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Q1/ what is the guiding principles of good measurement practice ?

There are six guiding principles of good measurement practice :

1. The Right Measurements : Measurements should only be made to satisfy agreed and well
specified requirements .
2. the right tools : Measurements should be made using equipment and methods that have
been demonstrated to be fit for purpose .
3. The Right People : Measurement staff should be competent, properly qualified and well
informed .
4. Regular Review : There should be both internal and independent assessment of the
technical performance of all measurement facilities and procedures .
5. Demonstrable Consistency : Measurements made in one location should be consistent
with those made elsewhere and across time .
6. The Right Procedures : Well-defined procedures consistent with national or international
standards should be in place for all measurements .

Q2/ what are the questions must be taken into consideration before the measurements ?

Are the measurement results accurate enough?


Is the measurement device working correctly?
How critical is this measurement? If it is wrong, will someone lose money? Or could
someone lose their life?

Q3/ what is the procedure of better measurements ?

Make better measurements by:

Using the International System of Units (SI) .


Ensuring the measurements are valid .
Understanding the concepts:
- Precision, accuracy and uncertainty
- Repeatability and reproducibility
- Acceptance criteria (tolerance)
- Traceability and calibration
Estimating the overall uncertainty of the measurements .
Applying geometrical tolerances .

Q4/ what is the rules must be taken into consideration when using the different units ?

1. The SI uses two equivalent units for temperature, the kelvin (K) used mainly in the
sciences and the more familiar degree Celsius (C) used almost everywhere else. The
magnitude of 1 K is exactly the same as the magnitude of 1 C, and they only differ in their
zero: the freezing point of water is 0 C, but 273.15 K.
2. The United States of America does not routinely use two of these SI units those for
length and mass, and this is a cause of considerable confusion. However, you may be
interested to know that since 1959, even the USA has defined the inch as being exactly equal
to 25.4 mm and a pound as being exactly equal to 0.45359237 kg. The USA uses the other
five base units routinely.

3. The first letters of the names of the units are in lower case, e.g. four newtons
or eight watts.

4. For clarity, it is normal practice to put a single space between a number and
its unit symbol, e.g. 4 mm rather than 4mm.

Q5/ define the true value (of quantity) .

is the value that would be obtained by a theoretically perfect measurement .

Q6/ draw the traceability chain , and what are the recorded points during a calibration
process .

During a calibration process, instrument readings are compared to the certified values
produced for a reference standard. The results are recorded in a calibration certificate. If
the results are consistent with the reference values (the differences between them are within
acceptable limits) then no further action is required.
If the results are significantly different, calibration corrections must be applied to
measurements made with the instrument. Sometimes the instrument can be adjusted until it
reads correctly, and these adjustments are recorded on the certificate. Each calibration must
be accompanied by a statement of uncertainty.
Q7/ in limited points define the uncertainty .

Uncertainty : is the quantification of the doubt about the measurement result and tells us
something about its quality .

The main steps to evaluate uncertainty :


The eight main steps to evaluating uncertainty
1. Decide what you need to find from your measurements.
2. Carry out the measurements needed.
3. Evaluate the uncertainty of each input quantity that feeds in to the final result .
4. Decide whether the errors of the input quantities are independent of each other.
5. Calculate the result of your measurement .
6. Find the combined standard uncertainty from all the individual aspects.
7. Express the uncertainty in terms of a coverage factor together with an expanded
uncertainty at a stated level of confidence.
8. Record the measurement result and the uncertainty, and state how you got both of these.

Q8/ define the calibration operation . and what are the rules must be taken into
consideration during calibration ?
Calibration : is the comparison of a test instrument or artefact against a more accurate
standard .

Several factors should be taken into account during and after a calibration to avoid potential
error sources that give rise to inaccurate results.

1. Using Precise Calibrator Values

2. Tolerance: Every calibration should be performed to a specified tolerance. Owing to the


normal variations in the instrumentation and quality control process, every calibrator is
associated with a tolerance

3. Accuracy Ratio: It is the term that describes the accuracy of the test standard and the
accuracy of the instrument under test.

4. Traceable Standards: Traceability is another factor to look for when calibrating


equipment. It is mandatory to perform all calibrations traceable to nationally or
internationally recognized standard.

5. Uncertainty: Uncertainty analysis is performed to evaluate the factors that affect the
accuracy of calibration.
Q9/ what are the conditions must be taken into consideration when reproducibility ?

The conditions may include:

- principle of measurement
- method of measurement
- observer
- measuring instrument
- reference standard
- location
- conditions of use
- time

Q10/ what are the conditions must be taken into consideration when repeatability ?

Repeatability conditions include:


- the same measurement procedure
- the same observer
- the same measuring instrument, used under the same conditions
- the same location
- repetition over a short period of time.

Q11/ what are the notes must be taken into consideration when uncertainty of
measurement ?

NOTE 1: The parameter may be, for example, a standard deviation (or a given multiple of
it), or the half-width of an interval having a stated level of confidence.

NOTE 2: Uncertainty of measurement comprises, in general, many components. Some of


these components may be evaluated from the statistical distribution of the results of series of
measurements and can be characterized by experimental standard deviations. The other
components, which can also be characterized by standard deviations, are evaluated from
assumed probability distributions based on experience or other information
.
NOTE 3: It is understood that the result of the measurement is the best estimate of the value
of the measurand, and that all components of uncertainty, including those arising from
systematic effects, such as components associated with corrections and reference standards,
contribute to the dispersion.
Q12/ measuring chain that is directly affected by the measurand , drive an example .

Is a series of elements of a measuring system constituting one single path of the


measurement signal .

EXAMPLE :

An electro-acoustic measuring chain comprising a microphone, attenuator, filter, amplifier,


and voltmeter.

Q13 / what are the guiding principles when using SI units ?

1- Only SI units and those units recognized for use with the SI are used to express the values
of quantities.
2- Abbreviations such as sec (for either s or second), cc (for either cm3 or cubic centimeter),
or mps (for either m/s or meter per second), are avoided and only standard unit symbols, SI
prefix symbols, unit names, and SI prefix names are used.
3- The combinations of letters ppm, ppb, and ppt, and the terms part per million,
part per billion, and part per trillion, and the like, are not used to express the values of
quantities.
4- Unit symbols (or names) are not modified by the addition of subscripts or other
information.

5- Statements such as the length l1 exceeds the length l2 by 0.2 % are avoided because it
is recognized that the symbol % represents simply the number 0.01. Instead, forms such as
l1 = l2 (1 + 0.2 %) or = 0.2 % are used, where is defined by the relation
= (l1 l2)/l2.

6- Information is not mixed with unit symbols (or names).

7- Values of quantities are expressed in acceptable units using Arabic numerals and the
symbols for the units.
m = 5 kg but not: m = five kilograms or m = five kg.

8- There is a space between the numerical value and unit symbol, even when the value is
used as an adjective, except in the case of superscript units for plane angle.
a 25 kg sphere but not: a 25-kg sphere
an angle of 23'4" but not: an angle of 2 3 '4 "
Q14/ how the graduations of main and Vernier scales (imperial) are made ?

All graduations should be clearly engraved ( ( so that they are legible ( ) .

Sometimes to facilitate reading, the surfaces of the beam and the vernier may be given a matt
finish( ) and the graduation lines filled with black pig-ment.

For clarity sake, the length of visible portion of graduations on main scale on beam and
vernier scale lines should be about 2-3 times the width of interval between adjacent lines and
the distance from the graduated face of the beam to the edge of the graduated beveled face of
the vernier should not exceed 0.1 mm.

The graduations on the beam and the vernier for least count 0.05 mm .

Q15/