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Mission 1:


Bryson Charitable Group 2006

What Do We Need Energy For?

The alarm clock goes off. Nathan wakes

Its eight oclock in the morning and Nathan up and gets ready for school. Is he using
is still asleep. Is he using ENERGY? ENERGY?

Nathan is travelling to school by bus. Is he

Time for some breakfast. Is he using
using ENERGY?

Nathan is home again, nished his homework

Nathan working hard in school. Is he using and settled down to watch some television.
ENERGY? Is he using ENERGY?

Energy is a very important part of all our lives.We are

using energy all the time, even when we are asleep.ENERGY
is the POWER that makes things WORK.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

What Do We Need Energy For?
In the box below, list some of the different things you do that use






Circle the correct answer to make each of the following sentences true.

1. We do not / do use energy when we are asleep.

2. We use a lot of energy when we are running / sitting.

3. An engine does not / does need energy.

4. When we move we are using / not using energy.

Cut out or draw pictures in the box below to show things which need energy to
make them work.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Where Does Energy Come From?

I can think of loads of things that need energy

to make them work!
A tree needs energy to grow...
Our bodies need energy to move...
A car needs energy to go...
But hang on Sparky, where does all this energy
come from?

Well Nathan, an ENERGY RESOURCE is something that is

used to provide energy.
There are lots of different energy resources...

The sun is an energy resource for trees and plants.

Food is an energy resource for our bodies.

Petrol is an energy resource for cars and other vehicles.

But all of our energy actually starts off coming from the sun.
Look at this...

Think about when you ride Exactly. And where did O.K. and what made the
your bike. Where does the you get the energy from to oranges and the wheat grow
energy come from? make your legs work? to make your breakfast?

Erm...oh, my breakfast
Um, my legs? - orange juice and


Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Where Does Energy Come From?
See if you can ll in the energy resources in the table below.
Energy Resource Energy Resource

Draw 2 more things that need energy to make them work. Write the correct
energy resource beside each one.

Put the following sentences in the right order to show how our energy always comes
from the sun. Draw a picture to illustrate each sentence...

A tree gets its energy from the sun. A re gets its energy from wood.

Nathans house is heated by energy from a re.

1. Nathans house is heated 2. 3.

by energy from a re.

A chicken gets its energy from eating corn. Nathan uses energy to play football.

Corn gets its energy from the sun. Nathan ate a boiled egg for his breakfast.

1.Nathan uses energy 2. 3. 4.

to play football.
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Different Types of Energy

When our bodies run out of energy we

eat. Our bodies change the food we eat
and the liquids we drink into chemical

Even when Nathan is asleep he is using

energy. Our bodies need and use energy
all the time, to keep us healthy and

Anything that Nathan plugs into an

electric socket, like the television, uses
electrical energy.

Nathan moves around during the day,

walking, running etc. This is called
mechanical energy.

Nathan travels to school by bus,

it uses the same energy as a car.
They both use petrol. Petrol is
a store of chemical energy.The
engine also uses a battery. This
is a store of electrical energy.

Everything that Nathan does during the day uses different

types of ENERGY. We get our energy from the food we eat,
cars get it from petrol, televisions from electricity. Energy
is being used all the time. Energy is the power that makes
things work.
Bryson Charitable Group 2006
Different Types of Energy

1. What sort of energy do these different things use? The rst one has been done
for you.

Riding a bicycle Electrical energy

A television Mechanical energy

Your body Electrical energy

Playing football Mechanical energy

A computer Chemical energy

2. In the box below draw some ways that you use energy, write what type of energy
you are using beside your drawing.

Watching television uses

electrical energy.

3. Finish off these sentences with these words:-

many power change everything

Energy is the _______ that makes things work. We need energy for __________ we do.
There are ______ different kinds of energy. Energy can _________ from one kind
into another.
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Can energy change?

The car or bus, which brings you to school gets its energy from petrol and a battery. The
petrol stores chemical energy and the battery stores electrical energy.

The engine changes this chemical energy and electrical energy into different types of

What happens when a car or bus is started? What do you hear, see, smell and feel?

When the engine starts, we switch on the radio or beep the horn , we can hear it. This is
sound energy.

When it is dark we switch on the headlamps. This is light energy.

After the car has been running for a while the bonnet becomes warm. This is heat energy.
Heat energy is always produced when things work. When you run about you get hot.

When we drive about, the car is moving. This is mechanical energy.

ENERGY can change from one form into another.

It cannot be created or destroyed!

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Types of Energy

a. What kind of energy shines from the front of the car?

b. What kind of energy is in the petrol?
c. What kind of energy makes the car move?
d. What kind of energy is turned into light?

e. The grey boxes will spell a word vertically. This type of energy is always
produced by energy changes. The mystery word is ________________

2. Here are some other ways energy changes.

Look at each one and try to wrok out what the two main kinds of energy are.

mechanical electrical chemical sound heat light

a. A drum changes mechanical energy into sound energy.

b. A electric heater changes ___________ energy into ____________ energy.

c. A light bulb changes ____________ energy into ____________ energy.

d. Our bodies change ____________energy into ____________ energy.

e. A kettle changes ___________ energy into ____________ energy.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Types of Energy

3. Energy can be said to be moving (Kinetic energy) or stored (Potential

energy). Something which is moving like a car is using kinetic energy,
something which stores energy like a battery has potential energy.

Complete the table below by putting the following things into the right box.

Car Coal Sandwich Wind Battery

Water Oil Motorcycle Apple Wave Gas

Kinetic energy ( moving) Potential energy (stored)

4a. A battery stores energy and so does a blown up balloon.

Blow up a bolloon and let it go.
What happened?

4b. How do you change the balloons potential energy into sound energy?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Energy Use

1. Study the energy bar graph below and then answer the questions.

(Figures from:The Carbon Trust, 2002)

a. What uses the most energy?

b. What percent does transport use?

c. Which of the things use 11% of all the energy?

d. What percentage does industry use?

e. What is the total percentage of energy used in Northern Ireland?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Energy Use

2. Study the pie chart below, it shows exactly the same thing as the bar graph.
First give it a title.

Title: ______________________________________________

(Figures from:The Carbon Trust, 2002)

a. Choose a colour for each of the uses, and colour in the key.

b. Look at the sizes of the ve slices. Write the correct percentage into each pie:-
44%, 28%, 17%, and 11%.

c. Label each pie to show what it stands for, you will need to look at the bar graph
to help you.

c. Now, colour in each slice in the same colour you used for your key.

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Energy Investigations

1. A very easy way to see energy changing from one form into another is to rub your
hands together really hard. Keep going for as long as you can.
Circle the correct answer below.

a. What sort of energy is that movement?

Mechanical Chemical Electrical

b. How do your hands feel?

Warm Cold Hot

This is called friction and is mechanical energy being changed into heat energy.

2. How many different kinds of energy are there when you use hairdryer?
Answer the following questions to nd out.

a. Where did the hairdryer get its energy from?

b. What happened when it was switched on? What did you hear, see and feel?

c. How many different kinds of energy are there?

d. Name all the types of energy used and produced by the hairdryer.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Mission 2:

What is Electricity?

One type of energy we use a lot

of is electrical energy - we call it

Electricity is the movement of tiny little You can only tell if electricity is there
things called ELECTRONS. if something lights up, makes a noise or
These are so small that we cant even see starts to work.
them! In fact, we cant see electricity at
Aha, there it is!
Where is it?

We rely on electricity to
power a lot of things at home
and at school.
Think of all the things in your
house that use electricity...

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

How do we use Electricity?

Nathan, are you sure you

turned the radio off?
Theres a lot of noise
coming from the kitchen.

Try to think of how many times you used electricity yesterday. How many electrical
appliances did you use? Appliances are things that are run by electricity, either from a
plug in the wall or from a battery.
Fill in the list below.

Electrical appliance Number of Number of

Electrical appliance
times used times used

Now look at the nished list and think about just how much electrical energy you used
in only one day.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

How do we use Electricity?
1. Count the number of electrical items in each room of your house.
Write the totals in the boxes.

Bathroom Bedrooms

Kitchen Living Room

a. Which room has the most electrical items?

b. Which has the least? Do you know why?

2. Count the number of electric lights, switches and sockets in your

home. Write the totals in the table below.

Number of Number of Number of

Room switches sockets


Living room



Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Changing electrical energy

Electricity makes things work. When we switch on electrical items

the energy from the electricity is changed into heat,light, sound or
movement - sometimes more than one of these at a time.

Look at the pictures. What is the electrical energy changed into when you switch it
Use the words below and remember it might be more than one type of energy.

Heat Light Sound Movement

The radio changes electrical The television changes electrical

energy into energy into
energy. energy.

The cooker changes electrical The lamp changes electrical

energy into energy into
energy. energy.

The kettle changes electrical The hair drier changes electrical

energy into energy into
energy. energy.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

What is a Circuit?
A battery is a device that stores electricity.
When a battery is connected to a bulb a circuit is formed. A circuit is needed to let
the energy from the battery ow to the bulb.

You will need : a battery, a bulb, 2 pieces of wire and 2 clips.

Now make the bulb light by making a complete circuit.

1. Draw a diagram of your circuit.

2. Are these complete circuits? Put a tick or an x in the box.

+ + +

- - -

+ + +
- - -

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Insulators and Conductors

An Insulator will not let electricity ow through it.

A Conductor will let electricity ow through it.

You will need : battery, bulb, 3 pieces of wire, tape, metal spoon, plastic cup, pencil,
wooden ruler, paper clip, rubber.

1. Connect the battery to the bulb .

2. Connect the battery to the object .
3. Connect the object to the bulb.

Battery Bulb

You should now have a complete circuit.

Metal spoon
If the object is a conductor the bulb will light.
If the object is an insulator the bulb will not light.

Try to predict which objects are conductors and which are insulators before you
begin. Test the different objects and mark your results with a tick below.
Choose another object to test and write it at the bottom of the table.

Object Insulator Conductor

Metal spoon

Plastic cup


Wooden ruler

Paper clip


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Electrical Puzzles

Choose a plug- colour it in and see where it leads.

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Electrical puzzles

Find the hidden electrical words:

socket appliance bulb light wire

plug insulator conductor electricity

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Electrical puzzles

Help Sparky through the Energy Maze to nd Nathan.

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Keywords and Denitions

Appliance A device that runs on electricity.

Circuit The unbroken path of an electrical conductor that

allows electricity to ow from its power source and
back again.

Conductor Material that allows electrical current to pass through


Electrical Energy The ability of the electrical current to do work.

Measured in Kilowatt-hours.

Insulator A material that does not allow electricity to pass

through it.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Keywords and Denitions

Energy The power that makes things work.

Electrical Energy The ability of the electric current to do work.

Measured in kilo-watt hours.

Mechanical Energy The energy of movement. Used by machines,

animals and people.

Watt The unit of power. It is a measure of the rate at

which an appliance uses electrical energy.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Mission 7:
Saving Energy
How can we save energy?

Converting one type of energy to another often damages

the environment. For example, burning coal to make
electricity causes air pollution. Thats why we should
always use energy as wisely as possible. To meet this
goal, we need to understand two concepts: energy
conservation and energy efciency.

Energy conservation means using less energy

whenever possible. We can all practice saving energy
every day, for example by turning off lights when we
leave the room. Every time we conserve energy we
help protect the environment.

Energy efciency means using energy as wisely

as possible. Sometimes this means using less energy
to do the same job. For example, an energy efcient
light bulb gives off the same amount of light but uses less
electricity than traditional bulbs. It uses less
energy to do the same job.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Electricity cycle
Study the diagram below of the Electricity Cycle.

Coal & Oil Power Station

To produce more
we need more
fossil fuels.

Homes use electricity Electricity

By conserving energy and using it efciently we can reduce the

amount of electricity power stations have to make. This in turn helps
to reduce the amount of pollution released into the environment.

Meet Mr.A and Mr.B. They Mr.A Mr.B

have both received their electricity
bill. One of them is happy and
one of them is not.

a. Which one do you think has not been energy efcient? Explain your

b. Which one has caused the smallest amount of pollution? Explain your

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How can we save energy at home?

No matter what we do, the heat inside our homes will eventually escape. The
trick is to slow down this loss of heat energy as much as possible.

Look at the picture below. Where are the draughts coming in and the heat escaping
Circle them and explain what they are under the picture.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

How can we save energy at home?
Hold your hand up at the edge of some of the doors and windows
in your home or classroom. Can you feel a draught of cold air? Cold
air comes in through lots of gaps and cracks, but warm air also gets

How can you stop all the draughts you found in the picture? Look at your draughty
room again.
How does each of the solutions below stop one of the draughts?

Brush seal
around letter

Double glazed
windows or foam
strips around the

Insulation in
roof space.

Brush seal
on bottom of

Curtains to pull
over window.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

How can we be more energy efcient?
Now we need to look at how we can heat our homes as efciently as
possible. Houses are heated in different ways including coal, oil or gas
red boilers and electric heaters. Whichever way we do it we can keep
the cost down, use less energy, cause less pollution and stay comfortable
by controlling the heat properly.
This home is not using energy efciently. Can you spot what they are
doing wrong? Circle the mistakes and explain the problem.

The following pictures show simple ways to be more energy efcient. Beside each
picture explain how they save energy.

A jacket for a hot

water tank.

A timer which can

turn the heating on
and off.

Energy efcient
light bulbs.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

How can we be more energy efcient?

to control the
temperature of
the house.

Putting a shelf above

a radiator.
(Remember heat

Turn the
television off
when nobody is
watching it.

washing out
instead of
using a tumble

Switch off lights

when they are not

Putting a lid on a
boiling pan.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Keep warm
Nathan wants to be an Arctic explorer. He needs to keep warm when hes on his
travels. Draw on the layers of clothes Nathan will need to wear. Make a list of all the
clothes you have put on Nathan.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Insulation - keeping in the heat
Think about how you kept Nathan warm on his Arctic
adventure. Now try and keep the heat in the house by
doing the same thing.
Where can heat escape from the house?
Colour in red all the places heat can escape, then
write beside each what can be done to slow down
the heat loss. One has been done for you.


Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Design a leaet about saving energy

We waste energy in our homes and schools due to a number of things.

1. Being lazy or forgetting to turn things off.
2. Using things that are inefcient, like normal light bulbs.
3. Poor insulation and draughts.

You have to design a leaet to encourage your family and friends to save energy.

What information should you include?

The most important information is why

we need to save energy and how to do
it. Include facts and gures, pictures,
diagrams anything that will illustrate the
to important points of energy conservation
How e and efciency.
sav .

What should the leaet look like?

Decide what size it should be and use both sides of the paper. Lots of colour and pictures
will make your leaet more interesting to look at.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Design and make a draught excluder

Draw your design out in the box below.

Think about its job, stopping draughts coming into rooms under
Should it be light or heavy?
What material should you use to ll the draught excluder?
What are you going to use to make the draught excluder?

Test it out to see if it works!

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Insulation materials activity sheet

Materials have different qualities. Some are shiny, some are

waterproof and some make good insulation. Insulation is
good at keeping heat in, increasing the time it takes
something to cool down.

Complete the table below, tick the box or boxes to show the properties of the materials.

Material Shiny Waterproof Good insulation Flexible Strong

Aluminium foil








Some of these qualities are important for energy conservation materials used in our
homes and in other buildings (these are materials that are used to insulate buildings).

1. Which qualities are important for insulation?

2. Which of the materials tested could be used to reduce heat loss from a
building? Explain your answer.

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Insulation materials experiment
Experiment to test how well different materials keep water warm.

Equipment- warm water

measuring jug
stop watch or clock
take away coffee cup
bottom of a large plastic drinks bottle
different materials

1. Split into groups of 2-3 people.
2. Each group should have a different type of material to use as insulation.
3. Complete the table by listing your insulating material.
4. Line the plastic bottle with at least 5cm of insulation.
5. Measure out 100 millilitres of warm water and carefully pour into the cup. Place the
cup into the plastic bottle with the insulation.
6. Using a thermometer measure the temperature of the water. This is the starting
temperature so record it in the table below.
7. Measure and record the temperature every 5 minutes for 15 minutes
(3 measurements).
8. Compare your data with that from the other groups.

Material Start Temp Temp Temp Difference Rank

Temp C 5 mins 10 mins 15 mins in temp.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Energy detective at home

Look at all the different lights you have at home.
1. How many light bulbs do you have in your home?

2. How many are energy efcient light bulbs?

Now for some maths.

A 20 watt energy efcient light bulb costs 7.50. It can last

for 8 years.
If the bulb was left on for 12 hours a day for one year,
it would use 7.53 of electricity.
What is the total cost of this compact uorescent bulb over
the 8 years?

total cost=
To last the same time and give the same light, you would
need 8 ordinary 100 watt bulbs. A total cost of 3.50.
If an ordinary bulb was left on for 12 hours a day for one
year, it would use 37.67 of electricity.
What is the total cost of the 8 ordinary bulbs over the 8

total cost=
Which bulb is more energy efcient? Explain your answer.

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Energy detective at home

Lets check to see how warm our houses are.

Get hold of a thermometer and try these temperature experiments

around your home.

a. Day Night




Living room


b. Living room Temperature

Near door

Near window

Middle of room

Near re/radiator

Where you usually sit

c. Different heights Temperature

At oor level

At eye level

Near the ceiling

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Energy detective at home

Using the information from part b. of your temperature experiments, draw a plan of your living
room to show the different places you measured the temperature. At each place write what the
actual temperature recorded was.

What did you learn from parts a. and c.?

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Energy detective at home

Which energy efciency measures do you have at home?

Tick them off in the table below.

Energy efciency measure Yes No

Letter box draught excluder

Door brush draught excluder

Hot water tank jacket

Hot water pipes lagged

Thermostats on radiators

Energy efcient light bulbs

Double glazing

Loft insulation

Radiator foil

What could be done in your home to make it more energy efcient?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

School energy survey
Look around your school and ll in the table to discover how energy efcient
your school is.
Give your school a score 0 for none, 5 for some and 10 for all.

1. Do the windows have draught


2. Are the windows double


3. Are there any energy efcient
light bulbs tted?

4. Are the lights switched off in

empty rooms?
5. Are any of the radiators
tted with thermostats?

6. Do any of the radiators have

foil sheets behind them?

Electrical appliances

7. TVs, video, etc. switched off

if not in use?


The maximum score is 70. If your school scores over 50 you are doing
well. If the score is lower, what could be done to make it more energy
Bryson Charitable Group 2006
Energy detective at school
Now that you know something about how your school uses energy, what
can you do to make it even more energy efcient?
Some of the main ones are:-
Use thermostats to control heating.

Use timer controls.

Get better, more efcient equipment.

Insulation and draught-proong.

Switch off unnecessary lights.

Most of these can only be done by your Principal and teachers, but there
are still lots of ways for you to help.

What about . . .
Designing energy efciency posters, stickers,
badges and slogans.
Having an energy efciency essay competition.
Designing and keeping up to date an Energy
Performance Progress Chart. This could be kept
in the entrance hall of the school and have graphs
showing fuel and electricity used and a record of
inside temperatures.

Appointing everyone in turn as Energy Monitor to check doors and

windows are closed in cold weather; lights are not left on and equipment is
switched off after use.

Youll be able to think of loads of other ideas yourselves!

If you do decide to go ahead with the project, be sure to let us know. We

would be very interested in how it turns out.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz sheet
Read these two lists and then match each way energy is lost in our homes with the
right way to stop it.

To start you off, the rst one is already done.

Gaps round doors and windows. Adjust thermostat.

Warm air rising through the roof. Draught-proong.

Radiators are too warm. Double glazing.

Heat escaping through window glass. Timer switch

Immersion heater left on. Loft insulation.

Read these sentences. They are either true or false. Cross out the false
(a) Dust on a light bulb has no effect on the amount of light it gives out.
(b) Lighter coloured walls reect light better than darker colours.
(c) Energy efcient light bulbs last up to 8 times longer than ordinary
(d) Energy efcient bulbs use more electricity than ordinary bulbs.

Hidden in the square are 5 ways that heat S R D L S O
escapes from a house - W O D N I W
Some of them are written backwards! S R O O L F

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Did you know....?

Loft insulation can reduce your

heating bill by 20%.

For every minute that a fridge door is open it takes

three minutes for the fridge to regain the correct

The UK wastes 6.5 billion worth of energy each year.

A shower uses 2/5 of the water needed for a bath.

If every household in the UK tted a hot water jacket,

we would save enough energy to heat over 60,000
households for one year.

New energy efcient fridges and freezers use up to 50%

less energy than older models.

Energy efcient light bulbs last up to

8 times longer than ordinary light bulbs.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Key words and denitions

appliance a machine that helps us to do something e.g. a


conservation of energy the practice of using less energy.

efciency producing something with very little waste.

environment our surroundings.

immersion the name given to an electric water heater

that acts like a large kettle in the hot water

timer a clock that is linked to the boiler and

switches it on at a certain time.

thermostat a device that keeps the temperature the same

all the time.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Mission 6:

What is Renewable Energy?

There are some ways to make electricity

without burning fossil fuels. We are
surrounded by natural sources of energy, such
as the sun and the earths winds and waters.
For hundreds of years man has been using
these sources of energy to power different
types of machinery....

By using the wind to turn a windmill...

... or using water to turn a water wheel.

Today we can harness energy from the sun, wind, water and the natural
heat of the earth to produce electricity with very little harm to
our environment. These forms of energy are renewable, which means
that they will never run out. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas will
eventually run out, they are called non-renewable.

Non-renewable energy Renewable energy

Coal Wind power

Oil Water power
Gas Solar power
Peat Geothermal power

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - What is Renewable Energy?

Name the energy resource for the pictures below. You will nd the word
you need in the box. Say whether you think each energy resource is

coal sun water petrol wind fossil fuel

energy resource renewable / non-renewable

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Solar Energy

Energy from the sun is called SOLAR energy. Lets nd out a bit more
about it...

Solar energy is transmitted to

Earth through space.

The Sun is a huge source of renewable

energy. The Sun is the closest star to
Earth, only 149.6 million km (93 million
miles) away.

Solar energy is then absorbed by our

atmosphere, oceans and plant life. THE SUN IS A HUGE SOURCE

The Sun is the power source for all life

on earth. Without the sun all life on
earth would die.

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Solar Energy


These cells are made of a material called

silicon. When this material is exposed
Sunlight contains electromagnetic to sunlight an electric current can be
energy. This energy can be changed produced. This is how a calculator works.
into electrical energy by photovoltaic

The suns energy can be used to heat homes, to power cars, weather stations,
and even satellites.

Use the internet or look in the library to nd out about solar cars. See if you can answer
the questions below.

1. How does a solar powered car move at night time?

2. How does a solar powered car stop?

3. In which country does a solar powered car race take place every year?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Solar Power Stations

There is a solar power station in France. It is called a Concentrated

Collector and uses mirrors. The suns energy can be deected and
concentrated from a wide area. 63 large mirrors follow the sun, re-
ecting the energy on to 9,500 smaller mirrors. These are focused
on a single target. The energy concentrated at the target is 3000
times that received by any single mirror, producing temperatures of
up to 3,800 C.

In an ordinary power station, coal or oil

is burnt to boil water and produce steam.
The steam is used to spin a turbine which
is connected to a generator. When the
generator is spun very fast it produces

Use the information in the boxes above to describe how a solar power station
turns solar energy into electricity.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Solar Heating Experiment
Solar energy can be used to heat buildings. Flat-plate collectors are
made of dark metal plates, covered with glass which absorbs heat. The
heat is transferred to air or water which circulates round a building.

Lets have a go at making a

solar collector!
You will need:
different sizes of Aluminium containers (deep, shallow, wide)
black paint, measuring jug, water, cling lm, newspapers and
a thermometer.

1. Paint the inside of each container black.

2. Add 200ml of water to each container.
3. Carefully cover the containers with cling lm, tape in place if necessary.
4. Place the containers on a stack of newspapers in the sun for 10 minutes.
5. After 10 minutes pour the water into a container and measure and
record the temperature. Repeat for each container.

Which shape works best as a solar collector?

Container 1 2 3 4 5

1 Draw a sketch of the best solar collector and explain why you think it
worked better than the other containers.

2. Why was the inside of the containers painted black?

3. Why was newspaper used to put the containers onto?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Solar Power
Solar panels are put onto roofs facing South, as this is where they will get the most sunlight.

Which of these houses should have solar

panels on the roof? Colour it in.

This house faces south This house faces east

Draw a line from the sun to the things that get their energy from solar power.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Wind Power

In the past, wind energy has been turned into mechanical energy by
windmills to run machinery. For thousands of years, Man has tried many
different designs to get as much power as possible from the wind.


To make the blades as light and as fast as In the North, winds are much stronger, and
possible, cloth sails were used.To get the windmills needed to be much more solidly
most energy out of the wind, the sails were built, with wooden sails. Windmills are still
angled so that the wind hit them from the used in Holland to pump water and were
side. used all over Northern Ireland to grind

But where does the wind get

its energy from?

The sun heats some

parts of the earth more
than other places. The
warmer air rises into
the atmosphere and is
replaced by cooler air,
hey presto, winds. Wind
energy is second hand
solar energy.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Wind Turbines
Today, instead of changing wind energy into mechanical energy, it is changed into electrical
energy. If you make a generator spin very fast, it will produce electricity. What better way
to make it spin than by using the wind?

A windmill that produces

electricity is called a wind
turbine, or a wind energy
converter (WEC). Wind
turbines are much larger
than windmills, over 39
metres high.

The amount of electricity a turbine can produce depends on the strength of the wind, and
also the size of the blades. If the wind is too strong the turbine has to shut down.

Unlike old-fashioned windmills, which

usually have sails, wind turbines have blades.
These blades have a curved surface, like
the wings of an aircraft: this makes them
very efcient. The blades need to be light
enough to turn easily, but strong enough to
stand up to storms.

The wind changes direction all the time, so

the top of the turbine rotates round so that
the wind can always spin the blades. The box
behind the blades contains the turbine. As
the blades turn the turbine spins a shaft
which spins the generator which produces

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Wind Farms
Circle the correct answer.

1. Wind turbines are built in exposed / sheltered locations.

2. The best location is on top of a mountain / in a valley.

3. Wind turbines are enormous and need a lot of space / very little space.

4. Wind energy is a non-renewable / renewable source of energy.

A group of wind turbines is called a wind farm. They are usually found on top of hills, where
the wind can ow freely and is not blocked by trees or buildings. There must be plenty of
space between each turbine to give the blades room to spin. In some countries, wind farms
can have hundreds of turbines. In Northern Ireland however they are much smaller -
usually about 10 turbines. On Rathlin Island there are 3 wind turbines - they supply the
population with electricity, as the island is not connected to the mainland electricity

Map showing wind farm sites Rathlin Island

in Northern Ireland


Rigged Hill
Elliots Hill


Bessy Bell


Slieve Rushen

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Wind Farms
Offshore wind farms are found in the sea, a few miles out from the coast. As the
sea is at, the wind here is very strong because there is nothing to obstruct its

Draw a new 4 turbine wind farm in a suitable location on the picture below.

1. Explain why you have chosen this site for your wind farm.

2. What would be a suitable name for your wind farm?

3. Who do you think might object to your wind farm being built? Why?

4. What are the benets of using wind turbines to make electricity?

5. What other sources of renewable energy can you see in the picture?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Make Your Own Windmill!

What you will need...

A pipe cleaner
A straw
A pair of scissors.

1. Cut out a square of card about 15 cm by 15 cm..

2. From each corner, cut in a diagonal line ending about 2cm from the centre.
3. Fold every other corner into the centre.
4. Draw a dot on each corner to mark where a hole will be made.
5. Carefully put a hole in each corner and in the centre of the square.



6. Make a small loop at one end of the pipe cleaner and push the other end through the holes.
7. Thread the pipe cleaner through the straw and bend at the bottom to secure it.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Wind Energy

1. The wind changes speed and direction from place to place, at different times of
the year, and even during the same day. Do you think we can depend on wind
energy as our only source of power in any one place? Why?

2. Mark the things that you think are good about wind energy with a tick.
Mark the things that you think are bad about wind energy with a cross.

a. Wind power is a very clean kind of b. Wind turbines are very big and
energy. can be seen for miles.

c. Wind does not have to be paid for. d. Wind turbines can be noisy.

e. Wind does not blow all the time. f. Wind will never run out.

Are there more ticks or crosses? What are the advantages and disadvantages of wind

3. Cross out the wrong answers in these sentences.

a. The wind was used to produce electricity 10 / 200 years ago.

b. Electricity is made by spinning a generator, so windmills are a useless /
perfect way of doing it.
c. A windmill that produces electricity is called a WIT / WEC.
d. A wind turbines blades need to be strong and also as light/heavy as
e. The amount of electricity a wind turbine produces depends on the strength
of the wind, but also on the size of the gearbox / blades.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Water Energy

70% of the world is covered

with water in the form of our
oceans, lakes and rivers. Thats a
lot of water which equals a huge
source of renewable energy.
The power of water owing in
rivers was one of the earliest
forms of energy harnessed by
man to do mechanical work.
Water or hydro-power is a
renewable source of energy.

We have been using water power for hundreds of years in Northern Ireland e.g. using our
rivers to power lots of different kinds of machinery. Take a look below.....

1. Castle Ward on the shores of Strangford Lough: they used the incoming and outgoing
tides to power a mill which ground corn in the 1700s.

2. Wellbrook Beetling Mill, Cookstown: in the 1800s the running water from a river was
used to power large hammers to beat out ax for linen manufacturing.

3. Barbour Threads, Lisburn: used the running waters of the River Lagan to power the
looms which turned ax into linen.

4. Pattersons Spade Mill, Templepatrick: in 1919 water energy was used to power the
machinery to make spades and are still using it today.

The larger the river the more energy

can be harnessed, so in some parts
of the world large rivers are used
by Hydro Power Stations to make

In hydroelectric stations, water is

stored in reservoirs or behind dams. reservoir
Water ows downhill through large of water
pipes and through the turbines. The
falling water turns the turbines, spins
the shaft, and turns the generator to
make electricity, simple! turbines

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Hydro Power Activity

Make a model overshot waterwheel. This model is like the old waterwheels used for
grinding corn or powering linen mills. It is the weight of the water in the buckets that
causes the wheel to overbalance and turn.

1. Carefully cut out two cardboard circles, about 15cm in diameter. Brightly
colour one side of each circle.
2. Carefully cut out the egg cups from an egg carton. You need to decide how
many egg cups your wheel will need.
3. Evenly staple the cups around the outside edge of one of the circles, then
staple the second disc onto the other side of the egg cups.
4. Push a pencil through the holes in the centre of the circles and your
waterwheel is ready to go.

Once you have tested the wheel you can attach some string and a basket (empty lm
container or egg cup) to the pencil and test how much weight the wheel will lift.

egg cups




Explain how the overshot wheel works, and if you could make the design

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Tidal And Wave Energy
Rivers are not the only source of water energy. Oceans and seas are a huge source of
mechanical energy. Energy from waves and tides can be used to make electricity.

incoming tide

High tide Low tide

Tides come in and out twice every day. Tidal power stations are built across a
Tides occur due to the pull of the moon bay or an estuary. Along the length of the
on our oceans. This movement of water station, turbines spin as the tides come in
can be used to make electricity. and out.

outgoing tide

Every time the tide comes in and goes out Think about the sea on a stormy day, huge
electricity can be generated. Tidal power waves crashing into the shore. We can use
is a renewable source of energy. this wave energy to make electricity.


Bay Headland
A line of boxes with a turbine in each
of them are anchored off shore. The
Waves are formed by wind blowing movement of the waves force air up
across the surface of the water. Waves through the turbine. The turbine is forced
can travel 1000s of miles before they to spin, this is transferred to a generator
reach the shore, full of energy. which produces electricity.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is the natural heat core

of the earth. If you sliced the earth
in half, you would nd that it is made outer core
up of layers.


The outer core of the earth and the

mantle are liquid rock, or molten. The
core in the centre of the earth is hotter
than the surface of the sun. This heat
energy is a source of renewable energy.

Rainwater naturally seeps into the rock below the surface of the
earth. The hot rocks heat the water up, and when it resurfaces
through a crack in the earth, is is called a hot spring. If it ex-
plodes into the air, it is called a geyser.

Lets nd out how geothermal energy can

be used to make electricity...

Geothermal Step 1 - A deep hole or well is drilled down into

Power Station the reservoir of steam or hot uids.

Step 2 - Cool water is pumped down through a pipe,

where it is heated by the hot uids.

Step 3 - The steam produced is released at

the surface and used to drive a turbine
generator to make electricity.

Step 4 - The geothermal water ( the water from

inside the earth) is then pumped back
down the bore hole to be reheated by the

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Geothermal Energy

1 True or False, circle the correct answer.

a. Geothermal energy is renewable/non-renewable.

b. Geothermal energy comes from deep inside the earth/sun.

c. Geysers are powerful hot/cold springs.

d. Geothermal energy can/cannot be used to produce electricity.

2 Some of the worlds hotspots.

Name the geothermal areas marked on the map (North America, Iceland, Italy and New

Below is a map showing different geothermal areas in the world. Can you
name the places? Choose from the countries given below.

Italy New Zealand North America Iceland


1. _____________________ 3. ______________________

2. _____________________ 4. ______________________

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Biomass Energy

Biomass is the name given to all living material - trees, crops, wood,
branches, leaves and animal waste. These all contain stored sunlight
in the form of chemical energy.

When burned, the chemical energy is

released as heat. The wood you burn in
a replace is a biomass fuel. People have
been burning wood to heat their homes
for thousands of years.

Biomass is a renewable source of energy as it can be regrown.

Willow trees grow very quickly. Their branches can be cut off
every 3-5 years, chopped up and used as fuel to heat homes or
to make electricity in power stations.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Biomass Energy

Biomass can also be used to produce fuel for cars and other vehicles.
Plant material is put into large heated tanks called digesters. Inside
the tanks, chemicals are added which change the plant material into a
type of alcohol called ethanol. The ethanol can then be used as a fuel in
vehicles, producing less pollution than ordinary petrol.

In Brazil many cars run on ethanol In the U.S.A. ethanol produced from
made from sugar cane plants. These corn is added to petrol to reduce
are the same plants that give us the pollution.
sugar lumps to put into our tea and

In the future, it may even be possible to have cars

which run on fuel made from oranges!

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Biomass Energy

When humans or other animals

digest their food, they somtimes
produce a know the one
that can make an embarassing
noise or smell when it escapes?!
This is called BIOGAS.

Biogas is also produced in bogs and in landll sites as

rotting vegetation is broken down. The gas from landll
can be burned and used to heat buildings nearby.

Biogas is a mixture of methane and carbon

dioxide. It can be produced in large
generators from shredded plants and
animal waste. When these materials start
to break down, biogas collects at the top
of the tank. It can then be stored and
used instead of natural gas in cooking and
heating. The biggest advantage of biogas
is that unlike natural gas, it will never run

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Quiz - Biomass Energy

Circle the correct answer for each of the


1. What does the term BIOMASS mean?

All living material Under the sea Oil and gas Fossils

2. Name three different uses for biomass energy.

Heating homes Fuel for vehicles To help you run Gas for cooking

3. Why is willow an ideal biomass crop?

You can eat it It is free It grows quickly It looks nice

4. Name one advantage of using ethanol as a fuel instead of petrol.

It causes more pollution It gives less power It causes less pollution

5. Name two different plants that are used to produce ethanol.

Cactus Sugar cane Rubber plant Corn Daffodil

6. Name two ways in which biogas is naturally produced.

In landll sites From burning oil From cows

7. What gas is biogas made of?

Helium Hydrogen Oxygen Methane

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Mission 4:

Fossil Fuel
What are Fossil Fuels?

It says here that electricity is made in a big factory

called a power station. It is made by burning fossil
fuels. So what is a fossil fuel?

Coal, peat, oil and gas are called fossil

fuels as they are formed over millions of
years from the remains of dead plants and

Coal is found under the ground. It is

made from trees and plants which were
alive millions of years ago. Coal is taken
out of the ground from coal mines.

Peat is also made from trees and plants,

but has not been in the ground for as
long as coal. If left in the ground, peat
would eventually turn into coal. Peat is
cut from the ground in areas called peat

Oil and gas are formed beneath the sea.

They are made from the remains of tiny
sea creatures and plants which have sunk
down to the bottom of the sea and begun
to rot away. The rotting material turns
into a dark liquid, which is the oil. Tiny
bubbles oat to the top of the liquid,
forming a layer of gas on top of the oil.
An oil rig drills down beneath the sea to
extract the oil.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Fossil Fuels

Find out what coal, oil and gas look like.

In the box, draw a picture of some coal.

Write down three words below that could
be used to describe coal.

What happens when you hold a piece of coal in your hand?

Write down three words that could be Write down three words that could be
used to describe oil. used to describe gas.

Match each type of fossil fuel to the correct word below.

coal liquid

oil gas

gas solid

When fossil fuels are burned they give off smoke. Match each smoke cloud to the
fossil fuel you think it has come from. Think about the colour of each fossil fuel.


Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Fossil Fuel Power Stations

Sparky has located three fossil fuel power stations in Northern

Ireland. A power station is a factory which makes electricity.
Fossil fuel power stations change the chemical energy stored in
coal, oil and gas into electrical energy.

Where are our power stations?

(Gas) Ballylumford
County Kilroot (Gas)
Londonderry (Coal and Oil)
(Coal & Oil)
Lough Sea
County Tyrone

County Down
County Armagh

A public supply of electricity began in 1892, in Larne. Three years later,

Belfast Corporation began to supply Belfast with electricity. The power
stations in Northern Ireland are connected to every home in the province
through hundreds of miles of wires. The power stations are also connected
to the Republic of Ireland by two interconnectors, which allows electricity
to cross back and forward over the border when necessary.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Fossil fuel power stations
1. Look at the map of Northern Ireland showing the location of our power stations.
Circle the right answer for each of the following questions.

a. All the power stations are beside b.The power station nearest to
Belfast is
a. rivers a. Kilroot
b. mountains b. Coolkeeragh
c. sea c. Ballylumford

c. Oil & Coal arrive at the stations by d. How many stations are in
County Antrim?
a. plane a. 3
b. train b. 2
c. ship c. 0

2. Look at the pictures below. One of the ships is an oil tanker the other is a coal
collier. Which one is which?

This ship is an

This ship is a

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Main Site Plan

Below is a drawing and plan of AES Kilroot

power station. Power stations have four
main parts, the fuel, boilers, turbines and

1 Coal Jetty 7 Turbine generators
2 Coal Stores 8 Sub-Station
3 Fuel Oil Tanks 9 Transmission lines
3 4 Boilers
9 5 Chimney N
6 Ash Disposal

8 S

7 7 7 7
44 4 4

Belfast Lough

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Parts

1. Using the plan of Kilroot power station and a ruler nd the power station parts.

a. Go to the end of the coal jetty, go North for 6cm, West for 9cm. You have
found the rst part of the power station, the .

b. Find the chimney at 5, go East for 1cm, then North for 2cm. You have found
the second part of the power station, the .

c. Go to the end of the coal jetty, go West for 10cm, then North for 8cm. You
have found the last part of the power station, the .

2. The picture below shows how all the parts in the power station are joined
together. Using the key below colour in the different parts.

a. colour the pipe from the coal crusher black.

b. colour the ames in the boiler red and the pipes blue.
c. colour the chimney grey.
d. colour the pipe from the top of the boiler and the turbine in yellow.
e. colour the generator in orange.



Coal crusher Turbine

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Making Electricity

2.Boiler-heat energy
1. Coal-chemical energy
6. Pylons

5. Substation

4. Generator-electrical energy

3.Turbine-mechanical energy

1. A fossil fuel power station starts off with the energy stored in coal, oil or gas and changes
it into electrical energy. Fossil fuels store chemical energy. The power stations put the fuel
into a boiler and set re to it. The boiler also has water in it. The chemical energy in the
fuel is changed into heat energy in the form of steam. A boiler is just like a huge kettle.

2. The steam is superheated to over 500C and sent through pipes to the turbine. The steam
is under pressure, just like air in a tyre. This means that the steam has lots of mechanical

3. The steam goes through the turbine blades making them spin 3000 times in one minute.
Once the steam has gone through the turbine it goes into a condenser which changes it back
into water, which is then pumped back into the boilers.

4. The turbine is connected to the generator, this is a large magnet and lots of wire. When
the magnet spins 3000 times a minute the generator makes electrical energy.

e g

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Making Electricity
5. The electricity is fed through the power station to the Substation. The substation or
transformers make the electricity stronger so that it can travel through the pylons.

6. The electrical energy travels through the Northern Ireland

transmission grid, through pylons and into our homes, schools, hospitals,
ofces, factories, street lamps, trafc lights, cinemas,
restaurants, re stations and everything else that needs
electrical energy to work. Remember that everytime you
switch an electrical appliance on the energy started off as pylons
chemical energy in the coal, oil or gas.


Ash and dust are by-products of burning

fossil fuels. The ash is removed from the
bottom of the boiler and taken to the ash ll.
The ash can be used to make breeze-blocks.
Any dust is removed from the gases which go
up the chimney by steam jets. The chimneys
are cleaned everyday to help cut down on

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Quiz
1. There are three ways to nish each of these sentences. Only one is the
right way. Circle the correct answer.

(a) In a power station coal is crushed into


(b) Smoke leaves a power station through a

long pipeline
tall chimney
deep cave

(c) Coal, oil or gas are burnt in the boiler to produce


(d) The heat in the boiler is used to turn water into


2. Belfast West power station closed in March 2002 after over 40 years of
electricity generation at Belfast docks. The coal-red power station had
7 boilers, each boiler burning 100 bags of coal every hour.The coal was
burned in the boilers 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

(a) How many bags of coal did the (b) How many bags of coal did
7 boilers burn every hour? the station burn in one day?

(c) How many bags of coal did the (d) How many bags of coal did
station burn in the month of May? the station burn in a year?

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Quiz

3. Steam makes the turbine spin 3000 times a minute. In one second, how
many times will the turbine spin?

4. a. Which part of the station uses heat energy to turn water into steam?
b. The steam makes which part of the station spin 3000 times a minute?
c. Which part of the station turns mechanical energy into electricity?
d. What is the oil stored in?
e. What goes up the chimney?

When you have lled in all the answers the shaded boxes will show you
what happens to coal and oil in a power station.

5. What kind of energy is being changed in the power station?

Chemical Electrical Heat Mechanical



energy energy


energy energy

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Parts

1. Label the power station diagram.





2. Coal crusher

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Power Station Parts
2. Finish off these sentences using the words below.
turbine steam sub-station generator fossil

a. The electricity passes into the Northern Ireland Grid through a

___________________ .

b. The __________ changes the turbines mechanical energy into

electrical energy.

c. _________ fuel power stations burn coal, oil or gas.

d. The steam drives the _________.

e. Water is heated until it turns into ________.

Now write them out again in the right order to explain how a power
station works.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006

Keywords and denitions

Condenser A chamber where steam is cooled and turned to water.

Electric current A ow of electrons moving along a wire or conductor.

Electrical Energy The ability of the electric current to do work.

Measured in Kilowatt-hours.

Electromagnet An iron core surrounded by a wire coil that produces

magnetic effects when an electric current is owing in
the wire coil.

Electrons The negatively charged particles that are part of an


Fossil Fuels Coal, oil or natural gas that result from the fossilisation
of ancient plants or animals.

Generator A machine that produces electricity.

Grid A system of transmission lines which carry electricity

between power stations and sub-stations.

Mechanical Energy The energy of the moving parts of a machine or a human.

Megawatt 1,000 Kilowatts or 1,000,000 (1 million) watts.

Transformer Increases or decreases the voltage in an electricity


Turbine Rotors or blades that spin when driven by steam, gas,

water or wind.

Turbo-generator A turbine connected to a generator to produce


Watt The unit of electrical power. A measure of the rate at

which an appliance uses electrical energy.

Bryson Charitable Group 2006