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15 tayangan4 halamanWind turbine generators are safety critical equipment, which must work without unexpected stops. For this reason, the detection of its faults already in their incipient phase is very important. Most the classical approaches in fault detection cannot be applied in this case due to the high external vibrations of the generators due to the strongly fluctuating input power, special mechanical construction, etc. In the paper a vibration monitoring based bearing fault detection method is analyzed. It applies the maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution method to extract the fault typical frequency components from the noisy measured vibration signal. Its usefulness is exemplified with detecting an inner race bearing fault.

Jun 09, 2017

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Wind turbine generators are safety critical equipment, which must work without unexpected stops. For this reason, the detection of its faults already in their incipient phase is very important. Most the classical approaches in fault detection cannot be applied in this case due to the high external vibrations of the generators due to the strongly fluctuating input power, special mechanical construction, etc. In the paper a vibration monitoring based bearing fault detection method is analyzed. It applies the maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution method to extract the fault typical frequency components from the noisy measured vibration signal. Its usefulness is exemplified with detecting an inner race bearing fault.

© All Rights Reserved

15 tayangan

Wind turbine generators are safety critical equipment, which must work without unexpected stops. For this reason, the detection of its faults already in their incipient phase is very important. Most the classical approaches in fault detection cannot be applied in this case due to the high external vibrations of the generators due to the strongly fluctuating input power, special mechanical construction, etc. In the paper a vibration monitoring based bearing fault detection method is analyzed. It applies the maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution method to extract the fault typical frequency components from the noisy measured vibration signal. Its usefulness is exemplified with detecting an inner race bearing fault.

© All Rights Reserved

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of Wind Turbine Generators

Lornd Szab

Department of Electrical Machines and Drives

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

Cluj-Napoca, Romania

e-mail: Lorand.Szabo@emd.utcluj.ro

equipment, which must work without unexpected stops. For this II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

reason, the detection of its faults already in their incipient phase If a ball is rolling over a damaged surface inside the

is very important. Most the classical approaches in fault detection

bearing, it creates a succession of vibrations, which repeat

cannot be applied in this case due to the high external vibrations

of the generators due to the strongly fluctuating input power, with each pass over the spoiled area. The recurrence frequency

special mechanical construction, etc. In the paper a vibration of the impact depends on the place of the bearing fault,

monitoring based bearing fault detection method is analyzed. It rotational speed and bearing dimensions [6]. Each bearing

applies the maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution method fault type is generating specific fault frequencies, which can

to extract the fault-typical frequency components from the noisy be determined by using specific expressions, such as written

measured vibration signal. Its usefulness is exemplified with

detecting an inner race bearing fault.

for to the outer and inner race damages:

N D

Keywordsball bearings, fast Fourier transform, fault Fo b Fr 1 b cos (1)

2 Dc

detection, generators, maximum correlated kurtosis deconvolution,

spectral kurtosis, vibration measurement, wind turbines. Nb D

Fi Fr 1 b cos (2)

2 Dc

I. INTRODUCTION

where Fr is the rotation frequency, Nb and Db the number of

Statistically, rolling bearing faults are one of the most

frequent failures of the electrical machines, having a share of balls and their diameter, Dc the pitch diameter and the

round 40% out of the total machine damages [1]. Their early contact angle.

detection is very important, mainly in safety-critical The fault related repeating frequency components in the

applications, as in automotive, power systems, medical, etc., case of inner race bearing faults are given in Fig. 1. Around

since the fault of a simple and cheap bearing can cause each integer multiple of the Fi component two sidebands can

significant extra costs and losses [2]. be observed at Fr distance before and after each component.

The fault detection in the case of the machinery used in (k-1)Fi kFi (k+1)Fi

wind turbines is hindered due to the existing significant

vibrations [3], [4], [5]. Therefore the wide-spread bearing fault Fi Fi

detection methods used in industrial environment cannot be

used here [6], [7], [8], [9]. More advanced methods are Fr Fr

required to extract the bearing fault induced vibration

components from the considerable background vibrations, as

those based on envelope extraction [10], kurtograms [11],

Fig. 1. Repeating frequency components in the case of inner race faults

[12], wavelets [13], morphological signal processing [14], etc.

The paper deals with the use of the maximum correlated If in the measured vibration spectra such repeating

Kurtosis deconvolution method (MCKD) in bearing fault frequency components can be observed, it is a sure indicator of

detection. the existence of an inner race bearing fault.

Hence the fault detection requires the knowledge of the

This work was supported by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher frequencies related to the bearing faults and the spectral

Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) via analysis of the measured vibration signals.

the Small Wind Turbines Optimization and Market Promotion (SWTOMP)

ERANet-LAC project no. 21/2017.

III. THE MAXIMUM CORRELATED KURTOSIS (MFPT) [21]. The bearing fault dataset on their website was

DECONVOLUTION METHOD provided to support researchers working in the field of bearing

Bearing faults, as also other electrical machines damages, fault detection. The dataset contains results of several

are characterized by series of impulses in their vibrations. laboratory tests performed with an electrical machine without

These impulses can be highlighted by the frequently used any damage and having inner and outer race bearing faults.

Spectral Kurtosis (SK) method, which extends the classical The laboratory experiments were performed at different loads

concept of the kurtosis to that of a frequency function, being of the tested induction machine [22].

able to show how the impulsiveness of a signal is [15]. The bearings of the tested induction machine were of

Earlier, Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MED) method Nice-type, having the following parameters: Dc 1.245" ,

used for bearing fault detection was reported in several papers N b 8 , Db 0.235" and 0 .

[2], [12], [16]. Convergence issues were related in conjunction

with this iterative method. Supplementary, the MED method is All the vibration data were acquired at 48,828 samples per

most fitted for the deconvolution of a single-impulse type input seconds and saved in MATLAB binary format (.mat-files).

signal, whereas the bearing faults are generating periodic

vibration impulses [17]. To solve these problems the Maximum V. TESTING THE MCKD METHOD

Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD) method was The main goal of the study performed for testing the

proposed in the literature [18], [19], [20]. MCKD method was to prove its usefulness also for vibration

The Correlated Kurtosis (CK), the key factor of the method, signals having significant noise level, as they can be collected

is a deconvolution norm, which depends on the periodic from an in-field working electrical generator of a wind turbine.

character of the fault induced vibration impulses. Its use has the For this purpose, a random noise signal of maximum 15 m/s2

advantage of not requiring an autoregressive filtering of the was added to the measured accelerations. The effect of noise on

input signal before the deconvolution. During the application of the measured signal can be very clearly seen in Fig. 2, where

this method a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is defined, the time domain plots for the healthy machine are given.

which enables the maximization of the CK, resulting in a high

Healthy machine no noise

kurtosis level, and more emphasizing the periodicity of the 10

vibration pulses [18].

a [m/s2]

n 1 yn yn T 2

N

CK1 (T ) 2

(3) 10

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

N y2

n 1 n

t [s]

Healthy machine with noise

where N is the number of samples in the measured signal, T

10

and L are the periodicity and length of the FIR filter, and yn is

a [m/s2]

L

yn f k xn k 1 , x0 0 , yn 0 for n 1, 2,, N (4)

10

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

t [s]

k 1

f n being the FIR filter coefficients, and xn the values of the Fig. 2. Time domain plots of the acceleration signal acquired from the

induction machine not having any faults. The measured signal and that with

measured signal.

random noise added

The MCKD method lays on the maximization of the

deconvolution norm [18]: As it can be seen in Fig. 2, the added intensive random

noise is completely covering the measured signal.

n 1 yn yn T 2

N

Upon the classical approach of the vibration monitoring

MCKD1 (T ) max 2

(5) based bearing fault detection the fault-related frequency

f N y2

n 1 n components, as those given by (1) and (2), are searched in the

frequency spectrum of the measured signal.

This procedure is iterative due to the non-linearity of the

equations. The steps to follow are described in length in [18]. In our studies the measured vibrations collected from the

induction machine having a bearing with an inner race fault

and loaded at its rated load were used. The speed of the

IV. THE MEASURED DATA machine at this load was 1485 r/min, meaning a rotation

All the measured data used for testing the MCKD based frequency of Fr 24.75 Hz.

fault detection method were taken from the public database of

In these conditions, the basic inner race fault frequency

the Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology

given by (2) is Fi 117.7 Hz. The integer multiples of this

frequency component and the values of its sidebands (upon signal impulsiveness in the context of fault detection of rotating

those shown in Fig. 1) are given in Table I. components, as the bearings of the electrical machines.

The kurtosis of the vibration signal before and after the

TABLE I. MULTIPLES OF THE FREQUENCY INDICATING AN INNER RACE MCKD based filtering is given in Fig. 4.

FAULT AND ITS SIDEBANDS AT FR=24.75 Hz

Maximum Kurtosis =11

k kFi-Fr (Hz) kFi (Hz) kFi+Fr (Hz) 1

11

3 328.3 353.1 377.8 3 9

4 446 470.7 495.5 4

5 563.7 588.4 613.2 5

8

6

7 799.1 823.8 848.6

level k

6

8 916.7 941.5 966.2

7

1 5

4

3

3

4

Performing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based 5 2

given in Fig. 3 are obtained. 7

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

f [Hz]

FFT of signal without noise

0.4 a) before filtering

Maximum Kurtosis =30.5

a [m/s ]

2

1 30

0.2

2

28

3

0 4 26

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 5

f [Hz] 6

24

FFT of signal with noise

level k

7 22

0.4

1

20

a [m/s ]

2

2

3

0.2 18

4

5 16

0 6

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 7

14

f [Hz]

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000

f [Hz]

Fig. 3. Frequency domain plots of the acceleration signal acquired from the

induction machine not having any faults. The measured signal without and b) after applying the MCKD filtering

with random noise added

Fig. 4. The color plots of the signal kurtosis

As it can be seen, the added random noise has a significant As it can be seen, the MCKD filtering had a very good

influence on the spectral content of the vibration signal. effect on the signal in discussion, at least what its kurtosis is

Therefore, when applying vibration based fault detection concerned. The maximum kurtosis nearly was tripled (from 11

methods in the case of electrical machines working in harsh, to 30.5). What is more important, the kurtosis improvement

vibration full environment, the extraction of the fault was performed on the entire frequency domain (06 kHz). As it

characterizing frequency components can be done very hardly, can be seen in Fig. 4a, the highest kurtosis values are obtained

or even it can be impossible. only near 750 Hz, and the kurtosis is low outside this frequency

For such cases, among them also that of electrical domain. But after applying the MCKD filtering, the highest

generators used in wind energy conversion systems, the kurtosis values covering the entire frequency range (see

MCKD method (presented in details in Section III) can be a Fig. 4b).

viable solution. The MCKD method can filter the periodic After processing the acquired vibration signals by the

bearing faults induced typical vibration impulses also from a means of the MCKD method, FFT can be applied and the

very noisy signal. fault-related specific frequency components can be clearly

Simply said, the MCKD method is improving the kurtosis evidenced in the acceleration spectrum. For illustrating this, the

of the input signal over the entire frequency domain of interest. frequency spectrum of the vibration signal measured and

Practically, it makes "fat the tails" of signal, and thinner and MCKD filtered in the case of the induction machine having an

higher its peaks. By means of the kurtosis, the peakedness of inner race bearing fault is given in Fig. 5.

the signal can be measured. Therefore, it is a good indicator of

FFT of MCKD filtered signal [4] W. Tong, Wind Power Generation and Wind Turbine Design.

Southampton (UK): WIT Press, 2010.

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[5] D. Fodorean, L. Szab, A. Miraoui, "Generator solutions for stand alone

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5F

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Annual Meeting (IAS '2008), Edmonton (Canada), 2008.

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a [m/s ]

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detection by means of statistical processing of the stray flux

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200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

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f [Hz] [10] A. Ming, W. Zhang, Z. Qin, F. Chu, "Envelope calculation of the multi-

component signal and its application to the deterministic component

Fig. 5. Frequency domain plot of the acceleration signal acquired from the cancellation in bearing fault diagnosis," Mechanical Systems and Signal

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by means of MCKD [11] D. Wang, W.T. Peter, K.L. Tsui, "An enhanced Kurtogram method for

fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings," Mechanical Systems and

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theoretical expectations illustrated in Fig. 1. Also around these [12] N. Sawalhi, R. Randall, H. Endo, "The enhancement of fault detection

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The applied data processing method enables the 679-698, 2016.

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[17] G.L. McDonald, Q. Zhao, "Multipoint optimal minimum entropy

It was proved, that the MCKD method can be useful in deconvolution and convolution fix: application to vibration fault

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