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Q. What is boiler?
Ans. According to Indian Boiler Act 1923, a boiler
is a closed pressure vessel / steam generating
unit with minimum capacity of 22.70 liters,
including all mountings and accessories or we can
say that the boiler is a steam generator which
convert chemical energy of fuel into heat energy
which is utilized for steam generation .The steam
can be generated as per desired pressure and

Image of a Boiler
Types of boiler :-There are generally three
types of boiler used as.
i) Shell type of boiler - It is the most oldest
technology has a simple shell with a feed pipe and
steam outlet mounted on a brick setting called
furnace.It has very low steam generating capacity
and low efficiency as compared to other boiler.
ii) Fire/smoke tube boiler - This boiler was used
as a steam engine in 18th century.Here the
fire/smoke passes through the tube which is
immersed in water and heat transfer takes place
water converted to steam , collected through steam
pipe.This boiler has the disadvantage that gasses
choke the tube path and restrict the gas flow.
iii) Water tube boiler - This boiler is considered
as the most efficient boiler and mostly used now
days. Here the water passes through the tube and
flame on the surrounding of the tube.Very large
capacity of steam can be generated in this type of

Q. What is circulation ratio of a boiler?

It is the ratio of the quantity of water-steam
mixture flowing through the circuit to the quantity
of steam produced in the circuit , The
circulation ratio of once through / super
critical boiler is one because all water Is
converted to steam.More circulation ratio means
less efficient is the Boiler.
The circulation ratios of,
1. Natural circulation industrial
boiler - 10 to 25
2. Natural circulation utility boiler
- 7 to 9
3. Assisted circulation boilers
- 2 to 4
4. Forced circulation / once through boiler
- 1

Q What are the boiler mountings?

Ans. The boiler mountings are used for safe and
efficient operation of boiler, these are placed in
out side of the boiler.
1. Safety valve.
2.pressure gauge.
3.Water level gauge glass.. Pressure gauge.
4. Start-up vent.
5.Air vent.
Q. What are boiler accessories?
Ans. These are the integral part of boiler which
help to run the boiler most efficiently These are,
1. Super heater.
2. Economizer.
3.Air pre- heater.
4.ID and FD fans.
5. Ash handling system.
6.Dosing system.
7. Soot blower.
8.De super heating system.
Q. What is turn down ratio of boiler?
Ans. It is the operating range of boiler from
maximum capacity to minimum capacity in which the
boiler can run efficiently without any external
fuel support . The higher turn down ratio
greater the efficiency of boiler. For example if
the boiler is designed 80mw and can operate up to
20mw without any external fuel support and any
variations of parameter then the turn down ratio is
Q. What is boiler efficiency?
Ans. It is the ratio of heat output to heat
input of the boiler.
Boiler efficiency= Heat output / heat input *100.
=steam flow (enthalpy of steam -enthalpy of feed
water) / coal flow * gcv.
For example if there is a 80mw boiler with 540 dig
centigrade of main steam temperature, feed water
temperature of 300 dig centigrade , coal flow 56
ton, gcv 4000 kcal/kg then the boiler efficiency
will be =307(826.28-242.58)/56*4000=80%.
Q. What is foaming of boiler?
Ans. It is the generation of foam In boiler due
to high concentration of solids, organic matter,
bubbles are build up on the surface of boiler water
and passed out with the steam. This is generally
caused due to high concentration of solids in
Q. What is priming of boiler ?
Ans. It Is the carrying amount of droplet water
in the steam, witch leads to carryover of Salt
crystals on the super heater and turbines. priming
may be caused due to sudden change of load and
maintaining of high level of water.
Prevention of priming and foaming :-
The best remedy for foaming and priming
carryover is the proper blow down of TDS.
The continuous blow down should be
regulated to maintain the TDS at 3,000 to
4,000 ppm. More blow down means less TDS but more
blow down is the more loss of the boiler so the
blow down should be within control level.
Q. What are boiler losses?



A. Generally the boiler efficiency is

considered as 85%,here are the boiler losses
considered as,
1. Heat loss in dry flue gas loss-10.7%.
2. Heat loss due to moisture in fuel - 2.2 %.
3. Heat loss due moisture in air - 0.38 %.
4. Heat loss due to formations of water from
H2 in fuel - 4.4%
5. Heat loss due to conversion of C to CO-
Q. what is critical point of steam?
Ans. It is the point at which all water
vapor converts to steam .The critical point
occurs at a temperature of 374 deg & 224.6
kg/cm2 .The point is called critical point
and the pressure, temperature at this
corresponding saturation temperature is
known as critical pressure and critical
temperature.Here the density of steam and
water will remain same.
Q. What is evaporation ratio of Boiler?
Ans. It the ratio of quantity of
steam generation in kg/hr to quantity of fuel
consumed in kg/hr.
Evaporation ratio = quantity of
steam generation/quantity of fuel consumed.For
example quantity of steam Is 310 ton/hr and
fuel is 55 ton/hr then the evaporation ratio
is 5.63. Evaporation ratio is also known as
steam fuel ratio.A drop in evaporation ratio
indicates drop in boiler efficiency.Boiler
evaporation ratio depends on fuel quality.
Higher calorific value of fuel having higher
evaporation ratio.
Value of evaporation ratio for different types
of boiler is listed as-
a) Coal fired boiler- 4.0-6.0.
b) Oil fired boiler- 13.0-14.5 .
c) Gas fired boiler- 11.0-13.
Q. what is acid due point in boiler ?
Ans.The temperature at which the
formation of sulfuric acid in the boiler
is known as acid due point,It is
generally in between 130-140 deg celsius.
As fuel contain sulfur dioxide (SO2) &
H2O at certain temperature both are
condense together and sulfuric
acid(H2SO2) is formed.
It will corrode the boiler tubes.To avoid
acid due point we can use,
1>FD fan re circulation system.
2> By using steam coil air pre-heater
3> FD air bypass system.
Q. What is slagging or fouling in
boiler ?
A.Slagging is the formation of molten or
partially fused deposits on the furnace
surface or radiation zone . Fouling is
the deposition of fused particle on
convection zone such as super heater &
re- heater.
Q. What is proximate analysis of coal ? is the analysis of coal in which
we can find moisture,volatile
matter,fixed carbon & ash.we can found
above parameter as,
moisture-Take 1gm of coal sample heat in
a woven at 105 deg for 01 hr.
Moisture + volatile matter- Take 1gm of
coal sample heat in a woven at 950 deg
for 07 minute.
Ash- Take 1gm of coal sample heat in a
woven at 720 deg until the coal is
completely burnt.
Q. What is the ultimate analysis of coal
A. This is the most accurate method of
coal analysis.In this analysis we can
found the components of the mass of
so (c+h+o+n+s+m+a)= 100% mass.

Q. What is gross calorific value and net

calorific value of coal?
1.calorific value:- It is the amount of
heat liberated with a unit mass of coal
for 1g Kcal.
2.Gross calorific value:-It is the amount
of heat liberated by the complete
combustion of unit weight of fuel with
subsequent cooling of
product(moisture/water vapor) . G.C.V is
more than N.C.V.
3. Net calorific value :- It is the heat
produced in complete combustion when the
product of combustion are allowed to

N.C.V = G.C.V - Latent heat of

water vapor.

N.C.V = (G.C.V-
Q. What is steam turbine?
Ans.The turbine is a rotary machine which
converts heat energy of steam into
mechanical energy. The steam contain both
pressure and temperature known as
enthalpy .
Working- When steam allowed in the
turbine the kinetic energy of steam at
the expense of (enthalpy) is convert to
mechanical energy. As the steam moves
over the blades due to change of
direction and centrifugal force of
isometric expansion causes to rotate the

Type of steam turbine:- There are

generally two types of steam turbine.
1. Impulse turbine- Here the steam is
expanding in the fixed nozzle and the
pressure drops at each stage. The high
velocity of steam entering in the nozzle
does work in the moving blades which
causes shaft to rotate. The main features
of this turbine are maximum pressure
drops in the nozzle.
2. Reaction turbine- In this type of
turbine the pressure is dropped in both
fixed and moving blades. The both fixed
and moving blades act like a nozzle. Work
done is obtained due to impulse effect
(Reversal of direction of high velocity
steam) plus reaction effect of (Expansion
of steam) trough the moving blades. The
velocity of steam is proportional to the
square root of heat drop in the nozzle.
Q.What are Classifications of steam
Ans. The steam turbine are classified as
1. According to number of cylinder-
a) Single cylinder.
b) Double cylinder.
c) Three cylinder.
2. According to steam flow :-
a) Axial flow turbine-Here the steam
flows parallel to the axis of turbine.
b) Radial flow turbine- Here the steam
flows perpendicular to the axis of the
3. According to the method of governing:-
a) Throttle governing-Steam enters trough
the throttle valves.
b)Nozzle governing- steam enters through
two or more nozzles.
c) Bypass governing- Here the steam is
divided two or more stages of turbine.
4. According to the principle of action:-
a) Impulse turbine.
b) Reaction turbine.
5. According to the heat balance
a) Condensing turbine-Here the steam is
condensed through a condenser .
b) Back pressure turbine- The exhaust
steam is used in the purpose of
industrial or process heating purpose.
6. According to pressure used:-
a) Low pressure turbine.
b) Medium pressure turbine.
c) High pressure turbine.
7. According to shaft arrangement.
a) Tandem compound -Here the shaft are
arranged in single shaft.
b) Cross compound Here the shaft are
arranged to drive different generators.
8. According to casing:-
a) Single shell casing.
b) Double shell casing.

Q. What Is turbine heat rate?

Ans. It the ratio of heat input to MW
generated in kcal/kWh.
= steam flow(enthalpy of steam-
enthalpy of feed water) / MW.
Q. What are the turbine losses?
A. The turbine losses are mention here
a)Tip Leakage loss- This loss is happen
due to the clearance in between the fixed
and moving blades.
b) Friction loss- This loss is due to the
fluid friction in nozzle and rotor
c) Leaving loss- This loss is considered
due to the leaving of steam in last stage
of blade without doing further useful
Q. why maximum steam turbine double shell
casing is provided?
Ans.The double shell is preferred
. a) For quick start up of turbine.
b) Less stress developed in the casing
due to double casing.
Q. What are the types of condenser used
in steam turbine?
Ans. There are two type of condenser is
general used in steam turbine as,
a) Jet condenser: - In this type of
condenser exhaust steam and cooling water
is directly mixing together. Here very
high quality of cooling water is needed.
The quantity of cooling water required is
very less as compared to surface
b) Surface condenser:- Here the cooling
water is flowing through tube shells and
the exhaust steam is cooled through the
contact of cooling water tubes.


Q. What is vacuum?
Ans. The vacuum can be defined as a state
of very low pressure or we can say that a
space of no matter. It is below the
atmospheric pressure and measured in
Q. What is the effect of high vacuum in
Ans. We can't maintain very high vacuum
in steam turbine because,
a) Turbine last stage is designed with
12% wet steam ,very high vacuum will lead
to increase wetness in last stage so it
will reduce the mechanical strength of
turbine last blade as the volume of steam
b) Due to high wetness corrosion of last
blade will increase.
c) The condensate water will goes to
under cooling due to low saturation
pressure so more coal and sensible heat
required to rise the temperature of
d) Due to high vacuum condenser tube may
be compressed.
Q. What is the effect of low vacuum in a
steam turbine?
Ans. By maintaining vacuum in a turbine
the work done of turbine will be increase
because vacuum will reduce the back
pressure of the turbine hence there is
more pressure difference in between the
turbine and more work done.Vacuum helps
to convert of steam to water by providing
low saturation temperature.

Q. What is gauge pressure and absolute

Ans. Absolute pressure :- It is the
pressure which is zero-referenced against

The absolute
pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric
Gauge pressure :- It is the pressure
which is zero reference to atmospheric
Gauge pressure = absolute pressure
atmospheric pressure.
Q. What is Electro - Hydraulic governing
control of turbine?
Ans. Now a days most of the turbine speed
is controlled through this type of
governing. It is the governing system in
which the turbine speed is controlled by
electrical sensing and hydraulic control.
This type of governing provides very
faster speed response than the other
governing. The turbine speed is measured
through a electrical speed transducer
mounted on the HP end of the turbine
Q. What is eccentricity of steam turbine?
Ans. It is defined as the deviation
between the center axis of the shaft to
outer diameter of the turbine rotor .This
happen due to uneven cooling of turbine
after shutdown condition. Due to this
effect the shaft may be got permanent
damage and the fixed blade may touch to
moving blades. The eccentricity is
measured when the turbine speed is <240
rpm .
Q. What is the NAS value of oil ?
Ans. The NAS stands for National
Aerospace Standard, is used to find the
contamination of oil. The NAS value is
maintained 6 for turbine oil servo-46.The
water concentration of oil should not
exceed more than 300 ppm.
Methods of oil sampling:- The oil sample
is always taken from a upward pipe with
continuous flow. The sample taken between
the pump and filter.
Q. What is diaphragm of a steam turbine?
Ans. The diaphragm is used in steam
turbine to prevent leakage steam passing
through fixed and moving blades. It is
the partition in between the fixed blade
and moving blade of steam turbine.
Generally labyrinth seals are used for
diaphragm. One half of diaphragm is
fitted into the top casing and another
half is fitted into the bottom casing. It
works as a seal in between fixed and
moving blade. It increase the turbine
Q. What are the heat transfer mediums
Ans. There are generally three medium
a) Conduction:- Here the heat is
transferred through molecules. The
molecules move from one part to another
part of the substance. Liquid are the
good conductor where as vapor and gaseous
are poor conductor of conduction medium.
b) Convection: - Here the heat is
transferred through movement of heated
medium. The heated medium moves from one
place to another place due to density
difference. This medium is used in boiler
b) Radiation: - Here the heat is
transferred through gasses or vacuum. The
heat transfer depends on the fourth power
of bodys absolute temperature.
Q. What is boiling?
Ans. There are two boiling process used
in medium heating.
a) Nucleate boiling: - Here the heat
added in such a manner that the heat
received from the inner wall of the
container and the droplets are
individually converted into steam
bubbles. As the bubbles grow the size
they move to upward due to lighter
density. Other bubbles take their space
and the process continues till the
container heated.
b) Film boiling: - This is called film
boiling, because a bubble film is created
at the inner surface of the container. If
the heat flux added is greatly increase
to a certain value the bubbles are
adjacent to each other instead of
detached and a film is formed at the
inner wall of the container. This bubble
film act as a poor conductor of heat. The
bubbles get super heated and finally
increase the temperature of container and
may lead to failure of container / tube.
The deviation of boiling process from
nucleate boiling to film boiling is known
as departure from nucleate boiling (DNB).
Q. What are the circulations are used in
Ans. There are three types of circulation
is generally used in boiler as,
a)Natural circulation:- This circulation
happen due to density difference of the
two medium. In boiler the two medium are
water and steam, as steam is lighter than
the water it pushes to upwards flow of
water steam mixture, the steam is
separated in drum and water comeback
through down comer to again water wall.
This circulation use thermo- siphon
principle. This circulation limited to
operating pressure below 175 kg/cm.
b) Assist circulation:- In this
circulation the medium moves through a
mechanical pump. The pump overcome the
frictional loses in the tube. This type
of circulation used pressure beyond 175
kg/cm .The pump is placed in between the
down comer and bottom ring header of
water wall.
c) Forced circulation / once through
system:- This system used in boiler
above critical pressure. Here the feed
water is directly fed from the beginning
of the circuit to end of the circuit
without circulation. No drum used in this
system. Super critical boilers are
designed for once through system.
Q. What is stoichiometric combustion?
Ans. It is defined as the theoretical
combustion in which fuel is burnt
completely. It is used to determine the
actual theoretical air required for a
proper combustion.
Q. What are the types of boiler?
Ans. There are two types of boiler is
generally used,
a) Water tube boiler:- Here water is
flowing through the tube. The hot gasses
pass through tube and heat transfer takes
place. Now a days most of boiler are
water tube boiler.
b) Fire tube boiler:- Here hot gas passes
through the tube and tube is immersed
with water. Heat transfer takes place
from the hot flue gasses and steam is
collected from top of cell. This boiler
used in for small steam demand. The solid
combustible hot gas settle inside the
tube which reduce heat transfer.
Q. What are the types of economizer is
used in boiler?
A. There are two type of economizer used
in boiler as,
a) Steaming economizer:- Here some of the
water is converted to steam and the
steam-water mixture flows through the
economizer. This type of economizer used
in high percentage of feed water to avoid
scaling inside the tube.
b) Non-steaming economizer:- In this type
of economizer only water flows through
the circuit.
Q. What is the draft and types of draft
used in boiler?
Ans. The draft is defined as pressure
difference in between a system. There are
generally three types of draft used in
a) Forced draft: - Here force draft (FD)
fan is used to maintain the draft in
boiler. Here the draft inside the boiler
would be always positive draft.
b) Induced drought: - Here induced
drought (ID) fan is used to maintain the
draft in boiler. The pressure inside the
boiler would be always negative.
c) Balance drought:- Here both FD and ID
fan is used to maintain the drought
inside the boiler. The drought at the tip
of the burner will be zero. This type of
drought is used in maximum boiler.
Q. What is super critical boiler?
A. The boiler which works the pressure
above the critical pressure is known as
super-critical boiler. This boiler works
in the principle of once through system.
There is no drum only separator is used
for separating steam from water during
partial load
Q. What is (HGI) Hard Grove Index of coal?
Ans. It is the measuring unit through which
the hardness of coal can be determined. Higher
value of HGI means coal can be easily grinded.
The HGI of lignite coal is up to 120 where as
the HGI of bituminous coal is 45 to 60 so
lignite coal can be easily grinded than
bituminous coal. The HGI is inversely
proportional to grinding power.
Q. What are the factors affecting for a coal
mill performance?
Ans. This depend on the no of factors such as,
a) Grindability index of coal.
b) Fineness of coal
c) Moisture content of the coal
d) Size of raw coal.
e) Mill component wear.
Q. What are the advantages of (PF) pulverized
coal fired boiler than the other boiler?
Ans. Here is the advantage of using pulverized
coal fired boiler as,
a) Pulverized coal burners act like gas so the
fire can be easily controlled.
b) Cheaper low grade coal can be burnt easily.
c) High combustion efficiency.
d) Load can be varied quickly.
e) Quick and smooth light up of boiler.
f) Flexibility in firing to meet fluctuating
Q.What is soot blowers and their types?
Ans. The soot blower is a equipment through
which the deposition of soot in boiler is
removed. There are two types of soot blower is
generally used,
a) Steam inject soot blower:- Here the steam
is used as the cleaning medium. The steam flow
through a pipe and nozzle, strikes at the
surface of tube and removes the soot. Here
three soot blowers are generally used as i)
long retractable soot blower ii) Wall soot
blower iii) Rotary soot blower.
b) Sonic soot blower: - This type of soot
blower is used to remove soot by using low
energy and high frequency sounds. They produce
non-destructive sound waves which hit at the
surface of tube wall and remove the deposited
soot. By using this type of soot blower
erosion and corrosion of tube can be avoided.
Steam loss can also be avoided. The frequency
of sound in this type of soot blower is
ranging from 60 HZ to 350 HZ.
Q. What is foaming of boiler?
Ans. It is the generation of foam In boiler
due to high concentration of solids, organic
matter, bubbles are build up on the surface of
boiler water and passed out with the steam.
This is generally caused due to high
concentration of solids in boiler.
Q. What is priming of boiler ?
Ans. It Is the carrying amount of droplet
water in the steam, witch leads to carryover
of Salt crystals on the super heater and
turbines. priming may be caused due to sudden
change of load and maintaining of high level
of water.
Prevention of priming and foaming :-
The best remedy for foaming and priming
carryover is the proper blow down of
TDS. The continuous blow down should
be regulated to maintain the TDS at
3,000 to 4,000 ppm. More blow down means
less TDS but more blow down is the more loss
of the boiler so the blow down should be
within control level.
Q. what is the effect of soot deposits in a
a) The deposited soot act as a poor conductor
of heat which reduce the heat transfer rate
and increase flue gas temperature.
b) The deposits block the flue gas path which
increase the drought loss.
c) The deposit may lead to corrosion.
d) Due to falling of large size of soot it
damage the tube in dry ash conveying system.

Q. What are the methods are used for steam

temperature control in boiler.
A. We can control steam temperature by,
a) Using gas recirculation method-Hot flue gas
is circulated for maintain steam temperature.
b) By providing excess air- By providing
excess air it reduce the furnace temperature
for some timing hence control temperature.
c) Burner tilting method- Here the tilting of
burner are provided by a pneumatic cylinder.
The burner can be tilted 30 up and down for
control temperature.
d) Attemporation control-This is the best
method for temperature control in boiler. Here
the attemporator are provided to spray water
in steam in steam pipe line. Ceramic thermal
sleeves are provided to avoid thermal shock
due to temperature difference of steam and
spray water.
e) Elevation of fuel firing The temperature
is controlled by choosing upper or lower
elevation of fuel burner.


Q. what are the Turbine losses?
A. Here are the turbine losses are defined as,
a) Tip leakage loss: - This loss is happen due
to small amount of steam passing in between
the clearance of fixed blade and moving blade.
The labyrinths are provided for sealing of
fixed and moving blades. Some steam passes
through this labyrinth clearance without any
work done.
b) Disc windage loss:- This is the friction
loss due to the surface friction created on
the disc.
c)Secondary loss:- This loss is due to
friction on the casing wall and tip of the
d) Wetness loss:- The turbine is designed for
12 % of exhaust steam. If the wetness of steam
increase id absorb the energy due to water
droplets and second thing is it make erosion
at the last stage of the blade.
E) Loss due to lancing wire:- As the lancing
wire is provided at the last stage of turbine
blade to provide mechanical strength , the
production of losses in blade efficiency
because of passage area they block.
Q. What is the function of a condenser in
:-It save the DM water as the steam is
converted to water and reuse.
:- It provide high vacuum so that heat
rejection takes place from steam to water.
:- It give space for storage of condensate.
Q. What is dummy / balancing piston in steam
A. It is one part of the turbine used to
neutralizing the axial thrust of turbine
rotor.As the pressure drop at each stage of
turbine blade it produce axial thrust at the
same direction of steam flow. So it is
necessary to balance the shaft. It is placed
before the first stage of turbine. This is
fixed with the turbine shaft. The steam enter
in between the balance piston and first stage
of turbine and give a reaction force to the
balancing piston opposite to the axial thrust
hence it counter balance the turbine shaft.The
diameter of the balancing disc is designed in
a such manner is that it can oppose the force
acting on turbine shaft.
Q. What are the types thrust bearing are used
in rotating machine
A. There are generally four types of thrust
bearings are used as,
a) Tapered bearing.
b) Babbitt faced bearing.
c) Tilting pad bearing.
d) Roller bearing.

Q. What is the critical speed of turbine.

A. It is the speed at which the natural
frequency of turbine shaft is close/near to
the operating frequency of the shaft. The
turbine shaft material has its own natural
frequency, when we rotate the turbine rotor at
some speed the both frequency are near equal
so it produce a high vibration and noise at
this particular frequency. To avoid critical
speed we have to accelerate the turbine speed
if the turbine speed hold at this frequency
then a high vibration occurs in the shaft. The
value of critical speed is defined by the
designer of turbine. For example we can say
that critical speed of a 150 MW , 3000 rpm
steam turbine may be 1800 rpm , 2200 rpm and
2500 rpm.
Q. What are the couplings used in steam
A. There are three types of coupling are
generally used as,
a) Flexible coupling:- This couplings are used
where there is small misalignment and axial
movement of shaft .This coupling require
b) Semi flexible coupling:- These couplings
are generally used in between turbine and
generator. No lubrication require for this
c) Rigid coupling:- This couplings are
provided in between the cylinders such as in
between HP- LP and between LP- IP cylinders.


Q. Why turbine kept in turning gear after
A.To avoid hogging (bending downwards) or
sagging (bending upwards) effect of turbine
turning gear is used after shutdown . There is
a temperature difference in lower casing and
upper casing of turbine after shutdown if we
kept turbine shaft stationary then it will
bent turbine rotor, to avoid this the turbine
should be rotate in slow speed. There are
generally three type of turning gear used ,
a) Electrical turning gear Electrical motor
is used in this type of turning gear to rotate
the turbine less than 30 rpm . A reduction
gear is used to reduce the speed.
b) Hydraulic turning gear- In this system a
hydraulic turbine wheel is mounted on the
shaft of the turbine. High velocity oil is
supplied from jacking oil pump which rotate
the blade of hydraulic turning gear hence the
turbine rotor. This system will start after
the starting of JOP. Most of advanced turbine
use this system.
c) Hand barring system If the electric or
hydraulic system fails then hand barring is
done with slow speed through a lever and
Q. What is turbine stress evaluator (TSE)?
A. It is the instrument used to online
monitor of turbine mechanical stress. It
calculate the temperature difference of
turbine upper and lower casing. It is the
algorithm system based on the comparison of
actual calculated stress.
Q. Why gland steam system is provided in steam
A.The main function of gland sealing system is
, it prevent the escape/leakage of steam at
the HP side of turbine and prevent the ingress
of air at the LP side of turbine. It is
provided at the turbine shaft. Labyrinth seals
are generally used for sealing purpose. It is
generally made of aluminum, bronze and mild
steel. Radial and axial clearance is provided
in between the seal. Steam throttled in every
stage and gain kinetic energy at the expense
its pressure energy. So pressure dropped in
every stage and it provide sealing of shaft.
By providing the labyrinth clearance very
small the loss can be minimized. Collecting
pockets are provided at other end of sealing
in which the steam can be collected and can be
used in gland steam blower.
Q. What is the differential expansion of
steam turbine?
A. It is the difference of expansion in
between the turbine shaft and turbine casing.
The thermal emanation of rotor is happen
because of mass of casing is more than the
mass of rotor. This is happen due to sudden
loading of turbine or rate of steam inlet in
turbine is very high. If the rotor expansion
is more than casing then it is known as
positive explanation and if the casing
expansion is more than rotor is known as
negative expansion .The expansion value for
turbine tripping is generally provided as +- 6
mm. It is measured by LVDT ( linear variable
differential transducer).
The differential expansion = Change in shaft
length into change in turbine casing length.
Q. What is axial shift of turbine?
A. The axial shift of turbine can be defined
as the physical shifting of turbine rotor from
the center point. This shifting is happen due
to thrust on blade of rotor. Thrust tapered
bearing is provided to prevent the axial shift
of rotor. The tripping value for turbine axial
shift is generally provided with +- 0.6 mm.
The possible causes of axial shift is due to,
a)Sudden drop in vacuum
b) Sudden drop in steam temperature
c) Sudden change in load
d) Sudden closer of extraction NRV.
e) Lube oil failure in thrust bearing.
f) Scaling in turbine blades.
Q. What is TSE (turbine supervising panel)?
A.This is the integrated combine logic
provided to observe the safe operation of
turbine. This supervisory panel observes,
a) Turbine casing explanation during roiling.
b) Turbine differential expansion.
c) Turbine rotor eccentricity.
d) Turbine vibration.
e) Rate of loading of turbine.

Q. What is over speed of turbine?

A. It is the increased speed of turbine due to
grid failure or islanding condition. Over
speed happen due to sudden unloading of
turbine. The over speed of turbine tripping is
generally provided with speed > 110 % of rated
speed. The machine should not be allowed to
cross that limit. The over speed tripping can
be provided by a over speed governor or
mechanical governor.
Q. What is turbine tripping condition?
A. A turbine may be tripped due to this
a) Boiler trip/generator trip
a) Due to over speed- >110 %
b) High axial shift - +- 0.6 mm.
c) High differential expansion - +- 6 mm.
d) Condenser vacuum very low - < 0.6 kg/ cm
e) Main steam temperature low - <485 deg c.
f) Main steam temperature high - > 565 deg c.
g) Press of emergency push button.
h) Main steam pressure and temperature low low
and high high.
i) Turbine bearing temperature high- >120 deg
g) Turbine vibration high - > 165 micron.
h) Turbine lube oil temperature high - >65 deg
i) Mot oil level low - < 30 %.
j) Malfunction of sensing device.


Q . What is steam trap and it's function?
Ans. function of steam trap- It is a device is
used in steam pipe line to discharge
condensate and gasses, prevent to escape of
steam through the line. It ensures that steam
is not wasted. This is a self contained valve
which automatically drains the condensate from
a steam containing device. This is generally
provided in steam drains or before steam drain

Types of steam trap:-

1> Mechanical trap Works in the principle of
difference in density between steam and
condensate. This type of trap operate
according the condensate level in the port if
the condensate level increase the float
operates and allow to condensate pass through
the pipe ,when condensate level decrease is
close the valve and doesnt allow the
condensate. Types of mechanical trap i) Float
type, ii)Float with lever type, iii)Inverted
bucket type, iv)Open bucket type.
2> Thermodynamic type steam trap - Works in
the principle of difference in between
thermodynamic property of steam and
condensate.This types of traps operate due to
velocity change in flow of compressible and
non compressible fluids.As the steam starts
condensate there is a temperature difference
which allow the trap to operate. Types of
Thermodynamic type steam trap i) Disc type
ii) orifice type.
3> Thermostatic type steam trap- This trap
works in the principle of difference of
temperature in between steam and condensate.
Types of Thermostatic type steam trap i)
Bimetallic type, ii) Metallic expansion

Q. What is (NRV) Non Return Valve?

A. This is also known as one way valve which
allow the fluid flow in one direction only. As
its name implies non return means there is
only one direction flow.All the assembly are
provided with a valve bonnet.This valves are
generally used in pump discharges and steam
water pipe lines.This device ensures there is
no back flow of fluid from the source. It has
two lines one is inlet line and other is
outlet line.There is a direction symbol
provided on the valve which show the direction
of flow fluid.
Types of NRV:-
i> Tilting disc check valve-This is a disc
type check valve.The disc provided fixed with
a hinge which swing up and down. As the fluid
flow in the line it lift by the fluid force
and allow the fluid to flow in the pipe . When
there is no fluid flow in the circuit it
closes due to gravitational force.
ii> Ball check valve- Here a spherical ball is
used to fervent the fluid flow. The ball is
spring loaded which close the valve when there
is no fluid flow in the line. The pressure of
fluid lift the ball and let the fluid to flow.
iii> Diaphragm type NRV This is consists of
a rubber diaphragm clapper ,Which works on the
differential pressure When the pressure in
the upstream is more it open the diaphragm and
allow the fluid to flow and when the pressure
is equalize is closes diaphragm and prevent to
iv> Stop check valve- Its construction is
same as the swing check valve except that here
is a external control mechanism of handle or
lever provided.
v> Lift check valve- Here a lift or disc is
provided which operates on the working
pressure of the fluid.

Q. what is Pressure relief valve(PRV) ?

Image of pressure relief valve.
The relief valve (PRV) is a type of valve used
to control or limit the pressure in a vessel
or system during an overpressure of the
system. The primary purpose of a pressure
Relief Valve is protection of life and
property by venting fluid from an over
pressurized vessel. Many electronic, pneumatic
and hydraulic systems exist today to control
fluid system variables, such as pressure,
temperature and flow. Each of these systems
requires a power source of some type, such as
electricity or compressed air in order to
operate. A pressure Relief Valve must be
capable of operating at all times, especially
during a period of power failure when system
controls are nonfunctional. The PRV is
provided on the on the main steam line to
control the line pressure. The PRV is
generally operated through pneumatic
pressure.The PRV operated according to the
set pressure of rhe controller. The valve set
down when the pressure reach to normal value.

Q. What is the difference between safety valve

and pressure relief valve?
A. Difference between safety valve and relief
Relief Valve The relief valve is used on a
filled vessel. For such a valve the opening is
proportional to increase in the vessel
pressure. Hence the opening of valve is not
sudden, but gradual if the pressure is
increased gradually. A relief valve is meant
to relieve pressure to prevent an over
pressure condition. A relief valve may have
an operator on it to assist in opening the
valve in response to a control signal. The
capacity of PRV are generally small.
Safety Valve This device is used to relief
on a compressible filled vessel. For such a
valve the opening is sudden. When the set
pressure of the valve is reached, the valve
opens almost fully. A safety valve is meant to
relieve pressure without operator assistance
and a safety valve, or combination of safety
valves, must be have a capacity to relieve
more than the energy input to the volume being

What is the cold startup procedure

of boiler?
Pre check up for cold start up of
boiler :-
1) Check all maintenance work are
completed and all permit are returned.
2) Check all foreign materials has
been removed vfrom the pressure parts
3) Check all access doors are closed.
4) Check all equipments are trial run
5) Check all interlock test and prior
test to startup are completed.
6) Check no jamming in rotary
equipment , lubrication oil , cooling
water system is normal.
7) Check all the oil level meter are
in operation.
8) Check all the position of valve is
9) Check HFO & LDO pump are running in
re circulation.
10) Fill the deaeretor with initial
filling line.
Conform the position of the following
1) All blow down and drain valves on
boiler and water wall should be closed
2) All boiler and super heater
filling valves are closed condition.
3) Soot blower master steam valve
should be closed condition.
4) Main steam line stop valve should
be closed condition.
5) De-super heater spray valve should
be closed condition.
6) Drum vents should be open
7) Super heater header drains should
be open condition.
8) Fill the boiler with initial
filling line and observe the water
coming from the vent of economizer,
drum vents, and super heater vents
9) CBD and IBD drains should be closed

Start Boiler light up:-

1) Start the (ACW) industrial cooling
water system.
2) Start the instrument air
3) Start the APH motor it that is
rotary APH.
4) Put the auxiliary steam system
(PRDS) in operation for oil heating.
5) Start the ID and FD fan.
6) Start the scanner air fan.
7) Start the HFO/LDO pump with
8) Adjust the fan speed and opening of
dampers , increase the air flow up to
30% of total air flow.
9) Maintain the furnace draft of
approximately -4 mm.
10) Start boiler feed water pump and
keep drum level as per purge
11) Make sure all purge permissive are
satisfying and start purge for 5
12) Start the oil burners by
maintaining furnace draft.
13) Visually check the flame of the
oil burner is that healthy or not.
14) When prepare for heavy fuel
firing, be sure that atomizing steam
is in service and oil temperature
reach to permissive value.
15) Change the position of oil guns on
each elevation for uniform heating of
16) Increase the furnace temperature
by 5 deg c per minute.
17) The firing should be continued
nearly 08 hours.
18)Start the HP dosing pump with
minimum stroke.
19) Observe the drum upper and lower
metal temperature increase uniformly.
20) Close the drum vents when drum
pressure reaches to 2 kg/cm2.
21) Observe the expansion reading of
boiler within limit.
22) Close the main steam line vent
when the pressure reaches to 5 kg/cm2.
23) Charge the auxiliary steam line
and connect to common header if
24) Check all drains of the boiler
should be closed condition.
25) Slowly open the main steam line
bypass valve.
26) Observe all condensate removed
from line and open slowly main steam
valve to turbine and observe hammering
of steam line.
27)Charge the sample cooler line and
ask D.M plant operator to check all
the parameter of water and steam.
Procedure of turbine cold startup?
The startup condition of the turbine is
considered as per inner casing temperature of
the turbine such as,
a) Cold start up If the casing temperature
is < 200C.
b) Warm start up - If the casing temperature
in between 200-300C.
c) Hot start up- If the casing temperature is
> 450C.
Pre checklist for cold start up:-
1) Check all work completed and all permit is
2) Confirm all interlock test of turbine is
3) Check all level gauges and pressure gauges
in operation.
4) Check cooling tower sump level should be
normal level.
5) Check the oil level of MOT tank and control
oil tank should be normal.
6) Check the generator cooling water and lube
oil cooling system is normalized.
7) Check the compressor is system in
running .
8) Check the ACW pump in running.
9) Check the circulating water pump(CW) in
10)Check the turbine lube oil pump is running
and turbine is in barring gear.
11) Check the generator air cooling system is
in operation.

Procedure for turbine rolling:-

1) Start the CEP with minimum re circulation.
2) Start the gland steam system with auxiliary
3) Start the gland steam blower and normalize
Gland steam drain system.
4) Maintain the gland steam temperature in
between 121 to 177 deg c.
5) Start the vacuum pump or ejector for vacuum
6) Ensure the boiler develop rated pressure
above 15 kg/cm2 & temperature >360deg
7) Put the HP and LP bypass system in
operation for line warm-up.
8) Ensure all turbine drains are open
9) Check the turbine lube oil temperature is
in-between 38-42 deg c.
10) Check the differential expansion and
eccentricity is normal.
11) Reset the turbine from governor panel.
12) Press the latching or start bottom to open
the ESV.
13) Give command for rolling of turbine.
14) Check the turning gear and JOP
automatically stopped when speed reaches >300
15) Press the hold button of turbine and hold
the speed in 500rpm to check the eccentricity
< 0.076 mm, axial shift +- 1 mm and
differential expansion +- 6mm of turbine.
16) Continue the speed of the turbine with 40
rpm/min and speedup the turbine speed during
critical speed of 1850,2000 and 2200
respectively (as per designer).
17) Check the main oil pump comes in service
and AOP is stopped condition.
18) After turbine reached to full speed hold
for some time and ensure upper and lower
casing temperature difference is within limit.
19) Ask the electrical people for
20) Close all turbine drains after
21) Increase load by follow of turbine cold
startup load curve.
22) When the load is increase to 20% of full
load charge the Extraction line gradually.
23) Finally check all parameter of turbine is
ok and increase turbine load to full.
Q. What is the function of ejector in
condenser and its working principle ?
Ans. Function of ejector:- The main function
of the ejector is to extract air and no
condensate gasses from a closed system . It
removes air from the condenser and provide
vacuum. The amount of air extracted at the
time of starting is more as compared to
running unit.
Parts of ejector:- It generally consists of
converging nozzle , diverging nozzle ,
diffuser throat , inlet and outlet pipes, Rota
meter for measurement of air flow , cells with
tube for regeneration heat transfer , Steam
traps for drip control .

parts of a steam ejector

Working principle of ejector :- When a high
pressure motive fluid( steam/liquid) enters
the steam nozzle , this result in a decreasing
pressure and increasing velocity of the fluid
again the fluid enters in the diffuser which
result in a increasing pressure and decreasing
velocity of the fluid so due to pressure
difference vacuum is created in between the
nozzle and diffuser we can say venture
throat . So due to pressure difference or
vacuum it sucks no condensable air and fluid
from the system. The mixture then enters to an
inter condenser where the steam is condensate.
The inter condenser are designed with a
special inter condenser baffles of tubes where
heat transfer takes place . The second stage
ejector handles the non condensate gasses of
first stage ejector and through a vent opening
to the atmosphere. The air flow can be
measured by the rota-meter. The condensate
water of steam send back to re use through
steam traps.
Types of ejector :-
There are generally two types of ejector
generally used as ,
i > Hogger ejector :- This ejector is known as
the starting ejector which is used to pull the
gasses at the time of starting of system. It
has high capacity of air extraction. This
ejector operates with parallel with the
running ejector till the vacuum reaches 500-
600 mm of HG column , then the hogger ejector
is switched off and main ejector will remain
in service. The main disadvantages of this
ejector is the steam escaped to atmosphere and
can't reuse.
Image of a main ejector
ii> Main ejector :- This is also known as the
running ejector which evacuate the air
continuously at the system running condition.
This is a multi stage type ejector . The high
velocity air -water mixture enters to the
shell and cooled in the first stage of the
shell by condensate. Steam is thus condensate
and the steam air mixture volume reduced and
allowed to second stage of the nozzle . In the
second stage the mixture is completely
condensate and the air is vented to the
atmosphere. The drains are provided with
loops or siphoned to prevent ingress of air
from the atmosphere.Here the condensate seam
is again recovered in condenser and reuse.
What is Vacuum pump or liquid ring air
pump used in condenser and it's working
principle ?
As the steam ejector use steam for air
evacuation this is a loss for the plant as the
pressure and temperature of the steam is
reduced to the rated parameter of the
ejector , so now a days in modern power plants
rotary air pumps are used for air extraction
purpoes.The rotary air pump is more flexible
as it doesnt depend steam and water circuit
for air extraction.
Construction: - Its construction is same like
a centrifugal pump with multiple impellers. It
consists of impeller, suction pipe , discharge
pipe. Diffuser, divergent cone, fixed guide
nozzle . The impeller with a blade is attached
to a center hub located in a cylindrical body.
The pump require liquid to create vacuum. A
tapping is provided at the top of the pump for
air line connection.
Image of rotary liquid ring air pump

Working principle:- The liquid if fed to the

pump through suction pipe , due to rotary
motion of the pump impeller a centrifugal
force is created in the impeller of the pump.
It consists of a multi-bladed, rotating
element (impeller), eccentricity positioned
within a cylindrical casing. The compression
of the gas occurs in one or two
impeller stages depending on the ultimate
vacuum required, although for this service
two/multi stage pumps are generally required.
Water or some other in-compressible fluid,
called service liquid, is introduced to the
LRVP. As the impeller rotates, a ring of
liquid is formed inside the pump casing from
centrifugal force. This action draws the
gaseous stream into the pump through the inlet
port. The gas is compressed by the liquid
ring, exiting the first stage through a
smaller area discharge port and into the
second stage of the pump. The second stage is
volumetrically smaller doing the final
compression of the gas. The gas then exits the
pump usually at atmospheric pressure, along
with the service liquid.Only small amount of
water makeup required due to water leakage or
uses of liquid ring pump:-
1) Power generation equipment (produce
2) Petrochemical.
3) Seawater deae-ration.
4) Pharmaceutical.
5) Ground water remediation/vapor extraction.
6) Food production.
Advantages of liquid ring pump:-
These pumps can easily take care of
condensable vapors and can even handle fluids
of various kinds without affecting the
performance of the pump. Based on liquid ring
technology, pumps have only one rotating or
prime functioning part and therefore are
economical and much easier to maintain than
the other pumps. The repairing or rebuilding
of these pumps is very easy in comparison to
other complicatedly designed pumping units.
Liquid ring vacuum pumps can efficiently be
employed as vacuum jobs and also for the
compression tasks as well which usually is not
possible with ordinary pump sets.Quick
starting also another advantage of this pump.