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Nasih Widya Yuwono

Suci Handayani
Eko Hanudin
Garis Besar Materi Kuliah
1. Pengertian Tanah
2. Komponen Tanah : a. Mineral, b. Organik, c. Air, d.
Udara
3. Tubuh Tanah: a. Fisika Tanah, b. Kimia Tanah, c.
Biologi Tanah
4. Perkembangan Tanah: a. Faktor-faktor pembentuk
tanah, b. Proses Pedogenesis, c. Profil tanah
5. Jenis Tanah: a. Klasifikasi Tanah, b. Pemetaan Tanah
6. Fungsi Tanah: a. Kesuburan Tanah, b. Pengawetan
Tanah, c. Tanah dan Lingkungan
Komponen tanah
Susunan tanah
Secara umum tanah (dengan bahan induk mineral)
tersusun atas 50% bahan padatan (45% bahan mineral
dan 5% bahan organik), 25% air dan 25% udara.
Sedangkan pada tanah organik (misalnya gambut),
bahan padatan tersebut terdiri atas 5 % bahan
anorganik dan 45% bahan organik).
Bahan organik dalam tanah terdiri atas
mikroorganisme 10 %, akar 10% dan humat 80 %,
meskipun jumlahnya sedikit namun memiliki fungsi
sangat penting.
2.1. Mineral
TEKSTUR TANAH

PROPORSI MINERAL
DEBU

LEMPUNG

PASIR
clay

loam

sandy

USDA
Sand : 20%
Sand : 20%

Clay : 60%
clay

Sand : 20% loam


Clay : 60%
sandy
Texture : Clay
Sand : 30%
Sand : 30%

Clay : 30%
clay

Sand : 30% loam


Clay : 30%
sandy
Texture :
Clay loam
Sand : 70%
Sand : 70%

Clay : 20%
clay

Sand : 70% loam


Clay : 20%
sandy
Texture : sandy
loam
Sand 20%, clay
60%, Silt 20%.
Texture: clay

Sand 70%, clay


20%, Silt 10%.
Texture: sandy
loam

Sand 30%, clay


30%, Silt 40%.
Texture: clay
loam
S.J. Thien. 1979. A flow diagram for
teaching texture by feel analysis. Journal
of Agronomic Education 8:54-55.
2.2. Organik
2.3. Air
KOMPONEN TANAH
Volume Percent of Percent of
(1000 km3) Total Water Fresh Water
Oceans, Seas, & Bays 1,338,000 96.5 -
Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow 24,064 1.74 68.7
Groundwater 23,400 1.7 -
Fresh (10,530) (0.76) 30.1
Saline (12,870) (0.94) -
Soil Moisture 16.5 0.001 0.05
Ground Ice & Permafrost 300 0.022 0.86
Lakes 176.4 0.013 -
Fresh (91.0) (0.007) .26
Saline (85.4) (0.006) -
Atmosphere 12.9 0.001 0.04
Swamp Water 11.47 0.0008 0.03
Rivers 2.12 0.0002 0.006
Biological Water 1.12 0.0001 0.003
Total 1,385,984 100.0 100.0
Volume Weight
Available Water
Content (A.W.C.)
Soil Texture Class v
Sand 0.05-0.10
Loamy Sand 0.08-0.09
Sandy Loam 0.12-0.14
Loam 0.13-0.13
Silt Loam 0.11-0.15
Silt 0.14-0.14
Silty Clay Loam 0.13-0.13
Silty Clay 0.13-0.13
Clay 0.12-0.16
Plant Available Water Content (PAWC) -
it is measured in mm water per metre of soil depth.

Soil type PAWC (mm/m)


Coarse sand 35 to 60
Sand 60 to 75
Loamy sand 75 to 110
Sandy loam 100 to 160
Fine sandy loam 145 to 185
Loam 150 to 220
Silt loam 170 to 250
Clay loam and silty clay loam 170 to 220
Silty clay and clay 150 to 200
Available Soil Water
Bulk Density (inches/foot of soil depth)
Soil Texture (g/cm3) Porosity (%) Range Average
Coarse
Sand 1.65 38 0.5-0.8 0.7
Fine Sand 1.6 40 0.6-1.0 0.8
Loamy Sand 1.6 40 0.7-1.1 0.9
Gravel/Cobble in Coarse Texture 0.6-0.8 0.7
Moderately Coarse
Loamy Fine Sand 1.55 42 1.0-1.3 1.2
Sandy Loam 1.5 43 1.2-1.6 1.4
Fine Sandy Loam 1.5 43 1.2-1.7 1.5
Medium
Gravel/Cobble in Medium Texture 1.1-1.3 1.2
Very Fine Sandy Loam 1.45 45 1.6-2.2 1.9
Loam 1.4 47 1.6-2.3 2
Moderately Fine
Sandy Clay Loam 1.35 49 1.7-2.4 2.1
Silt Loam 1.35 49 1.8-2.5 2.2
Clay Loam 1.35 49 1.8-2.5 2.2
Fine
Sandy Clay 1.3 51 1.9-2.5 2.3
Silty Clay 1.25 53 1.9-2.5 2.3
Clay 1.2 55 2.0-2.5 2.3
Peats and Mucks 2.0-3.0 2.5
Field Capacity Wilting point
Crop Maximum root
depth1 (m)
Barley 1.0 to 1.5
Chickpea 0.6 to 1.0
Cotton 1.0 to 1.7
Maize 1.0 to 1.7
Millet 1.0 to 2.0
Mungbeans 0.6 to 1.0
Navy beans 0.6 to 0.9
Peanuts 0.5 to 1.0
Sorghum 1.0 to 2.0
Soybeans 0.6 to 1.3
Sunflower 0.8 to 1.5
Wheat 1.0 to 1.8
Measure soil water

1) soil feel and appearance 2


2) gravimetric sampling
3) tensiometers
4) porous blocks
5) neutron scattering
6
6) TDR Time Domain Reflectometry
7) Frequency Domain Reflectometry

5 4 3
1 SOIL TEXTURE

MODERATELY COARSE
COARSE (SAND, LOAMY FINE (SILT LOAM, CLAY
AVAILABLE WATER (SANDY LOAM, FINE MEDIUM (LOAM)
SAND) LOAM)
SANDY LOAM)
APPEARS VERY DARK,
APPEARS VERY DARK,
APPEARS VERY DARK, LEAVES SLIGHT
LEAVES WET OUTLINE LEAVES WET OUTLINE
LEAVES WET OUTLINE MOISTURE ON HAND
100% (FIELD CAPACITY) ON HAND WHEN ON HAND: WILL
ON HAND; MAKES A WHEN SQUEEZED:
SQUEEZED. (0.0) RIBBON OUT ABOUT 1".
SHORT RIBBON. (0.0) WILL RIBBON OUT
(0.0)
ABOUT 2". (0.0)
QUITE DARK: MAKES QUITE DARK RIBBONS
APPEARS MOIST:
DARK: MAKES A HARD TIGHT PLASTIC BALL: AND SLICKS EASILY:
70%-80% MAKES A WEAK BALL.
BALL. (0.3-0.4) RIBBONS OUT 1/2". (0.4- MAKES PLASTIC BALL.
(0.2-0.3)
0.6) (0.5-0.7)

APPEARS SLIGHTLY FAIRLY DARK: FORMS FAIRLY DARK: FORMS


FAIRLY DARK: MAKES A
60%-65% MOIST: FORMS WEAK FIRM BALL: BARELY FIRM BALL: RIBBONS
GOOD BALL. (0.8)
BRITTLE BALL. (0.4) RIBBONS. (0.8) 1/4"-1/2". (0.9)

BALLS EASILY: SMALL


APPEARS DRY: FORMS SLIGHTLY DARK: FAIRLY DARK: WILL CLODS FLATTEN OUT
50% VERY WEAK BALL OR FORMS WEAK BALL. FORM BALL: SLIGHTLY RATHER THAN
WILL NOT BALL. (0.5) (0.8) CRUMBLY. (1.0) CRUMBLE: RIBBONS
SLIGHTLY. (1.1-1.2)
SLIGHTLY DARK,
LIGHT COLOR: WILL SLIGHTLY DARK:
DRY: WILL NOT BALL. FORMS WEAK BALLS:
35%-40% NOT BALL OR FORMS FORMS WEAK BALL:
(0.6-0.7) CLODS CRUMBLE. (1.4-
BRITTLE BALLS. (0.9-1.0) CRUMBLY. (1.2-1.3)
1.5)
VERY DRY: LOOSE, DRY: LOOSE, FLOWS HARD, BAKED,
LESS THAN 20% LIGHT COLOR:
FLOWS THROUGH THROUGH FINGERS. CRACKED, LIGHT
(WILTING POINT) POWDERY, DRY. (1.6-2.0)
FINGERS. (0.8-1.0) (1.3-1.6) COLOR. (1.6-2.3)
Properties
Molecular polarity and hydrogen bonding
Cohesion: the attraction of water molecules for each
other primarily due to hydrogen bonding.
Adhesion (also called adsorption): the attraction of
water molecules for solid surfaces.
Surface tension: the greater attraction of water
molecules for each other than the air above at liquid-
air interfaces primarily due to cohesion.
Water content (v)
FC PWP AWC
Field capacity Permanent wilting Available water
point capacity

Sand 0.15 0.07 0.08

Loam 0.30 0.14 0.16

Clay 0.40 0.21 0.19


Field Capacity Wilting point Available water
Texture
mm/cm mm/cm mm/cm

Coarse sand 0.6 0.2 0.4


Fine sand 1.0 0.4 0.6
Loamy sand 1.4 0.6 0.8
Sandy loam 2.0 0.8 1.2

Light sandy clay loam 2.3 1.0 1.3

Loam 2.7 1.2 1.5


Sandy clay loam 2.8 1.3 1.5
Clay loam 3.2 1.4 1.8
Clay 4.0 2.5 1.5
Self-mulching clay 4.5 2.5 2.0
soil water potential
When soil water status is expressed in energy forms
and compared to pure water under standard
temperature and pressure, the difference in energy
level between this pure water and that of soil water is
called soil water potential.
t = m + s + p + g

m : Matric potential
s : Solute potential or osmotic potential
p : Pressure potential or submergence
g : Gravitational or elevation gradient
Water movement in soils
Saturated flow: (Soil texture, structure, organic matter,
hardpan, water content, temperature, etc.)
Unsaturated flow (Driven by matric potential gradient, or
the thickness of water films on particles, <-10 kPa)
Infiltration: the process by which water enters the soil
pore space and becomes soil water.
Percolation: the process of water moving downward into
the profile after infiltration, which involves both saturated
flow and unsaturated flow.
Water vapor movement: Moist Dry; Cool Warm
soil wetness
Maximum retentive capacity: soil water content when all pores are
filled with water, or totally saturated.
Field capacity (or field water holding capacity): maximum soil water
content after the drain of macropore water due to gravity gradient (~ -
33 Kpa).
Permanent wilting point (or, wilting coefficient, wilting percentage):
the soil water potential (content) at or below which plant roots cannot
absorb water any more (~ -1500 Kpa).
Hygroscopic coefficient: the soil water content of air-dried soil after
reaching equilibrium with water vapor in the air of 98% relative
humidity. Clay colloids are the main agents for holding this water.
Factors influencing thresholds above : Texture, SOM, bulk density, and
salinity
Plant water uptake
About 90% by Passive Absorption (or capillary action)
Water loss through Evapotranspiration.
The maximum ET loss that would occur under soil water
content near field capacity is referred to as Potential ET
(ETp), which is usually below Pan Evaporation (50-90%
of Pan Evaporation)
Water Use Efficiency (WUE): the amount of water required
to produce a unit weight of dry material, such the
Transpiration Ratio (water/dry matter, ranges from 200:1
to1000:1).
Evaporation.
Most of the solar energy reaching the earth is spent
evaporating water. For convenience, evaporation &
transpiration are often lumped together and called
evapotranspiration (ET). As soil dries evapotranspiration
slows. ET + water retained in plants is called consumptive
use.
Consumptive use varies greatly by time of the season. It
may be as much as ~ inch/day at the annual peak, such
as on a warm day when the soil is moist and plants are large
and active. Plants differ in water use efficiency (WUE).
WUE is the water required per unit of material produced.
Water content
Gravimetric. This involves collecting a sample, weighing it, drying it, and
then reweighing it. With these weights one can calculate m.
Porous resistance blocks. These can be calibrated to measure either
content or potential. Their performance is only acceptable in relatively dry
soil where the relation is more or less linear (see Figure 4-9 in the
textbook). These are easy to use once calibrated, but are not particularly
accurate.
Neutron probes. These provide high accuracy and non-destructive testing,
by measuring water content surrounding an access tube installed in the soil.
Because of the health risk and legal reporting requirements, their use is
declining.
Time domain reflectometry. This relatively new method requires expensive
instrumentation, but provides good accuracy. Also, some minor methods in
use include: frequency domain reflectometry, capacitance probes.
Lysimeters are often used for "balance-sheet" studies in which one
monitors water in and water out of a system.
Water potential
Pressure plate. This is a lab apparatus used to determine water
content for a wide range of matric potentials with reasonable
accuracy. Tests are slow and laborious.
Tensiometer. This is an instrument for field use. These are
commonly used in irrigation applications (see Figure 4-12 in the
textbook). They only work on the wet end of the water release curve,
and only measure matric potential.
Psychrometer. These provide the most scientifically rigorous
readings, yet provide rather poor precision; however, precision
improves drastically as soil wetness decreases.
Piezometer. These are access tubes inserted in the soil. The tubes
typically have a porous cup on the lower end to allow water in. They
are useful for measuring pressure potential due to a water table.
Filter paper. Filter paper can be exposed to soil to measure the
tendency for the paper to attract water from the soil. This is a low-
tech method with accuracy similar to that of resistance blocks.
Water quality
Salinity
pH
specific ions likely to be toxic to plants: sodium,
chloride, and boron
2.4. Udara
1. Mengisi pori-pori tanah (bersama air)
2. Dibandingkan udara di atmosfer:
uap air lebih tinggi.
karbon dioksida lebih besar (>0.03%)
oksigen lebih kecil (10-12%, di atm 20%),
karena ada dekomposisi BO, respirasi org
tanah dan akar tanaman
3. Berperan dalam transport senyawa organik
volatil dan uap air