Anda di halaman 1dari 40

Question 1

As a young engineer, you are instructed by your employer to prepare a bankable report for a
prospective project based on the information provided by your employer. You have no access to
ascertain the reliability of the information provided. In light of the IEM Regulations on
Professional Conduct, how do you advise your employer so that you may complete your
assignment with integrity.

You should at least include below points:

1. A member shall inform his employer in writing of any conflict between his personal
interest and faithful service to his employer.

2. A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his
work constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to any person.

3. A member shall take all reasonable steps to avoid waste of natural resources, damage of the
environment and wasteful damage or destruction of the products of human skill and industry
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 2:

You are assigned to prospect an area for an extractable mineral(s). However, in your
course of works, you discover no such minerals but some other valuable minerals which
your employer is (are) not interested. On the other hand, the information you have is of
great importance to the adjoining interest. As an engineer can you release the particular
information which you have to the other party so that the minerals may be explored.
Please discuss taking into consideration of the IEM Regulations on Professional
Conduct.

Introduction

As an engineer, we shall be responsible to our employer and take care his benefits
unless it is jeopardizing the community from health and safety aspect. Therefore, we do
not disclose information gained during the course of employment without permission of
employer. The works and information could be highly important and confidential for both
the company and staffs.

Duty to employer

With awareness of our duty and responsibility in the company and to our employer, we
should also try to contribute to advancement of the industry and greater benefits of
community. If in the course of my works, some other valuable materials were
discovered, the information shall also be properly recorded and reported first to my
employer. Though it is not interested by my employer, the finding/ discovery can be
used for goodness of society and possibly can reduce and even recover the non-
productive investment that employer put in. If the engineer feels it is for benefit of the
people and hope the mineral could be extracted, he could propose to his employer. With
permission by employer and disclosure of information in an appropriate way will not
scacrify benefits of the company.

Duty to Community and Industry

Without jeopardizing the benefits of employer and to contribute to advancement of the


industry, I shall report the findings to employer and possibly followed with submission of
proposal to employer for possible joint venture or information sharing/ selling to another
party which they make use of the valuable materials.

By doing so, we could abide by fulfilment of our duty to employer and contribute to
advancement of the industry in morale way.
No wastage of resource (both natural and efforts)

In addition, if employer agrees to disclose the information, which was not useful to us
but is of great interests of the other know party, we avoid waste of efforts and resource
put in. The useful material could also be extracted for benefit of community.

Disclosure of Information in proper way

As per earlier paragraphs, we shall take care the interests of our employer. All
information and success gained during our course of work with current employer could
be important for future development of the company and colleagues. If we feel that the
information though not useful to us but to others, we can propose disclosure of
information to employer and let them to make decision for better advancement of the
industry and society at large.

Look after members in the industry

All players in the same industry can compete and help each other. by doing so, the
industry can make progress in a faster pace. The outcome is always everyone become
more competitive and cost in production. By helping others in the industry, we create
healthy cooperation with others. In return, we will also gain their assistance infuture.

Conclusion

In the course of our works, we report our findings to employer. In the same time, we
make our works benefiting the society. Disclosure of information, if with good reasons,
shall be done in an ethical manner. The interest of our employer shall be safeguarded.
For this case, we shall gain permission from employer or propose to employer our
ideas.
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulations on Professional Conduct
Question No. 3:

Mr X is a project engineer for a project contracted to Y company owned by Mr Z. Mr Z


told Mr X that he is ordering latest model of electronic gadget for his company staff and
he can get a set for Mr X at the company discounted price. Mr X agrees and pays on
delivery. Did Mr X breach the IEM Regulations of Professional Conduct?

1. A member shall not accept remuneration in connection with professional services rendered to his
employer other than from his employer or with his employers consent; nor shall be receive directly or
indirectly any royalty, gratuity or commission on any article or process used in or for the purposes of the
work in respect of which he is employed unless or until such royalty, gratuity or commission has
been authorised in writing by his employer.

It is the responsibility of every engineer to give highest regard to his profession and
conduct himself with integrity when executing his tasks. Discuss this statement in
detail within the context of the Malaysian environment.

The roles of engineers are respectively wide. Amongst the major responsibilities for engineers
are design, construction supervision, consultation, project procurement, commissioning and
management etc. Engineers are responsible to give the highest regard to his profession and
conduct himself with integrity when executing his task. For example a good design solution
would have to include two important aspects namely design adequacy and cost effectiveness. In
addition, engineers have obligation to generate design solutions that are environmental friendly
at the same time meeting the demanding requirements of client. Engineers have a duty of care to
the environment, society and to their valuable customers or clients. They would have to generate
design that fulfil the design clauses in the engineering codes of design, meeting the requirements
by the various Governmental Departments and incorporate design solutions that are
environmental friendly which induce minimum negative impacts to the surrounding environment
and society. Besides, engineers would have to take into consideration the cost implication of
their design solution to their clients. This has caused great dilemma in engineers, as they have to
balance cost implication of the design solution with other factors such as quality, efficiency and
various socio-economy factors.

In the context of a developing country like Malaysia, in some cases, clients however have
different mindset from that of the engineers. Clients are more concern about the cost implication
of the generated design solution; they are more interested in design solution that is cost effective
and yet fulfils the minimum design requirements by the Government. In this respect, clients
would normally opt for design solutions that are cost effective, that stay within their budget.

Some clients would incorporate project budget that is far inadequate which requires the
engineers to sacrifice the quality and long-term efficiencies aspects in their design solution. This
has obviously contradicted with the engineers interests of incorporating optimum design that
would guarantee long-term efficiencies and easy maintenance. In addition, a not-up-to the
standards design solution that obviously with an associated lower construction cost would mean
that the engineer would be getting a much lesser consultation fees in view that the engineering
fees are normally proportional to the cost expenditure of the project. However these two factors,
namely the cost factors and quality are normally indirectly proportional to one another. This has
made the engineers life extremely tough and difficult.

Engineers are constantly wondering if they should go for expensive design solution that would
definitely give both long-term efficient operations and maintenance and most importantly getting
a higher professional fees, or go for an ok design solution that might not be able to guarantee
the quality aspects of the project and yet getting a lower professional fees.

In view of the dilemma that engineers are constantly encountering in balancing capital
expenditure with optimum design for efficient operations and maintenance, engineers should by
all means combine both the design and cost aspects in the process of generating design solutions
for their clients. Engineers should not produce a cheap design solution that does not comply with
the relevant code of practices with the purpose just to please their valuable clients, hoping for
more projects. Neither should they generate expensive design, ignore the cost implication of that
particular design and with the purpose to obtain higher professional fee

Introduction

In Malaysia, when dealing with contractor and subcontractor, it is often unavoidable to


have close and routine liaison with them. It is often some sort of habits such as gift
hampers, petrol allowance, provision of cars, vouchers, some sort of benefits and
discount for purchase orders are always seemed normal and not a trait or significant
matters that may involve some sort of inappropriate intention and conflict of interests.

However, as engineers, we shall always conduct ourselves responsibly, ethically and


sincerely. In course of works, we make sure works being carried out and delivered to
meet the intended use, quality and required specification. As such, we shall receive
remuneration and benefits only from our employer and not others. It is essential to avoid
inappropriate actions or decisions during discharging our duties to employer.

For the case of Engineer X to accept the offer, by Mr. Z, the latest model of an
electronic gadget, at a discounted price, is seemed a bit breaching the IEM regulations
on Professional Conduct. It is because the discounted price indeed can be considered a
valuable consideration. Though the engineer X is contracted to Y company owned by
Mr. Z, engineer X is already accepting remuneration from his employer who contracting
him to Y company for the project. He shall not accept financial and benefits from more
than one party for the same project. If Mr. Z appreciate engineer X for his efforts in the
project, he could still make such offer but it is more appropriate to offer via his employer
to engineer X.
For the working environment, the habits could sometime affect the effectiveness of
instruction/ command when we are discharging our routine duties if we have taken
some sort of benefits from another, except it is stipulated inside contract of employment.

Engineer shall be honest when discharging his duties

As an engineer, we shall be honest when carrying out our routine works in work place.
We shall not expect benefits in any kind from others except from our employer. Our firm
standing of not accepting any kind of benefits other than from our employer could help
us dealing with others confidently and earn their cooperation in getting works completed
without jeopardizing the quality.

Engineer shall uphold the dignity of the profession

Engineers are needed to perform their duties with integrity. Engineer take care the work
quality, safety and environment. Engineers shall not accept commission and request
commission or other similar financial consideration except their stipulated fee and
wages as per employment contract. It is important to safeguard the good image,
professionalism of the profession and ensure the career a sustainable one.

Engineer shall ensure his work meet the needs, specification, no danger

Without taking benefits from others, engineer and other members in the industry can
cooperate and make the project completed in a truthful way. For all projects, it is priority
to ensure work quality to follow design specification and meet intended use.

Engineer shall accept only remuneration, fees and benefit of his employer

Unless the benefits are stipulated into employment contract prior to commencement of
work, engineers shall not accept unstated kind of benefits. It is important for engineers
to carry duties with integrity.

Conclusion

A Registered Engineer shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable


consideration, directly or indirectly, from outside agents in connection with the work for
which he is responsible unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed by all
interested parties.
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 4:

Professionalism cannot be taught by regurgitating (repeatedly speaking) the IEM


Regulations of Professional Conduct nor by memorizing a set of rules. Do you agree
with the statement and why?

Yes, I do. Lets begin by the definition of Professional. Professional person is one who
engages in an activity that requires a specialised & comprehensive education, and is motivated
by a strong desire to serve humanity. Professional thinks & acts in a manner that brings favour
upon the individual & the entire profession. Professional, besides technically competent, shall
have a positive attitude toward life that is continually reinforced by educational accomplishments
& professional service.

Professionalism is a way of thinking and living rather than an accumulation of learning.


Professionalism cannot be taught by stating a code of ethics nor by memorising a set of rules. A
strong professional sense is of undoubted benefit to the profession concerned in terms of morale
and vocational satisfaction. It is also a fact that the community benefits when it is served by a
professional whose standing is recognised, in terms both of status and rewards. It is through the
development of a strong professional attitude that the professional man is motivated to give his
biggest contribution to the community. It is probable that professional attitudes and professional
motivation are prerequisites to community recognition and to a reasonable level of reward, but
the one depends very much upon the other.

Ethics means something more than law and morals; it carries an additional connotation of
rightness. The Code, therefore, is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is
it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement of the principles of rightness, of broad scope,
and with enough detail to enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own
professional conduct. The essence of all professional codes is that the professional man must be
worthy, through his conduct, of the trust placed in him by the community and by colleagues.
This gives rise to a universal rule of life for every engineer who inspires to true professional
status: to act in every situation in a manner that will add to the confidence and esteem in which
his profession is held by the community.

Introduction

IEM regulations of professional conduct are written rules and principles for members to
conduct themselves in ethical and morale manner when discharging their duties and
carrying their works. The regulations and rules are written in broad and general terms
and cover all eventualities.
The regulations, basically, require members to uphold the dignity of the profession, be
honest and fair to all parties, ensure works constitute no danger, do not jeopardize the
benefits of his fellow engineers, etc.

By memorizing this set of regulations and rules, though cannot ensure professionalism
of an engineer, these rules are introduction and basic qualifying requirement and
essential guidelines that all members must remember. After memorizing and
understand them with heart, the following aspects are also much desired to attain
professionalism of the engineers.

Self-awareness and agreement to the importance of stipulated rules and regulations

Laws, regulations and rules are being introduced, developed, improved and enforced
when society was forming and growing. In other words, civilisation was created with co-
existence of rules and regulations. The rules and regulations are reference of accepted
conducts for own comfort from all aspects and not jeopardizing the same of others. All
members in the community will live in harmony situation and to make progress with
healthy and positive competition ways when there are orders and everyone adhered to
them.

For one to adhere to rules and regulations, his agreement and understanding to the
rules is important. Then, he will only pledge to follow the rules.

For instance, some of the IEM regulations of professional conduct prohibit members
from using self-laudatory works in advertisement or do not maliciously injure the
reputation and prospect of other engineers.

In my opinions, engineering works are application of science knowledge to improve


living standard of human. Engineers are those involved with the roles. This kind of roles
are informative and implementation patterns and not adjective and praising ways. It is
important so that we can perform our duties with real understanding and attending to
engineering problems sincerely. We do not say or make public perceive that we could
perform something extraordinary or can do much better or no one else could able to do
similar. This rule is essential to avoid wrong perception from the public and to show our
sincerity to contribute to the community while taking care of our business prospects.

Engineers shall not injure other engineer both from words and any kind of unethical
methods too. Should they want to compete, they compete with their skill and expertise
to strive for valued engineering design and front end engineering design. With such
healthy competition, both will further improve their own competence, benefiting
themselves and the nation.

Practise/ Self-discipline to follow rules


Upon one agrees and understands the rules and regulations are for all members to
conduct themselves in an order and ethical ways, which will eventually strengthen the
attractiveness of the profession as a rewarding career; one will follow and practise the
rules and regulations.

Continuing Professional Development

Competence is important for advancement of oneself and for the industry as a whole.
Though ones practises to-date provide safe and reliable works, technology are
becoming more modern compared 20 to 30 years ago. Engineers, in old days, strive for
safe, reliable works and meet schedule. For nowadays, in addition to safe, reliable and
within schedule, the clients, industry players and public are also demanding for valued
engineering design, front end engineering design (FEED), Green buildings and etc.

In other words, the industry is becoming more demanding. We need to cope with latest
development of technology, new knowledge and open to its application. By continuing
study and develop our competence, only can we keep our pace to provide excellent
services to clients and public from all aspect such as safety, reliability, valued for money
works, contemporary design and not jeopardizing the environment.

By continuing professional development, we enhance our competence and compete


confidently to secure jobs and maintain business prospects. By becoming more
competent, we could achieve professionalism and do not need unethical approaches.

Whistle blowers/ Enforcer such as Board of Engineers, Malaysia

There are sometimes some bad apples. Therefore, there must be an enforcement
system in place. Bad apples are like small moles, but catch most attention and could
be a crisis once appear and not be removed.

In Malaysia, Board of Engineers (BEM) is the regulatory body to register and deregister
engineers. There are also mechanism and reasons, stipulated inside Registration of
Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) (REA), how an unethical offences that can lead to
suspension or cancellation of registration of an engineer.

However, BEM does not able to play her roles and responsibilities unless there are
whistle blowers and the similar mechanism within Institution of Engineers Malaysia
(IEM). By adhering to IEM rules and regulations, we could abide by most of the
regulations by BEM and REA which both are reference for engineers to maintain
professionalism.
Promoter of good practices and network among members such as Institution of
Engineers, Malaysia

Interaction among engineers is important. Via interaction, people with similar abilities,
qualifications, background and job nature can become peers among themselves to
move to ethical direction. They could learn, share ideas, monitor and motivate each
other.

By becoming members of Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM), we can enhance our


competence by participating talks, seminar organised by IEM and share ideas and
experience among members. By becoming IEM members, we promise to abide by IEM
rules and regulations. If any of the members breach the rules, he shall feel shame and
will not earn the respect of others.

Guidance/ Mentor system

Young engineers are drivers of the industry and profession in future. It is relatively easy
for them to acquire academic qualification and technical expertise under supervision of
a registered professional engineer. However, both academic and technical skills are not
total for professionalism. Professionalism shall include ethical behaviour too.

Hence, it is of paramount important that supervisor to monitor and guide their trainee
the ethical practices when handling project and bear in mind his obligation to his clients
and duties to public and environment at large.

Conclusion

Regurgitating IEM regulations on professional conduct is basic qualifying requirement to


attain professionalism. In addition to that, members shall have strong agreement to the
rules and regulation, feel proud and honour to follow the rules. It is because their
pledges to follow the rules are to maintain the sustainability of the profession and make
the career to continue to be rewarding and respectable ones
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 5:

The IEM Regulations of Professional Conduct speaks against active self promotion and
advertisement. In what ways should such restraint enhance the stature of engineers as
professionals? More importantly, given the advent (arrival) of information technology age where
virtual reality is becoming norm, how would any violation of the IEM Regulations of Professional
Conduct be detected and dealt with?
Engineering has been regarded as one of the greatest professions on earth that has contributed in
various positive impacts to the society and country. However, misuse of professional knowledge or
adoption of bad would incur various negative social illnesses to society and country. One of the most
profound social illnesses that has been closely linked to the engineering profession is the wide spread of
corruption or unwise practices amongst certain group of engineers such as self-promotion and
advertisement.
IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct speaks against active self-promotion and advertisement. Self-
promoting is unethical as typically large amount of money will be used for promotion of in worse case
the lobbying process. Those costs could be effectively used to improve the existing system and could be
spent for multi researches.
The Internet has emerged as a powerful tool for practitioners, professionals, teachers and clients alike.
In IEM context, not only does it allow engineers to gather a wide range of information quickly, its also
become a springboard for providing engineering services, particularly to geographically isolated clients
who would otherwise go without. It is inexpensive, saves time, allows a lot of people to be well-
informed of the services provided. At this moment of time, the detection is only when someone come
across the advertisement of the services provided by the engineers in the Internet. Those who discover
this could either report it to IEM or remain silent. If the person proceeds with the writing statement to
IEM, IEM disciplinary board will either suspend the membership or the person will be given a warning.
This process is a waste of energy and time. If all the engineers in Malaysia could be embedded with the
Code of Ethics, especially at the university level, I believe the community will be served more equally in a
professional way. The clients should look for those self-promoting engineers in the Internet as non-
compliance person. Therefore public also need to be knowledgeable of the basic Professional Conducts
of engineers

Introduction

IEM regulations of professional conduct are written rules and principles for members to
conduct themselves in ethical and morale manner when discharging their duties and
carrying their works. The regulations and rules are written in broad and general terms
and cover all eventualities.

The regulations, basically, require members to uphold the dignity of the profession, be
honest and fair to all parties, ensure works constitute no danger to public, do not
jeopardize the benefits of his fellow engineers, etc.
One of rules is member shall not use self-laudatory language or in any manner
derogatory to the dignity of the profession, to advertise or write articles for publication,
nor shall he authorize any such advertisement or article to be written or published by
any other person.

All these IEM regulations of professional conduct, including prohibit of active self-
promotion and advertisement, are to enhance the stature of engineers as professionals
and further promote the profession as an attractive and rewarding ones.

How the prohibition of active self-promotion and advertisement to enhance


professionalism?

Active self-promotion and advertisement like sales and marketing industry may result
the use of self-laudatory language. In my opinions, engineering works are application of
science knowledge to improve living standard of human. Engineers are those involved
with the roles. These kinds of roles are informative and implementation patterns and not
adjective and praising ways. It is important so that we can perform our duties with real
understanding and attending to engineering problems sincerely. We do not say or make
public perceive that we could perform something extraordinary or can do much better or
no one else could able to do similar. This rule is essential to avoid wrong perception
from the public and to show our sincerity to contribute to the community while taking
care of our business prospects.

However, consultancy services are businesses too. When a prohibition was imposed,
resources such as personnel, time and money earlier allocated for the advertisement
could have be channelled and used for better ways. For instance, these resources can
be allocated for training, purchase of latest analytical and design software, new
equipment such plotters and PCs for the office. All these training can enhance the
competency and efficiency of all engineers. In other words, such restraint of active
promotion can promote efforts to maintain and develop professional competency by
attention to new development in science and engineering relevant to his field. Fruitful
competition are based on competence, creativity, innovation, valued engineering
design, front end engineering design (FEED), etc rather than merely active
advertisement.

In addition, the restraint can avoid unhealthy competition among engineers such as
deduction of fees. This approach to secure works is definitely detrimental to the
profession and other engineers. The impacts are the profession could no longer be an
attractive and rewarding one. In future, there will less and less talents willing to join the
profession making the industry not sustainable and stagnant from advancement.

Such restraint may promote close collaboration among engineers of different discipline
and expertise too. It is because the projects nowadays are growing in complexity. As an
engineer, he does not speak and make public statement without ensuring his
qualification and undertake jobs that are out of his area of expertise and competence.
By pooling all discipline of engineers, they work and collaborate with one another.
Eventually, they can contribute to nation in efficient ways.

How to detect such violation of active self-promotion and advertisement?

Again, as per earlier sub-chapter, active self-promotion and advertisement like sales
and marketing industry may result the use of self-laudatory language. It could
sometimes become worst if there is any manner derogatory to dignity profession.

Therefore, the violation can be detected by identifying the presence of these two
elements of advertisement and articles published on both traditional media and online. If
one uses self-laudatory language, the statement is unlikely providing informative details
tally with his qualification, capacity and competence. Both Board of Engineers Malaysia
(BEM) and Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) have the directory and registration
details and public could access via online to check the registration of individual
engineer.

How to deal with the violation of active self-promotion and advertisement?

Peer system within Institution of Engineers Malaysia

Communication is important among engineers. Via communication, people with similar


abilities, qualifications, background and job nature can become peers of among
themselves to move to ethical direction. In addition, they could learn, share ideas,
monitor and motivate each other.

By becoming members of Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM), we become peers


among each other. By becoming IEM members, we promise to abide by IEM rules and
regulations. If any of the members breach the rules, he shall feel shame and will not
earn the respect of others.

To enhance competence

Competence is important for advancement of oneself and for the industry as a whole. If
one becomes competent, he does not need self-laudatory languages and unethical
approach to earn his prospects. As such, the continuing professional development
programs organised by accredited organisation such as BEM and IEM are much
anticipated.

Whistle blowers/ Regulators/ Enforcement such as Board of Engineers, Malaysia


There is sometimes some bad apples. Therefore, there must be regulators and
enforcement system in place.

In Malaysia, Board of Engineers (BEM) is the regulatory body to register and deregister
engineers. There are also mechanism and reasons, stipulated inside Registration of
Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) (REA), how an unethical offences that can lead to
suspension or cancellation of registration of an engineer. One of the by-laws also
stipulates that a registered engineer shall not advertise in any manner or form in
connection with his profession (Item 27c) except as permitted by BEM.

However, BEM does not able to play her roles and responsibilities unless there are
whistle blowers and assistance of IEM.

Most registered engineers are also members of IEM. IEM has similar mechanism to
suspend membership of default members. Hence, the close collaboration from both
BEM and IEM since earliest days is dealing with the matters.

By adhering to IEM rules and regulations, we could abide by most of the regulations by
BEM and REA, which include the prohibition of active self-promotion and advertisement.

Conclusion

Prohibition of active self-promotion and advertisement are not means to restrict growing
of business of individual engineer. It is indeed encouraging competency with allocation
of resources into enhancing competence and skills. The restraint could avoid unhealthy
approaches which shown desperation to secure jobs but jeopardizing the profession as
a rewarding career as a whole and in the long run.
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 6:

You are an engineer and it is known that your project activities/ plant production had
cause an adverse health, safety and/ or environmental (HSE) impact. To improve the
HSE quality, you have to cease your project activities/ production for a period, resulting
in the inability to meet the schedule and targets. How would you handle in a situation
where there is a conflict between the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct and
commercial consideration?

A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his work
constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to any person.

Therefore, engineers should hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the
public. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of this Code shall report thereon to
appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities, and cooperate with
the proper authorities in furnishing such information or assistance as may be required

Introduction

According to IEM regulation on professional conduct, members shall ensure that his
works and products constitute no danger, cause no health issues and no damage to the
environment. When there is conflict of interest between his own and others especially
the community, his shall uphold the benefit of the community and his duty to them must
prevail.

In addition, it is responsibility of all humans to not polluting the environment, not


initiating irresponsible actions that will jeopardize others and own good health and
safety. All economic activities and development will only become sustainable if people
are healthy, work places are safe and environment is clean.

Like sickness, prevention is better than cure. If the sickness has unfortunately arisen
upon us, we shall open to medical examination and accept the cure.

If my project activities or plant production had cause an adverse health, safety or


environmental (HSE) impact, I will report, discuss and advise employer for stipulated
period for repair and rectification works. If it is deemed necessary, due to benefits of
workers and public from HSE aspects, I will recommend too about ceasing of project
activities and production though that may resulting in the inability to meet the schedule
and targets.
In the same time, I will quickly kick off the repair and rectification works, along with
contingency plan such business response plan to catch up schedule of project activities
and production after repair works with all relevant colleagues and staffs.

The prime action is definitely to settle the HSE matters. While in the same time, we plan
and arrange in advance plans to recover business and project activities or production
back to tracks once the HSE matters are settled.

Stop work

Occupational, Safety and Health Act 1994 is the law to govern the safety and health at
work places while Environmental Quality Act 1974 is the law to govern environmental
matters in Malaysia. For construction and manufacturing industries, which often involve
the use of heavy machine and equipment, Factories and Machinery Act 1967 is the law
to govern the safe use of machine during work and after installation for tenant use.

Under the acts, both employer and employee have obligation to ensure safety and
health at workplaces and not causing environmental problems. If offended, fines and
imprisonment could be imposed.

Nowadays, many companies have their own HSE policy too, which could be more
stringent because industry oriented requirement such as oil and gas industry. By
adhering to company HSE policy, it is sometimes abide by the laws. In addition, the self-
voluntary stop work is not merely obligation to laws, it is indeed our commitment to HSE
and sustainability of project activities and business. Stop work at early stage when
problems are identified, rather than waiting until serious damage take place, could
maintain good corporate image and make the business sustainable.

For construction industry, one errant contractor with occurrence of bad HSE incidents
would not be welcomed by client and could be blacklisted from future bidding of
projects.

Repair/ rectify the problem within schedule

The stop work period provide full access of all relevant personnel and measurement to
repair and rectify the problems.

The cause of problem and remedy methods, should have already identified prior to or
immediate to be identified after stop work initiated. If it is the machine problem, the
machine shall be repaired and replaced. If it is the work place, which are messing and
could cause safety concern because of negligence, the place shall be cleaned and
arranged in order. If it is the work process could cause the HSE matters, the expert and
relevant personnel shall modified the work flow with involvement and briefing to all
staffs. If it is the competency of the staffs, training shall be provided.

For instance, mining industry could catch worldwide attention because HSE matters
once occur are often serious and accompanied with loss of lives. If it is noticed that
there is uncomfortable signs about the tunnel access and its underground structures,
the stop work is inarguably the best option to uphold safety of the workers. It is
unavoidable that no production during the period until full strengthening of the
underground access rather than permanent closure issued by authority.

Miscellaneous response plan

As per earlier sub-chapter, the stop and problem rectification work are not deterrents to
business growing or achievement of business target but to ensure sustainability and to
achieve goals, which is including the project schedule.

During the stop work and repair work period, planning and schedule to catch the project
and production activities can be carried out, which can cover all aspects after the
completion of repair works. The planning can cover order and delivery of materials,
sourcing for suitable tools, machines and technology to carry work in an efficient and
speedy ways, training of staffs to be more skilful and employment of additional
manpower.

In addition, the current encountered difficulties can be informed to and discussed with
clients. This is to show our sincerity and commitment to them for quality excellence and
to safeguard their interest too. Benefit of all parties will be affected if HSE matters are
not taken as priority. Rational clients may provide extension of time for completion too.

Car manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda have shown to the world of their
commitment and responsibility to users of their cars. They recall back their products and
rectify them. Such actions do not hurt their business but indeed helping to boost to
higher level of consumer confidence. This is definitely good example to all players of
other industries too.

Conclusion

In other words, efforts and incorporation of HSE concern into project activities and
production are not merely obligation to laws but also aligning to sustainability of
commercial interest and consideration. For my project activities and production, if HSE
matters are affected, I will definitely rectify the matters first and follow up with response
plan to catch up the schedule for the project activities and production.
Question 7

Very often codes of practice suggest discretion of engineering judgement. The merits and
demerits of international codes of practice and standards as opposed to national
documents within the context of the Malaysian industry and practices.

Discuss by giving examples of engineering judgement whereby such decision does not conform
to a code of practice and how it is justified. Is international conformity always desirable?

Answer:
Engineering judgement is a process of forming opinion or evaluation, which characterized by or
conforming to the technical or ethical standards of engineering knowledge and often long and intensive
academic preparation by discerning and comparing. To make an engineering judgement, decisions are
usually based on technical information and public impact. There are few factors that can develop the
judgement such that academic training, professional experience, professional development and mistakes.
In the society nowadays, engineers play an important role to ensure the safety of life, which is important
to maintain and improve the quality of the world. Engineers independently address and reconcile a broad
range of complex engineering problems, which may or cant be adequately assessed and determined, from
measurement or observation alone. They deal extensively with controversial economic and public policy
issues that are likely to hinder progress of construction or operating permits. Besides that, engineers can
represent department with authority on technical engineering matters to develop procedures and standards
for multiple engineering projects that are significantly technical and complex. Engineering judgement is
important because engineers apply professional judgment where a variety of conflicting engineering
related conditions present a major problem.
One thing that cant be neglected is codes and practices often suggest discretion of engineering
judgement. There are merits and demerits of international codes of practice and standards as opposed to
national documents within the context of the Malaysian industry and practices.

For example, Engineer A, employed by the XYZ Manufacturing Company, is assigned to an internal
task force composed of engineers to develop a job description and qualifications for a supervisory
engineering position and to prepare a list of qualified engineers for the position. The task force interviews
a number of candidates, eliminating some and advising them that they are no longer under consideration.
At the conclusion of its interviews the task force members all agree that none of those considered is of the
quality desired. The other members of the task force, however, tell Engineer A that they believe he is
highly qualified and suggest that he resign from the task force so that he may be considered for the
position as being in the best interest of the company.
From the example above, its clearly shown that the decision of Engineer A does not comfort to Code of
Ethics-Section 8 and Section 11. Code of Ethics-Section 8 states that The Engineer will endeavor to
avoid a conflict of interest with his employer or client, but when unavoidable, the Engineer shall fully
disclose the circumstances to his employer or client.. I assume that those in management who appointed
Engineer A to the task force would know the facts when and if As name were presented for the higher
position, there will be no ethical problem regarding his relationship with his employer. As has often been
noted in the past, a conflict of interest between an employed engineer and the employer occurs only when
the circumstances are such that an advantage to the engineer would be at the expense of the employer.
Even if that were the case, however, an employer may waive the conflict when it is to his or her
advantage to do so.

There may be some implication that Engineer A had some hidden role in the determination of the task
force members, including him, that none of the other candidates was acceptable for the higher position. If
Engineer A were improperly motivated to influence an adverse conclusion on the other candidates he
could have had in mind the result that the other members of the task force would turn to him. But this is a
highly conjectural approach, without supporting evidence, and I assume under these conditions that the
other members of the task force could not so easily have been led to that result.

The ultimate ethical issue under the above assumption is whether Engineer A had competed unfairly with
other engineers by attempting to obtain advancement by "improper or questionable methods." If there
were any reasonable basis to support a suspicion that Engineer A had, in fact, used his position on the task
force to achieve the position for himself, that would be a clear violation of Section 11 of the code. Thus, I
suggest that Engineer A should resign from the task force and permit himself to be considered as a
candicate so that it would be ethical.

Theres another example. Engineer B had been retained by the prime professional engineer to provide
mechanical and electrical engineering services for a large housing project. The project was completed and
occupied four years later, and Engineer B was fully paid for his services. Approximately seven years after
the original occupancy, ownership of the facility changed. The new owner informed Engineer B he had
retained Engineer C to make an engineering inspection of the facility, and there were problems associated
with the wiring. At the owner's request, a joint inspection of the wiring was made by the two engineers
and the city wiring inspector. The inspection did not reveal any defects in the wiring. The owner advised
Engineer C of his complaint concerning the plumbing and heating systems. Engineer C thereafter
conducted a further study and filed a report with the owner. The report noted there was no problem with
the design of the plumbing system, but concluded there were design inadequacies in the original sizing of
the equipment for hot water and heating. Engineer C recommended the installation of equipment of higher
capacity. Engineer B thereafter filed a complaint with the state engineering registration board alleging
that Engineer C had acted improperly in that the report was not objective and did not include all pertinent
information, and further alleged that the actions of Engineer C were self-serving at the expense of the
dignity and reputation of Engineer B. Engineer B requested the registration board to find Engineer C
guilty of "misconduct" in that Engineer C had obtained employment by a questionable method of
criticizing Engineer b without his knowledge.
The Engineer Bs decision does not comfort the Code of Ethics Section 12 and Section 12(a). Section 12
states that "The Engineer will not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the
professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of another engineer, nor will he
indiscriminately criticize another engineer's work. If he believes that another engineer is guilty of
unethical or illegal practice, he shall present such information to the proper authority for action". Section
12(a) states that "An Engineer in private practice will not review the work of another engineer for the
same client, except with the knowledge of such engineer, or unless the connection of such engineer with
the work has been terminated."
In this particular set of facts, it is apparent that Engineer B knew that Engineer C had been retained to
make an engineer's inspection of the facility and that the resulting evaluation would necessarily entail a
review of the original designs. Also, it is equally clear that the connection of Engineer B with the project
had been terminated some years earlier. By considering whether the work of Engineer C was for the same
client, it may be helpful for future guidance to again point out that the purpose of 12(a) is to provide the
engineer whose work is being reviewed by another engineer the opportunity to submit his comments or
explanation for his technical decisions, thereby enabling the reviewing engineer to have the benefit of a
fuller understanding of the technical considerations in the original design in framing his comments or
suggestions for the ultimate benefit of the client. On the basis of the information submitted to us, there is
no showing that Engineer B had undertaken his review and subsequent report with the intent to injure the
professional reputation or practice of Engineer A. The fact that Engineer B concluded that some changes
were needed in the equipment originally specified cannot alone constitute the kind of actions barred by
12. Otherwise, there would be no point in an owner's retaining another engineer to review the original
design in an attempt to resolve current problems with the facility. In conclusion, I think it is not ethical for
Engineer C to take the assignment and in rendering the report to the owner.
( 1378 words)
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulations on Professional Conduct
Question No. 8:

Engineers are always entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale


projects involving millions of dollars. In view of the large amount of money changing
hands, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are being put to test. What
measures can an engineer take to prevent corruption and unethical practice of cutting
corners in order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession?

1. Introduction

Engineering is one of the most challenging professions on earth. The engineering profession is
a high-risk profession, which involves construction and development etc. Engineering could be a
rather lucrative profession if manage properly. As the saying goes, high gain is always associated
with high risk. The same goes for engineering industry. Engineers, especially civil engineers are
often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of
dollars. As a result, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are seriously being put
into test. In the following section of this essay, I would like to discuss the necessary measures
that an engineer could adopt to prevent corruption and unethical practices of cutting corners in
order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession in the country.

2. Measures to prevent corruption and unethical practice

2.1 Code of Ethics

Various measures can be adopted by engineers in the direction to prevent corruption and
unethical practices in the engineering profession. One of the most important measures is
the familiarisation with the code of ethics. Engineers must get themselves familiar with the code
of ethics that govern the duties and responsibilities of engineers. Ethics means something more
than law and morals; it carries an additional connotation of rightess. The Code, therefore,
is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is
a statement of the principles of rightness, of broad scope, and with enough detail to enable an
intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The
engineering code of ethics explain and illustrate the right tasks that an engineer should perform
and the wrongdoings that he/she is prohibited from undertaking such as unwise practices of
cutting corner, corruptions etc.

2.2 Self Awareness

Apart from familiarisation with the engineering code of ethics, engineers


should posses relatively high self-awareness of their duties and obligations towards
the society and country. Engineers are involving in construction activities such as construction of
buildings, houses and infrastructures etc. that can profoundly affect the life of members of the
society. As a result, engineering tasks are significantly important and
any mistakes or negligence leading to collapse of the buildings due to unwise practices
would claim hundreds to thousands of life. In this respect, engineers must posses a relatively
high self-awareness of their responsibilities and obligations towards the society and country in
order to minimise possible unethical practices and corruptions.

2.3 Checker

One of the most effective means in preventing corruptions or cutting corners is to engage a third
party as checker for the design works or construction project. This third party, called a checker,
could play the role as an inspector for all related construction works inclusive of design,
construction supervision and commissioning of works. The engagement of the checker is to
ensure that all related project works are carried out in accordance to international best practices,
sound engineering judgements and all works are complying with relevant engineering codes.
This has been one of most effective measures that are being widely adopted in the engineering
industry to prevent and minimize possible unethical practices from taking place.

2.4 Stiffer Penalty

Apart from engaging a third party as checker for the project, another effective measure that has
not been widely practised in Malaysia is to impose stiffer penalties for those who committed
wrongdoings such as unethical practices and corruptions. The laws in Malaysia have been too
lenient to the developers, contractors and engineers. Stiffer penalties should be imposed to
those who has been found guilty of adopting unethical practices. Penalties such as heavy
financial penalties combined with imprisonment, revoke licence of developers, contractors or
engineers etc. could be enforced in order to prevent the widespread unethical practices in the
engineering industry.

2.5 To organize awareness talk

Other effective measures in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the
engineering profession are to organize awareness talks, seminars or workshops in a more
frequent basis. These events would target those that are involved in the construction industry
including developers, contractors, engineers etc. in order to instil high awareness in all parties of
the importance in adopting good practices in the engineering profession

Introduction

Though engineers contribute to nation in general, public sometimes cast suspicious


feeling of possible unethical conduct, bribery and corruption upon engineers and others
in the construction industry when there are failure of engineering works. For instance,
public is inevitably doubt about the integrity of engineers when the collapse of steel roof
at Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium, cracking of pier structures of MRR2, collapse of
a building at Petaling Jaya during demolition works, delays of completion of mega
projects, boosting up of project cost and etc. These cases have resulted bad perception
among the public about the ethical behavior, competency and responsibility of
engineers and others in the industry.

It is often, when failures of engineering works take place and boosting of project cost is
reported, public perceive possible corruption has taken place. The investigation of
trueness of the perception upon engineers or others in the industry to be handed over to
relevant parties such Board of Engineers and Ad hoc committee set up for the
objectives.

Notwithstanding to trueness of the perception, engineers shall still take actions and
behave themselves in professional manners to safeguard the good image of the
profession. The good and responsible actions are much needed from engineers for the
sustainability, advancement of the engineering profession and good prospect to those
involved in the career. Some of the actions are:

a) Adhere to code of ethics and abide by laws, rules and regulations

Engineers shall be well versed with rules and regulations relevant to his practices and
registration such as Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138). Section 15 of the act
stipulates that an engineer can be suspended and cancelled his registration with the
board if he is found to offer or accept illicit commission and involved with dishonesty and
fraud practices.

Rules and regulations from both Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and Institution of
Engineers Malaysia (IEM) also prohibit engineers from accepting remuneration from
others except from his employer when discharging their routine duties and
responsibility.

Therefore, engineers shall follow the rules and regulations when discharging their
responsibility, which is also directly to maintain the dignity of the profession and fellow
engineers.
In addition to Registration of Engineers Act, Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 (Act
133), Uniform Building By-laws 1984, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994,
Factories and Machinery Act 1967, if could be well studied and remembered by
engineers, also can enabling engineers discharging their duties and liaising with all
parties confidently. All these acts are not restricting prospect and performance of
engineers but instead are useful reference to safeguard the good image of engineering
profession and construction industry.

b) Executing works, duties and responsibilities according to appropriate work procedure

Engineers shall follow generally accepted, but not burdening work procedure, to prevent
possible occurring of unethical behavior and bribery.

For instance, site engineers may inform head office, after reporting to project manager,
about the much needed construction material at project and also may attend to new
product presentation from salesperson. However, the quotation, purchase order, invoice
and payment method shall be followed by others and colleagues from relevant
department such as purchasing department.

For site engineers, he shall inform and request the presence of resident engineer or
clerk of works, who are normally act on behalf of consulting engineer and project
owners when there are testing works. For instance, it is advised that presence of third
party engineer (not from contractor) to witness the preparation of concrete cube, cube
test work, piling works, early setup and reading of gauging instrument for Maintain Load
Test, etc. This work procedure and request could prevent unethical behavior due to
conflicts of interest. In other works, people to execute the works, the person to certify
the results or quality and the party to make the payment are recommended not the
same individual.

With the above work procedures, pay master and certifying parties of different parties
could avoid unethical and corruption.

c) Be open-minded, transparent when conducting assessment and make decision


An engineer shall be open-minded and transparent when discharging his responsibility
with other professional counterpart and project owners.

For instance, if the engineer is the one that project owner rely mostly for advice of
award of contract, he shall be well versed about the tender document and specification.
Then, he subsequently makes fair evaluation including assessment to possible counter
proposal from all aspect such as specification, completion period, capability and price to
meet clients requirement.

Such open-minded and transparent situation could be promoted by conducting tender


interview with presence of project owner, members of the consultancy team and allow
queries and presentation by all bidders. All discipline of the consultant team members to
take care their respective technical roles.

With open mindset, check and compare all proposal and options in transparent
situation, without stick or keen to one, the best decision can be made and unethical
behavior avoided.

d) Engineering decision made via team and committee

Engineering works often involve millions of ringgits. Hence, it is promoted decision


made by a group of members of all relevant discipline and stakeholders via situation at
sub-subject c). Being at transparent situation, conflict of interest could not easily be
hidden and unethical behavior can be prevented.

e) Do not abuse authority (power) for own interest and report conflict of interest

Abuse of authority could be prevented with practice as per earlier sub-subject c)


especially for conventional contract.
In addition, engineer should report in writing about conflict of interest to client. It is even
more appropriate if he reject appointment as consulting engineer for the same project if
he have substantial stake of the contracting or supplier firm and keen to bid for the
contract. By choosing whether to work as consulting engineer and contractor only, we
could avoid conflict of interests and unethical behavior.

f) Conduct routine inspection and spot check

The professional engineer, though with his appointed representative at site, shall also
conduct spot check or inspection to site. If possible, the inspection shall be periodical.
He shall read and check the site dairy and record too. Spot check and periodical
inspection to site may enable engineer to provide early reminder so that work quality
can achieved and unethical conduct could be prevented at site.

g) Work Audit (Check and balance)

An engineer shall be aware and open that his works can be reviewed and audited if
requested by project owners. Internally, there shall be a superior or employer
supervising his works. Hence, he shall not accept bribery or be involved in unethical
behavior in any manner.

h) Practice zero tolerance to corruption

Engineer shall report immediately of unethical behavior and corruption to Board of


Engineers, Malaysia, Institution of Engineers Malaysia and Association of Consulting
Engineers for unethical behavior. For bribery and corruption, the case shall be report to
Anti-corruption agency.

i) Continuing Professional Development

All engineers shall strike for excellence for their works. In order to strike for excellence,
engineers shall always continue study and follow the latest development of technology
relevant to their field of works and others. With continuing self-improvement, engineers
could become more competent when discharging their duties. When an engineer or any
person became more competent, he does not rely to not morale and not ethical actions.

We could become more competent by joining the Institution of Engineers Malaysia,


where we could take part in seminars, talks, discussions. We could meet other fellow
engineers, exchange view, share our work experience and ideas. By becoming more
competent, we do not need unethical practice of corruption.

Conclusion

Engineers play significant role in developing the nation. Almost all mega projects that
are needed to put our nation into developed conditions need engineers. Therefore,
engineers shall have ethical behavior which is much anticipated to contribute to healthy
and competent work culture while contributing to the physical and hardware aspect.
Question 9.

Conflict of professional interest frequently arises in the working environment of an


engineer. Discuss the statement and propose the appropriate solutions for overcoming the
problems.

Suggested Answer:

Conflict is so common in todays world that is full with sophistication and complexity. All of us
are facing with some kind of conflicts in our daily life. We are frequently encountering conflicts
with our family members, friends, colleagues or even our bosses. Even the countries worldwide
are having conflicts with each other such as conflict betweenUnited States and Republic of
China. Conflict occurs as a result of different views, opinions and different interests in
individual, society or country. Everybody, individuals, societies or countries are looking into
their opinions and interests respectively. They adopt a defensive view of their opinions and
interests. As a result, conflict occurs when one is disagree with anothers opinion. In the
following section of this essay, I will discuss the conflict of professional interest in the working
environment of an engineer in particular for the civil engineer, and suggest the appropriate
solutions for overcoming these problems.

As mentioned in the earlier section, conflict occurs as a result of different opinions and interests
in oneself from that of others. Engineering industry is a comparatively wide profession that
involves various parties such as developers, contractors and consultant engineers etc. These
parties would have their own interests and are always be there to safeguard their interests
respectively. As a result, conflicts frequently arise in the working environment of the engineers.
Developers are the clients for the construction project. They are basically businessmen that
invest in property development and their main objective is to obtain profitability. Developers are
basically the cost-conscious group and they are very concern about the cost aspects of the
project.

As for contractors, they are also cost-conscious but their main interest is to complete the project
fast within the allocated timeframe in order for them to claim construction fees in soonest
possible time. Consultant engineers however are more concern about the quality of works of the
construction activities. They are there to ensure that the construction works are carried out in
accordance to relevant engineering codes and complying with international best practices. The
different interests in these parties have resulted in conflicts occurring between these parties in a
frequent basis.

Various effective measures can be adopted in the direction to reduce conflicts between the
developers, contractors and consultant engineers. One of the most effective measures towards
reducing conflicts is to cultivate mutual respect between each other. All the three parties would
have to instil a relatively high awareness in themselves on the other parties responsibilities and
interests. They have to be aware of and understand the interests of the other parties. Developers,
contractors and consultant engineers would have to respect each other and compromise solution
that could meet requirements of all the three parties respectively. In this respect, they could
perhaps create shared objectives or goals that mutually meet the critical requirements of all
parties in order to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from occurring.

Developers, contractors and consultant engineers would have to meet each other in a more
frequent basis to discuss as well as resolve construction issues in a speedy manner. Very
common, construction industry is flooded with various construction issues and problems.
However conflicts would occur if these issues were not being resolved in a speedy manner. As a
result, all parties must meet in a more frequent basis in order to resolve necessary site problems
without delay. This is important to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from developing. In addition,
all parties must ensure that effective communication is taken place in order to minimise
unnecessary conflicts as a result of miscommunication.

Perhaps the most important measure to minimise conflict is to put yourself into other people
shoes. One would have to possess high self-awareness and be able to understand the others
parties concerns in order to gain respect in the society. Developers, contractors and consultant
engineers must try to understand the responsibilities and obligations of one another respectively
in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts from occurring.
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 10:

Most projects are awarded on competitive bidding basis. Supposing you had been the
designated engineer of one of the bidders that was not awarded with the letter of intent
by the Client. You are then approached by the winner to join the Consultant Team.
Should you accept the second appointment? If yes, describe the situations, which might
be seen as conflict of interests. If no, describe the reasons and/ or clear cut situations
why you should decline the second appointment

Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for
services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project, unless the
circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties

Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.

Introduction

We, as engineers, do not injure directly or indirectly the prospect of another engineer. In
the same time, we shall be faithful and honest with our client and employer. In
discharging our duty and carrying our works, we shall bear in mind that fair and honest
dealing with all parties is essential principle. If there is conflict of interest of oneself with
others, we shall act with integrity and fair toward others.

For the scenario which I was approached by the winner to join his consultant team, I
presume the invitation to bid and the project are of design and build contract. I was the
engineer of another contractor who has not successful bidding the contract. Upon
announcement of the winner, the winner offers the appointment as their engineer to
us.

In my view of points, I may accept the invitation because of the following reasons and
with the following conditions.

Completion of duty and responsibility to current employer

For design and build contract, which both contractor and consultant are working
together to bid the project, contractor is the leader and appoint his consultant. The letter
of appointment is often issued after successful bidding of the project. For ethical
practise in the construction industry, the original engineer working together with
contractor shall be appointed. In other words, no letter of appointment is issued or no
official appointment of engineer will be carried out if the bidding is not successful.

During the bidding process, engineer shall be faithful and honest to his employer. He
applies his best knowledge, skills and efforts in assisting his employer to bid the
contract. Upon successful bidding and with the official appointment, he works together
with his employer to ensure successful implementation.

If fail in the bidding stage, engineers duty and responsibility to original employer has
completed. Hence, I may consider the invitation of the winner subject to condition in
the following paragraphs.

No improper termination of consultant of winner

For construction industry, it is only considered ethical and appropriate to appoint


consultant who have assisted the contractor during the bidding works once successful
in the bidding process. However, there is always some bad apples. Errant people may
like make use of anothers efforts.

Therefore, I shall communicate and check the reasons of termination of the consultant
of the winner. I shall consider accepting new appointment if there is no errant
happening in the termination of services of another engineer. If the works have started, I
shall only take over if there is written consent by the engineer and formal notification by
winner that the services of other engineer have been terminated and no arrear is due.

In other words, I shall only accept the appointment of winner after receipt of release
letter of the engineer.

No fee reduction or discount

In order to prevent unethical practises by errant players in the industry, there shall not
be fee reduction or similar like discount, for acceptance of appointment as new engineer
to the winner. Engineering consultancy services (ECP) are professional services to
design and advice the client for reliable, valued and front end engineering works. It is
unavoidable for clients to bargain for cheaper price but engineers shall not compete with
one another by slashing their fee. The act will downgrade the technical competency of
engineers in the long term and make the profession an unattractive one.

In my view of points, it is good if the scale of fee recommended by BEM to be adhered


to.

No disclosure of business information and copyright with current employer


All works, done with current employer, could be considered property and business
information of current employer. Though we fail to bid, we shall not or simply disclose
the information to the winner. This is because current employer could still compete
and bid for other project with current information, which are works of both current
employer and us. Furthermore, I will possibly his engineer too. If I disclose the
information to the winner, it is conflict of interest.

Rights to review, redesign, use and not to apply the design of original engineer of the
winner

Engineer bears his responsibility with him to grave. Though the design of other engineer
is well prepared and done, the engineer who take over the jobs shall monitor and
ensure successful implementation and construction. He therefore need to review, check
and possible redesign if not all but still there could be substantial part needed to be
checked.

By accepting the invitation or appointment of the winner, it is merely change of


responsible engineers to monitor, supervise and handle the project. The new engineer
shall still discharge his duty and responsibility to winner.

Hence, engineers shall not accept wrongful offer by winner with the all kind of reasons
to substitute engineer and try to appoint a cheaper one.

Conclusion

As an ethical and responsible engineer, we shall take care the interest of our employer
and ensure duty and professional services rendered to him are completed. We shall
avoid conflict of interests by not assisting two clients who are opposite competing sides
at the same time. If it is unavoidable, we shall inform both of them and let them to make
decision or we choose one.

In the same time, we do not attempt to take over the business prospect of another
engineer unless the engineer consents and there is no unethical and errant practise in
replacing the original engineer
Question 11

You are in a position of responsibility administering an institution of higher learning with limited
resources. You have been assigned to revise the engineering curriculum and directed to increase
the number of graduates. From the standpoint of professional conduct, describe the necessary
curriculum contents which must be included so as not to compromise the engineering standards.

Suggested Answer:

This is refering to the conservative universities which offer fundamental engineering curriculum
without compromising engineering standards. With limited resources, e.g. lecturers, facilities and
funds, the design of the curriculum is as follows;

Mathematics Courses- Even though mathematics courses are not engineering courses in and of
themselves, proficiency is very
important for those who wish to be successful in engineering. In my revision of the engineering
curriculum, a fair share of mathematics classes will be at a higher priority. Algebra, Calculus,
Trigonometry, Differential Equations and coordinate geometry are an integral part of the
engineering curriculum.

Science Courses- Science courses are another big component in our engineering curriculum,
particularly if students concentration is in an area like biological or chemical engineering.
Physics, chemistry and computer science are all important aspects of an engineering program.
Even if the students concentration is in civil engineering, they will be expected to cover at least
the introductory areas of chemistry and physics. The computer sciences are often tailored to the
specific needs of the engineering curriculum, and they will probably find that proficiency in this
area will be very helpful to the rest of their studies.

Engineering Courses- Engineering courses themselves are at the heart of every engineering
curriculum. The types of classes students participate will depend in large part upon your area of
concentration. In the first year however, engineering courses tend to be more introductory and
also focused on the tools they need to do the job; computers in particular. Once they understand
the basics, their engineering curriculum will concentrate on their area of specialization. For
example, if the students focus on electronics engineering, he will take a lot of solid state physics
and semiconductor device classes, in addition to classes on circuit theory and logic circuits.

General Studies Courses Most four-year universities in the United States and Japan want to
ensure that their graduates are well-rounded and conversant in areas apart from their
specialization. As a result, their engineering curriculum will include diverse classes like English
composition, Japanese literature, economics, anthropology, music appreciation and political
science. I will revise these subjects and compile them into General Subject in the first year and
Engineering Management in the final year
Question 12.

Corruption has undermined integrity in professional practice in the engineering industry. The
professional engineer who steadfastly embraces the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct is
left in a dilemma. His option is that he could just ignore it or turn whistle blower. Explain how
you would handle this problem.

You should at least include below points:

He shall not under any circumstances solicit advisory or consultative work, either directly or by
an agent, nor shall he pay, by commission or otherwise, any person who may introduce clients to
him
IEM Professional Interview
Section B - Questions on Regulation s on Professional Conduct
Question No. 13:

Assuming that you are the principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm in a
small state in the country. Your family is very well reputed, respected and influential,
having lived and worked in the state for decades.

Leaders of certain political party approach you seeking your assistance to campaign for
them in the forthcoming state by-elections, they have promised to award your company
with all the major projects awarded by the state government. It is desirable for your firm
to secure new projects. Discuss critically on your actions, taking account of the IEMs
regulations on Professional Conduct.

Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.

Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the
specific technical fields involved.
Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter
in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not prepared under their direction
and control.
Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any contribution to
influence the award of a contract by public authority, or which may be reasonably construed by
the public as having the
effect or intent of influencing the awarding of a contract. They shall not offer any gift or other
valuable consideration in order to secure work. They shall not pay a commission, percentage, or
brokerage fee in order to secure work, except to a bona fide employee or bona fide established
commercial or marketing agencies retained by them

Introduction

Engineer, when called upon to give opinion, shall give opinion that is reliable. Prior to
any statement made, he shall ensure his qualification to make such statement. No one
shall benefit from his statement with prospect and fair treatment deserved by others
being scarified.
For the scenario, which I were principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm
and my family was well reputed, respected and influential in the small state, I believe
the respect and credits to our family are due to genuine and honest contribution from all
family members since decades. As an engineer, I presume the respect earned from
genuine efforts and contribution to public services, design, buildings of public amenities
to the small state.

Hence, I shall continue to take the interest and benefit of community as the priority. In
the same time, I shall not scarify the dignity of the engineering profession and company.

In other words, I will reject the invitation of errant leaders of political parties to assist
them in campaigning in the coming state by-election in order to secure major projects
after election.

Uphold the dignity of profession

The dignity of the profession of engineer shall be upholded. We shall not campaign for
the any political party with the name of well-known engineer and his reputable firm.
Engineers are to provide professional services and accept remuneration for services
rendered by them.

All engineers shall not exchange the dignity of the profession for his own benefits but
harming the image of the profession.

Maintain company image and interest of fellow partners

For the scenario, which I were the principal partner of reputable engineering-based firm,
I have duty and responsibility to safeguard interest of fellow partners and all staffs too.
Though the firm desires to secure new projects, the project shall be obtained via ethical
appropriate channel such as via open bidding process. This should be the successful
secret of the firm to-date.
All fellow partners also have high standard of ethical behavior and competent. They are
definitely not supporting to secure new project via supporting errant leaders of political
party. If I choose to support the errant political leaders, the company image and interest
of fellow partners could be jeopardized because voters definitely reject errant political
leaders and unethical approaches.

Do not jeopardize the prospect of other fellow engineers

All projects, especially government initiated for the benefits of nation and people, shall
only awarded via competitive and open bidding process. For the scenario, which I were
already principal partner of a reputable engineering firm, I presume I should already an
elder engineer in the industry. Therefore, it is reasonably that both my firm and I do not
jeopardize fair opportunity to other fellow engineers.

All engineer with appropriate competency and skills shall be given chances to secure
the projects. In the long run, all engineers will become more competent and it is
definitely good for the industry, profession and public.

Contribute to sustainable development of the profession

All benefits obtained via inappropriate and unethical approaches are short term and not
sustainable. Both inappropriate and unethical approaches, may in short period, make
oneself gain. However, it is damaging both the individual and others in the industry
because there could be many to follow unethical approaches. If this situation happens,
the profession will become unattractive and not sustainable.

Be integrity and competent

Engineers works often involve millions of ringgits. The works are often related to
benefits of public, nation and clients. Hence, we shall be integrity and transparent in
both implementation of project and efforts to secure projects. With integrity, only public
will perceive engineers are competent and not errant.
Accept remuneration from employer for services rendered

Engineers accept remuneration for professional services, for their competency and
professional services, rendered to clients. They only take responsibility that they are
confident to discharge.

The errant leaders of political party, though make promise to award major projects upon
winning the by-election, are not client to engineers. The administrator of the major
projects is government, which are elected representatives by people. The clients are the
government and people.

Should my firm was chosen for the major projects, it is remuneration for services
rendered.

Make reliable public statement and relevant with qualification

Engineers are professional people with technical qualification and competency. He shall
not make public statement which he is not deemed the qualified and suitable person to
make. He shall not wrongfully make statement that resulted public perception that his
fellows, company and all association memberships that he may have linked to backup
and support of his statement. If he does otherwise, no one indeed will benefit but
creation of bad image to his own and others.

Do not improperly solicit work

By assisting the errant leaders of political party and in return for award of major project,
in my opinion, is improper act to solicit works too. It is because there is no ethical
method to secure jobs and it can be considered benefits accepted other than
employers.

Both the government and the people indeed, are the employers and clients, if the
projects awarded to engineers.
Conclusion

Though it is desirable for a firm to secure projects, the process shall be transparent and
via competitive bidding process. Jobs awarded with hidden secrets and unethical
method will not be sustainable for the firm. It is because the firm could have lost his
competency. Furthermore, as an elder reputable engineer, he has greater responsibility
to show good sample to his peers for advancement of the profession.

In other words, I will reject the request of the errant leaders of political party. If he is
willing to listen, I will further advise them to listen to people and sincerely to provide
services to people. With that, only will they gain victory in the by-election and supports
from people.

Other Question:

To discuss the roles and key challenges in the academic profession to ensure that local university
produces competent and responsible engineers. To identify differences, if any between the local
and oversea experiences.

Suggestion Answers:

In a book book entitled Citizen Engineer by David Douglas, I understand that being an
engineer today means being far more than an engineer. We need to consider not only the design
requirements of our projects but the full impact of our workfrom an ecological perspective, an
intellectual property perspective, a business perspective, and a sociological perspective.

Therefore in this era, the author integrate a competent and a responsible engineer to a new
nomenclature, i.e. Citizen Engineer. The book also explains a critical transition of the
engineering profession from technical focus to include social responsibilities and business
context. This shift has changed the very nature of engineering as it is practiced today and as it
must be taught in engineering degree programs.

The traditional university restricted itself mainly to a close circle of professors and students from
the upper strata of society and lived in relative isolation. It produced the elite of the nation, and
society so to speak had to adopt to the elite. Research was the privilege of the professors,
determined to a large extent by personal interests and their contacts among each other.
Consequenly, this university lost contact with society until it was completely isolated and did not
understand the issues of its surroundings.
Furthermore, in this IT era, where students can access to unlimited amount of information, the
role of the institution of higher learning is increasing. As students always confused by the
abundant of information they have in hands, students at all levels need to be challenged to
recognize the foundational importance of practical knowledge in problem solving.

The key challenge that universities are facing is how to promote a culture of continuous
improvement and accountability. Students are not really motivated into inventions any more
these days. Most of them seem satisfied with what others have invented. Students are more into
computers communication rather than physically see the lecturers. This therefore will deteriorate
their basic important skill which is oral communication. Universities need to minimize this trend
by introducing more society related projects such mentoring secondary school students to
develop microcontrollers etc.

When I was in Japan, I saw many collaboration works being carried out with the industry.
Laboratories received a lot of funds to do research. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT)
developed numbers of commercialized projects with University of Tokyo. This trends need to be
further discuss in the university for a better future.