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Verbal Reasoning Section Test 2

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Verbal Reasoning
Time: 40 Minutes
Questions 1-33



DIRECTIONS: There are five passages in this Verbal Reasoning

test. Each passage is followed by several questions. After
reading a passage, select the one best answer to each question.
If you are not certain of an answer, eliminate the alternatives that
you know to be incorrect and then select an answer from the
remaining alternatives.

Passage I (Questions 1-7)

By regarding the expanding universe as a motion speeding away from a central explosion. The raisin-in-
picture, you can easily imagine running the film 45 dough analogy is a more satisfactory way to think about the
backward. If you do so, you find the universe getting whole process.
smaller and smaller, and eventually you come to the
5 moment when its whole mass is crammed into an infinitely
dense point. Before that time it didnt exist, or at least it
didnt exist in its present form. 1. Consider the author's main point in the passage. For
Though there is some controversy about its exact age, which of the following statements does the passage
most cosmologists would be inclined to agree that the provide some evidence or explanation?
10 universe has existed for about ten to twenty billion years. A. The Big Bang proves that God exists.
For scale, this can be compared to the four-and-a-half- B. The universe will eventually be destroyed.
billion-year age of the solar system, the time since the C. The universe continues to expand in size.
disappearance of the dinosaurs (sixty-five million years), D. Linear time is more accurate than cyclical time.
and the age of the human race (about three million years).
15 The event that marked the beginning of the universe
was christened the Big Bang; the term has now entered the 2. There are many debates implicit in the author's
vernacular of our culture. Originally the name referred only statements. In the context of the passage, the phrase
to the single initiating event; now, however, astronomers "age-old debate" (line 39) refers to:
have come to use it to mean the entire developmental
A. the question of whether the Creator created the
20 process of the birth and expansion of the cosmos.
The simple statement that the universe had a beginning B. the controversy over linear versus cyclical time.
in time is by now so obvious to astrophysicists that few give C. the debate over the disappearance of the
it a second thought. Yet it is a statement that has profound dinosaurs.
implications. Most civilizations embrace one of two D. the disagreement over the movement of galaxies.
25 opposite concepts of time. Linear time has a beginning, a
duration, and an end; cyclical time, as its name suggests,
continues around and around forever. In a universe that
functions through cyclical time, the question of creation
never arises; the universe always was and always will be.
30 The minute you switch to linear time you immediately
confront the vexing question not only of creation, but also
of the Creator. Although there is no logical reason for the
assumption, many people believe that if something comes
into existence, it must do so in response to the actions of
35 some rational being. Because of that belief, astronomers,
even though they resist becoming involved in theological
discussion, find themselves in one when they posit the Big
Bang universe. It puts them squarely in the middle of an
age-old debate.
40 One common misconception about the Big Bang that
should be disposed of immediately is the notion that the
universal expansion is analogous to the explosion of an
artillery shell. The galaxies are not like bits of shrapnel


3. Which of the following would most strengthen 6. The authors comparison of the universe to a motion
opponents arguments against the passages claim picture serves to:
about the movement of galaxies?
A. illustrate that the universe has operated according
A. The discovery that galaxies are made up of to linear time.
different materials than the rest of the universe B. demonstrate that the universe is actually older
B. The discovery that the universe is growing faster than most astronomers believe.
in some directions than in others C. show that galaxies were formed about five billion
C. The discovery that galaxies frequently collide years ago.
with each other, even though the universe is D. prove that the universe was created by a rational
constantly growing larger being.
D. The discovery that galaxies have continued to
move, even though the universe has not increased
in size for the past 5 billion years
7. A newly discovered society that is based on cyclical
time has a myth about the origin of the universe. What
effect would this finding have on the authors opinion
4. Suppose that the solar system was actually found to be about societies that are based on cyclical time?
about twenty-five billion years old. What impact
A. It is not relevant to the authors opinion.
would this information have on current thinking about
B. It would support the authors opinion.
the universes age?
C. It would contradict the authors opinion.
A. It would support that thinking. D. It would support the authors opinion only if it
B. It would undermine that thinking. was shown that this society had no understanding
C. It would neither support nor undermine that of linear time.
D. It would support that thinking only if the universe
has expanded over time.

5. According to the passage, which of the following

statements is NOT true?
A. Many people believe that a rational impetus
created the universe.
B. The solar system was created immediately after
the Big Bang.
C. The universe is larger today than it was in the
D. Different societies measure time differently.


Passage II (Questions 813)
Of course, in his attempts at field investigation, the 45 The medieval portolan charts of the Mediterranean Sea
historian is at the disadvantage that the countryside has and the later charts which provided sailing directions,
changed in many respects since the period which he is produced in Holland, were accurate enough to be useful in
studying. He is not permitted to use H.G. Wellss time practical navigation. Plans of important cities of Europe, so
5 machine, to enable him to see it as it actually was. well drawn as to yield evidence of their earlier form and
Inevitably he is concerned in the main, if not exclusively, 50 extent, are notably offered in Braun and Hogenbergs
with literary and other materials, which have survived from Civitates Orbis Terrarum, published at Cologne and, in
that stretch of the past which interests him. England, in John Speeds plans of cities. Similarly, John
Old maps may be plans of cities, charts of sea coasts Ogilbys Britannia, Volume the First, appearing in 1675,
10 and estuaries, cartularies of landed estates, or topographic gives detailed information of England's road system as it
delineations of land areas. These clearly engage the interest 55 existed nearly three centuries ago. However, few of the
of historians and geographers alike, and they call for a early maps approach modern standards, which require
accurate representation of distances and of heights above
combination of the methods and viewpoints of each. Maps
can be conceived of and considered in several quite different mean sea-level and the use of carefully distinguished
15 ways, being properly regarded, and so assessed, as works of symbols. This is because it was not until the 18th century
60 that cartography, as an exact science, was born.
artat best as objects of color, skill, form, and beauty. They
may alternatively be regarded purely for their cartographic
The main queries which then arise are the following:
20 how is it that the map-maker has carried out his task and 8. According to the passage, which of the following
with skill of what echelon and with what degree of success statements is/are NOT true?
has he done so? Such an inquiry falls to the specialist field I. Most maps produced before the 18th century
of historical cartography. An antiquarian map may also be
are not as accurate as maps produced after the
approached in a means akin to that of the student who
18th century.
25 conceives it as a font contemporaneous with the time of its
II. The maps of Claudius Ptolemy were not used as
production. Thus, the historical cartographer may seek to
bring grist to his mill and to consider the maps reliability as a model by later map-makers.
a satisfactory source of empirical evidence . By such means III. Historians have generally been uninterested in
also the regional historian, in his search for essentials about using maps as a tool to learn about the past.
30 such past matters as the availability of roads, the extent of A. II only
enclosed farmland, or the number and location of mines and B. III only
quarries, is no less an interested party. C. I and II
The value of old maps as documents useful for D. II and III
historicity depends necessarily on to what degree they
35 depict, and on how accurately. For virtually all periods of
pre-modern history some maps have survived to serve as 9. In the context of the passage, the phrase "however
historiography, depicting, however imperfectly, certain imperfectly" (line 39) refers to:
features of past geography. The work of Claudius
Ptolemywho lived in the 2nd century A.D.for centuries A. the inability of contemporary historians to
40 provided the basis for maps of the known world and its interpret Claudius Ptolemys maps.
major regions. Although many were drawn on the scientific B. the inaccuracies present in most maps produced
basis which he provided, they nevertheless embodied many before the 18th century.
errorsof location, distance, and the shape of areas of land C. the lack of artistic skill displayed by mapmakers
and sea. in the modern period.
D. the failure of pre-modern mapmakers to produce
sea navigation charts.


10. With which of the following statements would the
author be most likely to agree?
A. Old maps provide important information about the
past, even if they are somewhat misleading.
B. Modern maps, in general, are more accurate than
maps produced in the 18th century.
C. The maps in Braun and Hogenbergs book have
no historical value because of their errors.
D. Claudius Ptolemys maps were the most accurate
ever made prior to the birth of modern

11. According to the passage, all of the following would

be considered maps EXCEPT:
A. a drawing of Mediterranean sea lanes in the 2nd
century B.C.
B. a drawing of Romes city streets in the 4th century
C. a drawing of Northern hemisphere star
constellations in the 5th century A.D.
D. a drawing of Scottish farm boundaries in the 10th
century A.D.

12. For which of the following statements does the

passage provide some evidence or explanation?
A. Ancient mapmakers were not good artists.
B. Maps can be judged on several different criteria.
C. Map-making was an exact science before Ogilby
produced his maps.
D. Eastern Europeans were the first to draw precise

13. Suppose that an accurate, medieval map of the French

countryside is found in a Paris library. What impact
would this discovery have on the authors opinion
about the accuracy of old maps?
A. It could be cited in support of the authors
B. It could be cited as contradicting the authors
C. It could not be considered relevant to the authors
D. It could be cited in support of the authors opinion
only if it was produced by a master mapmaker.


Passage III (Questions 14-20)
Suspicious as they are of American intentions, and often than not instruments of the process, not prime movers.
bolstered by court rulings that seem to give them license to The media must be held accountable for their activities, just
seek out and publish any and all government secrets, the like every other significant institution in our society, and the
medias distrust of our government, combined with their 60 media must be forced to earn the publics trust.
5 limited understanding of the world at large, damages our
ability to design and conduct good policy in ways that the
media rarely imagine.
The leak through which sensitive information flows 14. Based on the information in the passage, with which of
from the government to the press is detrimental to policy the following statements would the author most likely
10 insofar as it almost completely precludes the possibility of agree?
serious discussion. Leaders often say one thing in public and
A. Feeding the public misinformation is warranted in
quite another thing in private conversation. The fear that
certain situations.
anything they say, even in what is construed as a private
forum, may appear in print, makes many people, whether B. The public has a right to know the real state of
15 our own government officials or the leaders of foreign foreign affairs.
countries, unwilling to speak their minds. . C. The fewer the number of people involved in
policy discussions, the better.
Must we be content with the restriction of our leaders D. Leaders give up their right to privacy when they
policy discussions to a handful of people who trust each are elected.
other, thus limiting the richness and variety of ideas that
20 could be brought forward through a larger group because of
the nearly endemic nature of this problem? And along with 15. The passage suggests that press exposs of the private
the limiting of ideas, we have less reliable information to
thoughts of foreign officials do NOT result in U.S.
analyze. It is vitally important for the leaders of the United
leaders having a better grasp of foreign affairs
States to know the real state of affairs internationally, and
25 this can occur only if foreign leaders feel free to speak their
minds to our diplomats. This cannot occur when leaders are A. U.S. leaders are already privy to the private
fearful of finding their private thoughts published in thoughts of foreign leaders.
newspapers, and therefore do not share their real beliefs (let B. foreign officials begin to view their American
alone their secrets) unless they are certain that confidences counterparts as untrustworthy.
30 will be respected. C. foreign officials do not reveal their secrets to the
Until recently, it looked as if the media had convinced press.
the public that journalists were more reliable than the D. the information that reaches the press about policy
government; thus, many citizens came to believe that the discussions is unreliable.
media were the best sources of information. When the
35 media challenged a governmental official, the public
presumed that the official was in the wrong. However, this
may be changing. With the passage of time, the media have
lost luster. Theyhaving grown large and powerful
provoke the same public skepticism that other large
40 institutions in the society do. A series of media scandals has
contributed to this. Many Americans have concluded that
the media are no more credible than the government, and
public opinion surveys reflect much ambivalence about the
45 While leaks are generally defended by media officials
on the grounds of the publics right to know, in reality
they are part of the Washington political power game, as
well as part of the policy process. The "leaker" may be
currying favor with the media, or may be planting
50 information to influence policy. In the first case, he is
helping himself by enhancing the prestige of a journalist; in
the second, he is using the media as a stage for his preferred
policies. In either instance, it closes the circle: the leak
begins with a political motive, is advanced by a politicized
55 media, and continues because of politics. Although some of
the journalists think they are doing the work, they are more


16. Imagine you are an opponent of the author and 19. Leaked information typically comes to journalists
disagree with his conclusions. In an upcoming written anonymously since the government official leaking the
rebuttal you want to address the authors best- information fears reprisal. What relevance does this
supported claims first. For which of the following have to the passage?
claims does the passage provide some supporting A. It supports the claim that the leaker plants
evidence or explanation? information to influence policy.
A. The media rarely understand that their actions B. It supports the claim that journalists are more
damage Americas ability to conduct foreign reliable than the government.
policy. C. It weakens the claim that the media can be used as
B. Leaks can be an intentional part of the policy a stage for an officials preferred policies.
process. D. It weakens the claim that a leaker can curry favor
C. Every significant institution in society besides the with a journalist.
media is held accountable for their activities.
D. The media is suspicious of the intentions of the
American government.
20. Based on the passage, when the media now challenge
the actions of a public official, the public assumes that:
A. the official is wrong.
17. Implicit in the authors argument that leaks result in B. the media are always wrong.
far more limited and unreliable policy discussions with C. the media may be wrong.
foreign leaders is the idea that: D. the official and the media may both be wrong.
A. leaks should be considered breaches of trust and
therefore immoral.
B. leaks have occurred throughout the history of
C. foreign and U.S. leaders discussed policy without
inhibition before the rise of the mass media.
D. leaders fear the public would react negatively if it
knew the real state of affairs.

18. In the context of the fifth paragraph, the term prime

movers (line 62) would most accurately refer to:
A. U.S. officials who pass on sensitive information to
the media.
B. journalists who are attempting to enhance their
own prestige.
C. media executives who use their own journalists to
further political causes.
D. the unwritten rules that govern the flow of leaked
information in Washington.


Passage IV (Questions 21-26)
The original Hellenistic community was idealized, the
Greeks own golden dreama community never achieved 21. Considering the arguments made in the passage, with
but only imagined by the Macedonian Alexander, who was which of the following statements would the author be
possessed of the true faith of all converts to a larger vision. most likely to agree?
5 The evolving system of city-states had produced not only
unity with a healthy diversity but also narrow rivalries. No A. The Olympics is the oldest organized sporting
Hellenic empire arose, only scores of squabbling cities event in history.
pursuing bitter feuds born of ancient wrongs and existing B. Greece had more internal divisions than other
ambitions. It was civil strife made possible by isolation from ancient civilizations.
10 the great armies and ambitions of Asia. C. Sporting events sometimes create more problems
than they solve.
Greek history could arguably begin in July of 776 B.C.,
D. Alexander was the most successful military leader
the First Olympiad, and end with Theodosuss ban on the
of ancient Greece.
games in 393 A.D. Before this there had been a long era of
two tribes, the Dorians and Ionians, scarcely distinguishable
15 to the alien eye, but distinctly separate in their own eyes
22. In the context of the passage, the phrase dried olive
until 776. After Theodosus' ban most of the Mediterranean
world was Greek-like, in fact, but the central core had been leaves changed to gold (lines 38 - 39) refers to:
rendered impotent by diffusion. A. the peace achieved by Greek city-states during
During the eventful Greek millennium, the Olympics Olympic years.
20 reflected not the high ideals of Hellenes but rather the mean B. the benefits that athletes could expect to derive
reality of the times. Its founders had created a monster, from Olympic victories.
games that twisted the strategists aspirations to unity to fit C. the political unification of Dorian and Ionian
the unpleasant reality of the Hellenistic world. The games tribes in 776 B.C.
not only mirrored the central practices of the Greek world D. the spread of Greek culture during the period from
25 that reformers would deny but also imposed the flaws of 776 B.C. to 393 A.D.
that world. Like the atomic theory of the Greek
philosophers, the Greek gamers theories were far removed
from reality; they were elegant, consistent, logical, and 23. For which of the following statements does the
irrelevant. passage provide some evidence or explanation?
30 Part religious ritual, part game rite, in the five-day I. Alexander united ancient Greece through a
Olympic Games, various athletes coming together under the series of military conquests.
banner of their cities; winning became paramount, imposing II. The divisions among Greek city-states were
defeat a delight. As Greek society evolved, so, too, did the reflected in the Olympics.
games, but rarely as a unifying force. Athletes supposedly III. The Olympic Games could not have occurred
35 competing for the laurel of accomplishment in the name of without a city-state system.
idealism found that dried olive leaves changed to gold. Each
local polis (city-state) sought not to contribute to the A. II only
grandeur of Greece, but to achieve its own glory. As in the B. III only
real world, in the games no Greek could trust another, and C. I and II
40 each envied rivals' victories. The Olympic spirit was not one D. II and III
of communal bliss but bitter lasting competition
institutionalized in games..


24. Suppose that a Greek wrestler had just won the
Olympic wrestling contest. Which of the following
rewards would he have been LEAST likely to receive?
A. A sense of pleasure in defeating an opponent
B. A grant of land from his own city-state
C. A political office in his own city-state
D. A monetary prize from another city-state

25. Which of the following, if true, would most

STRENGTHEN the authors claims about the
Olympic Games in ancient Greece?
A. Contested outcomes of Olympic events sometimes
caused wars between city-states.
B. The Olympic Games began long before Alexander
united all of the city-states.
C. Most city-states regularly applauded the Olympic
victories of athletes from other city-states.
D. Each city-state was only allowed to send one
athlete per Olympic event.

26. The statement: The Olympic spirit was not one of

communal bliss but bitter lasting competition
institutionalized in games (lines 40-42) indicates that
the author believes that:
A. the Greeks were more internally divided than
other Mediterranean civilizations.
B. the Greek millennium was a period of constant
C. the Olympic Games did not serve a beneficial
national purpose.
D. the First Olympiad in 776 B.C. began the decline
of Greek civilization.


Passage V (Questions 27-33) resolved by enumerating all of the manifest differences
The person who, with inner conviction, loathes stealing, between the psychological laboratory and other situations,
killing, and assault, may find himself performing these acts but by carefully constructing a situation that captures the
with relative ease when commanded by authority. Behavior 60 essence of obediencea situation in which a person gives
that is unthinkable in an individual who is acting of his own himself over to authority and no longer views himself as the
5 volition may be executed without hesitation when carried cause of his own actions.
out under orders. An act carried out under command is,
psychologically, of a profoundly different character than
spontaneous action .
The important task, from the standpoint of a 27. According to the passage, which of the following
10 psychological study of obedience, is to be able to take statements is NOT false?
conceptions of authority and translate them into personal
experience. It is one thing to talk in abstract terms about the A. People will never commit acts that they judge to
respective rights of the individual and of authority; it is be wrong.
quite another to examine a moral choice in a real situation. B. People will always obey those who are in
15 We all know about the philosophic problems of freedom and positions of authority over them.
authority. But in every case where the problem is not merely C. Obedience is not an important subject because it
academic there is a real person who must obey or disobey affects only a very limited number of acts.
authority. All musing prior to this moment is mere D. It is possible to study obedience through a
speculation, and all acts of disobedience are characterized laboratory experiment.
20 by such a moment of decisive action.
When we move to the laboratory, the problem narrows:
28. Suppose that a pilot in the Rimland air force initially
if an experimenter tells a subject to act with increasing
contests an order to bomb a city, but eventually agrees
severity against another person, under what conditions will
the subject comply, and under what conditions will he to carry it out willingly. How would this scenario
25 disobey? The laboratory problem is vivid, intense, and real. affect the authors view of obedience to authority?
It is not something apart from life, but carries to an extreme A. It would support the authors view.
and very logical conclusion certain trends inherent in the B. It would contradict the authors view.
ordinary functioning of the social world. The question arises C. It would support the authors view only if it could
as to whether there is any connection between what we have be shown that the pilot had a history of carrying
30 studied in the laboratory and the forms of obedience we out orders that he did not initially support.
have so often deplored throughout history. The differences D. It would contradict the authors view only if it
in the two situations are, of course, enormous, yet the could be shown that the pilot had a history of
difference in scale, numbers, and political context may be refusing to carry out orders.
relatively unimportant as long as certain essential features
35 are retained.
To the degree that an absence of compulsion is present,
obedience is colored by a cooperative mood; to the degree
that the threat of force or punishment against the person is
intimated, obedience is compelled by fear. The major
40 problem for the individual is to recapture control of his own
regnant processes once he has committed them to the
purposes of others. The difficulty this entails represents the
poignant and in some degree tragic element in the situation,
for nothing is bleaker than the sight of a person striving yet
45 not fully able to control his own behavior in a situation of
consequence to him.
The essence of obedience is the fact that a person
comes to view himself as the instrument for carrying out
anothers wishes, and he therefore no longer regards himself
50 as culpable for his actions. Once this critical shift of
viewpoint has occurred, all of the essential features of
obediencethe adjustment of thought, the freedom to
engage in cruel behavior, and the types of justification
experienced by the person (essentially similar whether they
55 occur in a psychological laboratory or on the battlefield)
follow. The question of generality, therefore, is not


29. Which of the following would be considered acts of 32. For which of the following statements does the
disobedience as this term is used in the statement, passage provide some explanation or evidence?
All musing prior to this moment is mere speculation,
A. A laboratory experiment can be made to simulate
and all acts of disobedience are characterized by such
real world behavior.
a moment of decisive action (lines 18-20)?
B. The subject of obedience has not received the
A. A nurse who administers a drug to a patient, even attention it deserves from the field of social
though the patients doctor knows that the drug psychology.
may kill the patient C. It is unfortunate that people are often not in full
B. An employee who refuses to work overtime, even control of their own behavior.
though the employees boss has told the employee D. People in positions of authority tend to have lower
that a certain project must be finished as soon as moral standards than people who are not in
possible positions of authority.
C. A soldier who refuses to harm a civilian, even
though the soldiers commanding officer has
ordered that the civilian be shot as a spy 33. Suppose that a person who is not in a position of
D. An engineer who certifies a building as safe, even authority kills a person who is in a position of
though the engineers construction company has authority. Would this information be relevant to the
not adhered to all government safety codes authors view of obedience to authority?
A. It would be relevant under any set of
30. In the context of the points being made by the author B. It would not be relevant under any set of
in the passage, the phrase absence of compulsion circumstances.
(line 36) refers to: C. It would be relevant under a certain set of
A. the lack of punishment in psychological D. It would be relevant only if the two had no prior
experiments. relationship.
B. obedience that is willingly given to ones superior.
C. the freedom to disobey the orders of those in
D. ones ability to consider the moral implications of
an act.

31. Which of the following findings would serve to most

WEAKEN the authors claim in the passage about
obedience to authority?
A. A study that concludes that most obedience to
authority is motivated by fear
B. A study that demonstrates that most authority STOP. IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED,
figures in government behave immorally CHECK YOUR WORK. YOU MAY GO BACK TO
C. A study that shows that most people do not have ANY QUESTION IN THIS PART ONLY.
strongly held ethical values
D. A study that asserts that people with a college
education are less likely to obey authority figures
than those with only a high school education


1. C 11. C 21. C 31. C

2. A 12. B 22. B 32. A
3. D 13. A 23. A 33. C
4. B 14. A 24. D
5. B 15. B 25. A

6. A 16. B 26. C
7. C 17. D 27. D
8. D 18. A 28. A
9. B 19. D 29. C
10. A 20. C 30. B

Material used in this test section has been adapted from the following sources:

J. Bowyer Bell, To Play The Game. 1987 by Transaction Books, Inc.

W. Gordon East, The Geography Behind History. 1965 by W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.

Michael Ledeen, The Press and Foreign Policy. 1984 by Public Opinion.

Stanley Milgram, Obedience to Authority. 1974 by Harper and Row Publishers, Inc.

James Trefil, The Dark Side of the Universe. 1988 by Charles Scribners Sons.


Topic and Scope:

The author describes the evolution of the universe and its impact on old debates concerning time and creation.

Mapping the Passage:

1 argues that the universe had a beginning in time.

2 provides specific dates to put the universes age in context.
3 describes the Big Bang and its relevance to the idea of an expanding universe.
4 argues that the expanding universe has significant implications for cultural ideas of time and argues that science intersects with
philosophy in this area.
5 provides a metaphor that elucidates the nature of the universes expansion.

Strategy Point:

Try to visualize abstract processes that are described in passages; its a useful way to paraphrase whats
happening and to avoid getting lost in the passage.

1. (C)

Review the authors main points before scanning the answer choices. While three of the answer choices misrepresent what the author
says, (C) is a claim made in 1 that is supported by the following paragraphs.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Distortion. The author argues in 4 that the Big Bang leads to the question of whether God exists, but doesn't draw a conclusion
(and states that the belief in a Creator isnt necessarily a logical assumption).
(B): Out of Scope. The author doesnt take a stand on whether the universe will be destroyed or not.
(D): Distortion. While the author discusses the possibility of cyclical time, he doesnt argue that this is the more accurate
representation of time.

2. (A)

What is the age-old debate discussed at the end of 4? Read the previous lines for clues: astronomers are involved in a theological
discussion which involves the idea of a Creator. (A) summarizes this point in 4.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Out of Scope. The author notes that the problem of a Creator only arises when linear time is considered, and the phrase ties into
the question of a Creator. Therefore, a debate between the two times is outside the scope.
(C): Out of Scope. The disappearance of the dinosaurs is mentioned in 2 in a discussion of time frames, not the debate referred to in
the phrase.
(D): Out of Scope. The author doesnt mention any debate about the movement of galaxies.

3. (D)

What does the author argue about the movement of galaxies? Review 5: galaxies are moving because space is expanding, not simply
because the galaxies are moving apart. (D) weakens this contention on both counts: galaxies are moving, but the universe is staying

Wrong Answers:

(A): Out of Scope. This doesnt impact the authors argument about the mechanism of movement.
(B): Out of Scope. While this answer choice deals with movement, it doesnt weaken the authors points about how the universe is
(C): Out of Scope. Even though initially it might seem that colliding galaxies would contradict the idea of an expanding universe, the
choice states that the universe is growing larger, which would support the authors argument. Imagining the universe using the raisin-
in-dough analogy that the author mentions makes it easy to see that everything could be expanding even if the occasional raisins

4. (B)

Go back to 2, where the author discusses the solar system's and the universes age. The author argues that most cosmologists
approximate an age of ten to twenty billion years for the universe. If the solar system were twenty-five billion years old, this would
severely undermine hypotheses about the universes age, since the universe must be older than the solar system. (B) matches up with
this line of reasoning.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. As explained above: a solar system older than the predicted age of the universe would weaken prevailing ideas about
the universes age.
(C): Opposite. As above.
(D): Opposite. As above. Dont get caught up in the qualification; it wouldnt support the current theories about the universes age
under any conceivable circumstances since a solar system older than the universe defies common sense.

5. (B)

Review the gist of the passage and keep the authors main points in mind while evaluating the choices. Three of the choices match
points the author makes, but (B) directly contradicts the time frames mentioned in 2, which indicate that the solar system is much
younger than the universe itself. Note that your research for question 4 helps you here.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. This is stated in 4.
(C): Opposite. This is just another way of saying that the universe is expanding.
(D): Opposite. This is a main point of the first part of 4.

6. (A)

Go back to the comparison to a motion picture described in 1. What is the authors purpose in the first paragraph? To argue that the
universe had a beginning in time. The comparison is used to reinforce this point: (A) reflects this.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Out of Scope. The author never makes this argument.
(C): Out of Scope. This point isnt made either.
(D): Out of Scope. The author doesnt argue that this must be true, but rather that its a point of debate.

Strategy Point:

Examples within a paragraph are generally used to reinforce the paragraphs main point: Review your map in
evaluation questions to quickly gauge the purpose of an example.
7. (C)

An incorporation question. The new society has cyclical time, and also has a myth about the universes origin. How does this affect
the authors argument? It directly contradicts the authors contention in the last paragraph that in cyclical time, the question of
creation never arises... (C) rewards the careful reasoning with quick points.

Wrong Answers:

(A): Opposite. It touches directly on the authors points, as described above.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(D): Opposite. As above. Remember not to get distracted by qualifiers; if it contradicts the authors argument, support with
qualification will be just as opposite as support.

Topic and Scope:

The author discusses the history of maps, particularly maps that preceded modern cartography.

Mapping the Passage:

1 states that maps are valuable to historical research.

2 discusses the various traits of old maps and ways of studying them.
3 and 4 describe the value of old maps in relation to how much information they provide.
5 provides some examples of maps useful to the study of historical geography and describes the transition from pre-modern to
modern maps.


8. (D)

Dont start with RN I to answer this question! It appears in only one choice and so isnt a time-effective starting point. RN II appears
in three choices, so start there. RN II directly contradicts the authors point in 4 that Ptolemys maps served as templates for other
maps for centuries. Eliminate (B). RN III contradicts the main point of the passage: historians are interested in maps as historical
tools. Since RNs II and III are both untrue, only choice (D) is possible. Though theres no need to check RN I, it can be verified as
true by looking at the main point of the last paragraph.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. As described above.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(C): Opposite. As above.

Strategy Point:

Pay close attention to NOT in questions. It would be easy to thoughtlessly eliminate choices as not true in
this question when in fact the untrue ones are the ones youre looking for!
9. (B)

Review the phrase in 4, going back to your map to get the gist of the passage. The author argues that maps provide some information
on geography, even if its not terribly accurate information. (B) summarizes this, adding the pre-18th century timeframe for good
measure (mentioned in the last paragraph).

Wrong Answers:
(A): Distortion. Though Ptolemys maps were inaccurate, theres nothing to indicate that they cant be interpreted by historians. If
they couldnt be, how could historians know that the maps were inaccurate?
(C): Out of Scope. The author is discussing pre-modern maps, and in any case, theres no indication that modern maps lack artistic
(D): Out of Scope. The author never states that they failed to do this, and in fact in the next paragraph argues that some pre-modern
maps did provide accurate sea charts.

10. (A)

Theres not much to go on in the passage by way of opinion, but even a simple prediction can yield fast results. What is the authors
main point? Old maps have historical value. Scanning the answer choices with even this broad prediction immediately turns up (A),
which states much the same thing.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. This contradicts the point made in the last line: that in the 18th Century, modern, accurate map-making was born. (Per
my comment in the question itself, although modern map making was born in the 18th century, it has surely developed and improved
(C): Opposite. The author argues that even maps with errors can offer historical value, but uses these particular maps in 4 as an
example of maps with especially few errors.
(D): Out of Scope. The author never makes this claim, nor does it make sense, since presumably the maps that used Ptolemy as their
base added more accurate data: otherwise, there would be no need to make a new map.

11. (C)

The according to the passage opening tips you off that this is a detail question, and consequently, that were only looking for types
of maps supported by examples in the passage. While three of the maps deal with geographic features similar to those the author
touches on in the passage, a star chart wouldnt have anything to do with the authors idea of maps as something representing
terrestrial features.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. The author describes sea chart maps in 5.
(B): Opposite. The author describes street maps in 5 also.
(D): Opposite. The author discusses hypothetical maps that describe the extent of enclosed farmland in 2.

12. (B)

Keep the authors main idea in mind: old maps are historically useful. Scanning the answer choices for a claim supported by evidence
turns up only one claim thats even mentioned at all! Choice (B). Since the other choices arent authorial claims, theres no need to
evaluate whether (B) is supported by evidence. However, 2 is devoted to supporting this claim.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. The author makes the opposite point in 2.
(C): Opposite. The author argues in the last paragraph that map-making didnt become an exact science until the 18th century, and
says in the immediately preceding paragraph that Ogilbys maps came out in the 17th century.
(D): Out of Scope. Eastern Europeans arent mentioned anywhere in the passage, and so can be safely eliminated as a possible right

13. (A)

What does the author argue about the accuracy of medieval maps? Most were inaccurate, but a few, he argues, were in fact accurate.
The discovery of an accurate medieval map would therefore support the part of the argument that says that a few maps were accurate
during this time period.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. As described above: since the author argues that some medieval maps were accurate, the discovery of one wouldnt
weaken the argument.
(C): Opposite. The author discusses the accuracy of maps at length, so the new situation must have some impact on this argument.
(D): Out of Scope. Theres no reason to thing that the maker of the map would affect the authors argument more than the map itself.

Topic and Scope:

The author discusses the negative effects that media leaks have on foreign policy and the medias credibility.

Mapping the Passage:

1 argues that the medias suspicion of government and lack of knowledge about the world harm government policy.
s2 and 3 introduce the concept of the leak and explain why its bad for foreign policy.
4 states that the media was trusted by the public until recently, but are now met with skepticism.
5 argues that leaks are usually part of a power grab and that the media is a pawn in the game.


14. (A)

Review the authors main arguments before looking for an answer choice that hes agree with. (A) recalls the authors point in 2:
Leaders often say one thing in public and something quite different in public conversation... The author explains why this occurs
fear of media leaksand clearly opposes such leaks. Therefore, the author must agree with (A)s contention that misinformation is
sometimes warranted.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. This is the opposite of (A); for the same reasons that (A) is a valid inference, (B) isnt.
(C): Opposite. The author argues in 3 that policy benefits from a richness and variety of ideas.
(D): Opposite. The authors point in decrying leaks is that privacy is a necessary component of leadership.

15. (B)

Scan back in the passage to find the authors mention of foreign officials. The author argues in 2 that foreign officials fear leaks and
are less inclined to speak their mind if they think that their private thoughts will be revealed. Therefore, it makes sense that foreign
policy would be harmed because the foreign leaders would be less likely to confide in American officials. (B) summarizes this point.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Distortion. While this may or may not be true, the author is arguing that it certainly wont be true if leaks continue.
(C): Out of Scope. The author doesnt suggest that foreign officials would do this in the first place, and so its an irrelevant
(D): Out of Scope. This isnt relevant to leaks of foreign officials thoughts.

16. (B)

Review the authors main points before looking for an answer choice that is both a claim made in the passage and supported by
evidence. This question is harder than some of the same type because all the answer choices are claims made by the passage.
However, three claims are simply made, with no support. (B) alone is a claim made (in 5) and supported by explanation that makes
up the bulk of the paragraph.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Faulty Use of Detail. While this claim is made in 1 when the author says that the media cause ways they rarely
imagine, its given no support before the author moves on to discussing leaks.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail. The author makes this claim in the end of the last paragraph, but provides no support.
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. This is a claim made in 1, again without support.

Strategy Point:

When looking for a claim supported by evidence, search for an answer choice that summarizes an entire
paragraph. Claims not supported by evidence will usually be secondary claims that dont directly tie into the
main points of the passage.
17. (D)

Review the authors argument in 2 that leaks harm discussions with foreign leaders. What is the author assuming in this argument?
The author argues that foreign leaders dont want their private thoughts to be made public; he must also therefore assume that leaders
have some sort of reason for not wanting their views to be made public. (D) provides a possible reason. If unclear, use the denial test:
if leaders didnt have this fear, what would be their motivation for hiding their personal views?

Wrong Answers:
(A): Distortion. The author dislikes leaks, but never argues that theyre immoral. This is extreme.
(B): Distortion. Theres no evidence that leaks have occurred throughout history.
(C): Out of Scope. The author never suggests that there were no barriers to discussion before the press, only that there are far more
barriers now that the press is in the habit of leaking these discussions.

18. (A)

Go back to the context to review what the author is saying: hes arguing that journalists are used as tools rather than being the ones in
charge. Therefore, the prime mover must refer to whoever is in charge, which the author suggests is the official doing the leaking.
(A) says just this.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. The author says just the opposite: the journalists arent the prime mover.
(C): Out of Scope. Media executives arent mentioned in the situation at all.
(D): Out of Scope. The author refers to the primer movers as the officials angling for power, not abstract rules that govern leaks.

19. (D)

How do anonymous leaks affect the authors argument? Use your work from the last question: 5 argues that officials use leaks as a
way of either currying favor with the media or planting information to influence policy. How does anonymity affect each of these?
While it would have no effect on the policy aspect, it would negate the possibility of currying favor. Therefore, if most leaks are
anonymous, the authors argument about favor-currying must be weakened.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Out of Scope. As explained above, anonymity would have no effect on this motivation.
(B): Out of Scope. It would have no bearing on the issue of reliability, and the author argues that this isnt the case anyhow.
(C): Opposite. As explained above, the policy aspect isnt affected by anonymity.

Strategy Point:

Use your work from previous questions as much as possible on the questions that follow. The same point will
often be tested on multiple questions in the same passage, making for quick points!
20. (C)

Go back to 4 to review what the public thinks of the media. The author argues that the public is equally skeptical of media and
government, saying that in the past, the public always assumed the media was right when it challenged the government, but that this
may be changing. Therefore, the public might now consider the possibility that the media, rather than the government, is wrong.
While the wrong answer choices distort this, (C) rewards careful and methodical thought.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Distortion. The author argued that the public generally thought this in the past, but that its not necessarily the case anymore.
(B): Distortion. The author suggests that the public might believe that the media is wrong, but never says that the medias always
considered wrong in a showdown with government.
(D): Distortion. The author never suggests that both may be wrong; the conflict is presented in either/or terms.


Topic and Scope:

The author discusses the disunity and turmoil of the Greek Hellenic period, using the Olympics as an example and metaphor.

Mapping the Passage:

1 argues that in reality the Hellenic period was tumultuous, not the idealized community that Alexander desired.
2 gives a time frame for Greek civilization and the Olympic games.
3 argues that the games reflected Greek culture, but not positively as the founders intended.
4 argues that the games reinforced disunity instead of promoting the unity originally intended.


21. (C)

Review the authors main point in the passage: the Olympic Games didnt bring Greece together; they just reinforced divisions. Scan
for an answer choice that touches on this main point: choice (C). Using the denial test to double-check works: if the author thought
that sporting events never did this, he couldnt believe what he does about the Games.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author never makes this claim in the passage.
(B): Out of Scope. While the author thinks that Greece had serious divisions, he never compares the severity to that of other
(D): Out of Scope. The author never discusses the military ability of Alexander at all.

22. (B)

Go back to review the phrase in context. The author argues at the end of the paragraph that the winners spoils were...political and
economic gain. The phrase must therefore mean that athletes were in it to win for the money. (B) broadens this only slightly.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The phrase is referring to athletes, but the author would probably argue that peace did not in fact increase during
Olympic years.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail. This refers to a detail in 2 which has nothing to do with the phrase.
(D): Faulty Use of Detail. As above, though this may have happened, the phrase doesn't deal with it.

23. (A)

Take a moment to remind yourself of the authors main point about the Games and look at the layout of the choices before trying to
answer. RN II is the most frequent, so hit that first. RN II is basically the authors main argument, and the passage itself is explanation
and example for this. Eliminate (B). RN I offers a point not made by the passage: the author argues that Alexander never truly unified
Greece (and he offers no evidence for this). Eliminate (C). The author never makes the claim in RN III, and therefore (D) can be
eliminated. (A) alone is left.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. As described above.
(C): Opposite. As above.
(D): Opposite. As above.

24. (D)

4 discusses the rewards associated with victory; take a second to read it quickly before looking for an answer choice that doesnt
match. While the wrong answer choices are all perks awarded by an athletes home city, (D) immediately jumps out as a sign of
cooperation and friendship between city-states, which the author would argue didnt exist.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. The author argues that imposing defeat [was] a delight.
(B): Opposite. This would fit with the economic value the author says was associated with winning.
(C): Opposite. This, too, would be a tangible perk of winning.

25. (A)

Review the authors main point about the Games in Greece: they made the disunity between the city-states even worse than it already
was. Look for a fact that would reinforce this point: (A) is an example of disunity specifically triggered by the Games themselves.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Out of Scope. This would have no effect on the authors argument that the Games fostered competition.
(C): Opposite. This would weaken the authors claim that city-states were at each others throats during the games.
(D): Out of Scope. The number of athletes would probably have little effect on how the city-states regarded each other.

26. (C)

Review the phrase in context; it reinforces the authors main point that the Games made a bad situation worse. Looking for a similar
point leads to (C). The author clearly believes that the Games made the Greeks warlike tensions worse than they already were.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Out of Scope. The author doesnt discuss the divisions in other civilizations.
(B): Distortion. The author argues that the Greeks were constantly divided, but doesnt claim that they were always at war as a result.
(D): Opposite. The author argues in 2 that this marked the beginning of Greek history, and so surely couldnt also represent the point
of decline.

Topic and Scope:

The psychological ramifications of obedience to authority versus control over one's one actions.

Mapping the Passage:

1 states that people do things they otherwise wouldnt when so ordered by authority.
2 argues that psychological studies have to take into account the practical aspects of obedience in addition to theoretical ideas.
3 suggests that laboratory-tested obedience effectively highlights these practical aspects.
4 says that obedience is influenced by fear and the desire to cooperate, and that the individual obeying has trouble controlling his
own behavior.
5 expands on the point in 4: the laboratory can effectively simulate real-world conditions that lead to obedience.


27. (D)

Review the main points in the map, and read the stem carefully: youre looking for something thats not false, i.e., that is true. While
three choices dont follow from the passage, (D) summarizes the point made in 3 that the lab is a good place to study obedience.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. One of the authors main points, most clearly expressed in 1, is that people will do things that theyd normally
consider wrong when obeying authority.
(B): Distortion. While the author argues that people often do this, theres no indication in the passage that authority is always obeyed.

(C): Opposite. The author surely thinks that the study of obedience is important, or the passage wouldnt be written.

Strategy Point:

Read question stems carefully. In this case, even though the stem includes the word false, youre looking for an answer choice
thats true.

28. (A)

The situation involves someone who doesnt want to do something presumably against his morality, but who finally does it because
hes ordered to. How does this fit in with the authors argument? It matches closely with the point made in 1 that people will do
things they dont really want to because an authority tells them to do so. Therefore, the authors argument is supported without

Wrong Answers:
(B): Opposite. For the reasons described above, the pilot's actions would support the authors argument.
(C): Out of Scope. While the authors argument would be supported, theres no reason to believe this would only be the case if the
pilot had a history of obeying orders he disliked. This example, even if isolated, is enough by itself to support the authors argument.
(D): Opposite. For the reasons described above, the authors argument would be supported.

29. (C)

Review the phrase in context: who is defying what? The author seems to be referring to a general case in which someone defies an
order he doesnt want to obey, presumably for moral reasons. Looking for a situation that reflects this turns up (C): someone is
disobeying an authority on principled grounds. All other choices can be eliminated as not explicitly defying orders at all.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. Theres no defiance of orders in this situation.
(B): Opposite. Theres no direct defiance of orders here. The employee wasnt ordered to work overtime, but rather simply to finish
the project as soon as possible. Theres also no element of principle in this situation.
(D): Opposite. Again, no orders are being defied in this situation.

30. (B)

Review the lines in context. The author argues that this absence of compulsion goes hand in hand with a cooperative mood, which
suggests that the phrase means the person is obeying on their own free will. (B) says the same.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Out of Scope. While fear is mentioned as a factor later in the passage, it doesnt tie into this phrase, nor is there any indication
that psychological experiments do lack punishment.
(C): Distortion. While the person who has an absence of compulsion presumably is free to disobey, the phrase is more concerned
with those who do obey, though free to refuse.
(D): Out of Scope. Moral implications arent discussed or hinted at anywhere in the vicinity of this phrase.

31. (C)

What is the authors main argument about obedience? People do things they dont want to do because they feel compelled to by
authority. Look for something that challenges this point: If (C) is true, the authors point about not wanting to do things, most clearly
expressed in 1, makes no sense. If people have no strong ethical values, then bad actions wouldn't necessarily be against their will.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. This would support the authors point about fear made in the last paragraph.
(B): Opposite. This would support the authors idea that authority is often used to advance immoral aims.
(D): Out of Scope. This is an irrelevant distinction; the author doesnt say anything about which segments of society would be more
or less willing to obey authority.

32. (A)

Keep the authors major point in mind while reviewing the choices. Choice (A) is the subject of 3. While (A) has a few paragraphs
worth of support, the other choices reflect claims either made but not supported or not made at all. Note that this question is very
similar to question 27.

Wrong Answers:
(B): Out of Scope. The passage does not comment on this.
(C): Faulty Use of Detail. The author inserts this at the end of 4, again without support.
(D): Out of Scope. This claim isnt made at all in the passage. Though it must sometimes be true if people are forced to act against
their morals, its impossible to generalize to authority figures .

33. (C)

How would someone who is not an authority killing an authority figure affect the authors argument? It would probably weaken the
authors argument that obedience is usually an overriding factor in decision-making if the authority figure had authority over the other.
They could be working on two totally separate chains of command. Therefore, the situation will have relevance only if theres an
authoritarian relationship between them. (C) states this broadly.

Wrong Answers:
(A): Opposite. As described above, it would be relevant only under very specific circumstances.
(B): Opposite. As above.
(D): Opposite. As above. This is essentially the opposite of the situation we hypothesized: there would have to be a prior relationship
for it to be relevant.

Strategy Point:

When applying new situations to the authors argument, think carefully about the implications, and be willing to hypothesize based
on the passage. While its best to avoid big leaps, careful deduction is always rewarded on test day.