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- Signals System Lab Manual
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- perumbur
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the channel. a narrowband channel a channel where the channel coefficient

between each transmitter and each receiver is a complex scalar

Our theoretical results and Monte-Carlo simulations show that: (1) if the

frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channel impulse response has no inter-tap

corre-lations, then its ergodic capacity is the same as that of the frequency at

Rayleigh fading channel. Currently, the majority of the MIMO channel capacity

analysis assumes quasi-static channels, or block fading channels [1]-[12],

where the channel remains a constant through

a transmission block (codeword), and varies randomly from one block to

another. Research on the capacity of MIMO systems with frequency selective

fading typically takes the approach of dividing the channel bandwidth into

parallel flat fading channels.When the channel is time-varying channel

capacity has multiple definitions, depending on what is known about the

channel state or its distribution at the transmitter and/or receiver. These

definitions have different operational meanings. Specifically, when the

instantaneous channel gains, also called the channel state information (CSI),

are known perfectly at both transmitter and receiver, the transmitter can

adapt its transmission strategy (rate and/or power) relative to the

instantaneous channel state. In this case the Shannon (ergodic) capacity is the

maximum mutual information averaged over all channel states.

Ergodic capacity is an appropriate capacity metric for channels that vary

quickly, where the channel is ergodic over the duration of one codeword. In

this case rates approaching ergodic capacity can be achieved with each

codeword transmission. Ergodic capacity is typically achieved using an

adaptive transmission policy where the power and data rate vary relative to

the channel state variations [35]. Alternatively, this ergodic capacity can be

achieved when only transmit power is varied .

MIMO capacity under the CSIR assumption

The information available about the channel is called Channel State

information (CSI) .Performance depends on the knowledge that the

transmitter and the receiver have about the channel. the receiver is assumed

to track perfectly the channel variations.

The channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is the information

about the channel available at the transmitter while the channel state

information at the receiver (CSIR) is the information about the channel

available at the receiver.

CSI at the receiver (CSIR) includes all the channel coefficients of the links

going from the transmitter to the receiver. This information is necessary so

that the optimal ML decoding can be performed. The receiver is assumed to

perfectly track the CSI. In LTE Rel 8, the channel and noise variance are

typically estimated by using pilot symbols embedded in the signal sent from

the transmitter. The mechanisms for CSIT acquisition rely mainly on feedback.

For LTE FDD, only feedback can be used and not channel reciprocity as the

direct link and inverse link do not use the same frequencies.

1. The receiver knows the instantaneous value of the CSIR. The

transmitter knows the instantaneous value of the CSIT.This is called

Closed loop MIMO used for low and medium speed users.

2. The receiver knows the instantaneous value of the CSIR. The

transmitter does not know the instantaneous value of the CSIT but

knows its distribution.This is called opened loop MIMO and used for

high speed users

the transmitter about the channel to achieve a reliable communication.

Since the capacity, C, of a MIMO system is a function of H, if H is random, so is

C. Therefore, when the channel varies randomly C is a random variable that

can be characterized in terms of all the various statistics that are applicable to

any random variable. The simplest statistic is the mean of the capacity. In

MIMO and information theory literature, the mean value of the capacity is

called the ergodic capacity.we can derive the ergodic capacity from

determenstic channel .

Therefore first let us discuss about the capacity of deterministic channel

Tim brown

Deterministic(Time-Invariant) MIMO Channel

Capacity

Under the CSIR only assumption, the transmitter does not have knowledge

about the communications channel, so there is no basis for transmitting

signals in any sort of preferential way on different antennas. This fact has two

implications:

1. There is no reason to transmit more energy on one antenna than

another; thus, the average signal power should be the same on each

transmit antenna.

2. There is no reason to introduce correlation or dependence between

antennas.

In summary: under the CSIR only assumption, transmitted signals on each of

the Nt transmit antennas are equi-power, independent, and uncorrelated.

AWGN Channels

When multiple antennas are present simultaneously at both the transmitter

and receiver, the capacity achieving scheme consists of sending multiple

symbols per transmission period. The transmission and reception of each

symbol relies on pre- and post-processing that is matched to the underlying

structure of the channel based on its singular value decomposition (SVD).

This pre- and post-processing allows for the extraction of a spatial route for

communication (simply a SISO channel) for each transmitted symbol. Multiple

pairs of pre- and post-processing create multiple spatial routes. Those

multiple spatial routes are independent and the MIMO system becomes

equivalent to a set of independent SISO channels. Hence the capacity becomes

the sum of the capacity of each SISO channel.

The SVD decomposition of the channel matrix is fundamental in

understanding MIMO systems:

(a) it extracts the equivalent independent AWGN channel structure,

(b) it gives the maximum number of streams that can be multiplexed

simultaneously,

(c) it provides a very simple way to compute the capacity which becomes the

sum of AWGN channel capacity.

The SVD of the channel matrix H is:

H = U_VH

Both MRMR matrix U and MTMT matrix V are unitary matrices. _ is a

MRMT diagonal matrix with nonnegative singular values k, k = 1, . . . , Mmin,

where Mmin =min(MT,MR). For convenience, the singular values are ordered

decreasingly: 1 2 Mmin . The ks are called the eigenmodes of the

channel.

Singular Values and Channel Energy: The following relationship between

channel energy and singular values will be useful.

. Using the relationships HHH = U_2UH and tr HHH_=tr_HHH_

, the following result is obtained: tr_HHH_= _rH

k=1 2

k. To summarise:

tr_HHH_=_MTi=1 _MR j=1 |hji|2 = _rH k=1 2 i

Each output k, k = 1, . . . , MR of the equivalent system (2.33) can be written as:

yk = k xk + nk, for k = 1, . . . , rH

yk = nk, for k = rH + 1, . . . , MR, when rH <MR.

Each independent channel is also called an eigenchannel as the associated

channel coefficient is an eigenvalue of the channel matrix. Alternatively it is

sometimes referred to as a subchannel. The entire MIMO channel is equivalent

to the set of all the eigenchannels, each of which has a different SNR.

Looking at Equation (2.34), each inputoutput relationship yk = k xk + nk

describes an AWGN channel as described in Section 2.5.1: see Figure 2.10.

Furthermore, as the additive noises nk are all independent from each other,

those AWGN subchannels are all independent from each other, forming a set of

parallel AWGN channels. This means that an optimal coding can be done

independently for each AWGN subchannel. Thus, the capacity of the MIMO

system is the sum of the individual capacities.

Let us introduce the following quantities defined for each eigenchannel as:

Let Pk be the transmit power of eigenchannel k (the power in xk). Pkk can be

seen as the SNR of the kth eigenchannel. The capacity of each eigenchannel

with transmit power Pk is the capacity of an AWGNchannel with SNR = Pkk: it

is equal to log2(1 + Pkk). Pk is adjusted to maximise the capacity of the MIMO

system while complying with the overall transmit power constraint:

_rH i=1 Pk P . In general, Pk depends on all nonzero singular values, through

the power constraint.

The capacity of the MIMO system is the sum of the individual capacities with

optimized transmit power per eigenchannel:

Lagrangian multipliers. The results on capacity can be summarised as follows.

Let us nowrevisit the time-invariant MIMO channel of Section 2.5.4. For a fixed

covariance matrix, the maximal achievable rate for reliable communication is

(2.46). To find thebcapacity, one needs to find the optimal covariance matrix

that maximises (2.46). The capacity is then also defined as:

The capacity of aMIMO channel with only CSIR can be interpreted as the sum

of r SISO channels, each having power gain, i, i = 1, . . . , r, where the effective

transmit power of a SISO channel is 1/Nt times the total actual transmit power.

This result shows that in principle it is possible to transmit up to r data streams over a

MIMO channel, which demonstrates the importance of having large channel rank.

Furthermore,

because the gains of the SISO channels are given by the eigenvalues, this

result also shows the importance of having large eigenvalues, or put negatively, the

adverse effect of small eigenvalues. Channel rank is a quantitative way to characterize

the scattering richness of a MIMO channel.

HAMPTON

We will see that it is possible for the capacity to exceed

the values given in this expression when both CSIT and CSIR are present. Under those

assumptions, the transmitter has knowledge of the communications channel matrix, so it

will be found that equi-power and uncorrelated transmitted signals are not optimal and

that by using the transmitters knowledge of the channelIn this principle, more power is allocated

to the channel that is in a good condition and less power or none to the bad channels.

1. Set the iteration count p to 1 and compute by solving the following equation:

=1

rp+1

1 + 1

r_p+1

i=1

1

i

2. Using the value of obtained above, solve for the power, Popt

i , for the ith eigen-channel using

the following equation:

Popt

i

=1

i

. i = 1, . . . , (r p + 1)

3. If the power is allocated to the channel with the lowest gain (i.e., if Popt rp+1 < 0

), discard that

channel by setting Popt rp+1 = 0 and rerun the algorithm with the iteration count p incremented

by 1.

4. Repeat steps 13 until all channels have been allocated power.

Capacity for a General MIMO Channel

Distribution

For an optimal transmission, the covariance of the input signalsRxx should be adapted to

the

channel distribution. When the covariance matrix of the input signal is fixed, we have

seen

that the maximal achievable rate over a given channel fadeH is log2 det[I + HRxxHH/2

n].

It is achieved when the channel is known at the transmitter. The ergodic capacity is the

average of the maximal achievable rate over the channel fades.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

\

Performance comparison

In general, we find that the relative performance of these techniques

depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and the relative values of Nt and Nr. It is clear that the

capacity is always higher when the channel is known than when it is unknown. This advantage reduces at

high SNR values, because at high SNR values, all the channels perform equally well.

In our discussions so far, we have assumed that the channel matrix is fixed. Of course, in

the real world H is time-varying, and so, too, is the capacity. In this section we consider

the capacity of randomly-varying channels and introduce the concepts of ergodic and

outage capacities

and receiver, the magnitude of the elements of H is Rayleigh distributed. This means

that Re{hij} and Im{hij} are N(0, 2 h ).

Let the magnitude of the elements of H be Rayleigh distributed with2h= 1/2, which

implies that E{|hij|2}

= 1. Furthermore, assume that the channel is spatially white, which means that

E{hijhmn}== imjn. When these conditions hold, the channel matrix is denoted by Hw.

Ergodic capacity

Since the capacity, C, of a MIMO system is a function of H, if H is random, so is

C. Therefore, when the channel varies randomly C is a random variable that can be

characterized in terms of all the various statistics that are applicable to any random

variable. The simplest statistic is the mean of the capacity. In MIMO and information

theory literature, the mean value of the capacity is called the ergodic capacity.

Introduction to

MIMO Communications

JERRY R. HAMPTON

The Johns Hopkins University

_c Cambridge University Press 2014

In this section, the channel is assumed time invariant (TI) and known at the transmitter

and

the receiver. First, we examine the fundamental case of a time-invariant SISO channel,

also

called Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), followed by the case of multiple antennas

_ Acodeword spans over an asymptotic long data block, thus averaging out the noise.

_ The channel is time-invariant.

_ CSIT and CSIR are known.

Andrea Goldsmith, Syed Ali Jafar, Nihar Jindal, and Sriram Vishwanath

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