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Tourism and Poverty


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2017

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Abstract

In many discussions about tourism reference is made to the supposed

important role of tourism as a means of combating and alleviating poverty. In

the context of the debate on global climate justice, are developed arguments

that, on the one hand, long-haul flights are forbidden greenhouse gas and on

the other hand Western tourists leave enough money in so-called developing

countries, money that is particularly important for them. It seems It is logical

to argue that global tourism creates enough jobs and ensures better living

conditions for thousands of people in developing countries.

Key - Words

Tourism, poverty
Contains

Abstract ....................................................................................................................... 2

Contains ...................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 4

1.General data .............................................................................................................. 5

2.Poverty ...................................................................................................................... 6

3.Tourism as a right ...................................................................................................... 7

4. Countries and tourism .............................................................................................. 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................. 13
Introduction

For most people, tourism means travel. Beach resorts, ski chalets,

museums, archaeological sites, a break from everyday life. It is rarely

attributable to tourism, on a global scale, an importance proportional to the

energy industry or heavy industry and high technology. Tourism, however, is

industry! And indeed it is the world's largest employer! Energy is the second

most preferred strategy for developing countries struggling to escape poverty.

Economic analyzes credit tourism for Europe's salvation from even more

recession after the crash of 2008. Tourism accounts for 9.5% of GDP

globally, 6% of exports ($ 1.4 trillion), 30% of export services and one in ten

jobs.

However, there are also no negligible side effects. If tourism was a

country, then it would rank fifth in the largest carbon dioxide emissions. In

tourism, too, a lot of misery is charged, such as environmental disaster in

seashores, forests, coral reefs. There are also the dark sides, from the

smuggling of wild animals to the exploitation of children, victims of sex

tourism. The tourism industry is rarely discussed in diplomatic and economic

forums as a possible solution to global crises. This is because the various

policy makers have been slow to realize that the tourism industry is a major

player in the global economy, constituting a 7.6 trillion market dollars a year.

In times of unemployment, under-employment and economic instability,

tourism can become a key factor in development projects of developed and

developing countries. It is one of the few branches that still create jobs,

although unfortunately often badly paid.


The truth is that tourism has grown rather suddenly at these heights.

For the largest part of the 20th century the industry was in lethargy. But after

the end of the Cold War, the whole world was the first time in modern history

available for travel. The countries of the former Eastern bloc, from Russia and

Poland to China and Vietnam, have been turned from banned places to

fashionable destinations. At the same time, the development of technology,

such as the most modern means of transport and the Internet, has made

open borders more attractive and travel easier and cheaper.

1. General data

Tourism is one of its few areas of World economy that is constantly

growing. Like the professions directly or indirectly linked with it or created

because of it, are constantly growing. According to the International Tourism

Organization the number of international arrivals today reach 1 billion. From

1985 the number of visitors to developing countries is constantly growing.

Millions of tourists from industrially developed countries, but also members of

urban elites from the new industrialized countries leave tourist in the so-called

developing countries and in poor rural areas. Money that often exceeds these

amounts deriving from the so-called funds ( and ,

2004). There are relevant figures from prominent bodies: According to the

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the amount

distributed globally in 2007 as a development assistance was of the order of

97 billion, while the tourism earned twice that amount on developing

countries. That is why tourism is often the case that is referred to as the
largest voluntary offer of money from the rich to the poor. According to

forecasts of the International Tourism Organization 416 million international

guests will travel to Asia and 75 million in Africa in 2020, in other words in

continents that many countries are among the poorest of the planet. In many

national and international development strategies, those of the World Tourism

Organization (UNWTO) tourism looks like economic, ecological and socio-

cultural panacea. In many new industrial and developing countries, however,

have prevailed neoliberal theories and developmental models in relation with

tourism. With this given governments and government agencies in the above

countries initiate privatization programs. According to the theory of financial

supply, even the poorest are supposed to benefit from increased tourist

revenues as well as from the general economic flowering that will bring. This

theory, though is unacceptable by most economists, has penetrated into

thinking and decision making governments and is often used as an alibi for

tourist investment (, 2010).

2. Poverty

The term "poverty" has several definitions. Literally the term means the

lack of access to goods and opportunities. The World Bank considers

referring to someone who lives with less than $ 1.25 per day as "very poor".

There is also the concept of "relative poverty" and refers to povertyas it is

socially defined, but it also depends on the social context of an individual's

action. Experts in tourism disagree when they try to appreciate the potential

participation of the poorest in tourism professions as well. Often these people

do not even have the primary school education and, therefore, no hope of
finding a job in the tourist industry. Of course theoretically they could benefit

from its "indirect" and "dynamic" effects. But even that is difficult to be

confirmed. The more likely the "relatively poor" population can imagine

benefit from tourism projects in its neighborhoods, as, as a rule, their

education and resources will allow them to find work in the tourism sector or

even offering new services as free professionals to live also in tourism

(Lockwood and Medlik, 2001).

3.Tourism as a right

The global rise of the "middle class" after World War II was certainly

the one that consolidated the idea of holidays and travel as a basic right and

necessity. Much more for the last generations, who are accustomed to a

more consuming or over-consuming lifestyle. All medium-term forecasts for

tourism worldwide are rising. Over the last 20 years, international travel has

doubled to 1.1 billion a year, a huge figure if we think the world's population is

7 billion people. However, the dangers of tourism are real and clear. Without

some kind of strategy and planning, the environment, as well as the policy, as

well as the culture of whole countries, can be undermined. For this reason,

the UNWTOs Taleb Rifai recently said that "governments and international

organizations need to place tourism higher on their national agenda and

support it with policies of good growth, from simplification of visa procedures

to balanced taxation. Personally, I would make tourism a national policy in

every country. " Built in a correct context and with inspired management,

tourism could help significantly in most of the major global issues, such as
diplomacy, poverty reduction, environmental protection, and the limitation of

trafficking. Although there are many countries that recognize the huge

potential offered by the industry, most measure success only by the number

of tourists they accept and the money they spend, despite the substantial

impact that tourists have on the places they visit . If, in other words, the

benefits are more than the problems that may be caused. The reality is that

tourism is now a heavy industry. And discussions are hurting to find the right

tourist policy (Butler, 2008).

With Greece increasingly betting on its tourist development as its main

weapon to face the crisis and recession, it is of great interest to seek out

tourist models that would be worth imitation or drawing examples that should

be avoided at all costs . Our country has a lot to learn from these cases.

4. Countries and tourism

All the following data are taken from World Tourism Organization (WCO),
Babu, Mishra and Bhusan - Parida (2016) and Gartner (2001).

France

It has followed, very successfully, the "smart" tourism model. It was the

country that practically invented the idea of coordinated national policy for this

industry. For France, it is a successful tourism policy that helps the country to

remain "French", ie to prevent a nightmarish scenario in which tourism would

turn it into a Disneyland, with hotel units - monsters and leveling all the

peculiarities of the French landscape. The government has taken care of


maintaining coastlines and destinations with clear rules and strict restrictions,

as opposed to the example of Spain. There the endless series of identical

hotels on the beaches of Costa Brava gave the area the nickname Costa (ie

Coast) of Cement. Surprisingly, the modern tourism model in France was

created thanks to the US! After World War II, when America sent millions of

dollars via the Marshall Plan to help rebuild Europe, US experts decided that

in the case of France, tourism would be the industry to lead the country to

recovery. American hoteliers trained the Parisians in the concepts of gift

shops, conference centers and feather pillows. Ten years later, French

President De Gool created the world's first ministry of culture, through which

many of the dollars of American tourists funded the restoration of museums

and historical sights. Since the financial crisis of 2008, tourism has

contributed most to the French economy. With a record of visitors, from

Chinese people who traveled to Paris to buy luxury goods from famous

houses to Americans who rented villas in Provence.

Venice

Venice, one of the world's top destinations, is an example of what

happens when tourism is unchecked. The historic city has only 60,000

inhabitants, but every year it is visited by more than 20 million tourists, whose

presence has ejected rents, has closed traditional grocery stores to open

tourist gift shops and evicted many locals from the city. UNESCO, bewildered

by the threat of a no-frills tourist hike in - perhaps - the most beautiful city in

the world, warned in 2009 that "tourism can lead Venice to a humble tomb."
However, the Italian government refuses to set a ceiling on the number of

visitors or to apply the existing rental laws. All he did was to ban the passage

of huge cruise ships from the canals, and only after a Hollywood star

mobilization, though the Venetians themselves had been asking for years.

China

The example of China shows that a carefully planned tourism strategy

can result as well as geopolitical benefits. Since the 1980s, China has begun

to realize how important an opening would be to the rest of the world. In

addition to financial incentives, he tried to use tourism as a tool of diplomacy.

The idea was this: By allowing foreigners to visit China's precious vacancy

and to know its sights and culture, the image of the country in the world could

gradually improve. Most guides in China are trained by the government. In

the middle of 1980 the number of rooms in the whole of Beijing did not

exceed 500. Today, more new hotels are built in the country each year than

in the rest of the world as a whole.

Canada

Canada is a typical example of what can happen to a country's tourism

planning from political and economic changes, not necessarily within itself,

but in the wider neighborhood. Such second-round effects hit the Canadian

tourism industry after the September 11 attacks in the United States. Then
the US government began to require passports for passing the Canadian

border. Since most Americans did not have a passport, Canada's tourism

declined dramatically. Canadian Tourism Commission chairman David

Goldstein said that "before we were virtually restful, since the biggest

consumers on the planet were our neighbors." Since then, Canada has been

forced to strive to attract tourists from other countries and has succeeded in

improving access by making a major international advertising campaign,

enhancing the most tourist destinations and promoting the country's LAM as

a destination very different from the US. Today, tourism in Canada has grown

into a growing industry of $ 81.7 billion a year!

Bhutan

This almost unimaginable, tiny country in the Himalayas has as its

primary objective to ensure that its environment, culture and economy are not

distorted From mass tourism. That is why it sets strict limits by defining the

number and type of hotels allowed to be built, while ensuring that there are

also affordable inns to luxury resorts. There is no mass tourism in Bhutan,

hence crowds and no impact on the environment and traditional villages.

Tourists who attract the country are approaching, ideally, demographically.

Quite affluent, cultivated, with a balance in ages. In addition, any money

coming from tourism goes to local businesses and hotels and not to

multinational chains, a strategy that directly manages to reduce poverty.

Especially in the latter, Bhutan is rather the exception than the rule. The

vulnerability of tourism as a development strategy is usually the fact that


tourists' money goes to multinationals (eg large hotel chains all inclusive) and

not to local businesses. This phenomenon is known as "money in, money

out", meaning "money is coming, money is coming out". Money, that is, that

does not end up in the country of residence.

Cambodia

The most typical case of "money in, money out" is Cambodia. Her

tourism may boom, but profits go to foreign hotel companies or pockets of

corrupt government officials. After decades of war and horrific genocide,

Cambodia has emerged as an exciting destination. The government,

however, sold land - fillets, from national parks to entire virgin beaches, to

foreign companies to build hotel units and casinos, often forcing residents to

leave their land. Indicatively, the majority of tourists in Cambodia visit the

world-renowned Angkor Wat temples in the Siem Reap area, one of the

world's most important attractions. But according to Douglas Broderick, a UN

coordinator in Cambodia, despite the crowds of visitors, only 7% of tourism

receipts end up in Siem Reap.


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