. For a simple meshed
electric network, the optimal currents pattern corresponds to the natural repartition
of currents through the line sections, considering only their resistances, given that
the voltages at the two ends are equal [2.1, 2.14, 2.20].
Consider that the meshed electric network in Figure 2.32,a has equal voltages
at both ends. The current flows through the network branches is determined
starting from the current I A or I B and subsequently applying Kirkhoffs current
law in nodes 1, 2,K, n , or in the nodes n,K , 2,1 , respectively. The currents injected
by the two supplying nodes are calculated with the relations (2.29,a) and (2.29,b)
adapted for the situation in which only the branches resistances are considered:
n

R i
k k n +1
IA = k =1

RAB
; Rk = r
i = k +1
i

n
(2.117)
R i k k k
IB = k =1
; Rk = ri
RAB i =1

To obtain the radial configuration from Figure 2.33, the line section between
nodes k 1 and k from the meshed network is switched out of service state
(Fig. 2.33). The currents through the line sections between nodes A and k decrease
with the value of I k , and the currents through the line sections between nodes B
and k increase with the same value. By applying the relation (A2.2.8) for the
mentioned line sections, corresponding to the current flows in meshed operation
and considering that i k = I k , the active power losses variation, after
transforming the simple meshed networks into two radial sub-networks, is:
152 Basic computation

n +1 k
n +1 k

P = 3 I k2 RAB + 2 I ka ri I ia ri I ia + 2 I kr ri I ir ri I ir (2.118)
i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1
Taking into account that the current flows for the line sections of the simple
meshed network has been calculated considering only the branch resistances, the
voltage drops of the nodes A and B with respect to the node k can be written as:
k k k
V Ak = ri ( I ia + jI ir ) = ri I ia + j ri I ir
i =1 i =1 i =1
n +1 n +1 n+1
(2.119)
V Bk = r (I
i = k +1
i ia + jI ir ) = rI
i = k +1
i ia + j ri I ir
i = k +1

Assuming equal voltages at both ends V A = V B , the voltage drops of the


nodes A and B with respect to the node k are identical V Ak = V Bk , and
subtracting the first row of equation (2.119) from the second one, one obtains:
n +1 k
n +1 k

i ia ri I ia +
r I j ri I ir ri I ir = 0 (2.120)
i = k +1 i =1 i = k +1 i =1
which leads to:
n +1 k

rI
i = k +1
i ia ri I ia = 0
i =1
n +1 k
(2.121)
r I r I
i = k +1
i ir
i =1
i ir =0

Based on the previous results, relation (2.118) becomes:


P = 3I k2 RAB (2.122)
The previous equation shows that by transforming a simple homogeneous
meshed network, which operates with equal voltages at both ends, into two radial
sub-networks, the active power losses increase. The smallest increase is recorded
on the line section with the smallest current. Consequently, applying the optimal
current pattern method, in order to reduce the active power losses, three steps are
necessary:
a) Closing a loop by switching a line section from the out of service state
to the in operation state;
b) Calculating the optimal currents pattern in the closed loop achieved
previously;
c) Identifying the line section from the loop whose current magnitude is
minimum and switching it in the out of service state.
B. Destructive strategy
Employment of the destructive type strategy for active power losses
reduction is based on the notion of optimal currents pattern in a loop. As presented
Radial and meshed networks 153

in section 2.4.3.1, the destructive strategy consists in subsequent openings of the


loops within a complex meshed network, until the final radial configuration is
achieved. The selection criterion at each computation step of the branch of a loop
that should be switched out of service is based on the conclusions provided by
equation (2.122). The following steps are required:
a) Load flow calculation, considering only the branch resistances;
b) All closed loops are individually analysed, by identifying the origin
nodes and calculating the cumulative resistance of the line sections
between them;
c) Identifying for each loop, the branch with the minimal current and
calculating the power losses variation after switching the branch out of
service;
d) Selecting the branch for which the variation of the power losses P has
the lowest value and switching it out of service.
C. Constructive strategy
Employment of this strategy in the reconfiguration process for active power
losses reducing is based on the results obtained in Appendix A2.2. This strategy
consists in subsequently switching in operation some network branches, until the
final arborescent configuration is achieved. The selection of the branch that should
be switched in operation among the candidate branches at each computation step,
is based on the active power losses increase minimization criterion [2.15], [2.17].
Consider the electric network in Figure 2.32, for which, at a certain
computation step, a choice between introducing either the line section between the
nodes k 1 and k or the line section between the nodes q and q + 1 is necessary
(Fig. 2.34).

A I1 1 Ik-1 k-1 k q q+1 Iq+2 n In+1 B


z1 zk-1 zk zq+1 zq+2 zn+1
VA i1 ik-1 ik iq iq+1 in VB

Fig. 2.34. Selecting the branch that has to be added to the network.

By applying the expression (A2.2.8) to the current flows corresponding to


Figure 2.34, the active power losses variation for both cases becomes:
k k 1 k 1

PA,k = 3 ik2 ri + 2ika ri I ia + 2ikr ri I ir
i =1 i =1 i =1
(2.123)
n +1 n +1 n +1
PB ,q = 3 iq2 ri + 2iqa ri I ia + 2iqr ri I ir
i = q +1 i =k + 2 i=k +2

The choice is done based on the criterion min {PA,k , PB ,q } .


154 Basic computation

2.4.3.3. Reducing and balancing the branch load


This criterion is employed within the reconfiguration process for critical
operating conditions, characterized by the fact that the power flows through
branches closely to the technical capacity, which is the maximum load of the
network branches (I I adm )max , has exceeded a specified value, usually equal to
unity.
The objective function for the branch load reducing criteria can be expressed
as follows:
[
MIN (I I adm )max ] (2.124)
If the objective is the balancing of branch loads, the objective function is
expressed as follows:
1 l I
MIN (2.125)
l k =1 I adm k
While reducing the branch loads is a local criterion, when applied for a single
branch of the network the load balancing on branches is a global criterion, which is
used for the whole network. In the last case the goal is equivalent to obtaining more
or less the same load for all branches. This can be represented mathematically as
[2.21]:
I I I 1 l I
=

I adm 1 I adm 2
= L = =
I adm l l k =1 I adm k
(2.126)

Theoretically, for branch load reduction, elementary branch exchanges for all
branches in out of service state can be performed. To perform only the branch
exchanges that leads to the proposed goal we consider the fact that at an elementary
branch exchange in a certain loop only the current flow through the line sections of
the loop in question will change (Fig. 2.35).
Im
m
k
n
a.
-Im m

k
n
+Im
b.
Fig. 2.35. Variation of currents in a meshed network:
a. before the branch exchange; b. after the branch exchange.
Radial and meshed networks 155

Starting from the previous observation, we conclude that for reduction a


branch load, the necessary condition is to perform branch exchanges only in the
loops that include that branch. Since for each out of service branch only two
elementary exchanges are possible, the second necessary condition is that the
chosen branch exchange should lead to the decrease of current flows through the
branch in question.
The sufficient conditions that ensure this objective are that, by a branch
exchange, a non-zero load should be transferred from a feeder to a neighbouring
one, and on the feeder to which the transfer was performed, no branch load
exceeding the admissible value or the existing load of the branch in question
should emerge. For the network in Figure 2.35, the second sufficient condition is
given by [2.12]:
I l + I m I adml ; l = k + 1,K , n
(2.127)
I m I admmn

For a better understanding, the possible branch exchanges in Figure 2.36


necessary to reduce the load of the branch in question, are presented.

I > Iadm

Fig. 2.36. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the branch load.

2.4.3.4. Reducing the voltage drops


This criteria is employed in the reconfiguration process for critical operating
conditions, characterized by the fact that the voltage drop occurring along some
branches is bigger than the admissible value, or that the minimum voltage node has
a voltage level too low with respect to the voltage of the source node which
supplies it. In this case, by performing branch exchanges, the goal is to achieve the
reduction of the voltage drops along the branches on the path between the source
node and the minimum voltage node. Likewise to the previous method,
theoretically, in order to fulfil this objective, elementary exchanges for all out of
service branches can be performed. In order to perform only those branch
exchanges that can lead to this objective, it should be taken into account that, when
performing an elementary exchange, the current values will change only for the
branches of the loop to which the exchanged branches belong, which leads to
voltage change for all nodes in the arborescent sub-networks that include the
branches of the respective loop. Based on this observation, we conclude that the
first necessary condition to reduce the voltages drop in a network is to perform a
branch exchange that will include at least one of the branches on the path between
the minimum voltage node and the source node that supplies it. From the same
reason as the one when reducing the branch loads, the second necessary condition
156 Basic computation

is that the chosen branch exchange should lead to a voltage drop decrease on the
path considered. The sufficient conditions that ensure this objective are: for a
branch exchange, a non-zero load should be transferred from a feeder to a
neighbouring one, and in the arborescent sub-network for which the transfer was
performed no voltage drops exceeding the admissible value or the existing voltage
drops occurring on the path in question should emerge [2.12].
For a better understanding, the possible branch exchanges performed in the
Figure 2.37 to reduce the voltage drop between the source node and the node in
question, are presented.

Umin
Fig. 2.37. Possible branch exchanges performed to reduce the maximum voltage drop.

Appendix 2.1
EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THE FORWARD/BACKWARD
SWEEP SOLUTION

Consider a simple electric network consisting of a source node and a load node,
linked by an electric line (Fig. A2.1.1).
SA A Z=R+jX 1 S1

VA V1

Fig. A2.1.1. Example of electric network with two nodes.

For this network, the voltage V A at the source node and the complex power S 1 at
the load node are known, and the goal is to establish the operating conditions in which, by
applying the backward/forward sweep, to achieve the load flow results as well as the proof
of their uniqueness.
For the load flow calculation of this network, the voltage at the load node is first
(0)
initialised, V 1 = V A , and then the following calculations are iteratively performed:

S 1*
I ( p) =
3V 1( p 1)*
V 1( p ) = V A Z I ( p ) (A2.1.1)
S (Ap ) = 3V A I ( p )*

where I represents the line current, and p stands for the iteration index.
Radial and meshed networks 157

In order to determine the convergence conditions of the iterative process, it is


necessary to know the complex power S 1 . Because for the general equation (2.34) finding
these conditions is extremely difficult, two particular load modelling cases will be
considered in the following: by constant current or by constant power (these are the most
frequently used models in electric network studies). Therefore:
(1) In the case of load modelling by constant complex current, the line current I ,
obtained from the first relation of (A2.1.1), is constant and independent on the voltage level
at the node 1. Under these conditions, the mathematical model is linear, and the load flow
results are achieved after just a single iteration. Mathematically, V 1 and S A exist and are
well determined for any value taken by the current I . Technically, low or negative values
of the active component of the voltage V 1 , due to a too large voltage drop on the line, are
not accepted.
(2) For the case of load modelling by complex constant power, consider that the
power has the expression S 1 = P1 + jQ1 , with P1 and Q1 constant. Therefore, the
mathematical model is no longer linear, and in order to achieve the load flow results an
iterative computation should be performed. In order to establish the conditions for which
PA , Q A and V1 exist, we start from the relationship between the powers at the two nodes:

PA2 + QA2
PA = P1 + R
3VA2
(A2.1.2)
PA2 + QA2
QA = Q1 + X
3VA2
The voltage V 1 at the load node can be calculated in terms of the voltage V A at the
source node, by means of the relationship:
P1 jQ1
V 1 = V A ( R + jX ) (A2.1.3)
3V 1*
The following relationship exists between the magnitudes of voltages V A and V 1 at
the two ends of the line:
P12 + Q12
3VA2 = 3V12 + 2 ( RP1 + XQ1 ) + R 2 + X 2 ( ) 3V12
(A2.1.4)

Next, the following notations are adopted:


2
R X V
r= ; x= ; v= 1 (A2.1.5)
3VA2 3VA2 VA
obtaining thus the system of equations that describes the network operation, in the form:

A 1 (
P = P + r P2 + Q2
A A )

(
QA = Q1 + x PA + QA
2 2
) (A2.1.6)

(
v 2 1 2 ( rP1 + xQ1 ) v + r 2 + x 2 )( P 1
2
)
+ Q12 = 0
158 Basic computation

The previous system is non-linear, having the unknown variables PA , QA and v. The
first two equations of the set (A2.1.6) define two curves in the system of PA QA co-
ordinates. The crossing points ( PA1 , QA1 ) and ( PA2 , QA2 ) of these curves are in fact the
solutions for the unknown variables PA and QA (Fig. A2.1.2).

Fig. A2.1.2. Defining the solutions


of the single-load network [2.10].

To determine the solutions analytically, from the first two equations in (A2.1.6) we
express the power losses on the line as:

(
P = PA P1 = r PA2 + QA2 ) (A2.1.7)
Q = QA Q1 = x ( PA2 + QA2 )
and, by dividing the two equations, it results:
P r
= (A2.1.8)
Q x
From equations (A2.1.7), the power losses in terms of the load power components
and the power losses components, are:

P = r ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )
2 2

(A2.1.9)
Q = x ( P1 + P ) + ( Q1 + Q )
2 2

Using the equation (A2.1.8) and substituting the unknown variable Q from the
second equation in (A2.1.9) into the first one, we obtain a second order equation where the
variable is P :
r2
P 2 2
r +x
r
2
(1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) P +
r + x2
2 (P
1
2
)
+ Q12 = 0 (A2.1.10)

The solutions are:



r (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )
P11,2 = (A2.1.11)
(
2 r 2 + x2 )
Radial and meshed networks 159

Likewise, we proceed to the calculation of the unknown variable Q :


x (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 ) (1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )
Q11,2 = (A2.1.12)
(
2 r +x2 2
)
Solving the third equation in (A2.1.6), the solutions for the voltage v are obtained:

(1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 )


1 1
v1,2 = rP1 xQ1 (A2.1.13)
2 2
The existence of these solutions is conditioned by the sign of the quantities under to
be square-rooted, i.e:

(1 2rP1 2 xQ1 )2 4 ( r 2 + x 2 )( P12 + Q12 ) 0 (A2.1.14)

On the boundary, the above relation describes a parabola. Considering also the
restriction P1 0 (node 1 being of load type), the existence domain of the solutions of the
system of equations (A2.1.1) is given by the hatched area in Figure A2.1.3.

Q1

1
2 1
2 2
4 P'1 r + x

P1

1
2

2 2
Q'1 r + x

Fig. A2.1.3. The existence domain of the solutions [2.12].

In figure A2.1.3, the following notations have been made:


P1 = ( rP1 + xQ1 ) 2
r +x 2
and Q1 = ( xP1 rQ1 ) 2 2
r + x , representing components of a
rotation of angle = atan ( x r ) , of the system of axes P1 Q1 around the origin.
For technical and psychical reasons [2.9, 2.22, 2.23], of the two values of the
voltage v, only the value with the sign + is accepted. The quantities PA and QA depend
upon the existence and the uniqueness of the quantity v, as expressed in equations (A2.2.1).
The proof of existence and uniqueness of the load flow solution for the general case
of a radial (arborescent) network consisting of n nodes can be obtained by generalizing the
results previously achieved. Applying iteratively the process described earlier, it can be
160 Basic computation

demonstrated that for each branch i of the electric network there is a unique relationship
between the active Pi and reactive Qi power entering (injected) into the branch and the
voltage magnitude U i +1 at the other end of the branch.

Appendix 2.2
THE ACTIVE POWER LOSSES VARIATION AS A RESULT OF A LOAD
VARIATION IN A RADIAL NETWORK

Consider a radial electric network that supplies n loads, whose one-line diagram is
illustrated in Figure A2.2.1. The loads are modelled by constant currents and the lines
sections by series impedances.
A I1 1 I2 2 k-1 Ik k n-1 In n
z1 z2 zk zn
VA
i1 i2 ik-1 ik in-1 in

Fig. A2.2.1. Radial electric network supplying n loads.

For this network, the active power losses variation to a change of the load current at
any node k is of interest. In this respect, the complex power losses are firstly expressed with
the relation:
n n n n
S = 3 [ I ]t [ Z ][ I ] = 3 x I
*
z k I k I *k = 3 z k I k2 = 3 rk I k2 + j 2
k k (A2.2.1)
k =1 k =1 k =1 k =1

where z k is the impedance of the branch k, between the nodes k 1 and k, and I k is the
complex current flowing through the branch k.
In the previous relation the active power losses can be expressed as:
n n
P = 3
k =1
rk I k2 =3 r (I
k =1
k
2
ka + I kr2 ) (A2.2.2)

where I ka and I kr are the active and reactive components of the complex current I k .
The current I k ca be expressed in terms of the load currents as:
n
Ik = i
i=k
i (A2.2.3).

Expanding the equation (A2.2.2) and considering the equation (A2.2.3), it results:

{
P = 3 r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K +

2 2

(A2.2.4)
+ rk ( ika + K + ina ) + ( ikr + K + inr )

2

2 2
+ K + rn ina ( 2
+ inr )}
In the previous equation the line sections resistances are considered to be constant.
Also, consider that the load currents are constant, except the current at the load connected
Radial and meshed networks 161

to the node k. In order to calculate the power losses variation in the whole network for a
variation of the current i k , the expansion of expression of P from equation (A2.2.4)
using Taylor series is performed in the vicinity of the operating point, in terms of the
quantities ika and ikr [2.12]:

Not ( P ) ( P ) 1 ( P ) 2
2
( P ) = P = ika + ikr + ika +
ika ikr 2
2 ika
(A2.2.5)
( P )
2
( P ) 2 2
+2 ika ikr + ikr + K
ika ikr 2
ikr

The partial derivatives that emerges in this expansion have the expressions:
( P )
= 3 2r1 ( i1a + K + ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rk ( ika + K + ina ) + K + 2rn ina
ika
( P )
= 3 2r1 ( i1r + K + ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rk ( ikr + K + inr ) + K + 2rn inr
ikr

2 ( P )
2
= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn
ika
(A2.2.6)
2 ( P )
=0
ika ikr

2 ( P )
2
= 32r1 + K + 2rk + K + 2rn
ika

p ( P )
= 0 () p 3, q p
q
ika ikrp q

Replacing the equations from (A2.2.6) in (A2.2.5) and taking into account (A2.2.3),
it results:

P = 3 2 ( r1 I1a + r2 I 2 a + K + rk I ka ) ika + 2 ( r1 I1r + r2 I 2 r + K + rk I kr ) ikr +


(A2.2.7)
(
+ ( r1 + r2 + K + rk ) ika
2 2
+ ikr )
The latter equation express the active power losses variation in the network due to
the change of current in node k, of the form i k = ika + j ikr :

2 k k k

(
P = 3 ika 2
+ ikr ) r + 2i r I
i ka i ia + 2ikr r I i ir

(A2.2.8)
i =1 i =1 i =1

Likewise, the expression of the reactive power losses variation due to the change of
current in node k is:
162 Basic computation

2 k k k
(
Q = 3 ika 2
+ ikr ) xi + 2ika xi I ia + 2ikr x I i ir (A2.2.9)
i =1 i =1 i =1
Neglecting the reactance of the line sections, the voltage drop V Ak between the
nodes A and k becomes:
k k
V Ak = VAk + jVAk =
i =1
ri I ia + j r I
i =1
i ir (A2.2.10)

and the expression of the active power losses variation becomes [2.19]:

k
P = 3 ik2

r + 2 Re {i V }
i k
*
Ak (A.2.2.11)
i =1
where Re stands for the real part, and * indicates the complex conjugate.

Chapter references
[2.1] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (in
Romanian) (Electric networks. Electric calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,
1974.
[2.2] Grainger, J.T., Stevenson, W.D. Power systems analysis, Mc Graw-Hill, 1994.
[2.3] Eremia, M., Trecat, J., Germond, A. Rseaux lectriques. Aspects actuels,
Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 2000.
[2.4] Debs, A. Modern power systems control and operation: A study of real time
operation of power utility control centers, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
[2.5] Guill, A.E., Paterson, W. Electrical power systems. Volume one. 2nd Edition,
Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1979.
[2.6] Weedy, B.M. Electrical power systems. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, New York, 1979.
[2.7] Poeat, A., Arie, A.A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, V., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Transmission and distribution of
electric energy), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[2.8] El-Hawary, M. Electrical power systems. Design and analysis (Revised
printing), IEEE Press, New York, 1995.
[2.9] Eremia, M., Criciu, H., Ungureanu, B., Bulac, C. Analiza asistat de calculator
a regimurilor sistemelor electroenergetice (Computer aided analysis of the
electric power systems regimes), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1985.
[2.10] Chiang, H.D., Baran, M. On the Existence and Uniqueness of Load Flow
Solution for Radial Distribution Power Network, IEEE Transactions on Circuits
and Systems, Vol. 37, No. 3, March 1990.
[2.11] Bart, A. Reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution en rgime critique et
dfaillant, Thse 1176, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, 1993.
[2.12] Tritiu, I. Reconfigurarea reelelor electrice de distribuie de medie tensiune
(Reconfiguration of distribution electric networks of medium voltage), Ph.D. Thesis,
Universitatea Politehnica din Bucureti, 1998.
Radial and meshed networks 163

[2.13] Baran, M., Wu, F. Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems for Loss
Reduction and Load Balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.4,
No.2, April 1989.
[2.14] Goswami, S.K., Bassu, S.K. A new Algorithm for the Reconfiguration of
Distribution Feeders for Loss Minimisation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,
Vol.7, No.3, July 1992.
[2.15] Cherkaoui, R. Mthodes heuristiques pour la recherche de configurations
optimales d'un rseau lectrique de distribution. Thse 1052, Ecole Polytechnique
Fdrale de Lausanne, 1992.
[2.16] Tritiu, I., Eremia, M., Ulmeanu, P., Bulac, C., Bulac, A.I., Mazilu, G. Un
nouveau mode daborder la reconfiguration des rseaux de distribution urbaine,
CIGRE, Black Sea El Net Regional Meeting, Suceava, 10-14 June 2001.
[2.17] Cherkaoui, R., Germond, A. Structure optimale de schma dexploitation dun
rseau lectrique de distribution. Energetica Revue, Nr.5 B, 1994.
[2.18] Florea, A.M. Elemente de Inteligen Artificial, Vol. I, Principii i Modele.
(Elements of artificial intelligence. Vol. I, Principles and models) Litografia
Universitii Politehnica din Bucureti, Bucureti, 1993.
[2.19] Cinvalar, S., Grainger, J.J., Yin, H., Lee, S.S.H. Distribution feeder
reconfiguration for loss reduction, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.3,
No.3, April 1988.
[2.20] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W. Reconfiguration on electric distribution
networks for loss reduction and load balancing, IEEE Transactions on Power
Delivery, Vol.4, No.2, April 1989.
[2.21] Kashem, M.A., Ganapathy, V., Jasmon, G.B. Network reconfiguration for load
balancing in distribution networks, Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
IEE Proceedings, Volume: 146 Issue: 6, Nov. 1999.
[2.22] Potolea, E. Calculul regimurilor de funcionare a sistemelor electroenergetice
(Calculation of the operating regimes of the power systems), Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti 1977.
[2.23] Barbier, C., Barret, J.P. Analyse des phnomnes dcroulement de tension sur
un rseau de transport, Revue Gnrale dElectricit, Tome 89, No.10, October
1980.
[2.24] Augugliaro, A., Dusonchet, L., Favuzza, S., Ippolito, M.G., Riva Sanseverino, E.
A new model of PV nodes in distribution networks backward/forward analysis,
39th International Universities Power Engineering Conference UPEC 2004, 6-8
September 2004, Bristol, England.
[2.25] Shirmohammadi, D., Hong, H.W., Semlyen, A., Luo, G.X. A compensation-
based power flow method for weakly meshed distribution and transmission
networks, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.3, No.2, May 1988.
Chapter 3
AC TRANSMISSION LINES

For long-distance energy transmission hundred of kilometres, either AC or


DC, long lines powered at high (HV) and extra high voltages (EHV) are used.
These lines present a set of operating peculiarities and therefore their modelling is
different from distribution short lines modelling (with respect to wavelength).
Accurate analysis of phenomena that occur on EHV transmission long lines
does not have to consider the line parameters as lumped, as performed in the case
of medium or low voltage powered lines, instead of uniformly distributed along the
line.
The following assumptions can be made in this regard [3.1]:
a) The leakage current and conduction current through dielectric are
approximately equal to the value of current flowing through the series impedance
and therefore they cannot be neglected anymore;
b) For no-load conditions of the line, the conduction current at the source is
non-zero. The no-load current is capacitive and varies from a cross-section to
another: the current increases from the receiving-end (load) toward the sending-end
(source), and the voltage increases from the source toward the receiving-end. This
increase in voltage is known as Ferranti phenomenon and is more pronounced as
the length of line increases (i.e. for L = 4 = 1500 km , the voltage for no-load
conditions could theoretically reach infinite values).
Therefore, if a transmission line with uniformly distributed parameters is
supplied with a sinusoidal voltage, in every point of the line the voltage and current
have a sinusoidal variation in time, but their magnitude depends on the position of
the considered point along the line.

3.1. Operating equations under steady state


Consider a very short section x, from a line of length L, at a distance x
measured from the receiving-end (Fig. 3.1). By applying Kirchhoffs theorems
obtain:
Voltage drop in section x is:
V (x + x ) V (x ) = z 0 x I (x ) (3.1)
166 Basic computation

Shunt current passing through y 0 x is:

I (x + x ) I (x ) = y 0 xV ( x ) (3.2)

I(L) I(x+x) z0x I(x) I(0)

V(L) V(x+x) y0x V(x) V(0)


I(0)
I(L) x x
L x=0
Source Load

Fig. 3.1. Equivalent circuit of a transmission line telegraph equations.

Equation (3.1) can be written as:


V (x + x ) V (x )
= z 0 I (x )
x
In the limit, when x 0 ,
V (x + x ) V (x )
lim = z 0 I (x )
x 0 x
or
dV (x )
= z 0 I (x ) (3.3)
dx
for current respectively obtain:
d I (x )
= y 0 V (x ) (3.4)
dx
Differentiating with respect to x it results:
d V (x ) d I (x )
2

2
= z0
dx dx

d I ( x ) y dV ( x )
2
= 0
dx 2 dx
or taking into account equations (3.3) and (3.4) obtain:
d V (x )
2
= z 0 y 0 V (x ) (3.5)
dx 2

d I (x )
2
= z 0 y 0 I (x ) (3.6)
dx 2
AC transmission lines 167

where: z 0 = r0 + jx0 = r0 + jl0 is per length complex impedance of the line;


y 0 = g 0 + jb0 = g 0 + jc0 per length complex admittance of the line.

Equations (3.5) and (3.6) are known as telegraph equations, which define the
electromagnetic energy transfer along the long lines.
The voltage V (x ) and current I (x ) are unique solutions of a second-order
differential equation with constant coefficients. Knowing the form of a solution for
V (x ) and I (x ) , we can deduce the other solution. The general solution for V (x )
from (3.5) can be written in exponential form as:
V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)

where A1 , A2 and are integration constants.

Calculating the second order derivative:

d V (x ) 2
= (A1 e x + A2 e x ) = V (x )
2
2
(3.8)
dx 2
and equating with (3.5) we obtain:
2
= z0 y0

Thus, the expression of the complex propagation coefficient will be:


2
= z 0 y 0 or = z 0 y 0 = (r0 + jx0 )(g0 + jb0 ) (3.9)

The propagation coefficient can also be expressed as:


= + j (3.9')

where: is the attenuation coefficient, [nepers/m], depending on the voltage and


current magnitude variation on the line;
the phase coefficient, [rad/m], expressing the voltage or current
phase variation in two points on the line.
By substituting (3.7) in (3.3) obtain:
dV ( x ) d
= (A1 e x + A2 e x ) = (A1 e x A2 e x ) = z 0 I (x )
dx dx
respectively:

I (x ) = (A1 ex A2 e x ) = 1
(A1 ex A2 e x ) (3.10)
z0 ZC

If consider
168 Basic computation

z0 z0 z r0 + jx0
= = 0 =
z0 y y0 g0 + jb0
0

so the ratio
z0
ZC = + (3.11)
y0

is called characteristic impedance (or surge impedance) of the electric line.


Observation: For a lossless electric line, r0 0 and g 0 0 , the characteristic
impedance has the dimension of a resistance. The minus sign has no meaning
because there is no negative resistance.
The propagation coefficient and the characteristic impedance Z C of the
line reflect the geometrical and material properties (of the conductor and dielectric
environment) and characterize the electromagnetic energy propagation. They do
not depend on the line length. Parameters , , and Z C are called secondary
parameters of the electric line and they can be inferred from the primary
parameters r0, l0, c0, g0.
In order to determine the constants A1 and A2, the conditions in the limit
imposed at the input and output terminals of the circuit are used. Therefore:
At the receiving-end, for x = 0, obtain:
V (0 ) = V B = A1 + A2

1
I (0 ) = I B = ( A1 A2 )
ZC
resulting in:
A1 = 1 2 (V B + Z C I B ) (3.12')

A2 = 1 2 (V B Z C I B ) (3.12'')

Substituting (3.12') and (3.12'') in (3.7) obtain:


x x x x
V (x ) =
1
(V B + Z C I B )ex + 1 (V B Z C I B )e x = V B e + e + Z C I B e e
2 2 2 2
or
( ) (
V ( x ) = cosh x V B + Z C sinh x I B ) (3.13)

Likewise, the equation of current is obtained:


( ) (
I (x ) = Y C sinh x V B + cosh x I B ) (3.14)

The matrix equation that gives the voltage and current in terms of the output
quantities, in a point placed at the distance x, is:
AC transmission lines 169

V (x ) cosh x Z C sinh x V B
I (x ) = Y sinh x cosh x I B
C
At the sending-end, for x = L, obtain:

V A cosh L Z C sinh L V B
I = Y sinh L cosh L I B
(3.15)
A C
The coefficients of the long lines equations are:
A = D = cosh L ; B = Z C sinh L ; C = Y C sinh L

Since the coefficients fulfill the necessary condition of a passive four-


terminal network, that is:

AD BC = cosh 2 L sinh 2 L = 1

it results that any electric long line can be represented through an equivalent four-
terminal network (Fig.3.2).

IA IB
A=coshL B= ZCsinhL
VA VB
C =Y CsinhL D=coshL

Fig. 3.2. Equivalent four-terminal network of an electric line.

In the case when the input quantities V A , I A are given and output quantities
V B , I B are required we obtain:
1
V B cosh L Z C sinh L V A cosh L Z C sinh L V A
I = Y sinh L =
cosh L I A Y C sinh L cosh L I A
B C
(3.16)

3.2. Propagation of voltage and current waves


on a transmission line

3.2.1. Physical interpretation


In order to emphasize the physical aspect of propagation of the voltage and
current waves on a line, the following equations are written again:
170 Basic computation

V (x ) = A1 e x + A2 e x (3.7)

I (x ) =
1
(A1 ex A2 e x ) (3.10)
ZC

where the constant A1 will be determined in terms of the input quantities, that is for
x=L:
V A = A1 e L + A2 e L

Z C I A = A1 e L A2 e L
Adding these equations the following expression results:
1
A1 = (V + Z C I A)e L (3.17)
2 A
For the constant A2 the value from (3.12''), determined in terms of the output
quantities, will be kept. Substituting (3.17) and (3.12'') in (3.7) obtain:
1
V (x ) = (V A + Z C I A)e Lex + 1 (V B Z C I B )e x
2 2
or taking into consideration Figure 3.3,a:
V ( x ) = V A e x ' + V B e x
' '
(3.18)

where
1
'
VA = (V + Z C I A) = V A' e j a
2 A
1
'
VB = (V B Z C I B ) = VB' e j b
2
Taking into account that = + j it results that:

V (x ) = V A e j (a x ) e x + V B e j (b x ) e x
' '

Expressing in instantaneous values, the voltage is a function of t and x:


V (x,t ) = 2VA' sin (t x + a )e x + 2VB' sin (t x + b )e x (3.19)
or
V (x, t ) = Vd ( x' ,t ) + Vr ( x,t )

Thus, in any point and any instant of time, the voltage is a sum of two waves
of decreasing phase angle:
AC transmission lines 171

direct travelling wave, which propagates from the source toward the
consumer, of preponderant magnitude, V A = (V A + Z C I A ) 2 and which is
'

exponentially damped with the coefficient e x ' (Fig. 3.3,b);


L
x
x=L x=0
x'=L-x
a.
Vd t t+t
2 VA e-x -x
Vr
2 VB e
v v
x' x

x'=vt
b. c.
Fig. 3.3. Travelling waves propagation along a transmission line: a. defining of line
section, b. direct travelling wave propagation, c. reflected travelling wave propagation.

reflected travelling wave, which propagates from the consumer to the


source (in the opposite direction of the energy transfer), of lower magnitude
V B = (V B Z C I B ) 2 with respect to the direct waves, and which is exponentially
'

damped with the coefficient e x (Fig. 3.3,c).


In any point x, there is a superposition of travelling waves resulting in a
stationary wave.
Velocity and direction of propagation
In order to determine the velocity and direction of propagation of the waves,
two successive points along the line, having the same phase angle, are considered.
If the voltage phase angle at the instant t and the distance x' is equal, by definition,
to the voltage phase angle at the instant ( t + t ) and the distance ( x'+ x' ), then it
can be written:
t x' + a = (t + t ) (x'+x')+ a
from where it results:
t x' = 0
or in the limit:
x'
= =
t
where v is the velocity of propagation of the wave.
172 Basic computation

It results that the direct travelling wave Vd (x' , t ) is moving in the positive
direction along the x-axis, with the same velocity = / ; for this reason Vd (x' , t )
is called direct wave.
Likewise, for the second travelling wave, obtain:
x
= =v
t

that is Vr (x, t ) is moving in the positive direction along the x-axis, thus in the
opposite direction from the direct travelling wave, with the same velocity = / .
Therefore, Vr (x, t ) is a reflected or inverse wave.
For lossless electric lines, that is for r0 0 and g 0 0 , from equation of
propagation coefficient (3.9), it results:

j x0b0 = j l0c0 = j (3.20)

where = l0c0 .

If substitute in the expression of velocity of propagation of the waves


obtain:
1
v= = (3.21)
l 0 c0
Returning to the equation (3.9) and taking into account (3.21) obtain:
j 2f 2 2
= j = j = j (3.20')
T
It should be mentioned that in the case of lossless overhead lines, the velocity
of propagation of the waves is independent on the frequency and it is equal to the
velocity of the light in vacuum, which is 300.000 km/s. In all the other cases, the
velocity of propagation of the waves is lower than the velocity of the light. As a
consequence, the wavelength of the AC powered electric lines (with frequency
of 50 Hz) is equal to:
v 300.000 km/s
= = = 6000 km
f 50 Hz

only when the power losses on the line can be neglected.


Therefore, the propagation phenomenon is periodical in space after every
6000 km. Generally, of interest are the lines with lengths of l/4=1500 km and
l/2=3000 km
Proceeding in a similar manner for current travelling waves, obtain:
AC transmission lines 173

I (x ) = I A e x I B e x = I A' e j a e ( + j )x I B' e j b e ( + j )x
' '

and in instantaneous values respectively:

I ( x,t ) = 2 I A' sin (t x'+ a )e- x ' 2 I B' sin (t x + b )e x (3.22)

Observations:
The reflected waves of current have opposite sign with respect to the direct
current waves as compared to the voltage waves that bear the same sign;
The damping factor attached to both the direct waves ( e x ' ) and the
reflected waves ( e x ) shows that the propagation phenomenon on real lines, with
resistance and shunt admittance, operates with electric energy losses.

3.2.2. Apparent characteristic power. Natural power


(SIL surge impedance loading)
The operation of an electric line without reflected wave is more favourable,
from the economic point of view, because in this case energy losses decrease and
in consequence the transmission efficiency improves. Under these circumstances,
'
the term V B from equation (3.18) becomes zero, that is:

1
VB =
'
(V B Z C I B ) = 0
2
so that
VB V
IB = = B
Z C Z load

By the notion of characteristic impedance Z C understand a value of the


impedance of the consumer from the point B for which there can be no reflected
waves, that is with minimum losses on the line. Thus, when the receiving-end B of
the line is closed on an impedance of value equal to the characteristic impedance,
the propagation phenomenon occurs as if the considered line is of infinite length ).
In this case, the impedance measured at the sending-end of the line (source) is also
equal to the characteristic impedance Z C , respectively to the impedance measured
at the receiving-end of the line (load).
The apparent power demanded by the consumer, under such circumstances
regime without reflected waves is called characteristic apparent power ( S C ). The
expression of the single-phase characteristic apparent power at the consumer is:

)
The ratio of voltage to current at any point along an infinite line is a constant equal to the
characteristic impedance of the line [3.2].
174 Basic computation

* VB2
S B 0,C = V B I B = *
ZC

or, if is the angle of characteristic impedance Z C :

VB2 VB2 V2
S B 0,C = = = B (cos + j sin )
[ZC (cos + j sin )]* Z C (cos j sin ) Z C

In the regime without reflected wave, where V B = Z C I B , the equations


(3.13) and (3.14) become:

(
V (x ) = V B cosh x + sinh x = V B e x )
( )
I (x ) = I B sinh x + cosh x = I B e x

The characteristic single-phase apparent power in a point x on the line can be


determined from expression:

S 0,C (x ) = V ( x )I ( x ) = V B I B e( + )x = S B 0,C e 2x
*
* *

Since is very small for overhead electric lines, the characteristic


impedance having a high resistive component, the dominant term of the
characteristic apparent power S B 0, C will be the active characteristic power:

VB2
PB 0,C = cos
ZC

respectively:
P0,C ( x ) = PB 0,C e 2 x

Since the attenuation coefficient has a small value, the active power
P0,C ( x ) does not vary much along the line, being almost of the same value as
characteristic active power absorbed by the consumer P0,C (x ) PB 0,C .
Furthermore, in the case of lossless electric lines the attenuation coefficient is
zero, that is = 0 and thus j , and the characteristic impedance becomes a
resistance; under these circumstances PB 0,C is conserved along the line, being a
characteristic constant called natural power or surge impedance loading:

VB2
PB 0,C = P0, N =
ZC
AC transmission lines 175

For a transfer of active power, the voltage is the same along the entire length of
the line and assuming this is equal to the nominal voltage, then P0, N = Vn2 Z C . The
three-phase natural power is:
PN = 3 P0, N = U n2 Z C

where: Un is phase-to-phase nominal voltage;


ZC characteristic impedance of the lossless line.
The three-phase natural power is an index in designing the transmission
capacity of the lines. In Table 3.1, several natural power values corresponding to
different operating nominal voltages are given.

Table 3.1
Un [kV] 20 110 220 400 750
Overhead
1 30 120 400500 1800
PN lines
[MW] Underground
10 300 12001400 20002500 40005000
lines

Such regime of natural power has the following characteristics:


the equivalent impedance of the line and of the consumer, determined in
every point of the line, is the same and equal to the characteristic impedance;
the phase angle between current and voltage in every point of the line has
the same value. If consider a lossless line, then the voltage and current are in phase
at the receiving-end of the line as well as in any point of the line;
the voltage and current values do not change much along the line, and if
the line is without losses, they remain constant; instead only phase angle will shift
in proportion to the line length;
the power transmitted on the line under this regime has a strong active
characteristic.
A phenomenon specific to long lines will appears: although on the line there
are inductive and capacitive reactive power losses, the line absorbs from the source
only active power. The explanation is as follows: the inductive reactive power
losses occurring on the line reactance are compensated by the capacitive reactive
power generated by the line. In this respect, for the line without losses on resistance
and conductance ( r0 0 , g 0 0 ) consider the inductive and capacitive losses per
length unit:
Qind = I 2 x0 ; Qcap = V 2b0

From their ratio it results:


2
Qind I 2 x0 I x0
2
1
= 2 = = 2 Z C2 = 1

Qcap V b0 V b0 ZC
176 Basic computation

Therefore, on every segment of the line, inductive and capacitive reactive


powers are reciprocally compensated. Thus, under natural power regime the line
does not absorb reactive power at its ends; it is said that the line is self-
compensated.

3.3. Coefficients of transmission lines equations


For the numerical solving of long lines equations (3.15) the determination of
coefficients cosh L , sinh L , Z C sinh L , Y C sinh L is needed. Since the
quantity is a complex number, the coefficients of long lines, equations are
hyperbolic functions of complex quantities.

3.3.1. Numerical determination of propagation coefficient


In order to determine the numerical values of the complex propagation
coefficient for underground cables and overhead lines, either algebraic method or
trigonometric method can be used.
Algebraic method enables us to determine the constants and by
considering the real parts of the square equation (3.9) and the magnitude square of
coefficient. The following equations are obtained:

r0 g 0 x0 g 0 = 2 2

(r
0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 = 2 + 2

then

=
1
(r 0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =
2
1
= z 0 y 0 + (r0 g 0 x0b0 )
2

=
1
(r 0
2
)( )
+ x02 g 02 + b02 (r0 g 0 x0b0 ) =
2
1
= z 0 y 0 (r0 g 0 x0b0 )
2
Trigonometric method. In this respect, the expression of complex propagation
coefficient is considered:

= z0 y0 = (r0 + j x0 )(g0 + j b0 ) = + j
AC transmission lines 177

By expressing:
z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0'
where
tan = x0 r0 ; tan ' = b0 g0
it results
'
= z 0 y 0 + =
2 2
The magnitude of propagation coefficient can be expressed as follows:

r 2 g 2
= 4 (r 2
2
+ 0 0 0
x g 2
+)(
b 2
= )x b 1 + 0 1 + 0
x0 b0
0 0 0 4

(3.23)
= x0b0 4 (1 + cot 2 )(1 + cot 2 ) = x0b0
1
sin sin
Taking into account (3.20'), the expression of magnitude becomes:
= 2 / (3.23')
where
= 0 sin sin (3.24)

is the equivalent wavelength of the line with losses, and 0 the wavelength
corresponding to the electromagnetic waves of T period, propagating on a lossless
line.
In order to simply the calculation, the following assumption can be taken into
consideration:
If neglect the shunt power losses ( g 0 0 that is tan ' , ' = 90 ,
sin ' = 1 ) the expression (3.23') becomes:
2 2
= (3.23'')
0 sin '
where
' = 0 sin (3.24')

The value of can be expressed as:


0 0
' = 0 sin = =
4
1+ cot 2 r
2
4 1 + 0
x0
178 Basic computation

Furthermore, if consider r0 << x0 then the expansion of the square root of


denominator by means of binomial theorem is made and keeping only a reduced
number of terms, achieve:
0

2
1 r0
1 +
2 x0

respectively the magnitude of propagation coefficient:


2
2 1 r
1 + 0 (3.23''')
0 2 x0

For a lossless transmission line ( ' = 90 , = 90 ), from (3.23'') it results:


2 6.28
vacuum = = 1.05 103
0 6000

Propagation coefficient angle , is determined by assuming that shunt


losses are neglected ( g 0 0 , that is ' = 90 ). It results:
+ + 90
= = or 2 = + 90
2 2
then
r0
tan 2 = tan ( + 90) = cot =
x0

It is known that the tangent is negative between 2 and ; since is a


positive angle, that means 2 is in the interval from 2 to . Consequently, we
can write:
2 = atan (r0 x0 )

atan(r0 x0 ) being considered in the interval from 0 to 2 .

Taking into account that r0 x0 << 1 , atan(r0 x0 ) can be approximated to


r0 x0 , that is:
r0

2 2 x0
Therefore:
r r r
= cos cos 0 = sin 0 0 [Nepers/km] (3.25)
2 2 x0 2 x0 2 x0
AC transmission lines 179

respectively
OEL = sin = 1.05 103 [rad/km]
since r0 2 x0 << 1 and 90 .
In the case of lossless electric lines, from (3.25) and taking into account
(3.20) obtain:
r0 1 b 1 r0
= x0b0 = r0 0 (3.25')
2 x0 2 x0 2 Z C

If consider 10 3 , and knowing that for overhead lines the inductive


reactance varies from x0 = 0.28 [/km] (4 bundled sub-conductors) to
x0 = 0.42 [ / km] (one conductor per phase) obtain:
r0 r r
OEL = = 0 K 0 [nepers/km]
2(280K 420) 560 840
For lossless underground lines, the velocity of propagation is theoretically
300.000 km/s
equal to = , where r is the relative permittivity of dielectric. For
r
cables insulated with impregnated paper, r = 3.6 K 4 , which leads to a
wavelength of [3.1]:
300.000 km/s
0 = = 3000 K 3150 [km]
f 50 3.6 K 4
Assume the reactance of three-phase underground lines lies in the interval
from 0.06 to 0.13 /km. This means:
2
UEL = (2.09 K 2 ) 10 3
3000K3150

r0 r0
UEL = UEL = [nepers/km]
2 x0 60 K 130

UEL UEL = (2.08 K 2 ) 103 [rad/km]

3.3.2. Numerical determination of characteristic impedance


By definition, the expression of characteristic impedance has the form:

z0
ZC = = Z C = Z C' + j Z C"
y0
180 Basic computation

where
z 0 = z0 ; y 0 = y0 '

tan = x0 r0 ; tan ' = b0 g 0


respectively the characteristic impedance angle:
= ( ') 2
Characteristic impedance magnitude
2
r
2 2
1+ 0
z0 r0 + x0 x x0 = x0 1 + cot 2
ZC = =4 2 2
= 0 4 2
4
y0 g 0 + b0 b0 g0 b0 1 + cot 2 '
1+
b0
x0 sin ' x sin sin '
= = 0
b0 sin sin x0b0

Taking into consideration the relations:


x0 2
z0 = ; = x0b0 =
sin 0

and if for overhead lines may assume g 0 0 ( sin ' = 1 ), it results:

sin sin
Z C z0 = z0 0
2
or
' 6000
Z C z0 = z0 1000 z0
2 2
In terms of the value of the per length impedance z0 = (0.28 K 0.4) /km,
we obtain for overhead lines the following values Z C = (280 K 400) .
Characteristic impedance angle
Let
= ( ') 2 ( 90) 2
or
2 = 90 = (90 )
respectively
tan 2 = tan (90 ) = cot = r0 x0
AC transmission lines 181

= 1 2 atan (r0 x0 )

Taking into account that r0 x0 << 1 it results that:

= r0 2x0

In the case of overhead lines when ' = 2 and r0 << x0 it results that is
negative and close to zero, that is in the interval from -15 to 0.
The components Z C' and Z C'' of the characteristic impedance are obtained as
follows:
Z C' = Z C cos Z C = z0 ( ' 2 ) = 280K 400

where have been taken into consideration that is very small, thus cos = 1 ; the
values close to 280 correspond to lossless overhead lines, with twin conductors;
the values close to 400 correspond to the lines with only one conductor per
phase.
1 r 1 r 1 r0
Z C" = Z C sin Z C sin 0 0 Z C = =
2 x0 2 x0 2 x0b0
1 6000
= r0 0 = r0 = 477 r0 []
4 4 3.14
Notice that:
the real part Z C' is dominant, the characteristic impedance behaves like a
resistance;
the imaginary part Z C'' has the minus sign, therefore it is a capacitive
reactance.
Underground electric lines have characteristic impedance much smaller than
the overhead lines. Therefore, the impedance value varies in a wider range in terms
of the cable type and the insulating material. For cables insulated with paper having
the reactance in the interval from 0.06 /km to 0.130 /km and for
0 = 3000K3150 [km] , then Z C = 30 K 65 [] .

3.3.3. Numerical calculation of A, B, C and D coefficients


As it has been shown in paragraph 3.2, the transmission lines coefficients
are:
A = D = cosh L ; B = Z C sinh L ; C = Y C sinh L

For the numerical calculation of the coefficients, series expansion of


hyperbolic functions is used:
182 Basic computation

cosh L = cosh z 0 y 0 L = cosh z y = 1+


( zy) + ( zy) + ( zy) K
2 4 6

2! 4! 6!
that is
2 2 4 4
zy z y z y
A = D = cosh z y = 1 + + + +K
2 24 720
zy

B = Z C sinh L = Z C sinh z y = Z C +
( zy) + ( zy)
3 5


+ K =
1! 3! 5!

(3.26)

=
z

zy +
( zy) ( )
3

+
zy
5

z y z 2 y 2 z3 y3
+ K = z 1 + + +

+ K
y 6 120
6 120 5040


2 2
zy z y
3 3
z y

C = Y C sinh L = y 1 + + + + K
6 120 5040

Comments:
For OEL of L < 650 km or UEL of L < 50 km, generally, the term L is
smaller than 1 (e.g. for OEL L = 1.05 10 3 650 = 0.682 ) and only the first two
terms of the series expansion can be taken into account;
For L > 1000 km the magnitude of L becomes greater than 1 and
therefore the superior order terms cannot be neglected anymore;
For L < 250 km obtain A = 1 , B = z , C = y .
Thus, for transmission lines of usual 300 500 km lengths, the first two
terms of the expansion can be used with a good approximation.

3.3.4. Kennellys correction coefficients


As has been mentioned, transmission electric lines have uniformly distributed
parameters (Fig. 3.4,a).

I1 Z I2

V1 Y Y V2
2 2

a. b.
Fig. 3.4. Equivalent circuits:
a. uniformly distributed parameters; b. lumped parameters.
AC transmission lines 183

Let us consider the equivalent circuit with lumped parameters (Fig. 3.4,b)
for which the matrix equation can be written as:

V 1 1 0 1 Z 1 0 V A B V 2
I = Y
Y 2 =
1 0 1 1 I 2 C D I 2
1 2 2
where the equivalent four-terminal network coefficients are given by the
expressions:
Z Y
A = 1 + ; B = Z
2
(3.27)
Z Y Z Y
C = Y 1 + ; D = 1 +
4 2

Expressions (3.27) are approximate if Z = z 0 L = z and Y = y 0 L = y are the


rated impedance respectively the rated total admittance of the line. For more
accuracy Kennellys correction coefficients are determined. In this regard, let us
equate the long lines coefficients A, B, C and D with the ones of four-terminal
network:
Z Y
A = A or 1 + = cosh L
2
2 2
zy z y
B = B or Z = Z C sinh L z 1 + + + ... (3.28)
6 120

Therefore:
Z = K1 z
where the first Kennellys correction coefficient is:
2 2
zy z y
K1 = 1 + + + ...
6 120
Substituting Z = Z C sinh L in the first equation from (3.28) it results that:
Y
1 + Z C sinh L = cosh L
2
then
L
Y A 1 cosh L 1 2 sinh 2 1 L
= = = 2 = tanh (3.29)
2 B Z C sin h L L L ZC 2
2 Z C sinh cosh
2 2
184 Basic computation

If the expression
1 1 y0 y
= = =
ZC z0 z0 y0 zy
y0

is substituted in (3.29) obtain:


zy
tanh
y zy y 2 y
Y = K
= tanh =
2 zy 2 2 zy 2 2

2
The second Kennellys correction coefficient is given by:

zy
2
zy
5


zy 2
tanh 2
2 1 zy 2 ... =
K2 = = +
zy zy 2 3 15
2 2


2 2
zy z y
=1 + ... for OEL longer than 300 km.
12 120
It results that the use of equivalent circuit leads to the same results for
voltage and current at the ends, as in the case of using long lines equations, only if
the parameters z and y are corrected with Kennellys coefficients K 1 and K 2 .
For a faster calculation of Kennellys coefficients, the expressions of A and B
coefficients obtained from series expansion of trigonometric functions can be used.
Therefore:

zy z y z2 y2
y1 + y 1
Y A 1 cosh z y 1 12 12 72
= = = y1 z y
2 B Z C sinh z y zy 2 12
1+ zy
6 1
6
In the case of the lossless line, that is r0 0 and g 0 0 , it results:

z j x ; y jb

If substitute z and y in the Kennellys coefficients expressions, obtain:


AC transmission lines 185

zy jx jb xb
K1 = 1 + 1+ =1
6 6 6
zy jx jb xb
K 2 =1 1 =1+
12 12 12

3.4. Transmitted power on the lossless line


Consider the operating equation (3.13) of a long transmission line:
( ) (
V (x ) = cosh x V B + Z C sinh x I B ) (3.13)

For the ideal case of a lossless transmission line ( r0 0 , g 0 0 ) the


complex propagation coefficient has the simplified form:
2
= z 0 y 0 j x0b0 = j l0c0 = j = j
0

Taking into account the simplified expression of , the other quantities can
be obtained:
2 2
cosh x = cosh j x = cos x = cos
0 0

where = 2x 0 is the angle of the line (in degrees), corresponding to the length
x measured from the consumer node:
2 2
sinh x = sinh j x = j sin x = j sin
0 0

z0 x l
ZC = 0 = 0 = ZC
y0 b0 c0

The above equation shows that the characteristic impedance for a lossless line
becomes a simple resistance.
Under these circumstances, equation (3.13) becomes:
V (x ) = V B cos + jZ C I B sin (3.30)

for x=L respectively, that is at the sending-end of the transmission line


L = 2L 0 :
V A = V B cos L + jZ C I B sin L

where: I B = (PB 0 jQB 0 ) V B .


*
186 Basic computation

Considering the voltage phasor at node B as reference V B = VB 0 , the


voltage phasor in node A can be expressed in two ways:
P jQB 0
V A = VB cos L + jZ C sin L B 0

VB
V A = V A e j = V A (cos + j sin )
Equating the real and imaginary parts, from the right side of the last two
expressions deduce the expressions of active and reactive powers at the receiving-
end B:
VA VB
PB 0 = sin (3.31)
Z C sin L

VB (VA cos VB cos L )


QB 0 = (3.32)
Z C sin L

Likewise, the expressions of the powers at the sending-end can be obtained:


VA VB
PA0 = sin (3.33)
Z C sin L

VA (VA cos L VB cos )


QA0 = (3.34)
Z C sin L
For short electric lines (from electrical point of view) it can be considered
that Z C sin L Z C L = X L , respectively cos L 1 and therefore, the power
expressions (3.31) (3.34) get the known approximate forms:
VA VB
PA0 = PB 0 = sin = Pe (3.35)
XL

VA2 VA VB cos V V cos VB2


QA0 = ; QB 0 = A B (3.36)
XL XL
Expressing as phase-to-phase values, and considering the voltages at both
ends of the transmission line are equal, U A = U B , then the simplified expressions of
the apparent complex powers are:
U A2 U2
S A = 3S A0 = PA + jQA = sin + j A (1 cos ) (3.37)
XL XL

U A2 U2
S B = 3S B 0 = PB + jQB = sin j A (1 cos ) (3.38)
XL XL
AC transmission lines 187

that is PA = PB and QA = QB .
In the particular case when U A = U B = U n , from (3.31) obtain:

U n2 sin
PB = sin = PN (3.39)
Z C sin L sin L

where PN = U n2 Z C is the natural power of the transmission line; it corresponds to


electric energy transmission with constant voltage along the line.

3.5. Transmission lines operating regimes


Generally, operating regimes calculation aims:
establishing of voltage and current variation along the line, in order not to
exceed the acceptable values;
determining of the electric energy transmission efficiency that means its
increasing.
Two general cases of energy transmission will arise:
a) Only active power transfer: P < PN , P = PN , P > PN and Q = 0, which
includes the particular case of no-load operating regime;
b) Active and reactive power transfer: P 0 and Q 0 , which includes the
particular case of the line with equal voltages at both ends.

3.5.1. Transmission lines equations expressed in per unit


To ease qualitative analysis of phenomenon let us further consider the case of
lossless electric lines. In this regard, the equations obtained in 3.4 are used:
V (x ) cos jZ C sin V B
I (x ) = jY sin cos I B
(3.40)
C
If per unit are used, it results:
V (x )
v( x ) = = cos + j i B sin
VB

I (x )
i (x ) = = j sin + i B cos
Y CV B

or as matrix form:
v(x ) cos j sin v B = 1
i (x ) = j sin
cos i B


188 Basic computation

Expressing i B in terms of single-phase powers PB 0 = PB 3 and QB 0 = QB 3 ,


which bear in addition the index 0, the complex single-phase apparent power is:
*
S B 0 = PB 0 + jQB 0 = V B I B
from where it results:
*
S P jQ
I B = B 0 = B 0 * B 0
VB VB
or in per unit:
IB P jQB 0 PB 0 jQ B 0
iB = = B0 = = pB j q B
YC V B YC VB2 PN 0
In the latter expression the denominator is the single-phase natural power:
2
VB2 U B 1 U2 P
YC VB2 = = = B = N = PN 0
ZC 3 ZC 3 ZC 3
Finally, obtain the equations of lossless transmission lines expressed in per
unit:
v(x ) cos j sin v B = 1
i (x ) = j sin cos pB jqB
(3.41)

3.5.2. Loading only with active power ( p B 0 , q B = 0 )

In this case, the basic equations (3.41) become:


v(x ) cos jsin v B = 1
i (x ) = jsin cos pB
(3.42)

In a first step, the voltage v(x ) and current i ( x ) phasors, are represented
graphically in terms of the transmission line angle.
a. The particular case when natural power is transmitted on the line:
p B = PB PN = 1 ; q B = 0 , that is the consumer is closed on the characteristic
impedance Z B = Z C . From (3.42) obtain:

v( x ) = cos + j sin = e j
i (x ) = cos + j sin = e j
It results that the geometric locus described by the peaks of the phasors v(x )
and i ( x ) are circles of radius equal to unity, the voltage and current remaining
constant along the line (Fig. 3.5).
AC transmission lines 189

j j
M M
2 x 2 x
= =
0 0
x)

)
i(x
v( 0 v= 0i=

vB iB
1

1
=

=
v(x)=vB i(x)=iB

Fig. 3.5. Geometric locus of the voltage and current phasors,


by assuming p B = 1 and qB = 0 .

Observe that v = i = , therefore the voltage and current are in phase at the
receiving-end since the consumers impedance is a pure resistance Z B = Z C (being
a regime of natural power) and are maintained in phase along the entire line, being
shifted with angle with respect to the consumer quantities.
The fact that there is no voltage drop on the line and no current variation is
due, on one hand, to the hypothesis that line resistance is zero ( r0 0 ) and, on the
other hand, to the line self-compensation phenomenon the shunt capacitive
energy compensates locally the inductive energy stored into the series elements of
the line:
1 1
Wc = C0V 2 ; Wp = L0 I 2
2 2
that is C0 V 2 = L0 I 2 therefore

V L0
= = ZC
I C0

b. The case of transmitted active power ( pB ) smaller than the natural


power: pB < 1 , qB = 0
From the basic equations (3.41) it results:
v(x ) = cos + jpB sin

i (x ) = pB cos + j sin

In order to draw the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) ,
for pB < 1 , two concentric circles are plotted: one of radius 1 = vB = 1 and another
one of radius 2 = pB < 1 (Fig. 3.6).
190 Basic computation

v(x) j i(x) j
2=pB m1 2=pB M
2 2 x
= x =
m2 0
M 0 0i

vB iB
1
0v 1=
1
1 =

v(x)<vB i(x)>iB

Fig. 3.6. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, for pB < 1 and qB = 0 .

From the centre of the circles a line of angular coefficient is drawn, which
intersects the circles in m1 and m2. By projecting m1 on the real axis and m2 on the
imaginary axis, the parametrical coordinates of v(x ) phasor are obtained:
x = 1 cos ; y = pB sin
or
x 1 = cos ; y pB = sin
In order to eliminate the variable , we can use:

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1
and we obtain:
2 2
x y
+ =1
1 pB
Therefore, the geometric locus described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) is an
ellipse with the big semiaxis equal to 1 and the small semiaxis equal to pB < 1 .
Instead
v ( x ) = cos + jpB sin = x + jy

that is, by adding the phasors x and jy, we determine the M point of the geometric
locus of the ellipse described by the peak of the phasor v(x ) in the first quadrant.
In the second quadrant, from the source ( = 90 ) toward the consumer ( = 180 )
a similar variation is obtained.
In an analogous manner, the graphic of current intensity variation i (x ) can be
also plotted:
i ( x ) = pB cos + j sin = x' + jy'
where
x' = pB cos and y' = sin
AC transmission lines 191

The peak of the phasor i (x ) also describes an ellipse, but shifted with 90.
The diameters of the ellipse are orthogonal with the ones of the ellipse described by
v(x ) phasor.
Taking into account that v < and i > , it results that i > v, which can
explain why the line voltage increases from the source toward the receiving-end.
For an angle in the interval from 0 to /2 (that is, x 0 ... 1500 km) the voltage
decreases from the receiving-end (M ( = 0)) toward the source (M ( = 90)). This
is due to the fact that a capacitive current passes through the line, that is in every
section of the line (except for the receiving-end) the series conduction current is
shifted before the voltage.
c. The case of transmitted active power ( p B ) bigger than the natural
power: pB > 1 and qB = 0 .
In this situation the phenomenon evolves in an opposite direction compared
with the precedent case ( p B < 1 , q B = 0 ). The geometric loci described by the
peaks of the phasors v(x ) and i (x ) are ellipses with the big semiaxis equal to
pB > 1 and the small semiaxis equal to 1 (Fig. 3.7). By analyzing the geometric
loci, we notice that in this case v > and i < , resulting i < v .

j i(x) j
v(x)
M 1=1
1=1
2 x 2
= = x
0 0
0v M
vB iB
2=pB
0i
2=pB
v(x)>vB i(x)>iB

Fig. 3.7. The geometric locus of voltage and current phasors, in the case of p B > 1 and
qB = 0 .

Thus, the current has an inductive character, that is in every section of an


electric line of length less than 1500 km the current i (x ) lags the voltage v(x ) . This
explains the voltage drop that occurs from source toward the receiving-end,
respectively the voltage increases from receiving-end toward the source.
If consider the equations (3.41) in the case pB 0 and qB = 0 ,
v(x ) = cos + jpB sin
(3.42)
i (x ) = pB cos + j sin
192 Basic computation

in the limit, the case of the no-load operating regime of the line can be obtained,
when pB = 0 and qB = 0 . It results:

v(x ) = cos

that is the variation of voltage phasor is a cosine function.


The magnitudes of the voltage and current phasors can be obtained from the
equations (3.42):

( )
v(x ) = cos 2 + pB2 sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 sin 2

i(x ) = ( )
pB2 cos 2 + sin 2 = 1 + pB2 1 cos 2

In Figure 3.8, the graphical representation of v(x ) and i (x ) magnitudes for


the case pB < 1 is given.

v(x) i(x)

x' x x'=L-x x' x x'=L-x


L L

Fig. 3.8. v(x) and i(x) magnitudes variation for p B < 1 .

Once v(x) and i(x) determined in per unit, it is necessary to return to V(x) and
I(x) values. In this respect, consider the voltage VA at the sending-end of the line
known, that is for
x = L, = L and V(L) = VA
From:
v A = V A V B = cos L + jpB sin L

it results:
VA VA
VB = =
v A cos L + jpB sin L

From:
v( x ) = V ( x ) V B
AC transmission lines 193

it results:
cos + jpB sin
V (x ) = v(x )V B = V A (3.43)
cos L + jpB sin L
respectively the magnitude
2
cos + pB sin
2 2
V ( x ) = VA 2
cos L + pB sin L
2 2

As regards the current phasor, from the expression


i (x ) = I (x ) YC V B
it results:
V A pB cos + j sin
I (x ) = i(x )YC V B =
Z C cos L + jpB sin L
respectively the magnitude
VA pB2 cos 2 + sin 2
I ( x) = 2
cos L + pB sin L
2 2
ZC
In order to compare, from qualitative point of view, the variations of the
functions V(x) and I(x), we start from the matrix equation (3.42), where the
following change of variable is performed:
' = x ' = L
where the angle L corresponds to the length L of the line, and the length x ' is
measured from source toward the receiving-end.
It results:

V ( x) 2
cos ( L ') + pB sin ( L ')
2 2
= 2
(3.44.a)
cos L + pB sin L
2 2
VA
and

I ( x) pB2 cos 2( L ') + sin 2( L ')


= 2
(3.44,b)
cos L + pB sin L
2 2
VAYC

It is obvious that VA and pB being given, the voltage VB and the current IB
varies in terms of the length L of the line and of the angle L respectively (Fig. 3.9).
A particular case of the line operating for pB < 1 and qB = 0 is the no-load
regime ( pB = 0 and qB = 0 ). In this case, for a given voltage VA at the sending-end,
from (3.43) it results that the voltage at the receiving-end ( x = 0 ) is:
194 Basic computation

VA
V (x ) x = 0 = V B = (3.43')
cos L

V(x)
VA pB<1

pB=1
1

0 L1 x'=L-x
L2
L3

Fig. 3.9. Voltage variation on transmission lines


for V A = ct. , p B < 1 and q B = 0 .

For L = 2 (the quarter-wave line, with L = 1500 km ) the voltage at the


receiving-end tends theoretically to infinite:
VA
VB =
0
For the long transmission lines, close to 1500 km, under no-load conditions,
dangerous overvoltages can occur. In Figure 3.10, the variation of the ratio
V (x ) VA in terms of the ratio x' / L for lines with lengths of 400, 800, 1100 and
1400 km are given. This variation is an ideal case, when line parameters are
considered constant. In reality, if high overvoltages on the line occur, corona
discharge appears. This leads to a decreasing of the voltage level with respect to
the ideal case, since corona phenomenon appearance modifies the parameters of the
line, especially line conductance and capacitance.
As an example, for a line of 1400 km operating under no-load conditions,
when corona discharge appears, the overvoltage is modified (Fig. 3.10, dotted line).
It can be noticed that initially, irrespective of the length of the line, corona
discharge leads to losses; as the length of the line increases, the capacitive effect of
the line increases faster than corona discharge losses. Thus, for a line of 1000 km
length, when L = /3, from (3.43') it results that the ratio VB /VA is practically equal
to 2.
It should be mentioned that, for lines of lengths below 1500 km, corona
phenomenon occurrence could produce due to the increasing capacity of the
affected conductor also a supplementary overvoltage, compared with the case
when corona is absent. This is why a very careful analysis of the no-load regime of
lossless long electric lines must be performed.
AC transmission lines 195

V(x)
1400 km 1400 km
VA with corona
3
1100 km

2
800 km
400 km
1

x'/L
0.15 0.5 1
Fig. 3.10. Overvoltage variation in terms of corona discharge.

3.5.3. Loading with active and reactive power ( p B 0 , q B 0 )

Consider the basic equations (3.41):


v ( x ) = cos + qB sin + jpB sin = x + jy (3.45)

i ( x ) = pB cos + j ( sin qB cos ) = x '+ jy ' (3.45')

where the parametrical coordinates for v(x ) phasor are:


x = cos + qB sin ; y = pB sin
In order to eliminate the parameter from the last equations, we can express:
cos = x qB sin ; sin = y pB
and substituting in
2 2
2 y
2 y
sin + cos = + x qB =1
pB pB
obtain
qB qB2 + 1 2
x 2 2xy + y =1
pB pB2

Thus, the geometric locus of v(x ) peak of the voltage phasor is an ellipse
rotated with respect to the main coordinate axes x and y.
In a similar manner, an ellipse for the i(x) phasor is also obtained:
qB2 + 1 2 q
2
x' + 2x'y' B + y'2 = 1
pB pB
196 Basic computation

From the analysis of the two ellipses it results that for transferred power
PB < PN ( pB < 1 ) there can be cases when the voltage at the receiving-end is bigger
than the voltage at the sending-end. Besides, the inductive reactive power transfer
qB > 0 can lead to a maximum voltage value in a certain point of the line, while the
capacitive reactive power transfer qB < 0 leads to a maximum value of the current
in a certain point of the line (Fig. 3.11).
In order to determine the position of the maximum value of the voltage,
express the magnitude of v(x ) from equation (3.45):

v 2 ( x ) = (cos + qB sin ) + pB2 sin 2 =


2

= cos 2 + 2qB sin cos + qB2 sin 2 + pB2 sin 2 =

( )
= 1 sin 2 + qB sin 2 + pB2 + qB2 sin 2

max
v(x)
M(0)
value

1
position

L x'=L-x

Fig. 3.11. Establishing of the position and maximum value


of the voltage on a transmission line.

If replace w = v(x ) , then:

[ ( )]
w2 = 1 1 pB2 + qB2 sin 2 + qB sin 2 (3.46)

To determine the position of the maximum value, differentiate (3.46) with


respect to the angle :
w2

= 2w
w

[ ( )]
= 2 sin cos 1 pB2 + qB2 + 2qB cos 2 0 (3.47)

then:

cot 2 max =
(
1 pB2 + qB2 ) (3.48)
2 qB
It can be observed that:
for pB and qB given, the value of max angle does not depend on the line
length;
AC transmission lines 197

proceeding similarly, notice that the magnitude of the current i 2 ( x ) has


also an extreme value for the same max angle, given by the relation (3.48). As far
as the position is concerned, maximum value of the voltage on the line corresponds
to the minimum value of the current and vice-versa.
To establish the value of this voltage extreme, the equation (3.48) is used:
( )
1 pB2 + qB2 = 2qB cot 2max
and substituting in (3.46), it results:
w2 = 1 2qB cot 2max sin 2 + 2qB sin cos = 1 2qB (cot 2max sin cos )sin =
sin
= 1 2 qB (cos 2 max sin cos sin 2max ) =
sin 2 max
sin
= 1 2 qB sin ( 2max )
sin 2max

Therefore, for a point x on the real axis, the quantity v 2 (x ) can be expressed in
terms of max as:
sin
v 2 (x ) = 1 + 2 q B sin (2max ) (3.49)
sin 2max
Likewise, for i 2 (x ) obtain:
cos
i (x ) = 1 2 q B
2
cos(2 max ) (3.49')
sin 2max
By analyzing the obtained relationships, notice that:
If qB is positive, that is an inductive power is transmitted on the line, for
= max the line voltage has a maximum:
sin max
v 2 (max ) = 1 + 2qB sin (2max max ) = 1 + qB tan max
2 sin max cos max
and the current a minimum, given by:
i 2 (max ) = 1 qB cot max
If q B is negative, that is a capacitive power is transmitted on the line, the
current has a maximum and the voltage a minimum.
These observations result also from the analysis of the derivatives of v(x) and
i(x) functions in the node = 0 , that is at the receiving-end. From the equation
(3.47) it results:
w2


[ ( )]
= sin 2 1 pB2 + qB2 + 2 q B cos 2 = 2 q B
=0
198 Basic computation

respectively
i 2
= 2 q B

=0
Figure 3.12 gives the shape of curves v( x) , having on abscissa x ' = L x , and
i ( x) , having on abscissa the variable x, measured from the source. The maximum
value of the voltage corresponds to the minimum value of the current and vice-versa.
Thus, at the receiving-end the derivative has the sign of qB . For qB positive,
the voltage curves have a positive derivative in the origin; they increase up to a
maximum and then begin to decrease (Fig. 3.12,a). The current curves, for qB
positive, have a negative derivative in the origin, decrease up to a minimum and
then begin to increase (Fig. 3.12,b). In consequence, it can be said that the point
corresponding to the angle = max represents a point of separation of the reactive
power; from this point a part of the reactive power generated by the line will flow
toward the receiving-end, and the remaining part will flow toward the source.
V(x) I(x)
v(x)= V i(x)= I
A pB= 0.75 B

1.3 pB= 1.25 1.3


pB= 1
q B = 0 .2 pB= 1
1.0 1.0
pB= 1.25
pB= 0.75
0.7 0.7
0 500 1000 1500 0
x =L-x [km] x[km] 1500 1000 500

a. b.
V(x) I(x)
v(x)= V i(x)= I
A B
1.3 pB= 0.75 pB= 1.25
1.3
pB= 1 pB= 1
qB = 0.2
1.0 1.0
pB= 1.25 pB= 0.75
0.7 0.7
0 500 1000 1500 x [km] 1500 1000 500 0
x =L-x [km]
c. d.
Fig. 3.12. The variation of v(x) and i(x) quantities on long electric lines (1500 km) for
p B < 1 , p B = 1 , p B > 1 and q B = 0.2 , respectively q B = 0.2 .

For q B positive, for the line segment situated between = 0 (at receiving-
end) and = max , the voltage v(x ) leads the current i ( x ) , and for the line segment
between = max and = L (at source), the current i ( x ) leads the voltage v(x ) .
AC transmission lines 199

3.5.4. Operating regime with equal voltages at both ends


In order to prevent problems in operating, when two power systems are
connected through a long transmission line, it is necessary that the voltages at both
ends of the line be practically equal and close to the nominal voltage. In this
respect, it is important that for a given active power pB to determine the reactive
power qB cr so that VA = VB . For x = L , = L , this condition leads to
v A2 = v 2 (L ) = 1 ; from (3.45) obtain:
( )
v 2 (L ) = 1 = cos L +qB cr sin L 2 + pB2 sin 2 L
or
cos L + qB cr sin L = 1 pB2 sin 2 L
For lines of length L < 1500 km, that is < 90 , it results:

cos L + 1 pB2 sin 2 L


qB cr = (3.50)
sin L
Analysing the relation (3.50), in terms of the transferred active power pB the
character of reactive power qB cr at the receiving-end is determined:
For pB = 1 , it results that qB cr = 0 , as expected since the natural power is
transmitted on the line;
For pB < 1 , it results that qB cr is positive, that is at the receiving-end, in
order to obtain VA = VB , a compensating reactor should be installed;
For pB > 1 , it results that qB cr is a negative real number or a complex
number:
if 1 pB2 sin 2 L > 0 then qB cr is a negative real number and at the
receiving-end a capacitor bank should be installed;
if 1 pB2 sin 2 L < 0 , from (3.50) it results:

pB2 sin 2 L 1
qBcr = tan L + j = q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr
sin L
and the complex power is:
s Bcr = pB + j ( q 'Bcr + jq ''Bcr ) = ( pB q ''Bcr ) jq 'Bcr
Thus, to obtain equal voltages at both ends, VA = VB , supplementary active
power ( q ''Bcr ) as well as capacitive reactive power ( q 'Bcr ) should be injected at the
receiving-end.
For the case when 1 pB2 sin 2 L = 0 , it results that p B max = 1 sin L , that is
the maximum power which can be transmitted on the line for a capacitive
200 Basic computation

compensation (for VA = VB ) is obtained. In this case, according to (3.50), the


compensation power becomes:
cos L + 0
q B cr = = cot L (3.51)
sin L
The variation of the voltage curves, under the assumption VA = VB is given in
Figure 3.13. The maximum and minimum voltage values appear, due to the
symmetry of the line, for max = L 2 .
pB<1
V(x)

Fig. 3.13. Voltage variation along pB=1


1 VA=VB
a line with VA = VB , under
several operating regimes.
pB>1

L x

For the calculation of maximum value let us return to the equation (3.49),
where we can make the substitution = L 2 (Fig. 3.14, a).
v(x) v(x)

L L
qBtan qBtan
1 2 2
2
v (x) 1 2
v (x)
1 1

L/2 x'
L L

a. b.
Fig. 3.14. Overvoltages on transmission lines: a. voltage curve for
compensation at the receiving-end; b. voltage curves for lines of lengths L
and L 2 under no-load conditions ( p B = 0 , q B = 0 ).

Therefore:
L
sin
v 2 ( max ) = 1 + 2q B 2 sin 2 L
L max
=
2 sin 2 max 2
L (3.52)
sin sin L
= 1 + 2q B 2 2 = 1 + q tan L
L B
2
2sin cos L
2 2
AC transmission lines 201

The most unfavourable situation occurs for the operating regime with
pB = 0 , case when the overvoltage on the line will be maximum. From the
expression (3.50) the value of qB cr results:

2 sin 2 L
1 cos 2
qB cr = = = tan L (3.53)
sin L 2
2 sin L cos L
2 2
Substituting in equation (3.52), obtain:
1
v 2 (max ) = 1 + tan 2 L =
2 cos 2 L
2
respectively
1
v(max ) = (3.54)

cos L
2
Thereby, at the operation with pB = 0 , the overvoltage occurring on a line of
length L, compensated so that VA = VB , is equal to the overvoltage that can appear
on a line of length L 2 for no-load conditions ( p B = 0 , qB = 0 ). The same
equation as in (3.43') but proved for L 2 was obtained. Equal voltages at both
ends, for pB = 0 , by means of shunt compensation with reactors are obtained. If
the overvoltage exceeds a certain permitted value, an additional reactor should be
placed at the middle of the line.
In order to decrease the rated capacity of shunt compensating reactors,
assume that, under no-load conditions of the line, pB = 0 , the ratio VA VB is
smaller than 1 (0.9 0.85), that is:
VA
= <1
VB
which leads to:
cos L
qB cr = (3.55)
sin L

3.6. Series and shunt compensation of transmission lines


There are some compensation possibilities of the transmission lines, such as:
(i) Series:
equivalent impedance of the power system reduced to the connection
node of the line;
202 Basic computation

capacitor banks series connected on the line to compensate its inductive


reactance.
(ii) Shunt:
shunt reactors to compensate the capacitive susceptance of the line and
to control the voltage along the line;
shunt capacitors to increase the line transmission capacity.
(iii)Mixed.

3.6.1. Influence of power system lumped reactance


Mention that the operating regime of transmission line was studied for the
particular case when the line is connected to a power system represented by an
infinite power busbar, when the power system short-circuit reactance XS is zero.
In reality, the power system short-circuit reactance is not zero, having a small
value (Fig. 3.15), that leads to a fictive extension of the line influence the line
voltage variation and leading to dangerous overvoltages along the line for weak
loading and no-load conditions as well.

Eg I1 L
jXS 1 2 I2

V1 V2

1' 2'
Fig. 3.15. Equivalent electric circuit.

From the physical point of view, the explanation is that the current I1, having
a capacitive character, at its passing through the lumped inductive reactance XS
generates a voltage jump Vb at the reactance terminals (Fig. 3.16,a).

v(x)
with XS

Vb without XS I1
Vb Eg Vb =jXSI1
Eg
Vb
x'
Fig. 3.16. The influence of power system reactance XS on the voltage level
on a transmission line weakly loaded.

The more pronounced capacitive character I 1 has, compared with the


terminal voltage Vb on the one hand, and the higher the reactance of the system XS
AC transmission lines 203

is, that is the smaller the short-circuit power of the system is, on the other hand, the
higher the voltage jump will be. This phenomenon appears as if the equivalent
generator at the connection node of the transmission line would be overexcited.
Usually, the electromotive force E g (e.m.f. reduced to the sending-end
terminals of the long electric line) is set by automatic voltage regulators, so that the
terminal voltage V b = V 1 is constant. In the case of too high V b variation, voltage
regulation could lead to important decreasing of E g thereby generating the
instability of the considered power system. Also, when sudden load shedding
occurs, transient phenomena appear, and the voltage regulation may not be fast
enough to eliminate in a short time the overvoltage that can appear.
Consider the equivalent circuit of a transmission electric line (having the line
2
angle L = L ) connected to a power system of finite power (Fig. 3.15). With
0
the assumption of lossless line, the matrix equation can be written:
E g 1 jX S cos L jZ C sin L V 2
I = cos L I 2
(3.56)
1 0 1 jYC sin L
If calculate the terms corresponding to t.e.m. Eg separately, obtain:
sin
cos L X S YC sin L = cos L sin L =
cos
cos L cos sin L sin cos( L + )
= =
cos cos
sin L cos + sin cos L sin ( L + )
jZ C (sin L + tan cos L ) = jZ C = jZ C
cos cos
where
XS X U2 P sin
tan = = S2 n = N =
ZC U n Z C Psc cos
Finally, it results:
E1 = E g cos = cos( L + )V 2 + jZ C sin ( L + ) I 2
(3.57)
I 1 = jYC sin L V 2 + cos L I 2

Expressions (3.57) give direct relationship between E g , I 1 , V 2 and I 2 .


Notice that series reactance X S leaves the expression of current I 1 unchanged.
Instead, in the voltage equation changes appear, that is the obtained equation
corresponds to an equivalent line of length 'L = L + . It results that, as regards
the voltage, the lumped reactance XS leads to apparently extension of the line. The
angle has relatively small values for strength power systems (having high Psc
204 Basic computation

value) and high values for weak systems (having small Psc value). For example,
for a power system with Psc = PN , tan = 1 and angle = 45 (/4), an apparent
extension of the line with 750 km is obtained.
Consequently, in designing long transmission lines, the possibility or
impossibility of its connecting to an existent power system should be assessed. An
index of this possibility is the ratio PN Psc and tan respectively. In this regard,
in the relation:
E g = (cos L X SYC sin L )V 2 + jZ C (sin L + X S YC cos L ) I 2
it should be imposed the condition that, for no-load conditions, when the current at
the receiving-end of the line is zero I 2 = 0 , phenomenon of self-excitation of the
generators in the system should not appear, that is E g > 0 . It results:

E g = V 2 (cos L X S YC sin L ) > 0


or if express in the form:
sin L P
E g = V 2 1 X S YC cos L = V 2 cos L 1 N tan L > 0

cos L Psc
Taking into account that V 2 and cos L ( L < 2 ) are positive, it results the
condition:
PN
1 tan L > 0
Psc
or
PN
< cot L (3.58)
Psc
For information, voltage variation curves at the end of a long transmission
line, under no-load, are given for different short-circuit powers Psc of the
connection node to the system, obtained experimentally (Fig. 3.17) [3.4]:

V2 Psc=PN
Eg
2 Psc>PN

1 Psc=

200 400 600 L (km)

Fig. 3.17. Voltage variation curves for different short-circuit powers


of the connection node.
AC transmission lines 205

Notice that, for an electric line of 400 km length, if the power system to
which the line is connected is of infinite power, the overvoltage has a limited value,
of only 10%, while for a system with Psc = PN , the overvoltage is with 120%
higher.
In practice, if the condition given by (3.58) is not fulfilled, then the following
measures should be taken:
a compensation reactor should be installed at the source busbars;
for the so-called capacitive regime of generators, thermal limit under no-
load conditions of the line should be verified.

3.6.2. Series compensation with capacitors


In order to compensate (diminish) the inductive reactance of a long electric
line, capacitor banks are series connected on the line. The lumped reactance of the
capacitors being negative ( X 1 = 1 / C ), the angle from tan 1 = X 1 / Z C is
negative; it is as if an apparently shortening of the line occurred.
Due to the fact that the inductive reactance of the line is diminished, the
series capacitive compensation has the following advantages:
Increases the transmission capacity of the line, that is increases the natural
power of the line. For a given line, the natural power PN = U n2 / Z C can
( )
increase by diminishing Z C = l0 c0 , either by diminishing X L (l0 ) or
by increasing Bc (c0 ) ;
Decreases the overvoltages that appear on the electric lines under the
assumption of no-load;
Increases the static stability limit of the transmission line by increasing the
V V
synchronization couple Pe = A B sin ;
X L X c
Decreases the voltage drops under normal operating conditions being
thus a voltage control method.
Notice that, series capacitors compensate both voltage increases and voltage
drops (Fig. 3.18). Therefore:
a) If inductive currents ( p2 > 1 ) pass through the capacitor banks station,
generating a voltage that decreases on the line, a voltage increasing from V1' to V2'
occurs at the output end of the capacitor banks station (Fig. 3.18,b).
The voltage variation across the capacitor banks station is V c = jX 1 I c sin .
'
The angle is the phase shift between Ic and voltage V 2 and depends on the place
where the capacitor banks are installed on the line. The higher the angle is, the
higher the compensation effect will be, as well as V c . The compensation effect is
at a minimum for = 0.
206 Basic computation

Ic jX1
0 V2
Ic 0
V1 Vc V2 V1 -jX1Ic V2 -jX1Ic
Ic
V1
a. b. c.
Fig. 3.18. Compensation of voltage variations by means of series capacitors:
a. basic circuit; b. Ic current is inductive; c. Ic current is capacitive.

The voltage variation across the capacitor banks station is V c = jX 1 I c sin .


'
The angle is the phase shift between Ic and voltage V 2 and depends on the place
where the capacitor banks are installed on the line. The higher the angle is, the
higher the compensation effect will be, as well as V c . The compensation effect is
at a minimum for = 0.
b) If capacitive currents flow through the line ( p2 < 1 ), generating a voltage
that increases on the line, a voltage drop occurs at the capacitor banks station
output terminals (Fig. 3.18,c).
Choosing of installing point of the capacitor banks station must be done on
the basis of a technical and economical study, where the problem of voltage and
current regulation on the line as well as maximum power transfer possibilities,
under stability conditions, must be taken into consideration.
Let us consider the equivalent circuit of an electric line, having a series
capacitor bank, connected to a power system of finite power (Fig. 3.19).

2+2 1+1
2 1
Eg jXS 1
X1= C
I1 1 2 I2
V1 V1 V2 V2

1 2

V(x) V1
p2<1
V2
p2=1

V2
p2>1
V1

'=L2
Fig. 3.19. The influence of series capacitors on voltage increases and decreases.
AC transmission lines 207

The following problem arises: where to install the capacitor banks station,
that is how big 1 should be, in order to maximize the transmitted power on the
line (3.35):
E gV 2
Pe = sin (3.59)
B
in other words, the B coefficient of the equivalent four-terminal to be minimum. In
this respect, the matrix equation is written as:
E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 jX 1 cos 1 jZ C sin 1 V 2
I = cos 1 I 2
1 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 0 1 jYC sin 1
(3.60)
Two situations can be considered:
a) When the lumped reactance of the power system is ignored ( X S 0 ), the
following coefficients are obtained:
A ' = cos L X 1YC sin 1 cos 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + X 1YC cos 1 cos 2 )
(3.61)
C ' = jYC ( sin L X 1YC sin 1 sin 2 ) ; D ' = cos L X 1YC sin 2 cos 1

where X 1 = X c = 1/ C .
b) If the lumped reactance of the power system is taken into account, the
operating equations of the whole structure become:
cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 ) cos(1 + 1 ) sin (1 + 1 )
E g jZ C jZ C V 2
=
I cos 2 cos 2 cos 1 cos 1
1 I2
jYC sin 2 cos 2 jYC sin 1 cos 1
(3.62)
where: tan 2 = X S / Z C = PN / Psc due to the power system reactance;
tan 1 = X 1 / Z C due to the series capacitor bank.
After the multiplications and equating of terms obtain the expression of
coefficient B that interests us that most:
sin (1+ 1) cos(2 + 2 ) sin (2 + 2 )
B = jZ C + jZ C cos 1
cos 1 cos 2 cos 2
or, in absolute value:

B=
ZC
[sin (1+1 )cos(2+ 2 ) + sin (2 + 2 )cos 1 cos 1] =
cos 1 cos 2

= ZC {sin (1 + 1)cos(2 + 2 ) + sin (2 + 2 )[cos(1 + 1) + sin 1 sin 1] } =


cos 1 cos 2

=
ZC
[sin (L + 1+ 2 ) + sin (2+ 2 )sin 1sin 1] (3.63)
cos 1 cos 2
208 Basic computation

In order to determine the installing point of a single capacitor banks station,


to obtain a maximum power transfer on the line, for V1, V2 and constant, we
differentiate the expression (3.63) of B with respect to 1 and equate to zero. The
first term in brackets being constant ( L = 1 + 2 ) , the derivative with respect to
1 is zero. Therefore:
B ZC
= 0 + sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 sin 1 + sin 1 sin 1 cos ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1
1 cos 1 cos 2

Taking into account that 2 = L 1 , so that 2 1 = 1 , it results:


B Z C sin 1
= cos 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 cos ( 2 + 2 ) =
1 cos 1 cos 2
(3.64)
Z C sin 1
= sin ( 2 + 2 1)
cos 1 cos 2
To obtain the extreme value we equate the expression (3.64) to zero, so that:
sin (2 + 2 1 ) = 0
or
sin ( L + 2 21 ) = 0
that is:
L + 2 1 P
1 = = L + atan N (3.65)
2 2 Psc
In order to perform the compensation, we need to study several operating
regimes and among these to choose the most unfavourable situation.
The voltage and current variations occur continuously along the structure
with uniformly distributed parameters, undergoing a jump in the installing point of
the capacitor banks station. The nearer the station gets to the centre of the line, the
smaller this jump is, being zero at the very centre ( = 0 ) and changing the
direction beyond it.
The following characteristic situations are considered:
a) Transmission line under no-load conditions the maximum overvoltage
appears at the receiving-end (Fig. 3.20,a). By installing one series capacitor bank at
the sending-end, the overvoltage along the line is reduced. The capacitor installed
in the middle of the line, where = 0 , has no effect on the overvoltage!
b) Transmission line compensated with shunt reactors, having equal voltages
at both ends, when overvoltages occur in the middle of the line (Fig. 3.20,b,c). By
installing capacitor banks the overvoltage diminishes.
Observations:
For a capacitor banks station asymmetrically situated on the line, reflected
waves cannot be avoided during the operation. In other words, neither a
AC transmission lines 209

characteristic impedance nor a natural power can be attached to the considered


structure;
The option with capacitors installed at the ends of the line is good for
limiting the overvoltages, but it is not convenient from the maximum power
transferred under static stability conditions point of view;
In the case of two capacitor banks symmetrically situated on the line, the
expression of characteristic impedance can be established. Thereby, transmission
under natural power conditions can be performed (ideal case).

v(x) v(x)

1 1
L [km] L [km]
450 900 450 900

a. b.

v(x)

Fig. 3.20. Voltage variation on a 900 km


electric line, in terms of series compensation
L [km] location.
450 900

c.

In practice, for economic reasons, a compromise is preferred, with only one


capacitor banks station asymmetrically situated on the line, at a distance that allows
the transmission of a maximum power during the operation under stability
conditions.

3.6.3. Natural power control by capacitors

In order to tune the natural power to the transmitted power, the control of
characteristic impedance of a transmission line by means of series or shunt
capacitors can be performed.
Compensation by series capacitors
As it has been shown, the series compensation apparently reduces the
length of the line, and the series inductive reactance (XLXc) respectively, while
keeping constant the capacitive susceptance (Bc). For the analysis of compensation
effects, the following per unit quantities are defined:
210 Basic computation

Per unit characteristic impedance:


Z C , series X L Xc X
= = 1 c = 1 kseries (3.66)
ZC XL XL

XL
where: Z C = is the characteristic impedance of the line without
Bc
compensation;
XL Xc
Z C , series = characteristic impedance of the line having series
Bc
capacitors;
k series = Xc / XL series compensation degree.

Per unit line angle:


L , series ( X L X c ) Bc
= = 1 k series (3.66')
L X L Bc

where L = L = X L Bc represents the angular coefficient of the transmission


line.
Per unit natural power:

Bc
U n2
PN , series XL Xc 1
= =
PN Bc 1 k series
U n2
XL

Therefore, by means of compensation with series capacitors the characteristic


impedance and line angle decreases and the natural power increases.
Compensation by shunt capacitors
The same per unit quantities are introduced:
Per unit characteristic impedance:

XL
Z C , shunt Bc + Bc Bc
= = (3.67)
ZC XL Bc + Bc
Bc

Per unit line angle


L , shunt X L (Bc + Bc ) Bc + Bc
= = (3.67')
L X L Bc Bc
AC transmission lines 211

Per unit natural power


PN , shunt Bc+Bc
= (3.67")
PN Bc
The square of (3.67") gives:
2
PN , shunt Bc

P =1+ B
N c

from where it results the compensation degree by means of shunt compensation:


2
Bc PN , shunt
= 1
Bc PN
Notice that the compensation by means of shunt capacitors reduces the
characteristic impedance whereas it increases the angle and natural power
respectively.
Comparison between compensation with series and shunt capacitors
Table 3.2. summarises, in a comparative manner, the influence of compensation
type on the electric line.

Table 3.2
Compensation type Capacitors installed
Parameter series shunt
ZC
L
PN

It is interesting to realize a comparison between the amounts of capacitive


reactive power supplied either through series compensation or shunt compensation
respectively, for the same increase in transmitted power.
Let us consider the transmitted power through an electric line, without
compensation, equal to the natural power:
U n2 U n2 Bc
PN = = = U n2 (3.68)
ZC XL XL
Bc
In the case of a transmission line shunt compensated with capacitors, the
expression of transmitted power becomes:
U n2 Bc + Bc
PN , shunt = = U n2 (3.69)
Z C , shunt XL
where Bc is the capacitive susceptance that, if is added, determines the increasing
of transmission capacity.
212 Basic computation

If consider the ratio between (3.68) and (3.69) and if make it equal to 2, then
a two-fold increase in the transmitted power is obtained ( PN , shunt = 2 PN ):

PN , shunt B c + Bc B
= = 1+ c = 2
PN Bc Bc

The square of the latter equation gives:


Bc
1+ =4
Bc

from where Bc = 3Bc , that is the capacitive susceptance necessary to be shunt


connected on the line in order to double the transmitted power would be three times
the capacitive susceptance of the line without compensation. The reactive power
produced by Bc is:

Qc = 3 BcU n2

If we make the ratio between Qc and the transferred power without


compensation it results:
Qc 3BcU n2
= = 3 Bc X L = 3 L
PN 2 Bc
Un
XL

leading to tripling the transmission angle of the uncompensated line.


The case of a transmission line series compensated with capacitors
The transferred power on the uncompensated line is given by:
XL
PN = I 2 Z C = I 2 (3.70)
Bc

where I is the electric current passing through the uncompensated line.


In order to double the transferred power at constant voltage, by means of
series compensation, the current should be doubled:
PN , series 4I 2 X L X c Bc XL Xc
= 2
=4 = 4 1 K series
PN I Bc XL XL

where K series = X c / X L is the compensation degree with series capacitors.


If we impose the above condition, PN , series = 2 PN , we obtain:

4 1 K series = 2
AC transmission lines 213

then, it results:
K series = X c / X L = 0.75
The reactive power produced by means of series compensation is:

= 0.75 X L (2 I ) = 3 X L I 2
2 2
Qc = X c I series

From the expression (3.60) obtain:


Bc
I 2 = PN
XL

so that the ratio:


2
Q c 3 X L I
= = 3 X L Bc = 3 L
PN PN
a result identical to the one obtained in the case of compensation by shunt
capacitors. In other words, the power obtained for both series and shunt
compensation is the same.

3.6.4. Shunt compensation with reactors


Similar effects with the ones obtained for series capacitors can be achieved
by installing shunt compensation reactors. The shunt compensation reactors are
used to absorb the capacitive power (the capacitive currents) generated by the line,
during off-peak load hours or no-load operation.
Let us consider an electric line AB supplied by station A (Fig. 3.21,a) that
should be maintained under no-load. When the circuit breaker a is closed, the
generators connected in node A should absorb the reactive power shock caused by
the capacity of the line.

a b

A B
A C B

a. b.
Fig. 3.21. Installing of compensation reactors.

If a compensation reactor is installed in station B beforehand which absorbs


the capacitive power of the line then the closing of a is not accompanied by a
shock for the generators connected to A; furthermore, nor will voltage in point B
214 Basic computation

which increases due to Ferranti phenomenon reach values dangerous to line


insulation and to the equipment in the electric substation.
Compensation reactors are installed either at the receiving-end of the line or
along it. For lengths over 400 km line tearing appear as a necessity, in order to
perform compensation, i.e. at the middle of the line (Fig. 3.21,b).
In Figure 3.22, other possible schemes for installing compensation reactors
are presented: a. at line voltage: 1 on line without circuit breaker; 2 on busbar
without circuit breaker; 3 on line with circuit breaker; 4 on busbar with circuit
breaker; b. at secondary voltage of the transformer; c. on tertiary winding.
The installing of reactors on the electric line or on the substation busbar is not
decided only by economic reasons (reduction of expenses and energy losses), but
also by the protection measures against overvoltages due to switching and
connection of the line. In order to perform the voltage control in terms of the
loading regime of the line, several reactors are usually installed in parallel. The
installing point of the reactor on the line and its size are determined in terms of the
transferred power and overvoltages that might appear along the line.

Lines 400kV
1
3 400kV
10kV

35kV

400kV
110kV
2 4
220kV

a. b. c.
Fig. 3.22. Other possible connecting schemes of compensation reactors in substations.

In this respect, consider a shunt-connected reactor on a lossless transmission


line at the distance L2 from the source and L1 from the receiving-end (Fig. 3.23).
For the reactor representation we need to calculate:
1 1 R X
Yr = = Gr + jBr = = 2 r 2j 2 r 2
Zr Rr + jX r Rr + X r Rr + X r

Taking into account that Rr << X r , it results:


Xr
Yr j = jBr (3.71)
Rr2 + X r2
AC transmission lines 215

L
Eg 2 1
jXS I1
I2

V1 Yr= -jBr V2

v(x)

x'
Fig. 3.23. Electrical configuration with one shunt compensation reactor.

The operating matrix equation of the whole electrical structure can be written
as:
E g 1 jX S cos 2 jZ C sin 2 1 0 cos 1
jZ C sin 1 V 2
I = 0 1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 Y r 1 jYC sin 1
cos 1 I 2
1
(3.72)
Similarly as for series compensation, two situation are considered:
a) Considering that the lumped reactance of the power system is neglected,
the following coefficients are obtained:
A ' = cos L + Br Z C cos 1 sin 2 ; B ' = jZ C ( sin L + Br Z C sin 2 sin 1 )
(3.73)
C ' = jYC ( sin L Br Z C cos 1 cos 2 ) ; D ' = cos L + Z C Br cos 2 sin 1

For line lengths smaller than the quarter wavelength ( L < / 2 ), the absolute
value of the term B' from expression (3.73) results greater than the absolute value
of the term B = Z C sin L from (3.40). Thus, when shunt compensation by means
of reactors is performed, for V1 , V2 and constant, the maximum power
transmissible on the line is smaller than the one in the case without compensation,
reaching the minimum value at 1 = 2 = L 2 .
The shunt compensation reactor leads to a current change along the line due
to the term Vr Br , hereby compensating the capacitive currents generated by the
line. The effect of this compensation leads to a decrease of overvoltages along the
line. Figure 3.24 illustrates the voltage variation, for different placement locations
of a compensation reactor, on a transmission line of 900 km length, assuming that
the line operates under no-load conditions. We see that the placement of the reactor
at the receiving-end (Fig. 3.24, curve d) allows an optimal compensation of the
overvoltage that can appear in this point. Instead, a maximum stationary
overvoltage appears at the middle of the line. The reactor placement only at the
middle of the line leads to a decrease of the maximum overvoltage but will not
216 Basic computation

solve the problem at the receiving-end. The most convenient voltage profile is
obtained when two reactors are symmetrically located, at 300 km and 600 km,
respectively, away from the source.
900 km
a
v(x)
3 a
pB= 0 450 km 450 km
d b
2
b
c 300 km 300 km 300 km
1 c

450 900 [km] 900 km


d

Fig. 3.24. Voltage variation for different positions of compensation reactors, under the
assumption of no-load conditions of the line.

When the risk of self-excitation phenomenon of the equivalent generator


appears at the line energizing, it is also necessary to install another compensation
reactor close to the source (Fig. 3.24, curve a). In this case, in order to energize the
line, the following condition should be satisfied:
PN
< cot L (3.74)
Psc + Qr
Shunt compensation reactor leads, as for series capacitor banks, to an
apparent shortening of the line. As in the case of series capacitors, when the reactor
is asymmetrically installed on the line, the considered system (reactor included)
does not admit an operation under natural power regime.
In the case of two reactors, symmetrically installed on the line, for the steady
state regime the characteristic impedance equivalent to the entire structure can be
established and therefore, a natural power regime can be achieved [3.1].

L
Eg 1 2 2 1
jXS I1
I2

V1 -jBr -jBr V2

Fig. 3.25. Electrical configuration with two shunt compensation reactor.

For the electrical configuration from Figure 3.25, with two compensation
reactors symmetrically installed on the line, the line coefficients become:
AC transmission lines 217

Z C2 Br2
A = D = cos L + Z C Br sin L + sin 21 sin 22
2

B = jZ C sin L + 2 Z C Br sin 1 sin L + 2 + Z C2 Br2 sin 22 sin 2 1 (3.75)
2

C = jYC sin L 2 Z C Br cos 1 cos L + 2 Z C2 Br2 sin 22 cos 2 1
2
b) Considering the influence of the lumped reactance of the power system
(Fig. 3.23), the matrix equation (3.72) becomes:
cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 jZ C sin 1
E g jZ C V
I = cos 2 cos 2 sin ( 1 + 1 ) 2
1 jY sin Y cos 1 + jYC sin 1 I
cos 2 r sin 1 2
C 2
(3.76)
where: tan 2 = X S Z C = PN Psc due to the power system reactance;
tan 1 = X r Z C due to the shunt reactor.

After matrix multiplications and equating of terms of the equivalent four-


terminal network, similar relations as in the case of series capacitors are obtained,
the coefficient B being of interest:
B = jZ C ( sin L + Br Z C sin 1 sin 2 ) + jX S ( cos L + Z C Br sin 1 cos 2 ) (3.77)

or
cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 )
B = jZ C sin 1 + jZ C (3.78)
cos 2 cos 2 sin 1
or, in absolute value:
ZC
B= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =
sin 1 cos 2
ZC
=
sin 1 cos 2
{ }
cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 cos 1 cos ( 1 + 1 ) + sin ( 2 + 2 ) sin ( 1 + 1 ) =

ZC
= sin ( L + 1 + 2 ) cos ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 sin 1
sin 1 cos 2
As also showed at case a), the value of the term B increases relative to the
case without compensation, its function having an extreme value. In order to
determine to which value of corresponds this extreme, we will differentiate B
with respect to 1 , obtaining:
218 Basic computation

B ZC
= 0 + cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin 1 + cos 1 sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) 2 1
1 sin 1 cos 2

Given that 2 = L 1 it results 2 1 = 1 , then:

B Z C sin 1
= cos ( 2 + 2 ) sin 1 sin ( 2 + 2 ) cos 1 =
1 sin 1 cos 2
(3.79)
Z C sin 1
= sin ( 1 2 2 )
sin 1 cos 2

and from the condition B 1 0 it results:

1 P
1cr = L +atan N (3.80)
2 Psc

For strength power systems (large values of Psc ), the critical installing point
of the shunt reactor gets next to the middle of the line, while for weak power
systems (small values of Psc ) the critical installing point of the shunt reactor gets
next to the source.
Taking into consideration that the angle 2 is positive, it results that the sign
of the derivative is negative for values 1 < 1cr ( 1cr being the distance in degrees,
from the receiving-end to the point where B has a maximum value), until the
extreme point is reached, beyond this point the derivative being positive.
Therefore, the function B has a maximum in the critical point 1cr where the
transmitted power is at a minimum:
EgV2
Pe = sin = minimum!
Bmax

For this reason, it is important to avoid the installing of the compensation


reactor exactly in the critical point because the transmitted power would be
minimal; the installing place will be chosen nearby.
Observations:
As regards the advantages and disadvantages of using compensation reactors,
mention that:
The specific cost for line compensation by means of shunt reactor is
smaller than if using capacitors;
The use of reactors leads to a decrease in the transmission angle, whereas
increasing the transfer characteristic impedance. This leads also to a decrease in the
maximum transmission power. The decrease of both natural power and maximum
transfer power is a disadvantage compared with series capacitors compensation;
Shunt reactors leads to an increase in power losses, directly influencing the
transmission efficiency.
AC transmission lines 219

3.6.5. Mixed compensation of transmission lines


By compounding of compensation systems shunt reactors and series
capacitors an optimal transmission from the standpoint of transferred power and
operating stability can be achieved. In such a mixed structure (Fig. 3.26) notice that
the modification of parameters by means of series compensation influences the
compensation effects with shunt reactors and vice versa. In this case, line
transmission capacity becomes a nonlinear function of the line and of the
compensation device parameters.

A2 B2 A1 B1
C2 D2 C1 D1

I1 Z1=-jX1 I2
V1 Y2 =-jb2 Y3 =-jb3 V2

Fig. 3.26. Mixed compensation configuration.

According to Figure 3.26 the elementary matrix corresponding to the four-


terminal networks chain results:
V 1 cos 2 jZ c sin 2 1 0 1 Z 1 1 0 cos 1 jZ C sin 1 V 2
I = 1 0 1 Y 3 1 jYC sin 1
1 jYC sin 2 cos 2 Y 2 cos 1 I 2
(3.81)
or
V 1 A2 B2 1 + Z 1Y 3 Z 1 A1 B1 V 2 A B V 2
I = C =
1 2 D 2 Y 2 + Y 3 + Y 2 Y 3 Z 1 1 + Y 2 Z 1 C1
D1 I 2 C D I 2

To establish the rated capacity of compensation reactor under the hypothesis


of maximum transmitted power, it is necessary to minimize the value of the
coefficient B, according to the well-known expression:
V1 V2
Pe = sin
B
In this respect, the matrix product is performed and the coefficient B is
identified:
B = [A2 (1 + Z 1Y 3 ) + B 2 (Y 2 + Y 3 + Y 2 Y 3 Z 1 )]B1 + [A2 Z 1 + B 2 (1 + Y 2 Z 1 )]D1 =
= A2 B1 + B 2 D1 + B1 B 2 (Y 2 + Y 3 ) + A2 D1 Z 1 + B 2 D1Y 2 Z 1 + A2 B1 Z 1Y 3 + (3.82)
+ B1 B 2 Y 2 Y 3 Z 1
220 Basic computation

Let us consider the following hypothesis and calculation steps:


a) The simplified case of a lossless line: Y 2 = jb2 and Y 3 = jb3 .

B' = A2 B1 + B 2 D1 j (b2 + b3 )B1 B 2 jX 1 ( A2 D1 jb2 B 2 D1 jb3 A2 B1 b2b3 B1 B 2 )


(3.83)
b) Furthermore, the reactors are considered to be equal sized, that is
b2 = b3 = b 2 .
[
B' = A2 B1 + B 2 D1 jb B1 B 2 jX 1 A2 D1 j (b / 2 )(B 2 D1 + A2 B1 ) b 2 / 4 B1 B 2( ) ]
(3.84)
c) The expressions of the line coefficients are substituted in the expression of
B' :
A1 = cos 1 ; B1 = jZ C sin 1 ; C1 = jYC sin 1 ; D1 = cos 1 (3.85,a)
A2 = cos2 ; B 2 = jZ C sin 2 ; C 2 = jYC sin 2 ; D 2 = cos2 (3.85,b)
It results:
B ' = jZ C ( cos 2 sin 1 + sin 2 cos 1 ) + jbZ C2 sin 1 sin 2 jX 1 [ cos 2 cos 1 +

( )
+ Z C ( b 2 )( sin 2 cos 1 + cos 2 sin 1 ) + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 cos 2 ] =
= j {Z C sin ( 1 + 2 ) + bZ C2 sin 1 sin 2 X 1 [ cos 2 cos 1 + Z C ( b 2 ) sin ( 1 + 2 ) +

( )
+Z C2 b 2 4 sin 1 sin 2 ] } (3.86)
d) Let us consider the compensation at the middle of the line, that is
1 = 2 = L 2 . It results:

{
B' = j Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )
(3.87)
[ ( )
X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + Z C (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) ]}
respectively:
= Z C sin L + bZ C2 sin 2 ( L 2 )
X equiv
(3.88)
( ( )
X 1 cos 2 ( L 2 ) + (b 2)sin L + Z C2 b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2 ) )
If expressed in per unit (by referring to Z C ), results:
( p.u.) = sin L + b sin 2 ( L 2 )
X equiv
( ( )
x1 cos 2 ( L 2) + (b 2)sin L + b 2 4 sin 2 ( L 2) )
where x1 and b are expressed in per unit.
The latter expression can also be written as:

(
( p.u.) = k0 + k1b x1 k2 + k3b + k4b 2
X equiv ) (3.89)
AC transmission lines 221

where:
k0 = sin L ; k1 = sin 2 ( L 2 ); k2 = cos 2 ( L 2);
(3.90)
k3 = 1 2 sin L ; k4 = 1 4 sin 2 ( L 2)
In the particular case, when the mixed compensation is not performed, x1 = 0
and b = 0 , it results:
( p.u.) = k0 = sin L
X equiv (3.91)

that is the equivalent reactance of the system without compensation


( B = jZ C sin L ).
The influence of compensation reactor on series compensation consists in:
increasing of equivalent reactance of the electric network:
(k0 + k1b )
increasing of series compensation efficiency:
(
x1 k2 + k3b + k4b 2 )

If we analyse the expression of X equiv (p.u.), we observe that it has a
maximum that can be calculated by differentiating the expression (3.89) with
respect to b:
X equiv
= k1 k3 x1 2k4 x1bmax = 0
b
from where it results:
k1 k3 x1
bmax = (3.92)
2k4 x1
The value bmax corresponds to the maximum value of the equivalent
reactance and thus to the minimum transmitted power. This imposes the avoidance
of bmax since would otherwise lead to a resonance regime; therefore, a value close
to bmax would be suitable.

3.7. Transmitted power on the line with losses

3.7.1. Power formulae


In 3.4 the maximum transmitted powers on a lossless electric line have been
determined. Taking into account that there are cases when huge amounts of power
(e.g. at least 1000 MVA) are transmitted on long distances and at extra high
voltages (400 kV and above), the power losses by Joule effect, leakage currents or
222 Basic computation

corona discharge are high enough not to be neglected and single-phase active and
reactive power expressions, both for sending and receiving ends, will be further
determined on the basis of general operating equation for long lines:
V 1 A B V 2
I = (3.93)
1 C D I 2
Let us consider the simple case of a long line where node 1 is the sending-end
and node 2 is the receiving-end. Let the receiving-end voltage be the reference
V20 , and let the sending-end voltage be V1 .

V1 V2 0
A B
P1+jQ1 I1 C D I2
P2+jQ2
1 2
Fig. 3.27. Long line case.

Starting from the matrix equation (3.93) and taking into account the condition
of reciprocity AD BC = 1 , the expressions of sending-end and receiving-end
currents are determined:
1 A
I2 = V1 V 2
B B
(3.94)
D 1
I1 = V 1 V 2
B B
Further, by using the equations (3.93) and (3.94), the expressions of single-
phase complex apparent powers, draws out the sending-end and into the receiving-
end, are determined:
S2 *
S 20 = = P20 + jQ20 = V 2 I 2
3
(3.95)
S *
S 10 = 1 = P10 + jQ10 = V 1 I 1
3
Substituting the expressions of currents from (3.94) in (3.95), obtain:
* * *
1 A V V A
S 20 = V 2 V 1 V 2 = 2 * 1 * V22
B B B B
(3.96)
* * *
D 1 D 2 V 2V 1
S 10 = V 1 V 1 V 2 = *
V1 *
B B B B
AC transmission lines 223

By expressing also the constants A, B, C, and D as


A = A a ; B = B b ; C = C c ; D = D d

the receiving-end and sending-end complex powers are given by the following
expressions:
V2V1
S 20 = [cos(b ) + j sin (b )]
B (3.97,a)
A
V22 [cos( b a ) + j sin ( b a )]
B
D 2
S 10 = V1 [cos( b d ) + j sin ( b d )]
B (3.97,b)
VV
2 1 [cos( b + ) + j sin ( b + )]
B
The real and imaginary parts are written as:
V2V1 A
P20 = cos( b ) V22 cos( b a ) (3.98,a)
B B
V2V1 A
Q20 = sin ( b ) V22 sin ( b a ) (3.98,b)
B B
D 2 VV
P10 = V1 cos( b d ) 2 1 cos( b + ) (3.98,c)
B B
D 2 VV
Q10 = V1 sin ( b d ) 2 1 sin ( b + ) (3.98,d)
B B
Taking into account that the arguments a , b and c are fixed, the active
power that can be delivered to receiving-end is maximum at = b :
V2V1 A 2
P20, max = V2 cos( b a ) (3.99,a)
B B
and the reactive power corresponding to this limit is:
A
Q20, max = V22 sin ( b a ) (3.99,b)
B
As b > a and a , b > 90 it results that Q20, max has a negative value so
that, in order to increase the transmission capacity of a long electric line, leading
reactive power must be supplied.
For a lossless electric line, the network constants arguments get the values
a = b = 0 and b = 90 respectively, and equations (3.98) become:
224 Basic computation

V2V1 VV A
P20 = sin ; Q20 = 2 1 cos V22 (3.100,a,b)
B B B
V2V1 D VV
P10 = sin ; Q10 = V12 2 1 cos (3.100,c,d)
B B B
If the latter equations of active and reactive powers at sending and receiving
ends are analysed, maximum transmitted power is obtained for = b = 90 that
is:
V2V1
P20 = P10 = (3.101)
B
From equations (3.100) we see that the transmitted active power on a lossless
electric line depends on the rms voltages at both ends V1 and V2 , on phase angle
and on the coefficient B.
Analysing the expression (3.101) it can be said that by series compensation
with capacitors, the transmissible power increases in comparison with the case
without compensation since the coefficient B decreases, the reactance X 1 = 1 C
being negative, while for shunt compensation with reactor, the maximum
transmissible power will decrease in comparison with the case without
compensation.

3.7.2. Performance chart (Circle diagram)

The performance chart (circle diagram), for a long line, treated as a four-
terminal network, operating with constant receiving-end voltage can be obtained
starting from the operating equations written for voltages at both ends [3.1, 3.2]:
V 1 = AV 2 + B I 2 (3.102,a)

V 2 = DV 1 B I 1 (3.102,b)

In Figure 3.28,a,b the phasor diagram is drawn to a voltage scale for both the
above equations.

V1 D V1

B I2 d
D V2 V1
-a 1

2 -B I1
a V2 I1
I2 V2

a. b.
Fig. 3.28. Phasor diagram.
AC transmission lines 225

By multiplying each of the phasors in Figure 3.28,a by V2 B , and each of the


phasors in Figure 3.28,b by V1 B , the phasors BI 2 and BI1 get the form of a
power so that the expressions of powers at the receiving and sending ends can be
obtained. With these new forms the performance chart for both sending-end and
receiving-end powers can be drawn (Fig. 3.29).

P0
N b +
P0 M V1V2
S10
B
V1V2
power limit

B S20
ce line
+ d referen
b -d DV 2 O2
- a B 1
Q0 Q0
A V 2 b -a
O1 B 2

Fig. 3.29. Performance chart.

The geometric loci of the operating points M and N respectively, for a


VV
delivered load, are circles of equal radii 1 = 2 = 1 2 . For a symmetrical
B
network, a = b , the circle centres O1 and O2 are located on the reference line.
The active and reactive powers at both receiving and sending ends are
determined by projecting the phasors S 10 and S 20 on the two axes.
If the line operates with fixed voltages at both ends, the delivered power will
increase as increases and the power factor of the load will change from lagging,
through unity, to leading values. Figure 3.29 shows that there is a limit at = b
for the power that can be delivered.

3.7.3. Power losses


For a given operating regime, by using the geometric loci of the phasors S 10
and S 20 the corresponding power losses can be calculated. The geometric loci of
phasors at the line ends can be obtained under the following hypotheses:
transmission power under the hypothesis of fixed voltages at the line ends;
transmission power under the hypothesis of constant power losses;
transmission power under the hypothesis of constant transmission
efficiency.
226 Basic computation

Besides the geometric loci method, the establishing of the power losses can
be also evaluated directly, through analytical calculation starting from the
expressions:
P = 3P0 = 3(P10 P20 )
(3.103)
Q = 3Q0 = 3(Q10 Q20 )
or
S = 3 S 0 = 3(S 10 S 20 ) (3.104)
from where it results:

S 0 = S 10 S 20 =
1
B
[
AV22( b a ) + DV12( b d ) 2V1V2 cos b (3.105) ]
Identifying the real and imaginary parts, it is obtained:
1 1
P0 = P = AV22 cos( b a ) +
3 B (3.106,a)
+ DV12 cos ( b d ) 2V1V2 cos cos b

1 1
Q0 = Q = AV22 sin( b a ) +
3 B (3.106,b)
+ DV12 sin ( b d ) 2V1V2 cos sin b

Knowing the active and reactive power losses on an electric line, the
expression of transmission efficiency can be determined:
P2 P20
= = (3.107)
P2 + P P20 + P0

3.8. Application on AC long line


Consider a transmission line of 800 km length, operating at Un = 400 kV. The per
kilometre parameters of the line are given: r0 = 0.035 / km , x0 = 0.334 / km ,
g0 = 0.207 106 S/km and b0 = 3.449 106 S/km .
I. Determination of the transmission line parameters
(i) Propagation coefficient and characteristic impedance Z C ;
(ii) Line coefficients A , B , C and D ;
(iii) Parameters of the equivalent circuit: Z and Y .
II. Operation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions
III. Shunt compensation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions
(i) Determine the reactance of the shunt compensation reactor installed at the
receiving-end so that, under no-load conditions, the voltage at the line ends
be equal to the nominal voltage. Determine for this case how much has to be
AC transmission lines 227

the minimum short-circuit power of the system to which the line is connected
so that the self-excitation phenomenon of the equivalent generator of the
source will not appear?
(ii) Analyse the influence of the placement position of the shunt compensation
reactor on its rated power so that, for no-load conditions, to obtain equal
voltages at both ends.
(iii) Elaborate the shunt compensation solution so that the overvoltages along the
line be less than = 5% .
IV. Series compensation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions
(i) Assuming that a capacitor bank is installed in series with the line, determine
the reactance of the capacitor bank in terms of its placement location so that,
under no-load conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends;
(ii) Given the short-circuit power of the system Psc = 10000 MW , determine the
placement location of the capacitor bank so that the maximum power transfer
on the line be possible.
V. Operation of the transmission line under different loads
(i) Calculate the transmission efficiency for different values of the power
transferred on the line (i.e. 400 MW, 500 MW, 600 MW and 700 MW, and
power factor cos = 0.98 ), and draw the voltage profile along the line for
each case. Assume that the voltage at the receiving-end is fixed and equal to
U 2 = U n = 400 kV .
(ii) Elaborate the series compensation solution for the four cases from the point
(i), so that the voltage along the line be within admissible range.

Solution
I. Calculation of the transmission line parameters
(i) Propagation coefficient and characteristic impedance Z C

First we express the per kilometre parameters of the line:


z 0 = r0 + j x0 = 0.035 + j 0.334 = 0.3358 e j 84.02 /km
y = g0 + j b0 = 0.207 106 + j 3.449 106 = 3.4552 106 e j 86.57 S/km
0

The propagation coefficient is then calculated:


1
j (84.02+86.57)
= z 0 y = 0.3358 3.4552 103 e 2 = 1.077 103 e j 85.29 rad/km
0

or
= (0.0884 + j1.0736) 103 rad/km

and the characteristic impedance is:


1
z0 0.3358 j (84.0286.57)
ZC = = 103 e 2 = 311.76 e j ( 1.27)
y 3.4552
0

or
Z C = (311.68 j 6.93)
228 Basic computation

(ii) Line coefficients A , B , C and D

The line coefficients calculated with the exact formulae gives:

A = D = cosh L = 0.6549 + j 0.0536 = 0.6571 e j 4.679

B = Z C sinh L = 19.676 + j 236.244 = 237.062 e j 85.239

1
C= sinh L = (0.0942 + j 2.4372) 103 = 2.439 103 e j 87.786
ZC

In order to determine the line coefficients using the approximate formulae, we


calculate firstly the total impedance and admittance of the line:

z = z 0 L = ( 0.035 + j 0.334 ) 800 = 28 + j 267.2 = 268.66 e j 84.02

( )
y = y L = 0.207 106 + j 3.449 106 800 = (0.1656 + j 2.7592) 103 =
0

= 2.764 103 e j 86.57 S

For easier calculation of the line coefficients, we make the product:

z y = 268.66 e j 84.02 2.764 103 e j 86.57 = 0.7426 e j170.59

Using the approximate formulae, we obtain:

zy z2 y2
A = D = 1+ + = 1 + 0.3713 e j170.59 + 0.02298 e j 341.18 =
2 24
= 0.6554 + j 0.05333 = 0.6576 e j 4.652

z y z2 y2
B = z 1 + + = 268.66 e j 84.02 (1 + 0.1238 e j170.59 + 0.0046 e j 341.18 ) =
6 120

= 19.688 + j 236.261 = 237.081 e j 85.236

z y z2 y2
C = y 1 + + = 2.764 103 e j 86.57 (1 + 0.1238 e j170.59 + 0.0046 e j 341.18 ) =
6 120

= ( 0.0943 + j 2.437 ) 103 = 2.439 103 e j 87.784

Analysing the results obtained for the line coefficients we find very small errors
which shows that the approximate formulae can also be used with good accuracy.
(iii) Parameters of the equivalent circuit: Z and Y

A long transmission line can be represented by an equivalent circuit (Fig. 3.30),


whose parameters are either lumped or uniformly distributed.
The impedance and admittance to ground calculated with the exact formulae, specific
to the long lines, gives:
AC transmission lines 229

Z = Z C sinh L = 19.676 + j 236.244 = 237.062 e j 85.24

Y 1 L
= tanh = ( 0.1045 + j1.4693) 103 = 1.473 103 e j 85.93 S
2 ZC 2

I1 1 z 2 I2
y y
V1 V2
2 2

Fig. 3.30. Equivalent circuit of the line.

The impedance and admittance to ground calculated with the exact formulae, specific
to the long lines, gives:
Z = Z C sinh L = 19.676 + j 236.244 = 237.062 e j 85.24

Y 1 L
= tanh = ( 0.1045 + j1.4693) 103 = 1.473 103 e j 85.93 S
2 ZC 2
The parameters of the equivalent circuit can also be calculated using the approximate
formulae. Therefore, the impedance has the expression:
Z = K1 z
where the Kennellys first correction coefficient is:
zy z2 y2
K1 1 + + = 0.8823 + j 0.0188 = 0.8825 e j1.22
6 120
resulting:
Z = 0.8825 e j1.22 268.66 e j 84.02 = 237.081 e j 85.24 = (19.688 + j 236.262)
The admittance to ground has the approximate expression:
Y 1
= K y
2 2 2
where the Kennellys second correction coefficient is:
zy z2 y2
K 2 1 + = 1.0654 j 0.0116 = 1.0655 e j ( 0.62)
12 120
resulting:
Y 1
= 1.0655 e j ( 0.62) 2.764 103 e j 86.57 = 1.473 103 e j 85.94 =
2 2
= (0.104 + j1.469) 103 S
Comparing the results obtained for the line parameters with the exact and the
approximate formulae we find very small errors.
230 Basic computation

II. Operation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions


Considering that the resistance and conductance are neglected ( r0 = 0 and g0 = 0 ),
the propagation cofficient is calculated using the expression:

j = j x0 b0 = j 0.334 3.449 103 = j1.0733 103 rad/km

The characteristic impedance is then determined:


x0 0.334
ZC = = = 311.19 ;
b0 3.449 106
and the natural power is:
U n2 4002
PN = = = 514.15 MW ;
Z C 311.19
The transmission angle of the line is:

L = L = 1.0733 103 800 = 0.8586 rad = 49.196

When the line is energized from the sending-end and the receiving-end operates
under no-load, the phase-to-phase voltage at the receiving-end has the expression (3.43'):
U1
U2 =
cos L
Assuming that U1 = U n , then:
Un 400
U2 = = = 612.12 kV
cos L cos(49.196)

It can be seen that an overvoltage of 212.12 kV appears, which represents 53.03% of


Un. In order to reduce the overvoltages when the line is energized under no-load at the
receiving-end, reactors (shunt compensation) or capacitor banks (series compensation) may
be used.
III. Shunt compensation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions
(i) Determine the reactance of the shunt compensation reactor installed at the
receiving-end so that, under no-load conditions, the voltage at the line ends be equal with
the nominal voltage. Determine for this case how much has to be the minimum short-circuit
power of the system to which the line is connected so that the self-excitation phenomenon of
the equivalent generator of the source will not appear?
The reactive power of the shunt compensation reactor, installed at the receiving-end,
so that, under no-load conditions, the voltage at both ends be equal with the nominal
voltage, is determined with the expression (3.53):
L 49.196
qr = tan = tan = 0.4578 p.u.
2 2
meaning:
Qr = qr PN = 0.4578 514.15 = 235.38 MVAr
AC transmission lines 231

Therefore, the reactance is:


U n2 4002
Xr = = = 679.76
Qr 235.38

In this case, the maximum value of the voltage appears at the middle of the line,
being calculated with the expression (3.54):
1 1
umax = u ( L / 2) = = = 1.0998 p.u.
L 49.196
cos cos
2 2
Considering that the voltage at the receiving-end, chosen as base voltage and phase
origin, is U 2 = U n = 400 kV , then the maximum voltage on the line will be:

U max = 1.0998 400 = 439.92 kV

and the maximum overvoltage is:


U max = (umax 1) U n = 0.0998 400 = 39.932 kV

representing 9.98%.
In order to avoid the self-excitation phenomenon of the equivalent generator it is
necessary that (3.74):
PN
< cot L
Psc + Qr
and, in the limit, it results:
PN 514.15
Psc ,min = Qr = 235.38 = 360.20 MW
cot L cot(49.196)

(ii) Analyze the influence of the placement location of the compensation reactor on
its rated power so that, under no-load conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends.
We denote by L1 the distance from the receiving-end to the point where the reactor is
installed, and by Br 1 X r the susceptance of the compensation reactor. First we write the
matrix equation, which defines the relationship between the quantities at the sending- and
receiving-end.
V 1 A ' B ' V 2
I =
1 C ' D ' I 2
Neglecting the influence of the lumped reactance of the power system, and taking
into account that the line is considered without losses, the coefficient A ' is a real value
having the expression (3.73):
A ' = cos L + Br Z C cos 1 sin 2

For no-load conditions I 2 = 0 then V 1 = A 'V 2 .


In order to have equal voltages at both ends, it is necessary that A ' = 1 , from where it
results:
232 Basic computation

1 cos L
Br =
ZC cos 1 sin 2

The reactance of the compensation reactor has the expression:


1 cos 1 sin 2
Xr = ZC
Br 1 cos L

and its reactive power is calculated with:

U n2 U n2 1 cos L 1 cos L
Qr = = = PN
X r Z C cos 1 sin 2 cos 1 sin 2

For example, when the reactor is installed at 200 km away from the receiving-end we
have:
1 = L1 = 1.0733 103 200 = 0.2147 rad = 12.3

1 = ( L L1 ) = 1.0733 103 600 = 0.644 rad = 36.897

The reactance is:


cos(12.3) sin(36.897)
X r = 311.19 = 526.78
1 cos(49.196)

and the reactive power is:

4002
Qr = = 303.73 MVAr
526.78
The values of the reactance X r and reactive power Qr of the compensation reactor,
in terms of the its placement location with respect to the receiving-end, are presented in
Table 3.3.

Table 3.3
L1 [km] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Xr [] 679.76 609.46 526.78 435.52 339.88 244.23 152.98 70.3 0
Qr [MVAr] 235.38 262.53 303.73 367.37 470.76 655.11 1045.9 2275.9

We see that the value of the reactance of the compensation reactor decrease and tends
toward zero, and its reactive power increase and tends toward when the placement point
gets next to the source (L1 L).
Therefore, in order to obtain equal voltages at both ends, for no-load conditions, the
compensation reactor has to be installed at the receiving-end (the point where, under no-
load conditions, the voltage is maximum).
(iii) Elaborate the shunt compensation solution so that the overvoltages along the
line be less than = 5% .
As proven earlier, it results that the installing of a single compensation reactor at the
receiving-end is not sufficient to keep the maximum voltage on the line at values less than
AC transmission lines 233

= 5% . Under these circumstances, in order to obtain a distribution as uniformly as


possible of the voltage along the line, another compensation reactor is installed at the
middle of the line that will reduce the overvoltage in the respective point to a value equal to
the one at the ends. The reactive power of the reactor that should be installed at the middle
of the line is:
49.196
qM = tan L = tan = 0.218 p.u.
4 4
and the maximum value of the voltage on the line appear in the points situated at L 4 and
3 4 L , being:
1 1
umax = = = 1.0235 u.r.
49.196
cos L cos
4 4
or
U max = umaxU n = 1.0235 400 = 409.4 kV
We see that by installing the second reactor at the middle of the line, the overvoltage
is 2.35%, which is less than = 5% .
The voltage variation along the lossless line, with and without compensation, is
illustrated in Figure 3.31.

U(x) 1.6
Un a.
[p.u.] 1.4

1.2 b.

1
c.c.

0.8

0.6
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
L-x
Fig. 3.31. Voltage variation along the considered line, operating under no-load conditions:
a. without compensation; b. shunt compensation at the receiving-end;
c. shunt compensation at the middle of the line and at the receiving-end.

IV. Series compensation of the lossless transmission line under no-load conditions
(i) Assuming that a capacitor bank is installed in series with the line, determine the
reactance of the capacitor bank in terms of its placement location so that, under no-load
conditions, to obtain equal voltages at both ends.
In the case of series compensation by means of a capacitor bank, of reactance X c
and located at the distance L1 from the receiving-end, we start from the matrix equation:
V 1 A ' B ' V 2
I =
1 C ' D ' I 2
234 Basic computation

The coefficient A ' is the same as in expressions (3.61), where the lumped reactance
of the power system has been neglected, with the mention that it is a real value, having the
form:
X1
A ' = cos L sin 1 cos 2
ZC
For no-load conditions I 2 = 0 , and to achieve equal voltages at both ends it is
necessary that A ' = 1 , resulting:
cos L 1
X1 = X c = ZC
sin 1 cos 2
For example, when the capacitor bank installed at 200 km away from the receiving-
end, the angles are (Fig. 3.19):

1 = L1 = 1.0733 103 200 = 0.21466 rad = 12.299

2 = ( L L1 ) = 1.0733 103 600 = 0.64398 rad = 36.8973

and the reactance is:


cos(49.196) 1
X c = 311.19 = 633.03
sin(12.299) cos(36.8973)

Table 3.4 gives the values of the reactance X c in terms of the placement location of
the compensation reactor with respect to the receiving-end.

Table 3.4
L1 [km] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Xc [] - -1377.5 -633.03 -396.5 -284.92 -222.35 -183.83 -158.9 -142.46

We see that the value of the reactance X c necessary to obtain equal voltages at both
ends, under no-load conditions, is - when the capacitor bank is located at the receiving-
end of the line ( 1 = 0 and 2 = L ), increasing toward the value given by:

cos L 1 49.196
X c = ZC = Z C tan L = 311.19 tan = 142.46
sin L 2 2

when the capacitor bank is located at the sending-end ( 1 = L and 2 = 0 )

(ii) Given the short-circuit power of the system Psc = 10000 MW , determine the
placement location of the capacitor bank so that the maximum power transfer on the line be
possible.
Using the expression (3.65), written for the case when the lumped reactance of the
power system is no longer neglected, which represents the placement location of the
capacitor bank for a maximum power transfer, it results:
1 1 P 1 514.15
L1 = = L + atan N = 0.8586 + atan = 423.93 km
2 Psc 2 1.0733 103 10000
AC transmission lines 235

Therefore:
1 = L1 = 1.0733 103 423.93 = 0.455 rad = 26.07

2 = L 1 = 0.8586 0.455 = 0.4036 rad = 23.13

In this case, in order to obtain equal voltages at both ends under no-load conditions,
the reactance of the capacitor bank should be:
cos L 1 cos(49.196) 1
X c = ZC = 311.19 = 266.83
sin 1 cos 2 sin(26.07) cos(23.127)

V. Operation of the transmission line under different loads


(i) Calculate the transmission efficiency for different values of the power transferred
on the line (i.e. 400 MW, 500 MW, 600 MW and 700 MW, and power factor cos = 0.98 ),
and draw the voltage profile along the line for each case. Assume that the voltage at the
receiving-end is fixed and equal to U 2 = U n = 400 kV .

For an active power of 400 MW, the reactive power demanded at the receiving-end
is:
Q2 = P2 tan 2 = P2 tan(arccos ) = 400 tan(11.478) = 81.224 MVAr

then we can calculate the receiving-end current:

(S )
*
P2 jQ2 400 j 81.224
I2 = 2 = = = 0.5774 j 0.1172 = 0.5891 11.478 kA
3 U2 3U2 3 400

In the following we make use of the line coefficients A , B , C and D calculated


previously. The phase-to-neutral voltage at the sending-end is calculated as:
400
V 1 = AV 2 + B I 2 = 0.6571 e j 4.679 + 237.062 e j 85.239 0.5891 e j ( 11.478) =
3
= 190.31 + j 146.47 = 240.146 37.58 kV

The phase-to-phase voltage is then easily calculated by multiplying the above value
by 3 , giving:

U 1 = 3 V 1 = 329.62 + j 253.69 = 415.945 37.58 kV

and the current at the sending-end can be calculated as:


400
I 1 = C V 2 + D I 2 = 2.439 103 e j 87.786 + 0.6571 e j 4.679 0.5891 e j ( 11.478) =
3
= 0.4064 + j 0.5168 = 0.6575 51.82 kA

The complex power is:

S 1 = 3 U 1 I 1* = 3 415.945 37.58 0.6575 51.82 = 473.66 -14.24 MVA

or
236 Basic computation

S 1 = P1 + jQ1 = (459.12 j116.47) MVA

Therefore, we can calculate the transmission efficiency as:


P2 400
= = = 0.8712
P1 459.12

Table 3.5 gives values for the electrical quantities at the sending- and receiving-end
as well as the transmission efficiency for the four cases considered. We find that the
sending-end receives reactive power from the line for power transfer smaller than the
natural power, and it injects reactive power into the line for power transfer greater than the
natural power. We see also that the power transferred on the line increases, the transmission
efficiency decreases, and the necessary voltage at the sending-end increases as well.

Table 3.5
P2 Q2 U1 u1 P1 Q1 S1
Case
MW MVAr kV p.u. MW MVAr MVA
a. 400 81.224 415.945 1.04 459.12 -116.47 473.66 0.8712
b. 500 101.529 466.129 1.165 574.51 -31.901 575.39 0.8703
c. 600 121.835 518.513 1.296 693.21 +72.687 697.01 0.8655
d. 700 142.141 572.495 1.431 815.23 +197.29 838.76 0.8587

Using the expression:

U ( x) = cosh( x) U 2 + Z C sinh( x) 3 I 2

we can draw the absolute value of U ( x) , where x represents the distance metered from the
sending-end to a certain point on the line. The base voltage is 400 kV.
In Figure 3.32, the variation curves of the voltage along the line are presented for the
four cases. For a power transfer of 400 MW the voltage is within admissible range. Instead,
for the other three cases, voltage values outside the admissible range would be necessary to
obtain 400 kV at the receiving-end, which is not acceptable.

U(L-x) 1.5
Un 1.4 d.
[p.u.]
1.3 c.
1.2 b.
1.1 a.

0.9

0.8
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
L-x
Fig. 3.32. Voltage profile along a transmission line of 800 km length
operating under different loads: a. 400 MW; b. 500 MW; c. 600 MW; d. 700 MW.
AC transmission lines 237

(ii) Elaborate the series compensation solution for the four cases from the point (i),
so that the voltage along the line be within admissible range.
To increase the transmission capacity, while keeping the voltage in appropriate
range, the compensation of the inductive reactance of the line can be adopted by installing a
capacitor bank in series with the line.
The matrix equation used to calculate the voltage and current, when series
compensation by means of capacitor banks is performed, is:
for x [ 0, L1 ]

cosh x Z C sinh x
V ( x)
= V 2
I ( x) 1 sinh x cosh x I 2
Z
C
for x L1

cosh ( x L1 ) Z C sinh ( x L1 ) cosh L1 Z C sinh L1


V ( x)
= 1 1 jX 1
1 V 2

I ( x) Z sinh ( x L1 ) cosh ( x L1 ) 0 1 sinh L1 cosh L1 I 2
C Z C

Figure 3.33 illustrates the voltage variation along the line considering a capacitor
bank installed at 200 km away from the receiving-end, which compensates by 40% the
inductive reactance. In this case, when 400 MW are transmitted on the line, the voltage at
the sending-end should be under the nominal voltage, and the capacitor bank should be
disconnected. When 500 MW or even 600 MW are transmitted on the line, an acceptable
voltage level results.

U(L-x) 1.2 d.
Un
[p.u.] 1.1 c.
b.
1 a.

L1
0.9

0.8
0 200 400 600 800 [km]
L-x
Fig. 3.33. Voltage profile for a compensation factor kseries = 0.4
and a power factor cos = 0.98 : a. 400 MW; b. 500 MW; c. 600 MW; d. 700 MW.

Instead, the transfer of an active power of 700 MW cannot be achieved because a


voltage level exceeding the maximum admissible limit would be necessary at the sending-
end. A possible solution to increase further the transmission capacity is to fully compensate
the reactive power at the receiving-end so that cos = 1 ).
238 Basic computation

Figures 3.34,a and 3.34,b illustrates the voltage variation along the line when only
active power is demanded at the receiving-end ( cos = 1 ), considering that a compensation
of 20% and 40%, respectively, of the inductive reactance of the line is performed.
Analysing the voltage variation curves we may say that it is convenient to install a switched
capacitor bank in series with the line, together with an installation for reactive power and
voltage control at the receiving-end, which contributes to the increasing of the transmission
capacity up to 700 MW (Fig. 3.34,b).

1.2 1.2
d. U(L-x)
Un
[p.u.] 1.1
1.1 c. d.

b. c.
1 1
a. b.

a.
0.9 L1 0.9 L1

0.8 0.8
0 200 400 600 800 0 200 400 600 800
L-x [km] L-x [km]
a. b.
Fig. 3.34. Voltage profile for a power factor cos = 1 and compensation factor:
a. kseries = 0.2 ; b. kseries = 0.4 .

Chapter references
[3.1] Bercovici, M., Arie, A.A., Poeat, A. Reele electrice. Calculul electric (Electric
networks. Electric calculation), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti, 1971.
[3.2] Guill, A.E., Paterson, W. Electrical power systems. Volume one (2nd Edition),
Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, 1979.
[3.3] Weedy, B.M. Electrical power systems. (3rd Edition), John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, New York, 1979.
[3.4] Poeat, A., Arie, A.A., Crian, O., Eremia, M., Alexandrescu, V., Buta, A.
Transportul i distribuia energiei electrice (Transmission and distribution of
electric energy), Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti, 1981.
[3.5] Kimbark, E.W. A new look at shunt compensation, IEEE Trans. on Power
Systems, Vol. 102, No. 1, January 1983.
[3.6] Gnen, T. Electric power transmission system engineering. Analysis and design,
John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York, 1988.
[3.7] Das, J.C. Power system analysis. Short-circuit load flow and harmonics, Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York, Basel, 2002.
[3.8] Anderson, P.M., Farmer, R.G. Series compensation of power systems, PBLSH!
Inc., California, USA, 1996.
[3.9] Fallou, J. Les rseaux de transmission dnergie, Gauthier-Villars Editeur, Paris,
1935.
Chapter 4
HVDC TRANSMISSION

4.1. Introduction
HVDC power transmission is relatively a new technology, which had a
modest beginning in 1954. The advent of thyristor valves and related technological
improvements over last 30 years has been responsible for the acceleration of the
growth of HVDC systems.
The HVDC technology is still undergoing many changes due to continuing
innovations directed at improving reliability and reducing costs of converter
stations. Nowadays, the thyristor blocking voltage has reached 8500 Volts, while
the conduction current of the device is up to 3500 Amperes. Converter ratings are
up to 500 kV and 1500 MW for a single 12 pulse valve group. The converters can
be connected in series or in parallel to achieve higher ratings.
Actually, 70000 MW of HVDC transmission capacity is installed all over the
world. For DC, there are two options: conventional high voltage direct current
(HVDC) and voltage source converter (VSC).
Three types of semiconductor devices have established themselves in the
high power segment: thyristors, GTOs (gate turn off thyristors) and IGBTs
(insulated gate bipolar transistors).
The thyristor is the oldest of switching devices in use nowadays. It can be
turned on through gate control. The thyristor returns to its off state only when the
load current goes to zero. In practice, this is accomplished through the
commutation process. On the other hand GTOs and IGBTs can be turned off via
gate signals.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission link is advantageous in
the following areas of application [4.1]:
(i) For cables crossing bodies of water wider than 30 km;
(ii) For interconnecting AC systems having different frequencies or where
asynchronous operation is desired;
(iii) For long distance, bulk power transmission by overhead lines, when the
saving in cost of a DC line would more than compensate for the cost of
converter station;
(iv) The DC systems have an inherent short-time overload capacity that can
be used for damping system oscillations;
240 Basic computation

(v) In congested urban areas or elsewhere where it is difficult to acquire


right of way for overhead lines and where lengths involved make AC
cables impracticable;
(vi) A requirement to provide an intertie between two systems without raising
the short-circuit level appreciably can be met by using a HVDC link.
Thyristors has much lower losses compared to GTOs and IGBTs. Thyristors
are suitable for applications at higher MW ratings.
Line commutated HVDC converters
The first commercial HVDC link using conventional line commutated
converter technology was installed in 1954. That was a 96 km, 20 MW rated,
100 kV submarine cable between the island Gotland and the Swedish mainland.
Since then, conventional technology has been installed in many locations in the
world, primarily for bulk power transmission over long geographical distance and
for interconnecting systems. Some well-known examples for long distance HVDC
links are:
Cross Channel DC Link (France England) 71 km with rating of 2000 MW
at a DC voltage 2 270 kV;
1345 km Pacific Intertie DC link (USA) with rating of 3100 MW at a DC
voltage of 500 kV;
The +/- 500 kV, 4000 MW double bipolar Nelson River HVDC system in
Canada. It provides a bulk transmission link from remote generation to the
load centre;
The 6300 MW Itaipu HVDC link two bipoles each rated 3150 MW at a
DC voltage 600 kV in Brazil (19841987). It plays a key role in the
Brazilian power system;
The 2000 MW Quebec New England link, which is a multi-terminal
HVDC system;
The most powerful HVDC submarine cable to date are rated 600 MW at
450 kV. Typical examples are the 230 km Baltic Cable link between
Sweden and Germany, and the 260 km cable for the SwePol link between
Sweden and Poland;
A major portion of the total generating power (18200 MW), from Three
Gorges hydroelectric power plant, will be carried to Chinas industrialized
coastal areas in Shanghai and Shenzheng by means of four HVDC links
(Fig. 4.1) [4.15]:
Gezhouba Shanghai 1200 MW HVDC bipole, in operation since 1991;
Three Gorges Changzhou 3000 MW bipole, commissioned in May
2003 ( 500 kV, 900 km);
Three Gorges Guangdong 3000 MW bipole;
Three Gorges Shanghai 3000 MW scheduled to be operating by 2007.
HVDC was chosen to transmit power from the Three Gorges plant for several
reasons. Since the central and east China/Guangdong AC networks are not
synchronized an AC transmission scheme would have required coordination, and it
HVDC transmission 241

would have been very difficult to ensure adequate stability margins. HVDC allow
controlled transmission of power between the networks, which also retain their
independence. DC is also more economic in term of construction costs and losses
as well as the right of way.
Left bank + 500 kV, 3000 MW
14x700 MW Three Gorges - Changzhou

Central + 500 kV, 1200 MW East


Three Gorges
China Gezouba - Shanghai China

12x700 MW + 500 kV, 3000 MW

Right bank Three Gorges - Shanghai

+ 500 kV, 3000 MW


Guangdong
Three Gorges - Guangdong

Fig. 4.1. Three Gorges power plant links.

Voltage source converter VSC HVDC


The other DC option, the VSC HVDC technology, is capturing more and
more attention [4.14]. It is marketed by ABB under the name HVDC Light and by
Siemens under the name HVDC Plus. This new technology has only become
possible due to important advances in power electronics, namely the insulated gate
bipolar transistors (IGBT) and the ability to connect individual IGBTs in series in a
similar mechanical valve arrangement similar to thyristors. Pulse width modulation
(PWM) is the common control method of VSC converters.
In VSC, the current can be turned off, which means that there is no need for
an active commutation voltage. Furthermore, the active and reactive power supply
can be controlled independently. This is one of the main reasons why onshore
network companies are usually in favour of VSC HVDC technology. In addition,
it is important to mention that VSC HVDC is by nature bipolar. The DC circuit is
not connected to ground. Therefore, two conductors (cables) are always needed.
The first commercial VSC based HVDC link was installed on the Swedish
island of Gotland in 1999. It is 70 km long with 50 MW at 80 kV. The link was
mainly built in order to provide voltage support for the large amount of wind power
installed in the South of Gotland. In 2000, a link 59 km long with three times
60 MW at 80 kV, was built in Australia between the power grids of Queensland
and New South Wales. A second link is currently being installed in Australia; with
its 180 km, the connection will be the longest VSC based HVDC link in the
world. It will have a capacity of 200 MW at a DC voltage of 150 kV. In the
United States, a 45 km submarine HVDC link is currently being installed between
Connecticut and Long Island. The link will be operated at a DC voltage of
150 kV and will have a capacity of 330 MW.
242 Basic computation

4.2. Structure and configurations

4.2.1. Structure of HVDC links


An HVDC link can be either long distance or Back-to-Back (BTB). In a long
distance HVDC system the rectifier and inverter stations are connected via an
overhead line or cable or a combination of both. In a Back-to-Back system there is
no HVDC line or cable. The power flow is from rectifier to the inverter. There is
no reactive power exchange between the two stations. The components of an
HVDC link are shown in Figure 4.2.

AC system AC system

Fig. 4.2. The main components of an HVDC link.

HVDC converter units


The important building block of HVDC is the six pulse bridge. It performs
the conversion from AC to DC and DC to AC, and consists of six valves. The
bridge consists of high voltage valves connected in this 6-pulse configuration. A
six pulse is connected to the AC system via a converter transformer (Fig. 4.3,a).

a. b. c.
Fig. 4.3. 6, 12 and 24-pulse converter units.

Two six pulse bridges can be connected in series on the DC side and in
parallel on the AC side through their respective converter transformers. If one
HVDC transmission 243

bridge is connected to a Y/Y and the second bridge is connected to a Y/


transform, and due to the phase shift of 30 a 12 pulse operation is obtained. This is
referred to as 12 pulse converter. This is shown in Figure 4.3,b. Most HVDC
systems are configured in a 12 pulse converter.
A 24-pulse converter unit consists of four six pulse bridges connected in
series on the DC side with their respective transformers, producing four three phase
systems with 15 phase difference one from the other (Fig. 4.3,c).
Converter transformer [4.5]
The converter transformer is designed to provide an ungrounded three-phase
voltage source of the appropriate level to the bridge. It may have any winding
connection, as long as the valve side winding is ungrounded. This allows the DC
system to establish its own reference to ground, usually by grounding the positive
or negative end of the valve converter.
Converter transformers are typically equipped with on load tap changer LTC
to allow adequate control over DC voltage levels as AC voltages and DC currents
vary. A typical range for the LTC would be 15% in one to two percent steps.
Most will operate within five seconds of the occurrence of a change to restore
desired conditions. The operation of the LTC is closely coordinated with both
valve-firing controls and switching of reactive power sources in the converter
station. They all work together to limit reactive demands on the AC system.
Converter transformers are exposed to cyclic conduction of direct current in
their windings, which approximate rectangular current pulses of fundamental
frequency. These current pulses may be thought of as being composed of the
superposition of fundamental frequency and several harmonic frequency
components. The harmonic frequency components increase losses. These effects
combined with DC insulations requirements, large reactive power demands and
LTC mechanisms tend to make converter transformers much larger than
conventional transformers of the same rating.
Converter valves [4.5]
The converter valves perform the switching to sequentially connect the line-
to-line voltages of the converter transformer to the positive and negative terminals
of the valve bridge. By controlling the timing of the switching operations, the level
of DC voltage and its polarity can be varied from nearly the positive value of the
peak line-to-line AC voltage to nearly the negative value of that voltage. The
polarity and level of the resultant direct voltage relative to the direct current
determines the direction and level of power transfer on the DC link. Operation of
the converter will be discussed in 4.3.1.
Physically a valve bridge consists of six high voltage valves. The six valves
acts as switches. It is usually convenient to mechanically stack two or four valves
on top of one another with AC and DC connections at intermediate levels. These
are called double valves or quadruple valves, respectively. The quadruple valves
result in compact station design. The valves are constructed using individual
thyristor levels. Each valve consists of thyristor levels connected in series to attain
244 Basic computation

the desired voltage level. Parallel connection of thyristor levels is not required. The
thyristors in a valve are sub-divided into modules. The modular concept allows
ready access for maintenance and rapid replacement of failed components. Each
module typically contains a firing system for each thyristor and a monitoring
system to indicate failures. In addition to the thyristors the module contains series
saturable reactors to limit current rate-of-change as well as parallel capacitances to
limit voltage rate-of-change. The restrictions on these two quantities are required to
avoid excessive current densities in semiconductor junction areas as conduction
begins.
Valves require a cooling system. Valves may be cooled by circulating air,
water, and oil. Thermal time constants are on the order of second, so sustained
overcurrents cannot be tolerated by valves.
Filters
Converters generate harmonic voltages and currents on both AC and DC
sides. These harmonics can cause overheating of capacitors and nearby generators,
and interferences with telecommunication systems.
There are three types of filters used:
(i) AC filters. These are passive circuits used to provide low impedance,
shunt paths for AC harmonic currents. Both tuned and damped filter arrangements
are used;
(ii) DC filters. These are similar to AC filters and are used for the filtering of
harmonics on DC side;
(iii)High frequency filters. These are connected between the converter
transformer and the station AC bus to suppress any high frequency currents.
Sometimes such filters are provided on high-voltage DC bus converted between the
DC filter and DC line and also on the neutral side.
Reactive power
Converters require reactive power supply that is dependent on the active
power loading. Under steady-state conditions the reactive power consumed is about
50-60% of active power transferred. Reactive power sources are therefore provided
near the converters. For strong AC systems, these are usually in the form of shunt
capacitors. Depending on the demands placed on the DC link and on the AC
system, part of the reactive power source may be in the form of synchronous
condensers or static VAr compensators. Fortunately, part of this reactive power
requirement is provided by AC filters.
Smoothing reactor
A sufficient large series reactor is used on DC side to smooth direct current
and also serves as a buffer between the converters and the DC line. The sizing of
the reactor depends on various requirements: to reduce the incidence of
commutation failure in inverters caused by dips in the AC voltage at the converter
bus; to prevent the consequent commutation failures in inverters by reducing the
rate of rise of direct current in the bridge; smooth the ripple in the direct current in
order to prevent the current becoming discontinuous at light loads; decrease
HVDC transmission 245

harmonic voltages and currents in the DC lines [4.7]. The location of the
smoothing reactor can be either at the high voltage terminal or at the ground
terminal. In the latter case, it is also necessary to have a small reactor (510 mH)
on the line side, to protect the converter station from the consequences of lightning
strokes to the line.
DC lines/cables
Selection of DC line/cable voltage is made only in conjunction with converter
rating selection. Going to higher voltages will increase converter costs and
decrease line losses for a given power level. Optimisation of system voltage level is
highly dependent upon both converter costs and line/cable costs. Thus DC lines,
unlike AC lines, may not be designed at an optimum voltage level for a given
power transfer. Converter cost as a function of voltage and current must be
considered before DC voltage is selected. The evaluation should consider different
voltage levels.
Electrode systems
Biplolar DC projects are designed to use the earth as a neutral conductor for
at least brief periods of time unless they are designed as two independent
monopoles. The connection to the earth requires a large surface area conductor to
minimize current densities and surface voltage gradients.
The conductor is termed an electrode. The electrode is usually located several
kilometres from the converter station so that direct currents will not stray into the
stations ground mat or be diverted into AC transmission lines leaving the
converter station. The line connecting station to the electrode is termed an
electrode line. In some designs if ground currents are not allowed at all, a metallic
return conductor is provided. In bipolar systems during monopolar operation one of
the pole conductors is used for metallic return. This requires a metallic transfer
breaker (MRTB) at the low voltage end. This breaker has to commutate the DC
current from the electrode line to the metallic return.
These three elements: electrode, electrode line and metallic return transfer
breaker, constitute the electrode system. Each has unique characteristics which are
discussed in turn.
(i) Electrode [4.5]. Two very different types of electrodes need to be
considered: anode and cathode. The anode is the point at which conventional current
(not electron flow) enters the earth. The cathode is where it leaves the earth. At both
types of electrodes conduction is largely by ion flow in an electrolyte of water and
salts. The major difference between the types of electrodes is that at anode, metal
ions assume positive charges and are carried away from the electrode. At the
cathode, metal ions are deposited. This causes severe corrosion of the anode and
erosion of the metal. The anode is effectively sacrificed to allow current
conduction. The cathode may increase in metallic mass but that in not a problem.
Anodes are more expensive to maintain because of the corrosion effect. To reduce
costs they are usually constructed with low cost conducting material surrounding the
metallic conductors (coke and graphite are frequently used). Cathodes may consist of
246 Basic computation

just a buried array of metallic conductors, since they are not affected by corrosion, if
at least low currents flow most of time.
In practice it is usually not possible to predict which electrode will be the anode
and which will be the cathode, because the earth return usually carries the
unbalanced current of bipolar system. Electrode construction varies with the
resistivity and moisture content of the earth. Large voltage gradients must be avoided
for safety reasons and because they represent power loss and heating of the earth.
That in turn can evaporate moisture from the electrode area and increase its
resistivity in a thermal run-away.
The most compact electrodes are constructed in ocean locations where
saltwater provides a good conductor and unlimited cooling and moisture. The largest
electrodes are required on land where thousand of meters of buried conductors may
be required. The electrode at the northern end of the Pacific Intertie is constructed as
a large conducting circle with a diameter of 1036 meters [4.5].
An alternative to the surface electrode is the deep electrode. If low resistivity rock or
mineral formations are located below the surface, it is sometimes advantageous to
construct several vertical shafts to connect with those formations. A layer of coal or
iron ore, for example might be used to reduce surface voltage gradients and electrode
costs. Most electrodes are able to reduce earth contact resistance to a fraction of an
ohm using one of these methods.
A major problem with electrodes is that DC earth currents follow paths of least
resistance. Remote from the electrode this will probably be deep within the
conducting mantle of the earth. In the vicinity of the electrode it may include
following low resistance man-made facilities, such as gas or water pipelines or even
transmission lines. Currents in these facilities may create problems, such as
saturation of transformer cores. More likely they will produce corrosion problems
where the currents leave these metal objects and reenter the earth. The corrosion
problems, which affect the anode electrode, are present on a smaller scale anytime
current leaves a metal object by ionic conduction.
Electrodes may be located many kilometres away from the converter station or
other facilities to avoid these kinds of problems. Also cathodic protection can be
applied to force current to leave the buried metals only through sacrifical anodes.
(ii) Electrode line [4.5]. The electrode line requires insulation levels adequate
to withstand the voltage drop along its length. That is usually only a small fraction of
the line-to-ground voltage of the DC system. The electrode line may be carried as an
insulated shield wire on one of the transmission lines leaving the converter station, as
long as it has adequate capacity.
The electrode line has some unique protection problems. Faults are hard to
detect since there will be no change in current, and voltages are very low all of the
time. The effects of grounding the electrode line to a tower or the earth may be very
adverse, however. In either case sever corrosion can occur if high currents are
present. Corrosion of the tower footing can destroy the tower; corrosion of the
electrode line can cause loss of conducting capacity and failure of the electrode line.
Any break in the electrode line can cause DC arcing and severe damage. DC
arcs can be much longer and stable than AC arcs. Any tendency to extinguish is
HVDC transmission 247

countered by the inductances of the DC system and recovery voltages which, on


monopolar systems, can be even higher than the pole-to-ground voltage.
(iii) Metallic return transfer breaker (MRTB) [4.5]. The last, and optional,
component of the electrode system is a true low voltage DC circuit breaker. It can
be used to serve either of two functions. It can force current flowing in the earth to
take a higher resistance metallic path to the other end of the link; or it can
momentarily ground the metallic return conductor to help extinguish faults on that
conductor. In either case only one MRTB is required in a DC system, since one end
of the link will always be grounded in both earth and metallic return modes.
In the transfer mode the metallic return conductor is first connected between
the neutrals of the converters at each end of the link. Only a small portion of the
DC return current will flow through it in this connection. The MRTB is located in
series with the much larger earth component of the return current. The MRTB then
interrupts the earth component of the current.
The fault clearing mode of operation of the MRTB could be used if a fault
occurred on the metallic return while it was being used. Closing the MRTB would
bring voltages and currents on the metallic return to nearly zero and may
extinguish the fault. Opening of the MRTB after this represents another transfer to
metallic return mode, which may be successful if the fault is not permanent. For
those cases where MRTB closure does not extinguish the fault because of excessive
arc voltage remaining, the DC link will need to be momentarily deenergized.
Voltage surge protection [4.5]
DC systems require voltage surge protection systems, which are unique. The
need for protection from surges is most important around the valves, especially
thyristor valves. As a result the protection system is quite extensive. It is
complicated by the fact that the valve bridges are only grounded at the electrode,
which may be some distance from the station.
Modern systems use metallic oxide DC arrestors to control overvoltages.
Their non-linear characteristics are especially well suited to DC systems, because
protection levels only slightly higher than the operating voltage are needed. AC
systems must select protection levels above the peak AC voltage levels, rather than
above the rms levels.
These arrestors are generally applied from pole to ground and from neutral to
ground to block incoming line surges. Further protection of the valves is provided
by connection of arrestors across each valve, each bridge and each pole. Arrestors
are even connected from the points between bridges to ground. This protection
system, coupled with the buffer provided by converter transformer and line reactor
impedances and interval valve protection systems, provides defence against valve
damage.

4.2.2. HVDC configurations


The main configurations of HVDC transmission systems are: bipolar lines,
monopolar lines and back-to-back links (Fig. 4.4).
248 Basic computation

-
Pole I Pole I -

Ground Ground
electrodes electrodes

Pole II Pole II
+ -
a. b.

c. d.
Fig. 4.4. Types of HVDC transmission systems: a. bipolar line; b. two monopolar
transmission lines forming a bipolar system; c. monopolar transmission line with
ground or sea return; d. back-to-back.

Monopolar HVDC systems


Monopolar HVDC systems can be distinguished in monopolar systems with
ground and in monopolar systems with metallic return [4.8].
a) A monopolar HVDC system with ground return consists of one or more
12-pulse converter units in series or parallel at each end, a single conductor and
return through the earth (Fig. 4.5,a) or sea water (Fig. 4.4,c). It could be a cost
effective solution for an HVDC cable transmission and/or the first stage of a
bipolar scheme. At each end of the line, it requires an electrode line and a ground
electrode in continuous operation. Thus, possible interference with other structures,
installations or systems and magnetic field effects may be considered.
Id
Id

F F F
F
Neutral
Id Id conductor
Ground Surge
electrode Id arrester
Cathode Anode
a. b.
Fig. 4.5. Monopolar transmission systems: a. monopolar with ground return; b. monopolar
with metallic return. Reprinted with permission from IEEE P1030.1-2000 IEEE Guide for
specification of HVDC systems 2000 IEEE.
HVDC transmission 249

b) A monopolar HVDC system with metallic return consists of one high


voltage and one low voltage conductor, with the neutral tied at the one converter
station to the station grounding grid or to the associated ground electrode and at the
other station through a capacitor or an arrester to its grounding grid (Fig. 4.5,b). It
is generally used either as the first stage of a bipolar scheme, when ground currents
are not allowed during the intermediate period, or when construction of electrode
lines and ground electrodes constitutes an uneconomical solution due to shortness
of the DC line or the high value of the earth resistivity. If this arrangement is the
first stage of a bipolar scheme, the neutral conductor could be insulated from the
high voltage at this stage.
Both configurations require one or more DC smoothing reactors at each end
of the HVDC line, usually located on the high voltage side or even on the low
voltage side, if the resulting performance is acceptable, and DC filters, if the line is
overhead.
Bipolar HVDC systems
A bipolar HVDC system consists of two 12-pulse converter units in series
with electrode lines and ground electrodes at each end and two conductors, one
with positive and the other with negative polarity to ground for power flow in one
direction. For power flow in the other direction, the two conductors reserve their
polarities. It is a combination of two monopolar schemes with ground return, as
Figure 4.6,a presents. With both poles in operation, the imbalance current flow in
the ground path can be held to a very low value.
This is a very common arrangement with the following operational
capabilities [4.8]:
during an outage of one pole, the other could be operated continuously
with ground return;
when one pole can not be operated with full load current, the two poles of
the bipolar scheme could be operated with different currents, supposing that both
ground electrodes are connected;
when construction of electrode lines and ground electrodes constitutes an
uneconomical solution due to shortness of the DC line or the high value of earth
resistivity, a third conductor can be added to give a bipolar metallic neutral system,
as Figure 4.6,b presents. This conductor carries unbalanced current during bipolar
operation and serves as return path, when a pole is out of service. The neutral of
one terminal could be grounded, while the other would float or be tied to the
grounding grid through an arrester or a capacitor. Bipolar, ground midpoint
configuration (Fig. 4.6,c) is one most widely used on existing HVDC systems [4.8].
It is basically two monopolar earth return circuits of opposite polarity operating
between the same terminals on the same tower. In this way the ground return
currents, both DC and DC line harmonics, can be made to largely cancel each other
under normal conditions, greatly decreasing electrode problems and
communication problems that that either one individually would have. The fact that
two power circuits are present provides a substantial improvement in redundancy
to cope with line or converter contingencies. If converter pole paralleling switches
250 Basic computation

are provided along with bypass switching of sub-pole valve groups, substantially
higher fractions of normal power capabilities can continue during contingencies.
The fact that both poles of a bipolar system are carried on the same overhead tower
offers savings in construction costs similar to those enjoyed by double circuit AC
lines over those of two individual circuits of the same total capacity.

Id Id
+ +

F F F F
Neutral
conductor

F F F F

- -
a. b.
Id

B B
MRTB - metallic return breaker
B - bypass switch to allow
MRTB metallic return mode

B B

Id
c.
Fig. 4.6. Bipolar HVDC systems: a. bipolar system; b. bipolar metallic neutral; c. bipolar,
grounded midpoint configuration (common tower). Reprinted with permission from IEEE
P1030.1-2000 IEEE Guide for specification of HVDC systems 2000 IEEE.

A homopolar link has two or more conductors, all of the same polarity
(normally negative). The return path is represented by ground. If a conductor is
faulty, the entire converter is available for connection to the remaining
conductor(s).
Point-to-point HVDC systems
Point-to-point HVDC overland transmission is a very common application
and a well justified choice in case of power transmission over long distances or
HVDC transmission 251

asynchronous interconnection of two power networks. For an evaluation process


the following parts, constituting a point-to-point overland system, may be
considered [4.8]:
converter stations at the two ends of the transmission;
HVDC overland line;
electrode lines, which could be medium voltage insulated overhead lines,
connecting the neutral point of the converter stations with the associated
electrodes. It is noted that, if the route is the same for a certain length,
HVDC line and electrode line could be on the same towers;
electrode stations, which could be located in the ground or sea.
Point-to-point HVDC submarine systems. For sea crossings longer than
certain distance i.e., 50 km, the use of AC cables is virtually impossible, as the
capacitive currents become too high. Thus, in these cases the most common
application worldwide is the HVDC submarine cable transmission. Another similar
application is the use of long HVDC underground cables in densely populated
urban areas. In these areas, construction of overhead lines becomes very expensive
and may face opposition due to environmental issues. The choice of HVDC
underground cables versus the HVAC alternative have the advantage of low losses
and the disadvantage of the space required for the converters stations.
Main possible parts of a point-to-point HVDC submarine system are [4.8]:
converter stations at the two ends of the transmission;
overhead line sections, linking converter stations with the overhead
line/land cable junctions;
land cable sections, linking the overhead line/land cable junctions with the
land/sea cable joint;
submarine cable section, linking the two land/sea cable joints;
electrode lines;
two marine electrodes, one anode and one cathode.
Back-to-back HVDC links
Back-to-back HVDC links are HVDC interconnections, where there is no DC
transmission line and both converters located at the same site. For economic
reasons each converter is usually a 12-pulse converter unit. The valves for both
converters may be located in one valve hall and similarly other items for the two
converters, such as control system, cooling equipment and auxiliary systems, may
be integrated into configurations common to the two converters.
In Figure 4.7 two different circuit configurations, regarding locations of
smoothing reactor and DC system ground are presented.
Generally, the DC voltage rating is typically low and thyristor valve current
rating is high in comparison with HVDC interconnections with overhead lines and
cables. Main reason is that on the one hand, valve cost is much more voltage
dependent, as the higher voltage increases the number of thyristors and thus the
cost and on the other hand, the highest possible current adds very little extra cost in
the price of an individual thyristor. This also permits a low voltage tertiary winding
252 Basic computation

of the converter transformer to which AC filters and compensation may be


connected. Smaller reactive power switching steps can thus be achieved.

Id Id

a. b.
Fig. 4.7. Back-to-back systems: a. one DC smoothing reactor and one DC system ground;
b. two DC smoothing reactors and one DC system ground.

A large back-to-back HVDC system could be comprised of two or more


back-to-back links and thus, loss of one converter unit will not cause loss of full
power capability. Considering an HVDC transmission between two asynchronous
power systems, the question regarding proper location of the terminal should be
answered. Either an HVDC intertie with overhead lines or a back-to-back link at
the border of two existing grids should be used. Back-to-back links certainly have a
cost benefit regarding terminal costs only. Decision will depend upon the capacity
of the existing grids to handle the new load. If reinforcements are necessary, the
possibility of using a back-to-back link with a long AC feeder must be examined,
too.
AC and DC in parallel
Environmental restrictions are being imposed on the expansion of power
systems and especially on the construction of new transmission lines. As an
alternative to new lines, the enhancement of power transmission capability of the
existing lines may be considered. One way of achieving this is, by converting,
existing AC lines to DC with possible alterations in insulators on the existing
towers.

Pole I Pole II

Pole I Return Pole II Pole I Pole II Pole I


conductor

Fig. 4.8. Solutions for transformation of single or double-circuit lines into DC line
configuration.
HVDC transmission 253

For double circuit AC lines, conversion of one AC circuit to a DC leads to a


parallel operation of AC and DC lines on the same transmission towers. Studies
performed for the close coupling of two parallel AC and DC lines running on
conventional AC towers show no adverse effect on the operation of the DC
link [4.8]. In Figure 4.8 possible solutions for single or double-circuit three-phase
lines transformation into a DC line configuration are presented.
In the first case, the centre phase is used as return conductor. An interesting
modification, which allow the doubling of thermal limit and transmission capacity,
consists in using a double number of conductors for the centre phase which is the
pole II, while the outer phases operating in parallel are the pole I. Generally, the
transmission capacity can increase over three times if the AC lines are transformed
into DC ones [4.15].
Multi-terminal HVDC Systems
Multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) operation is a viable strategy that is already
incorporated into system planning alternatives. Three main possible configurations
are mentioned, the first two referred to parallel connected 12-pulse converter units,
rated for full direct voltage and the last one to series connected 12-pulse converter
units, rated for full direct current.
More explicitly the following classification is given according to Figure 4.9:
Radial MTDC system, where each converter station is connected to a single
DC line and for part of the distance the energy flows through a common
DC line. No part of the DC system can be disconnected without significant
energy flow change between the AC systems;
Meshed or ring MTDC system, where each converter station is connected
to more than one DC lines. Any part of the DC system can be disconnected
without energy flow change between the AC systems;
Series connected MTDC system, where all the converter stations are
connected in series to a common ring shaped DC line. No part of the
common DC line can be disconnected without interrupting energy
exchange between the AC systems.

a. b. c.

Fig. 4.9. Multi-terminal HVDC systems: a. radial connections; b. mesh or ring connection;
c. series connection.
254 Basic computation

For the first two configurations and for losses lines the DC voltage is equal
throughout the system, whereas for the third one the DC current remains equal in
every part of the system.
HVDC unit connected generators
Several technical and economical reasons strongly suggest that in certain
HVDC applications it may be advantageous to simplify the rectifier station, via a
direct connection of each machine set to a separate converter group with series-
parallel combinations made on the DC side. This arrangement is usually referred to
in HVDC literature as unit connection [4.8]. Unit connection schemes could be
very attractive solutions for applications as electrical generation from remote
sources of power such as hydro and low grade coal fields, pump storage schemes,
wind power station, new large generating stations near their load centre, etc.
The arrangement traditionally used is shown in Figure 4.10,a and termed
conventional scheme [4.24]. The basic feature is that the generating units feed a
common AC busbar at the secondary side of the unit transformers. This busbar also
takes the AC harmonic filters. The modified arrangement is indicated in Figure
4.10,b and termed unit connection scheme. Here the generator transformer and the
AC busbar have been removed. The generators are directly connected to the
converter transformers and, if needed, series-parallel combinations of units are
done at the DC side.
Auxiliar

a.
Fig. 4.10. Schemes for generators connected to HVDC converters:
a. conventional scheme. Reprinted with permission from DC and AC Configurations
(Chapter 3), CIGRE, Johannesburg 1997 CIGRE.
HVDC transmission 255

Auxiliar

b.

Fig. 4.10. Schemes for generators connected to HVDC converters:


b. unit connection. Reprinted with permission from DC and AC Configurations
(Chapter 3), CIGRE, Johannesburg 1997 CIGRE.

The small harmonic currents produced by the 12-pulse unit connected


scheme are to be absorbed by the generator, so that the need for AC filters is
eliminated. It is only expected that voltage control can be exercised entirely by the
generator excitation. In this case the transformer on-load top changers would no
longer be needed.
Switching possibilities on DC side
For bipolar systems several possible DC switching arrangements may be
provided, which increase the availability of the overall HVDC interconnections
[4.24]:
capability of connecting any line pole to any converter pole or to neutral
through an arrangement with three DC buses two pole buses and a
neutral bus, as Figure 4.11,a presents;
capability of connecting the two poles in parallel (Fig. 4.11,b). It is noted
that the 12-pulse converter unit of each pole would need to be insulated for
full line voltage;
capability at the junction of overhead and cable sections of a bipolar DC
line to connect any of the overhead line poles to any cable.
256 Basic computation

Neutral

Pole II
Pole I
DC line

Fully insulated spare

DC bus
a.

DC line
Pole I

Neutral

Pole II

DC switches
DC bus
b.

Fig. 4.11. Switching possibilities on DC side: a. switching of DC line conductors;


b. switching of converter poles. Adapted with permission from ANSI/IEEE Std.
P1030.1-2000 IEEE Guide for specification of HVDC systems 2000 IEEE.

4.3. Analysis of the three-phase bridge converter

4.3.1. Rectifier equations


The most used rectifier within an AC-DC conversion at high voltages, high
powers and industrial frequency is the Graetz circuit or the three-phase bridge
converters (Fig. 4.12). This rectifier is considered as being composed by two three-
phase connections, with median point, with outputs series connected. The cathodes
of the upper group of valves T1, T3, T5 are connected to the anodes of the lower
group. The common potential of the cathodes of these valves is equal to the most
HVDC transmission 257

positive anode voltage. The common potential of the anodes of valves T2, T4, T6 is
equal to the most negative cathode voltage.

Id
+

V1 T1 T3 T5
va ia i1 i3 i5

N vb ib N
udr Udr
vc ic
i4 i6 i2
T4 T6 T2

Fig. 4.12. Three-phase bridge arrangement of valves, or Graetz rectifier circuit.

The same transformer secondary windings feed two groups of three thyristor
valves each. The thyristors are in conduction two by two, depending on the voltage
variation in the secondary. With no grid control, conduction will take place
between the cathode and the anode of highest potential. For example, during t0-t1
(Fig. 4.13,a), amongst the thyristors belonging to the upper group (T1, T3, T5) will
be in conduction T1, which has the most positive anode; amongst the thyristors
belonging to the lower group (T2, T4, T6) will be in conduction T6, which has the
most negative cathode. As a consequence, T1 will also remain in conduction during
t1-t2 interval (i.e. as long as va > vb ). At the beginning of t2 t3 period, T3 will enter
the conducting state. Similarly, at the beginning of t1 t2, the thyristor T2, having
the most negative cathode amongst the inferior group of thyristors, will conduce,
while T6 is blocked (T2 remains in conduction during the entire interval t1 t3). The
transformer secondary line-to-neutral voltages are shown in Figure 4.13,a. These
are also the voltages of the anodes of the lower group of valves and the cathodes of
the upper group, all with respect to neutral point N. The difference in ordinates
between the upper and lower envelopes is the instantaneous direct voltage on the
valve side of the smoothing reactor. This is shown in Figure 4.13,b as the envelope
of the line-to-line voltages. It is immediately to be noted that the ripple of the direct
voltage is of frequency 6f and the magnitude of ripple is smaller. Each thyristor is
in conduction a T/3 period, the shape of current wave being rectangular
(Fig. 4.13,c,d,e).
The inverse voltage V1 across valve 1, appearing at the ends of T1 while T3 is
in conducting state, is uab ; during the conduction period of T5 the inverse voltage
is uac (Fig. 4.13,f).
258 Basic computation

t=0

T1 T1 T3 T3 T5 T5 T1 T1 Upper group
T6 T2 T2 T4 T4 T6 T6 T2 Lower group
v
va vb vc va
Line-to-neutral
voltage -120 0 120 240 a.
-180 -60 60 180 300
t

t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7
u Secondary line-to-line voltage

Line-to-line
voltage t b.

uba uca ucb uab uac ubc uba uca


ia

Id
t c.
-Id
T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3
ib

Id
t d.
-Id
T/6 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6
ic

Id
t e.
-Id
T/6 T/3 T/6 T/3 T/6 T/6

V1

uab uac
Inverse voltage
across valve T1 t f.

V1
Fig. 4.13. Voltage and current waveforms for uncontrolled rectifier.
HVDC transmission 259

The maximal inverse voltage at thyristor ends is:


Vmax = 3 Vs

where the peak value of instantaneous line-to-neutral voltage is Vs = 2 Vs ( Vs in


the rms line-to-neural alternating voltage) and the line-to-line voltage is U s = 3 Vs .
We consider the three-phase voltages system from the secondary windings of
the transformer supplying the three-phase conversion bridge:

va = Vs cos( t + 120) ; vb = Vs cos( t ) ; vc = Vs cos( t 120)

where it has been chosen as time origin the instant (t=0) when the b-phase
voltage reaches its maximal value (Fig. 4.14,a). Will be examined two cases: the
uncontrolled and the controlled rectifier.
The case of uncontrolled converter. We consider the sequence with the
thyristor T3 in conduction (Fig. 4.14,a); the voltage from transformers secondary
windings is:

vb va = Vs [cos( t ) cos( t + 120)] = 2Vs sin ( t + 60)sin 60

respectively:
uba = vb va = 3 Vs sin ( t + 60) = U s sin ( t + 60) (4.1)

By integrating uba voltage from (4.1) equation on a pulse width ( / 3) we


obtains the surface A0 (Fig. 4.14,a):
3

A 0= u d( t )
0
ba

If one divides this value by the pulse width, obtains a value that approximates
good enough the value of the ideal average direct voltage:
60 60
3 3 3 3
Ud0 = A0 = 3 Vs sin ( t + 60) d( t ) = Vs [ cos( t + 60)]|
0
0

One obtains:
3 3
Ud0 = Vs = 1.653Vs (4.2)

The case of controlled rectifier (with ignition delay). The grid or gate control
can be used to delay the ignition of the valves. The delay angle is denoted by
(Fig. 4.14,b,c); it corresponds to time delay of seconds. The delay angle is
limited to 180 . If exceeds 180 , the valve fails to ignite. In Figure 4.14,b is
detailed the transfer of current from a phase to another.
260 Basic computation

i3 i3

t t

i6 i6

va vb vc va va vb vb vc va
A0 A A
o
0o 120
60
o o t t
180
va=vb
va>vb va<vb
va va
Us ia1 ia1
t
t=0
a. b. c.

Fig. 4.14. Voltage and current waveforms for the uncontrolled rectifier (a) and controlled
rectifier (b, c).

The average direct voltage is calculated as for the uncontrolled rectifier:


60+ 60+
3 3 3
Ud = 3 Vs sin ( t + 60) d( t ) = Vs [ cos( t + 60)] |

Taking into account the equation (4.2), results:


U d = U d 0 cos (4.3)

A first effect of angle is that the direct voltage is decreased by the factor
cos . Since can range from 0 to 180, cos can range from 1 to 1. As a
consequence, the voltage U d varies between + U d 0 and U d 0 . A firing with an
angle between 0 and / 2 determines the operation as rectifier. For angles
between / 2 and , the polarity of U d is negative, and because the current I d
does not change the direction, one obtains a power transfer in the opposite
direction, form DC towards AC side; the converter acts like an inverter.
For = 90 the voltage waveforms is symmetrical and consequently its value
is zero. For = 0 , the fundamental component of the alternating current from the
secondary winding of the transformer is in phase with the voltage waveform on
that phase. If the firing is delayed by , the current pulses of fundamental
component will be dephased with = as regards the voltage waveform (they are
not centred anymore on the voltage peak value).
The second effect is that the more increases, the more increases angle
between current and voltage waveforms. If the power losses inside the converter
HVDC transmission 261

are neglected, than the power entering in the converter on the AC side should be
equal to the power getting out on the DC side, meaning:
3 U s I s1 cos U d I d = U d 0 I d cos (4.4)

where: I s1 is the effective value of the fundamental frequency component of


alternating line current;
Us line-to-line voltage;
cos the power factor,
all being defined on the AC side of the converter.
The fundamental frequency component of the alternating line current can be
determined by Fourier analysis of the current wave shape. The peak value of the
current wave is [4.1]:

3 60
2 2 2 2
2 I s1 = I d cos d = I d sin | = I d [sin 60 sin ( 60)] = 3 Id

60


3

As a consequence:
2 3 6
I s1 = Id = I d = 0.78 I d (4.5)
2
By substituting in (4.4) the values I s1 and U d 0 obtain:
cos cos

meaning that, the closer is to /2, the smaller is the power factor. As a
consequence, the rectifier will consume more reactive power from the AC system.
Commutation process or overlap
Due to the leakage inductance of the converter transformers and the
impedance in supply network, the current in a valve cannot change suddenly and
thus commutation from one valve to the next in the same row cannot be
instantaneous. As a consequence, due to the electromagnetic inertia, the I d value
at the beginning of commutation process, as well as the decrease to zero while
blocking are not instantaneous, the time required is called the overlap or
commutation time. The overlap angle is noted and consequently the overlap time
is / seconds. In normal operation < 60 .
For example, when valve 3 is fired (fig 4.15,a), the current transfer from
valve 1 to valve 3 takes a finite period during which both valves are conducting.
Each interval of the period of supply can be divided into two subintervals. In first
subinterval, during commutation, three valves conduct simultaneously (1,2,3), and
in the second subinterval, between commutations, only two valves are conducting.
A new commutation begins every 60 and lasts for an angle . Thus the angular
262 Basic computation

interval when two valves conduct is (60 ) . If > 60 , unpleasant phenomenon


may occur (i.e. the current increases to value which may destroy the junctions).
ib
Ld
+ t
T1 T3