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GURGAON INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

BILASPUR-TAURU ROAD, GURUGRAM HARYANA 122413, AFFILIATED TO


MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY

INTERNSHIP REPORT ON:-


I. DESIGN LAYOUT FOR MSIL (G) ASSY 3
II.
(i) KAIZEN
Injection moulding BrE
(ii) Injection molding AmE

SUBMITTED BY:-
NITIN Gaurav
NITIN SHAHANE
NIRANJAN Mehta
MECHANICAL DEPT MECHANICAL
MECHANICAL DEPT
DEPT
(FEB-JUN-17) (FEB-JUN-17)
(FEB-JUN-17)
13-ME-364 13-ME-362
13-ME-364
13-ME-332

i
DECLARATION
"We hereby declare that the work carried out independently by us and
have not been taken from any other source except where quoted"

Name Roll No. Signature

Niranjan Mehta
Gaurav Shahane 13-ME-362
13-ME-332
NITIN
Mayank Bali 13-ME-364
13- ME-351

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Industrial training is an indispensable part of any curriculum and it provides the students to
gain experience by practical application their knowledge.

I express my gratitude to all the people at NTF India Limited who helped me during
my training period.

I would like to thank Mr. Amandeep Bhardwaj for giving me the opportunity to work
with him. His constant guidance and support was very helpful

I feel deep sense of gratitude towards Mrs. Mandeep Kaur, HOD, Mechanical
Engineering Department, Gurgaon Institute of Technology & Management, for allowing
me to pursue my internship at NTF India Limited and being a constant source of motivation
and guidance throughout the course of my internship.

I am grateful to my friends who gave me the moral support in my times of difficulties. Last
but not the least I would like to express my special thanks to my family for their continuous
motivation and support.

Best Regards,

Gaurav Mehta
Nitin
College
CollegeRoll
RollNo.
No.13-ME-364
13-ME-332
Gurgaon Institute of Technology & Management

iii
ABSTRACT
In report contains brief introduction of the company NTF INDIA and about its manufacturing
facilities. Furthermore, the report mentions the various engineering plastics and advance
composites inspection tests each part has to pass through for quality assurance.

The project broadly aims at explaining the process of moulding and its improvement, and also to
understand the basic concepts of INJECTION MOULDING
The concept behind this project was complete understanding of the moulding process.

iv
LIST OFLIST
PROCESSES
OF FIGURES

Fig No. Description Pg


4.1 Thermo Compression Moulding 17

4.2 Reaction Injection Moulding 17

4.3 Blow Moulding 18

4.4 Injection Moulding 19

4.5 Composite Plastics 19

4.6 PU Spray&(LFI) 20

4.7 TCM/LWRT 21

4.8 Vaccum Forming 22

4.9 Paint Shop 23

4.10 Automated Sub Processes 24

4.11 Shower Tester 25

4.12 Hopper Test 25

5.1 Toughness Test 28

5.2 Material Stiffness Test 29

5.2.1 Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding 30

5.2.2 R-RIM 30

5.2.3 Structural Reaction Injection Moulding 31

5.2.4 S-RIM 32

5.2.5 Resin Transfer Moulding 33

v
Table of Contents

Introduction.............................................................................................................................6
1.Revision History...................................................................................................................9
2. Approved By.....................................................................................................................10
Introduction...........................................................................................................................11
Overall Description...............................................................................................................12
Equipment / Component .......................................................................................................13
Other Requirements...............................................................................................................15
..............................................................................................................................................18
1. Revision History.................................................................................................................20
2. Approved By.....................................................................................................................21
3. Introduction.......................................................................................................................22
4. Design Considerations.......................................................................................................30
5. Design and Calculations...................................................................................................32
6. Glossary System Architecture...........................................................................................34
7. Bibliography......................................................................................................................34
1. Injection Molding Handbook By Tim A. Osswald, Lih-Sheng Turng, Paul J. Gramann34
1 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................35
I hereby conclude that we have submitted all the documents related to our project in the
correct format as specified.....................................................................................................35
We conclude that our project is a simple project for now as it works according to the user.
We have been implementing iterative server, and later on it can be extended to become
concurrent server. It is easier for the programmer to use the code and understand the
functionality............................................................................................................................35
2 Bibliography........................................................................................................................36
1. Injection Molding Handbook By Tim A. Osswald, Lih-Sheng Turng, Paul J. Gramann36
3 Checklist..............................................................................................................................37

VI
1
INTRODUCTION

NTF INDIA LIMITED

Head Office Plot No 30 Sector 3 IMT Manesar,


Haryana, India
Company Description The Company designs and manufactures
Cars and automobile composite
plastics,spoilers and other products

Main Products Motorcycles plastic parts, Automobiles


spoilers, Motors covers, Generators plastic
parts, Related Products

1
NTF INDIA LIMITED

Chairman Mr. Ram khetarpal

Head Office NTF India Limited,


Plot no 30 sector 3 IMT Manesar
Gurugram - 122001
Telephone No: 011-237631

Factory NTF India Limited, Manesar

Gurgaon Road Gurgaon


120015

Haryana

Name Changed NTF India Limited

Company Description The Company designs automobiles plastic parts

Main Products composited plastic parts of maruti Suzuki, Honda, Toyota

automobiles

2
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
NTF India has been renowned as a leading manufacturer, developer and supplier of engineering
plastic and composite parts mainly for transport sector including majorly automotive parts and
systems. Since its inception in 1984 the company has emerged as a leading manufacturer in light
weight Reinforced Plastic parts and composites in single skin and also in sandwich construction.
The company was the first one to introduce RTM technology in India in 1989 and since then we
have been expanding our operations to include various technologies like Injection Moulding,fi rst
time in the country PU RRIM, Thermo compression molding of wood plastics composite sheets and
Vacuum Forming.

COMPANY VISION

The Philosophy:

The companys vision for the future is to become an internationally competitive company in
terms of production volume, quality, cost and profits.
The vision is a realistic, credible and attractive future that the company visualizes for its
organization and all its employees. It is an articulation of a destination towards which the
organization is moving, a future that is substantially better than the current state. The vision
helps the company in moving consciously, continuously and in a focused manner towards the
desired state.

3
If the vision is the destination, the mission is the means by which the company is moving
towards it. If the vision is a goal, the mission is the tool for achieving the vision. A mission
defines what the organization has been established to accomplish. It determines the purpose
of its operations.

Company Mission
To provide a wide range of modern, high quality parts in order to meet the need of
different customers, in both domestic and export markets.
To be an internationally competitive company in terms of its products and services.
To retain the leadership in India and aspire to be amongst the topmost industrial player.
The main focus will be upon:
1) Building a continuously improving organization adaptable to quick changes.
2) Providing value and satisfaction to the customer.
3) Aligning and fully involving its suppliers, employees, dealers to face the completion.
4) Maximizing shareholders value.
5) Being a responsible corporate citizen.

QUALITY POLICY

Quality policy of NTF INDIAis consumer satisfaction through quality of our products and
services, achieved by consistent adherence to procedures and systems.

Company at a Glance
The advent of NTF in 1984 marked the beginning of a revolution in the Indian
automobile industry. NTF brought in the latest technology then available, more efficient cars
parts, and drastically brought down the prices of cars in India. This led to creation of a huge
market for all segments as the Indian middle class grew in size.

A number of auxiliary parts manufacturing companies were setup. Our most major
influence was in helping the component industry because of its emphasis on localization and
indigenization.
NTF was established in February 1984 with production commencing in 1983. NTF
entered into collaboration with Suzuki Motor Corporation in December 2000. The
collaboration heralded a revolution in the Indian car industry with the production of the first
car Maruti 800.

4
NTF today boasts of the most extensive dealer and service network in the entire
industry which lends tremendous reliability and credibility to the brand. Strong focus on
customer orientation and leaner processes has lead us to retain our shares.

The company boasts of a state of art facilities on board. Besides three manufacturing units at
the GURGAON plant churning out majority of products the company recently set up
manufacturing facility at MANESAR with a vision to make India a global manufactur ing hub

In past 25 years we have found our way into the hearts of millions of Indians and its
not because we have just made cars Parts but something that goes a little deeper-GREAT
PARTNERSHIP. A partnership in which our businesses have grown together and together we
have discovered NTF multiple revenue streams like Pre Owned Cars, Insurance, Finance,
Service, Spares, Accessories etc. These new streams have added another dimension to the
companys profile.

NTF has given great importance and has taken initiatives to contribute to the
society. IDTRs, schools, Fire services etc. are glaring examples of it.

5
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

MANAGING DIRECTOR & CEO

DIRECTOR

EO

DVM / SFM 2

DDVM / SFM1

DPM / FMGR

SR. MANAGER

MANAGER

DY. MANAGER

ASST. MANAGER

SUP / ASUP

TECHNICIANS

Table 1.1

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Feasibility Report / ME

FEASIBILITY Report

Plastic Injection Moduling Dies

9th August,2012
Saurav Jaitly
ME/10/743

Page 1 of 54

7
Introduction

The Project has tried to highlight the need of Training & Development mechanism which
helps successful organization to build on their success and to generate and meet the desire
of feedback.
The organization is its viability, and hence its efficiency, there is continuous environmental
pressure for efficiency and if the organization does not respond to this pressure it may find
itself rapidly losing whatever share of the market it has. Employee training, therefore,
imparts specific skills and knowledge to employee in order that they contribute the
organizations efficiency and be able to cope with the pressure of changing environment.
Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that
the employee is letter equipped to his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position
with increased responsibilities.
The effective functioning of any organization requires that employees learn to perform
their jobs at satisfactory level of proficiency, So much that the organizations need to
provide opportunities for the continuous development of employees not only in their
present jobs, but also to develop their capabilities for other jobs for which they later be
considered.

Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a
particular job. Training will provide for an output in this decision. The positive benefits of
Training are:
Training helps employees to learn their jobs and attain desired levels of
performance especially thus contributing better utilization of employees, machines
and materials.

Training helps to reduce the cost of raw materials and products reducing losses
due to waste, poor quality products and damage to machinery which would result
if an untrained employee, were to learn on his own.

Finally, training aids in the development of individual skills, better methods, new
equipment and new work relationship. Such a process would also facilitate
technological change by updating the versatility of employees.

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1.0 GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1 Purpose
Plastic has become the 'all-purpose' material. From packaging, plastic plants, domestic items, containers, pipes to
automobile parts, the plastic industry has come a long way from its small beginnings about a hundred years ago.
Some of the processes involved in plastic technology are compression, moulding, lamination, fabrication etc.
Injection moulding and blow moulding are the commonly used processes.

1.2 Scope
Injection-moulded plastic parts are part and parcel of everyday life. Be they mobile phone casings, beverage crates,
toy figures, gearwheels for adjustment mechanisms, bumpers on cars, drinking cups, CDs and DVDs, or syringe
bodies in medical technology, injection mouldings are encountered everywhere in all sizes, ranging from a few
micrograms to several kilograms. Uniting several components in a single injection moulding, integrating as many
functions as possible in a single component, and converting production methods comprising several steps into a
single-stage process these are the chief innovation goals in the injection moulding sector.

1.3 Project References


Engage polyolefin elastomers have a wide processing temperature window. The following
temperatures should be used as a reference point and can vary5C. These temperatures should be
usedas a starting point and can be increased by a maximum of +20C.Note: From starting point,
the hopper feed throat should be cooled below 50C to avoid polymer bridging, especially on
Engage8400/Engage 8407.Successful injection molding of Engage requires fast injection
velocities to promote shear thinning throughout the material. Typical polyolefin equipment should
be used.

Bryce, Douglas M. Plastic Injection Molding: Manufacturing Process Fundamentals. SME,


1996.
Brydson, J, Plastics Materials, Butterworths 9th Ed (1999).
Callister, William D, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, John Wiley and
Sons

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2.0 MANAGEMENT SUMMARY

2.1 Organizations
Organization involved Involved
Omax
-NFT
NFT Auto Ltd.
INDIA
INDIA

Equipment
2.2 Equipment
Injection molding machines consist of a material hopper, an injection ram or screw-type plunger,

and a heating unit. They are also known as presses, they hold the molds in which the components

are shaped. Presses are rated by tonnage, which expresses the amount of clamping force that the

machine can exert. This force keeps the mold closed during the injection process. Tonnage can

vary from less than 5 tons to 6000 tons, with the higher figures used in comparatively few

manufacturing operations. The total clamp force needed is determined by the projected area of the

part being molded. This projected area is multiplied by a clamp force of from 2 to 8 tons for each

square inch of the projected areas.

Molds are built through two main methods: standard machining and EDM. Standard machining,

in its conventional form, has historically been the method of building injection molds. With

technological development, CNC machining became the predominant means of making more

complex molds with more accurate mold details in less time than traditional methods.

General Machines which are used in the company are:lathe,milling,shaper,slotting,drilling

and CNC(sanco sdm 2214) and CNC(cosmos cmo 1060).

2.3 Performance Objectives (Efficiency)

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If we use cast iron material for a making of any plastic mold,we generally use CNC machines for

making the core and cavity of any component. Other than if we uses different operation in different

machines like lathe,drilling,milling,boring etc.,it takes more time than the CNC machine, which

will reduced in time and processing speed, and increases productivity and staff .On the other hand

the CNC m/c will takes less time and higher processing speed and totally control over automated

decision making. The CNC m/c reduces staff.So,the efficiency of the CNC m/c is higher than the

different operation of machines.

The performance of conventional molding processes are governed by these physics, with

significant trade-offs required in the design of the part geometry, molding process, and polymeric

materials. For instance, a light product may require thin walls. However, the filling of such a thin-

walled product may require very high injection pressures and a lower viscosity resin.

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HI *Whelan, Tony. Polymer Technology Dictionary Springer, 1994.

1.4 Acronyms and Abbreviations


Acronyms with
Definition Language Category
MOLDING
Acronym in Science, Unit Measure, Chemistry,
AMC Advanced Molding Compound
English Biology, Acronym
Aligned Short Fiber Sheet Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,
ASSMC
Molding Compound English Slang, Acronym
Acronym in Science, Unit Measure, Chemistry,
AMC Alkyd Molding Compound
English Biology, Acronym

Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,


BMC Bulk Molding Compound
English Slang, Acronym
Bulk Molding Compounds Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,
BMCI
Incorporated English Slang, Acronym

Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,


DMC Dough Molding Compound
English Slang, Acronym

Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,


GMVC Gentle Molding Vision Center
English Slang, Acronym

Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,


IMM Injection Molding Machine
English Slang, Acronym
Acronym in General, Common Abbreviation,
IMT Injection Molding Technology
English Slang, Acronym

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2 PROJECT

TITLE: Injection Molding

Injection molding is a process in which raw material in the form of granules is


feeded in to the hopper and plasticized by a reciprocating screw with heat and
injected into the close mold to get the optimum shape of the required part

Materials such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene can be used


in a process called injection molding.

Injection molding machine is separated in two units namely..


#Injection unit :-
Injection unit can be described in four general steps regardless of the type of machine
used..,

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1.5 Points of Contact


1.5.1 Information

Ill take the help from the company.With the help of several machines like
lathe,milling,drilling,shaper etc. or even CNC machine,we used for making the core and cavity of
the sample and these two dies(core and cavity) goes for surface finish.Now,the core and cavity will
fitted together with support plate on their either sides,the complete die will subjected to the
injection moulding machine where the raw granular plastic will suffers through the heater and the
molten plastic will subjected to the middle of the core and cavity through a hole called sprue bush
on a mold core and the clamping opened the die eject the product and finally the product will
thermalised and sintered to form the finalized product.

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2.4 Assumptions and Constraints


Plastics injection molding is perceived by many as a mature technology. However, many

performance constraints in plastics injection molding still exist that prevent the development and

manufacture of higher performance products at lower cost. A primary issue is not whether these

performance constraints can be overcome, but rather which performance constraints should be

overcome. With respect to control of the melt temperature in plastics injection molding, this paper

has provided analytical, experimental, and economic proof of feasibility. This analysis provides

convincing argument that control of melt temperature should be overcome and beneficially utilized

in many commercial applications. Determine the assumptions and constraints, such as operational

life of the proposed system; period of time for comparison of system alternatives; input, output,

and processing requirements; financial constraints; changing hardware, software, and operating

environment; and availability of information and resources.

2.5 Methodology (Basic Principle involved)


The method used for the making any plastic object by injection molding process are:
First.the plastic matter should filled to the IMM from the top and the matter will heated in the m/c
which is filled to the tool and after the product will ejected through the tool .the cooling process
will be:
Cooling: Once the plastic melt at the gate solidifies, no additional material can be forced into the
cavity and the pressure decays. The amount of energy to be removed, Qcool, required to cool the
polymer melt is related to the change from the melt temperature, Tm, to the ejection temperature,
Te, the heat capacity of the plastic melt, CP, and its mass, m:
Qcool = C P m ( Tm Te ) [J ]

The energy per square meter of surface area, Q, can also be considered as a function of the wall
thickness, h:
Q = C P h ( Tm Te ) [ J / m 2 ]

The average cooling power per square meter, Pcool, is:


C P h ( Tm Te )
Pcool = 2
[W / m ]
t cooling

The cooling time, tcooling, can be estimated using one-dimensional heat transfer as [5]:

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h2 T T
t cooling = ln m c
2 4 Te Tc

where is the thermal diffusivity and Tc is the mold coolant temperature. It should be noted that
for many materials and processing conditions, molders have found the following approximation of
eq. (6) useful where h is measured in mm:

t cooling 4 h 2

2.6 Recommendation
- Verify the temperature of the mold cavities using a temperature probe.
- Confirm the melt temperature using a temperature probe moved about in a volume of melt, shot
onto an insulator (a glove, cardboard, etc.)
- Set the initial cooling time
- Set a zero hold time and/or pressure
- Inject incomplete parts by gradually increasing the shot volume using an average to high injection
speed.
- When the mold is almost filled (90 to 95%), set the initial hold pressure and gradually increase
the hold time.
- In this way, the end of the filling is done under constant pressure and part over-packing is
avoided.
- Adjust the hold phase parameters to obtain a constant part weight and the required dimensional
stability.
- The cooling time depends on the part geometry.
- Gradually adjust the cooling time until the optimal cycle time is obtained.

The variety of plugs offered fit a wide spectrum of polymer needs. Vent diameter should be
chosen to correspond to these needs. Examples are listed below.

1. 0.03mm diameter for use with polyethylene and polypropylene


2. 0.05mm diameter used in Nylon, ABS and polycarbonate.
3. 0.10mm diameter vents for highly viscous polymers.

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3.0 PROPOSED SYSTEM

3.1 Description of Design / Fabrication of the Proposed System /


Model
The mold consists of two primary components, the injection mold (A plate) and the ejector mold
(B plate). Plastic resin enters the mold through a sprue in the injection mold; the sprue bushing is
to seal tightly against the nozzle of the injection barrel of the molding machine and to allow molten
plastic to flow from the barrel into the mold, also known as the cavity. The sprue bushing directs
the molten plastic to the cavity images through channels that are machined into the faces of the A
and B plates. These channels allow plastic to run along them, so they are referred to as
runners. The molten plastic flows through the runner and enters one or more specialized gates and
into the cavity geometry to form the desired part.

The amount of resin required to fill the sprue, runner and cavities of a mold is a shot. Trapped air
in the mold can escape through air vents that are ground into the parting line of the mold. If the
trapped air is not allowed to escape, it is compressed by the pressure of the incoming material and
is squeezed into the corners of the cavity, where it prevents filling and causes other defects as well.
The air can become so compressed that it ignites and burns the surrounding plastic material. To
allow for removal of the molded part from the mold, the mold features must not overhang one
another in the direction that the mold opens, unless parts of the mold are designed to move from
between such overhangs when the mold opens (utilizing components called Lifters).

Sides of the part that appear parallel with the direction of draw (The axis of the cored position
(hole) or insert is parallel to the up and down movement of the mold as it opens and closes) are
typically angled slightly with (draft) to ease release of the part from the mold. Insufficient draft can

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cause deformation or damage. The draft required for mold release is primarily dependent on the
depth of the cavity: the deeper the cavity, the more draft necessary. Shrinkage must also be taken
into account when determining the draft required. If the skin is too thin, then the molded part will
tend to shrink onto the cores that form them while cooling, and cling to those cores or part may
warp, twist, blister or crack when the cavity is pulled away. The mold is usually designed so that
the molded part reliably remains on the ejector (B) side of the mold when it opens, and draws the
runner and the sprue out of the (A) side along with the parts. The part then falls freely when
ejected from the (B) side. Tunnel gates, also known as submarine or mold gates, are located below
the parting line or mold surface. An opening is machined into the surface of the mold on
the parting line. The molded part is cut (by the mold) from the runner system on ejection from the
mold.Ejector pins, also known as knockout pins, are circular pins placed in either half of the mold
(usually the ejector half), which push the finished molded product, or runner system out of a mold.

3.2 Time and Resource Costs


The cost of manufacturing molds depends on a very large set of factors ranging from number of
cavities, size of the parts (and therefore the mold), complexity of the pieces, expected tool
longevity, surface finishes and many others. The initial cost is great, however the piece part cost is
low, so with greater quantities the overall price decreases.
The tooling cost has two main components - the mold base and the machining of the cavities. The
cost of the mold base is primarily controlled by the size of the part's envelope. A larger part
requires a larger, more expensive, mold base. The cost of machining the cavities is affected by
nearly every aspect of the part's geometry. The primary cost driver is the size of the cavity that

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must be machined, measured by the projected area of the cavity (equal to the projected area of the
part and projected holes) and its depth. Any other elements that will require additional machining
time will add to the cost, including the feature count, parting surface, side-
cores, lifters, unscrewing devices, tolerance, and surface roughness.

3.3 Rationale for Recommendations


FAULT RECOMMENDATION

1. Short shot, record 1. Adjust feed to minimum consistent cushion


groove effect 2. Increase injection pressure
3. Increase injection speed
4. Increase back pressure
5. Increase barrel temperatures
6. Increase mould temperature, particularly for
very
thin large area parts
7. Check non-return valve
8. Improve venting
9. Enlarge gates, sprue diameters and runners

1. Increase mould temperature


2. Weld line 2. Increase injection speed
3. Increase melt temperature
4. Increase hold on pressure
5. Check venting
6. Relocate gate to change flow pattern

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4.0 Alternative Mechanism/ Design

A program begins with a need - either an improvement on something already in existence,


or a unique way of fulfilling a need. The initial idea may start as a sketch or as a model.
The next step is to put the idea into a workable form and to determine how it will be
manufactured and the cost to manufacture it.

With competitive pressures demanding maximum efficiency from every facet of a


company's operations, designers and engineers are faced with the increasingly difficult task
of developing a product which not only meets the functional requirements of the
application, but a product which can be produced in the most cost effective manner. Add to
this challenge the ever-increasing number of government regulations, new materials, and
improved manufacturing processes, and the task of designing even a "simple" pan is no
longer simple. The path becomes more complicated.

4.0 Description of [Alternative Mechanism / Design]


The process cycle for injection molding is very short, typically between 2 seconds and 2
minutes, and consists of the following four stages:

1. Clamping - Prior to the injection of the material into the mold, the two halves of the
mold must first be securely closed by the clamping unit. Each half of the mold is
attached to the injection molding machine and one half is allowed to slide. The
hydraulically powered clamping unit pushes the mold halves together and exerts
sufficient force to keep the mold securely closed while the material is injected. The
time required to close and clamp the mold is dependent upon the machine - larger
machines (those with greaterclamping forces) will require more time. This time can be
estimated from the dry cycle time of the machine.
2. Injection - The raw plastic material, usually in the form of pellets, is fed into the
injection molding machine, and advanced towards the mold by the injection unit.
During this process, the material is melted by heat and pressure. The molten plastic is
then injected into the mold very quickly and the buildup of pressure packs and holds
the material. The amount of material that is injected is referred to as the shot. The
injection time is difficult to calculate accurately due to the complex and changing flow
of the molten plastic into the mold. However, the injection time can be estimated by the
shot volume, injection pressure, and injection power.
3. Cooling - The molten plastic that is inside the mold begins to cool as soon as it
makes contact with the interior mold surfaces. As the plastic cools, it will solidify into
the shape of the desired part. However, during cooling some shrinkage of the part may

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occur. The packing of material in the injection stage allows additional material to flow
into the mold and reduce the amount of visible shrinkage. The mold can not be opened
until the required cooling time has elapsed. The cooling time can be estimated from
several thermodynamic properties of the plastic and the maximum wall thickness of the
part.
4. Ejection - After sufficient time has passed, the cooled part may be ejected from the
mold by the ejection system, which is attached to the rear half of the mold. When the
mold is opened, a mechanism is used to push the part out of the mold. Force must be
applied to eject the part because during cooling the part shrinks and adheres to the
mold. In order to facilitate the ejection of the part, a mold release agent can be sprayed
onto the surfaces of the mold cavity prior to injection of the material. The time that is
required to open the mold and eject the part can be estimated from the dry cycle time of
the machine and should include time for the part to fall free of the mold. Once the part
is ejected, the mold can be clamped shut for the next shot to be injected.
After the injection molding cycle, some post processing is typically required. During
cooling, the material in the channels of the mold will solidify attached to the part. This
excess material, along with any flash that has occurred, must be trimmed from the part,
typically by using cutters. For some types of material, such as thermoplastics, the scrap
material that results from this trimming can be recycled by being placed into a plastic
grinder, also called regrind machines or granulators, which regrinds the scrap material into
pellets. Due to some degradation of the material properties, the regrind must be mixed with
raw material in the proper regrind ratio to be reused in the injection molding process.

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Introduction

Purpose

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication
of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding,
which vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process
requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold.

Document Conventions

In this process, the plastic granules or pellets are poured into a machine hopper and fed into
the chamber of the heating cylinder. A plunger then compresses the material, forcing it
through progressively hotter zones of the heating cylinder in order to accelerate the heating
of the center of the plastic mass. The torpedo may also be heated so that the plastic is
heated from the inside as well as from the outside.

The material flows from the heating cylinder through a nozzle into the mold. The nozzle is
the seal between the cylinder and the mold. It is used to prevent leaking of the material
caused by the pressure used. The mold is held shut by the clamp end of the machine. For
polystyrene, two to three tons of pressure on the clamp end of the machine is generally
used for each inch of projected area of the part and runner system. The conventional
plunger machine is the only type of machine that can produce a mottle-colored part.

Reading Suggestions

KPa x 0.145 = psi


MPa x 145 = psi
C x 1.8 + 32 = F
Liters/min x 0.2642 = Gal/min
Inches x 25.4 = mm
Flow rate = ((# of cavities) x (volume per cavity))/(injection time)

Project Scope

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the fabrication of
plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which
vary greatly in their size, complexity, and application. The injection molding process
requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material, and a mold. The
plastic is melted in the injection molding machine and then injected into the mold, where it
cools and solidifies into the final part.injection molding is used to create many things such

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as wire spools, packaging, bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, some
musical instruments (and parts of them), one-piece chairs and small tables, storage
containers, mechanical parts (including gears), and most other plastic products available
today.

References

Bryce, Douglas M. Plastic Injection Molding: Manufacturing Process


Fundamentals. SME, 1996.
Brydson, J, Plastics Materials, Butterworths 9th Ed (1999).

http://www.mold-mould.com/conventional-injection-molding-
machine-289.html

Overall Description
Product Perspective

Plastic injection molding is a manufacturing process for producing parts from


both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic materials. Material is fed into a heated
barrel, mixed, and forced into a mold cavity where it cools and hardens to the
configuration of the mold cavity.[1] After a product is designed, usually by an industrial
designer or an engineer, molds are made by a moldmaker (or toolmaker) from metal,
usually either steel or aluminum, and precision-machined to form the features of the
desired part. Injection molding is widely used for manufacturing a variety of parts,
from the smallest component to entire body panels of cars .It utilizes a ram or screw-
type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold cavity .It produces a solid or
open-ended shape that has conformed to the contour of the moldUses thermoplastic or
thermoset materials. It produces a parting line, sprue, and gate marks. Ejector pin
marks are usually present Injection molding is used to produce thin-walled plastic parts
for a wide variety of applications, one of the most common being plastic housings.
Plastic housing is a thin-walled enclosure, often requiring many ribs andbosses on the
interior. These housings are used in a variety of products including household
appliances, consumer electronics, power tools, and as automotive dashboards. Other
common thin-walled products include different types of open containers, such as
buckets. Injection molding is also used to produce several everyday items such as

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toothbrushes or small plastic toys. Many medical devices, including valves and
syringes, are manufactured using injection molding as well.

Assumptions

Optimal process settings are critical to influencing the cost, quality, and productivity of
plastic injection molding. The main trouble in injection molding is to have a box of good
plastics parts contaminated with scrap. For that reason process optimization studies have to
be done and process monitoring has to take place. First article inspection of internal and
external geometry including imperfections such as porosity can be completed
using Industrial CT Scanning, a 3D x-ray technology. For external geometry verification
only a Coordinate-measuring machineor white light scanner can be used.

To have a constant filling rate in the cavity, the switch over from injection phase to the
holding phase can be made based on cavity pressure level.
Having a stable production window, the following issues are worth investigating:

Equipment / Component
Give the of names of each Component

1.Support Plate
2.Ejector Box
3.Ejector Plate
4.Ejector Retaining plate
5.Mold Core
6.Mold Cavity
7.Sprue Bush
8.Locating ring

Specification of each Component

Injection molding machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp
force they provide. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the
parts in the mold and the pressure with which the material is injected. Therefore, a larger
part will require a larger clamping force. Also, certain materials that require high injection

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pressures may require higher tonnage machines. The size of the part must also comply with
other machine specifications, such as shot capacity, clamp stroke, minimum mold
thickness,and platen size.
Injection molded parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to
cover a very large range. As a result, injection molding machines are designed to each
accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values. Sample specifications are
shown below for three different models (Babyplast, Powerline, and Maxima) of injection
molding machine that are manufactured by Cincinnati Milacron.

Babyplast Powerline Maxima

Clamp force (ton) 6.6 330 4400

Shot capacity (oz.) 0.13 - 0.50 8 - 34 413 1054

Clamp stroke (in.) 4.33 23.6 133.8

Min. mold thickness (in.) 1.18 7.9 31.5

Platen size (in.) 2.95 x 2.95 40.55 x 40.55 122.0 x 106.3

Material of the Component used

There are many types of materials that may be used in the injection molding process. Most
polymers may be used, including all thermoplastics, some thermosets, and some
elastomers. When these materials are used in the injection molding process, their raw form
is usually small pellets or a fine powder. Also, colorants may be added in the process to
control the color of the final part. The selection of a material for creating injection molded
parts is not solely based upon the desired characteristics of the final part. While each
material has different properties that will affect the strength and function of the final part,
these properties also dictate the parameters used in processing these materials. Each
material requires a different set of processing parameters in the injection molding process,
including the injection temperature, injection pressure, mold temperature, ejection
temperature, and cycle time.

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Basic Principle of Working of Component

The working principle of injection molding machine is similar to injection syringe, it


using screw thrust injection the plasticized plastic into die cavity, after formalization take
out products.
Injection molding is a cyclical process, every cycle mainly include: rated material
feeding-- melt and plasticationpressure injectionmold filling and cooling --startup
mould. Closed modules after remove mold parts then go ahead next cycle.
The injection molding are basic requirements of the plasticizing, injection and molding.
Plasticizing is achieve and guarantee the quality of molding products, in order to meet
requirements of molding, injection must have enough pressure and speed. At the same
time, injection pressure high, consequently produce high pressure in die cavity, so must
have enough clamping force. Thus it can be seen, injection equipment and clamping
equipment key parts in injection molding machine.

Material of the Component used

The main tool of injection molding is made up cast iron or copper or HSS.

Other Requirements
Other Requirement for injection molding process is the making the mold of tool of the
machine by general operation like lathe,milling,drilling,shaper or it can be done in the CNC
machine.

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Appendix A: Glossary
Acceptable runner/cavity ratio: runner systems designed for high pressure drops to
minimize material usage and increase frictional heating in the runner.

Additive: A substance compounded into a resin to enhance or improve certain


characteristics.

Adhesive Assembly: The process of joining two or more plastic parts by means of an
adhesive.

Aging: The process of, or the results of, exposure of plastics to natural or artificial
environmental conditions for a prolonged period of time.

Backing Plate: A plate used as a support for the mold cavity block, guide pins, bushings,
etc.

Balanced Runner: A runner system designed to place all cavities at the same distance from
the sprue.

Barrel: The section of a molding machine that contains the feed screw, also the section
where resin heating and mixing occurs.

Binder: A resin or other material used to hold particles together. The binder is the
continuous phase in a reinforced plastic, which provides mechanical strength or ensures
uniform consistency, solidification, or adhesion to a surface coating. Typical binder
materials include resin, glue, gum and casein.

Clamping Plate: A plate fitted to a mold and used to fasten the mold to a platen.

Clamping Pressure: The pressure applied to the mold to keep it closed during the molding
cycle.

Core: A protrusion, or set of matching protrusions, in a plastics forming mold which forms
the inner surfaces of the molded articles.

Cavity: A depression, or a set of matching depressions, in a plastics-forming mold which


forms the outer surfaces of the molded articles.

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Appendix B: Analysis Models

Appendix C: Issues List (Optional)


In this list the following pending decisions, information that is needed, conflicts awaiting
resolution are lefted:
1.making of core and cavity
2.process in the CNC machine
3.parts of Injection molding machine
4.concept of the resins of the making component

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4. Design Considerations
Injection molding is used to create many things such as wire spools, packaging, bottle caps,
automotive dashboards, pocket combs, some musical instruments (and parts of them), one-
piece chairs and small tables, storage containers, mechanical parts (including gears), and
most other plastic products available today. Injection molding is the most common method
of part manufacturing. It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object.[5] Some
advantages of injection molding are high production rates, repeatable high tolerances, the
ability to use a wide range of materials, low labor cost, minimal scrap losses, and little need
to finish parts after molding. Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment
investment, potentially high running costs, and the need to design moldable parts.

4.1 Assumptions and Dependencies


Injection molding is particularly advantageous for assemblies wherein components can be
mounted using ribs and bosses inside the shell of the parts allowing to easy assembly most
commonly using screws, push nuts, snap latches, or heat staking. Components are
commonly captured between two shells. Consideration for assembly procedure in part
design is critical to reducing cost and boosting assembly line yields. In many industries,
cost competitiveness is key factor in market success. Secondary assembly operations can
include sonic insertion of threaded fasteners and plastic welding operations such as thermal
welding, ultra-sonic welding, spin welding, vibration and laser welding.

4.2 General Constraints


To insure a quality final product, it is necessary to start out with quality components.
Injection molded parts can be molded to a high quality standard by focusing on these areas
of plastic technology:

1)Correct Part Design

2)Accurate Selection of Material

3) Processing Plastic Processing

4.3 Goals and Guidelines

1 Use uniform wall thicknesses throughout the part. This will minimize sinking, warping,
residual stresses, and improve mold fill and cycle times.

Wall Section Considerations


Voids and Shrinkage

Warpage

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2 Use generous radius at all corners. The inside corner radius should be a minimum of one
material thickness.

Radius Limitations

3 Use the least thickness compliant with the process, material, or product design
requirements. Using the least wall thickness for the process ensures rapid cooling, short
cycle times, and minimum shot weight. All these result in the least possible part cost.

4 Design parts to facilitate easy withdrawal from the mold by providing draft (taper) in the
direction of mold opening or closing.

Draft and Texture

5 Use ribs or gussets to improve part stiffness in bending. This avoids the use of thick
section to achieve the same, thereby saving on part weight, material costs, and cycle
time costs.

Rib Design

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5. Design and Calculations


5.1 Drawing of the each Component being used

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5.2 Design and Calculation of the Component being used

Injection molding machines are typically characterized by the tonnage of the clamp
force they provide. The required clamp force is determined by the projected area of the
parts in the mold and the pressure with which the material is injected. Therefore, a larger
part will require a larger clamping force. Also, certain materials that require high injection
pressures may require higher tonnage machines. The size of the part must also comply with
other machine specifications, such as shot capacity, clamp stroke, minimum mold
thickness, and platen size.

Injection molded parts can vary greatly in size and therefore require these measures to
cover a very large range. As a result, injection molding machines are designed to each
accommodate a small range of this larger spectrum of values. Sample specifications are
shown below for three different models (Babyplast, Powerline, and Maxima) of injection
molding machine that are manufactured by Cincinnati Milacron.

Babyplast Powerline Maxima


Clamp force (ton) 6.6 330 4400
Shot capacity (oz.) 0.13 - 0.50 8 - 34 413 - 1054
Clamp stroke (in.) 4.33 23.6 133.8
Min. mold
1.18 7.9 31.5
thickness (in.)
Platen size (in.) 2.95 x 2.95 40.55 x 40.55 122.0 x 106.3

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6. Glossary System Architecture

1. Granules of plastic powder (note the plastics listed above) are poured or fed into a
hopper which stores it until it is needed.

2. A heater heats up the tube and when it reaches a high temperature a screw thread starts
turning.
3. A motor turns a thread which pushes the granules along the heater section which melts
then into a liquid. The liquid is forced into a mould where it cools into the shape (in this
case a DVD storage unit).
4. The mould then opens and the unit is removed.

7. Bibliography
1. Injection Molding Handbook By Tim A. Osswald, Lih-Sheng Turng, Paul J.
Gramann
2. http://www.cadmodels.biz/3d_cad_design_for_injection_molded_plastics.html
3. http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/InjectionMolding#cost_drivers
4. http://www.vero-software.com/products.php?page_id=1&sub_id=4
5. http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/plastic_design/plastic_intro.cfm

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2 Bibliography
1. Injection Molding Handbook By Tim A. Osswald, Lih-Sheng Turng, Paul J.
Gramann
6. http://www.cadmodels.biz/3d_cad_design_for_injection_molded_plastics.html
7. http://www.custompartnet.com/wu/InjectionMolding#cost_drivers
8. http://www.vero-software.com/products.php?page_id=1&sub_id=4
9. http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/plastic_design/plastic_intro.cfm

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1. Powder or pelletized polymer is loaded and heated to the molten state
2. Under pressure, the molten polymer is forced into a mold through an opening
called a sprue
3. The pressurized material is held in the mold until it solidifies.
4. The mold is opened and the part removed by ejector pins.

# Clamping unit:-
The clamping unit must be able to keep the mold halves closed during the
pressurized injection of plastic and not allow flashing.
Common clamping mechanisms are direct hydraulic clamping and mechanical
toggle clamps, actuated by hydraulic cylinders
Toggle clamps make use of mechanical advantage but are opened and locked by
use of a hydraulic cylinder

Terms used in Injection Molding:-


Plastic injection molding may not be rocket science, but it comes pretty close. There
are hundreds of terms used in the industry. We have chosen to highlight the most
common nomenclature used when discussing mold parts, materials and problems.

Additives These compounds are added to resins to improve the overall performance and
appearance of finished products. A key trend in this area today is using additives that are made
from organic materials such as eggshells, wood pulp, rice hulls or materials that improve the
biodegradability of the plastic.

Alloy A plastic alloy is a physical modification of an existing plastic to achieve higher


performance and or functionality. These alloys are often used in the automobile industry and to
replace metal parts.

Annealing - Annealing is the heating and slow cooling of a plastic part which allows the
polymer chains to recoil and relieve internal stresses.
Assembly A secondary manufacturing function of joining finished parts together.
Backing plate A plate, which supports the mold, pins and bushings in the injection
machine.
Blister As the name says, this is a part defect which appears as a small bubble or blister
on the surface of a part and it generally created by gas or air bubbles.
Blow molding The process follows the basic steps found in glass blowing. A parison
(heated plastic mass, generally a tube) is inflated by air. The air pushes the plastic against

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the mold cavity to form the desired shape. Once cooled, the plastic is ejected. This
method is used to make plastic bottles.
Bridge tool An injection mold that makes parts until the final tool is completed. These
molds or tools are not meant to be production tools.
Bubbles Similar to blisters, gas pockets, or voids that have formed inside the plastic.
Cavity - The machined shape within a mold which created the form of the plastic part.
Clamp The mechanism that holds the mold in location during the molding process.
Cold slug A defect characterized by a small non-uniform area on the part caused by an
improperly heated piece of plastic becoming attached to the part.
Colorant A pigment system, usually in pelletized form, powder or liquid, which is
mixed with resin to produce the desired color.
Compression molding - The name of this molding method says everything. A heated
plastic material is placed in a heated mold and is then compressed into shape. The plastic
can be in bulk but often comes in sheets. The heating process, called curing, insures the
final part will maintain its integrity. This molding method is often used to make large
objects such as automobile components.
Copolymer - A polymer derived from more than one type of monomer.
Core - A protrusion or set of matching protrusions, which form the inner surface of a
plastic part. They are often considered they male side of the part.
Crazing A defect that causes small cracks often caused by over-stressing the plastic
material.
Creep The set that a molded part takes under stress, and does not return to its original
shape. Also known as memory.
Cure The process of allowing a plastic to harden or stabilize.
Cycle The overall time it takes for the plastic injection process to complete a finished
part.
Degassing Opening and closing of a mold to allow gas to escape. Trapped gas and/or
air can cause parts defects such as blistering and bubbles.
Delamination - This defect appears as a flaky surface layer on the part and is often
caused by contamination or moisture in the resin pellets.
Density Mass per unit volume of a substance.
Dimensional stability - Ability of a plastic part to retain the precise shape in which it
was molded.
Draft The angle or degree of taper in a side wall to help facilitate removal of the parts
from the mold.

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EDM or electric discharge machining - A manufacturing process used to create molds,
where the shape of the mold cavity is obtained by removing metal material using
electrical discharges.

Ejection pin Metal rods in the mold which push the parts from the mold.
Ejector return pins Pins that push the ejectors back into position once the parts have
been released.
Ejector rod A bar that engages the ejector assembly and pins when the mold opens.
Elasticity The ability of a material to return to its original state when stretched.
Elastomer A rubber-like material, which is highly elastic.
Extrusion The process of forming tubes or continuous shapes by pushing melted
material through a die aperture.
Fabricating The process of manufacturing plastic products through various molding
and forming methods.
Family mold A mold which contains cavities for various parts.
Fan gate A gate with a wider width that helps reduce warping through stress.
Fill The packing of material into the mold
Filler An inert additive that adds strength or hardness to a part.
Finish The surface texture to a part.
Flash gate An alternative to a fan gate, which conveys the melted resins into a thinner
gate section creating a linear melt flow into the cavity.
Flash or burrs A thin lip or protrusion beyond the body of the part that is generally
caused by poor clamping force, improper mold design and/or mold damage.
Flow marks - A wavy pattern or discoloration caused by a slow injection speed which
allows the material to cool too quickly.
Flow rate The volume of material passing a fixed point per unit time.

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Gate The channel into which melted plastic flows into a mold.
Hardness The resistance of a material to compression, indentation and scratching.
Hot-runner mold Hot runner molds consist of 2 plates that are heated with a manifold
system. The manifold sends the melted plastic to nozzles which fill the part cavities.
Injection Blow molding - A blow molding process in which the parison to be blown is
formed by injection molding.
Injection molding A manufacturing process in which melted plastic is injected into a
mold to form a part.

Insert An object, such as a magnet or screw, which is inserted into the molded part.
Jig The apparatus which holds and guides the tool during the manufacturing process.
Machine shot capacity The maximum volume of resin which can be injected in a
single stroke.
Masterbatch A solid or liquid additive for plastic used for coloring plastics or
imparting other properties to plastics.
Memory The action of plastic returning to its previous size and form.
Mold A hollow form that plastic is injected or inserted into to manufacture a plastic
part.
Mold release A surface preparation used to aid in the ejection of the part from the
mold.
Multi-shot molding A process where two or more plastic substances are injected into
the mold to form a part. Toothbrushes are often manufactured using this technique.
Nozzle - The hollow-cored metal nose screwed into the injection end of the barrel which
forms a seal under pressure. .
Orange peel A patchy rough surface defect caused by moisture in the mold cavity, or
by incomplete pack-out.

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Over molding A two-shot process, in which two plastic substances, are injected into a
mold sequentially, usually a harder base material with a coating of softer material.
Parting line A line on a part formed when the two sides of the mold come together.
Pinpoint gate A very small gate, used in hot runner molds, to control the flow of
material.
Plastic A polymeric substance of large molecular weight.
Plasticity - The quality of being easily shaped or molded.
Platens Steel plates in the molding machine onto which the mold is fastened.
Polymer - A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a
large number of similar units bonded together, e.g., many synthetic organic materials
used as plastics and resins.
Prototype tool Also called a soft tool, a preliminary mold built to produce prototype
parts and used to make adjustments to the final production tool.
Purging The process of cleaning the injection machine of remnant color or materials
prior to running a new part.
Ram A plunger-like part which pushes the melted material into the mold.
Release agent A compound, which is sprayed on the mold, or as an additive, molded
into the part to help facilitate the release of the part.
Retainer plate A plate onto which the removable parts of the mold are mounted.
Runner system The channel system that allows the flow of the melted material to fill
the part cavities.
Short shot A defect where the material does not fully fill the part cavity.
Shot A complete cycle of the injection machine.
Shrinkage The amount of volume reduction that takes place when a plastic material
cools.
Sprue The opening feed that conveys material from the nozzle to runner system in the
mold.
Thermoplastic - A material that can be heated and cooled repeatedly without changing
the material structure. Highly recyclable.
Thermoset A material, which when heated, is pressed or molded into a shape. The
heating process changes the structure of these materials, and for this reason they cannot
by re-heated.
Tie bars - Bars which provide structural support to the mold in the press. The spacing
between the tie bars dictates the size of the mold that can be placed into the injection
machine. The mold opens and closes riding on the tie bars.

40
Toggle A mechanism that is used to mechanically close the mold, as opposed to
hydraulic clamping.
Tool The mold used to form plastic parts in an injection machine.
Undercut Can be a design flaw that results in an indentation or protrusion that inhibits
the ejection of the part from the mold. Other times undercuts are designed into a mold to
ensure a part holds onto the correct side of the mold.
Vent A channel from the mold cavity that allows gas and air to escape as resin is being
injected into the cavity to prevent many types of defects from occurring.
Weld line - Also called a knit line, the juncture where two flow fronts meet and are
unable to join together during the molding process. These lines usually occur around
holes or obstructions and cause localized weak areas in the molded part.

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Plastic and its types used in molding operation
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic
solids that are moldable Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular
mass, but they often contain other substance.

Types of Plastic:
1.Thermosetting Plastics .
2.Thermoplastic Plastics.

THERMOSETTING PLASTICS :
Thermosetting plastics are those which are set with heat and have little elasticity.
Once set, they cannot be reheated and reformed.
They are heated and moulded during manufacture.
Once cooled, they will not soften again when heated. This breaks the potentially
unending cycle that thermoplastic plastics are capable of.
If heated too much, they burn

Fig-Thermosetting Plastics Cycle

42
THERMOPLASTIC PLASTICS
The majority of common plastics are thermoplastics.
Thermoplastics can be heated and reshaped because of the ways in which the
molecules are joined together.
This can be repeated many times (as long as no damage is caused by overheating).

Fig-Thermoplastic Cycle

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STAGES OF INJECTION MOLDING

Granulated thermoplastic plastic is fed from a hopper into the Injection Molding
STAGE machine.
1

The Injection Molding machine consists of a hollow steel barrel, containing a


rotating screw (Archemidial Screw). The screw carries the plastic along the
STAGE
barrel to the mould.
2
Heaters surround the barrel melt the plastic as it travels along the barrel.

The screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of the barrel.
Once enough plastic has collected a hydraulic ram pushes the screw forward
injecting the plastic through a spure into a mould cavity.
STAGE
3 The mould is warmed before injecting and the plastic is injected quickly to
prevent it from hardening before the mould is full

Pressure is maintained for a short time (dwell time) to prevent the material
creeping back during setting (hardening). This prevents shrinkage and hollows,
therefore giving a better quality product.
STAGE The moulding is left to cool before removing (ejected) from the mould. The
4 moulding takes on the shape of the mould cavity.The image below shows an an
Injection Moulding machine.
44
Injection Molding Applications

Injection molding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from plastic


material.
Heated, fluid plastic is injected at high pressure into a mold, which is the inverse
of the desired shape.
The steel or aluminum mold is machined with the contours of the final product.
Injection molding is used for create a variety of parts, like plastic milk cartons,
containers, bottle caps, automotive dashboards, pocket combs, and most other
plastic products available today.

# Molding Defects:-
1.Flash
2.Air Bubble
3.Short Molding
3.Line Mark/Dent
4.Crack
5.Water Mark
6.Sink Mark

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MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD.
INJECTION MOLDING,MANESAR
MARUTI SUZUKI,MANESAR Car Plant have its own Injection Molding Department producing
BUMPERS AND INSTRUMENT PANELS

Bumper:- a horizontal protective device attached to the front or rear end of a motor
vehicle, such as a truck or car to absorb impact in a collision./ to protect against damage
from impact.

Instrument Panel:- A panel on which are mounted an array of dials, lights, and gauges
that monitor the performance of a car,airplane, boat, or machine.

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Machines used in Vehicle Bumper / Instrument Panel
Manufacturing:-
Silo Bin:-
A silo (from the Greek siros, "pit for holding grain") is a structure for storing
bulk materials. Silos are used in industries to store grain (see grain elevators) or
fermented feed known as silage. Silos are more commonly used for bulk storage of grain,
coal, cement, carbon black, woodchips, food products and sawdust. Three types of silos
are in widespread use today:
1.Tower Silos
2.Bunker silos
3.Bag silos.

Dryer:-
Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of water or another solvent[1]
by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid. A source of heat and an agent to remove
the vapor produced by the process are often involved
In the most common case, a gas stream, e.g., air, applies the heat by convection and
carries away the vapor as humidity. Other possibilities are vacuum drying, where heat is
supplied by conduction or radiation (or microwaves), while the vapor thus produced is
removed by the vacuum system

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Punching machine
A punching machine is a machine tool for punching.
Punch presses are developed for high flexibility and efficient processing of metal
stampings. The main areas of application are for small and medium runs. Those machines
are typically equipped with a linear die carrier (tool carrier) and quick change tools.
Today the method is used where the application of lasers are inefficient or technically
impractical

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Vehicle Bumper / Instrument Panel Manufacturing
Process Flow Chart:-

Raw Material

Silo Bin

Dryer

Centre Blower

Machine Hopper

Injection Mouldind Machine

Product
(Bumper/Instrument Panel)

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Raw Material Used:-
In the automotive sector PP is utilised as a monomaterial solution for automotive interiors. The
monomaterial dashboard is becoming increasingly achievable, PP film cushioning, film skins, and
powder slush moulding and even blow moulded parts with integral PP textile covers are
emerging.

Bumpers, cladding, and exterior trim are also available manufactured from polypropylene.
Polypropylene developed for such applications provides low coefficient of linear thermal
expansion and specific gravity, high chemical resistance and good weatherability, processability
and impact/stiffness balance. Improvements with colour-at-the-press and pre-coloured PP have
also reduced or eliminated the need for painting in some applications

Material Material grade Sample Material Vendor/Supplier Name Used for

production of

Polypropylene SP-280 ACI Bumper

APIP-P4Z I.P

PIPN- 5PK Machino I.P.

APIP-5PK Mytex I.P.

PIPN- V6N Machino I.P.

APIP-V6N2 Mytex I.P.

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Material Properties:-
POLYPROPYLENE:-

1 Processing
Homopolymer Copolymer

Melt temperature / C 210 290 210 - 290

Mould temperature / C 20 60 20 60

Pre-drying / hours at C Not required Not required

Typical mould shrinkage /% 1.5 2

6.1 Physical Properties

Tensile Strength 0.95 - 1.30 N/mm

Notched Impact Strength 3.0 - 30.0 Kj/m

Thermal Coefficient of expansion 100 - 150 x 10-6

Max Cont Use Temp 80 C

Density 0.905 g/cm3

6.2 Resistance to Chemicals


Rating

Dilute Acid Very Good

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Dilute Alkalis Very Good

Oils and Greases Moderate (Variable)

Hydrocarbons Poor

Alcohols Very Good

After getting Bumper from mould it goes through various further processes :-

Bumper Process Flow Chart:-

Bumper from Inspection Storage


Mould of Area
mouldind
Defects

Storage Inspection Bumper


Bumper
Area Area for Paint
Sequencing
Paint Shop
Area
Defects

Bumper
Sub-
Assembly

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BUMPER PAINT SHOP
In Paint shop the Paint job is Done by Autonomus Robots .During the paint job
operation the bumper passes through various processes and takes 45-50 minutes in getting
a paint job done.

In the paint shop following processes are carried out:-

Unpainted Loading Primer Base Clear


bumper Area Coat Coat Coat

Sequencing Storage Unloading Baking


Area Area Area

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N.
G
Repair
Area
In Bumper Paint Shop Unloading/Inspection Area the bumper is inspected for various
paint defects if any.
The Paint Defects are as follows.:-

1.Dust.

Cause:-
Dirt entering wet film either from airborne contamination or from unfiltered basecoat

Prevention:-
Ensure the spraybooth is clean at all times
Blow out crevices to ensure all dust is removed at every stage of preparation
Wear lint free spraysuit
Use paint strainer/filter

Remedy:-
Denib dirt particles and re-apply basecoat to affected areas as required

2.Mottling.

Cause:-
Incorrect spraying viscosity, spraying technique, flash-off times, spraybooth temperature

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Defective spray gun set up, incorrect spraying pressure Unsuitable thinners

Prevention:-
Adjust material correctly
Keep spray gun parallel to object
Choose suitable spray gun set up
Use manufacturers thinners
Ensure sufficient flash-off
Follow application recommendations in technical data sheets

Remedy:-
When using conventional basecoat: use droplet method before spraying clear After clear has
through-dried, sand surface and repaint
When using waterborne basecoat: apply uniform finish on wet basecoat in accordance with
technical data sheet

3.Popping

Cause:-
Insufficient drying of primer filler in corners, edges, rebates and below decorative strips
Solvent or air trapped in film, which then escapes leaving pop marks due to incorrect spraying
viscosity, spraying pressure, flash-off times and drying times
Incorrect choice of hardeners and thinners
Film build too high
Wrong spraying technique

Prevention:-
Apply normal film thicknesses
Check oven temperature regularly
Follow recommendations on technical data sheets

Remedy:-
After drying, repaint without sanding (within 24 hrs) or sand with Scotch brite ultrafine
After drying and sanding, fill pinnholes with Polyester Spray Filler or remove damaged finish
and repaint
Sand, prime and repaint

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4.Orange Peel.

Cause:-
Incorrect spraying pressure or viscosity, spraying technique or application temperature
Unsuitable combination of solvents or low quality solvents
Insufficient sanding of substrate
Incorrect spray gun set up
Excessive temperature

Prevention:-
Follow application recommendations from technical data sheets
Prepare and sand substrate correctly
Use recommended gun set up
Always use recommended thinners
Avoid application at very high temperatures

Remedy:-
Sand and repaint
Sand and polish

5.Over flow

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Cause:-
Incorrect spraying viscosity, spraying technique, flash-off times between coats, and film
thicknesses
Defective spray gun set up
Incorrect spraying pressure
Temperature of paint, substrate or spraybooth too low
Incorrect choice of hardeners and thinners

Prevention:-
Follow application recommendations on technical data sheets
Ensure that the spray gun is in good working order
Warm object and material up to room temperature of 20 C/68 F
Use correct combination of hardeners and thinners

Remedy:-
Sand and polish
Sand and repaint

6.Edge Paint Drop

After getting the bumpers painted are placed in Storage Trolleys and sent to Sequencing
Area. The Structure of transfer trolley is shown below:-

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6
CONCLUSION

Finally I want to state that NTF India Limited has provided me an opportunity to study and
gain knowledge in plastic parts production. During the process of the project I came to learn
the various effective techniques to avoid defects in production line and the various ways of
moulding. But out of all those the support and brotherhood given by the Martians will
always be memorable.

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7
REFERENCES

NTF training guide book


NTF Operating Standards (NOS)
NTF Inspection Standards (NIS)
Work Instruction Sheets (WIS)
Internet
http://www.wikipedia.org/ (dated 25th May17 )
http://www.NTF INDIA.com/ (dated 2nd Jun17 )

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