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Question Paper Code: 1044005

Sona College of Technology, Salem -5.


(Autonomous)
B. E/B. Tech Degree Examinations Apr/May 2017
Sixth Semester
U10EE604 - Solid State Drives
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
(Regulation 2014)

Answer Key

Answer ALL questions


PART A (10 x 1 = 10 Marks)
1. Second Quadrant
2. Regenerative Braking
(cos cos )+(+)
3. =
4. Four Quadrants
5. Variable
6. Slip Ring Induction motor
7. Speed below rated speed
8. Harmonics can be reduced by modifications of supply.
9. Mono and Polycrystal solar cells, Amorphous cells
10. Lead acid battery

PART-B (10 x 2 =20 marks)

11.

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12. Pressing machine drives,
Cutting machine drives and
Drilling machine drives

13. Subway cars,


Cranes,
Traction and
Battery operated vehicles.

14. Low value of load inductance,


High value of firing angle and
Low value of load current

15. The main drawback of D.C. motors (line fed motor) is the presence of commutate and brushes, which
require frequent maintenance and make them unsuitable for explosive and dirty environments. On the
other hand, induction motors, particularly squirrel-cage are rugged, cheaper, lighter, smaller, more
efficient, require lower maintenance and can operate in dirty and explosive environments.

16. Stator voltage control,


Supply frequency control,
Rotor resistance control and
Slip power recovery control

17. Variable Speed Drive(VSD) Variable Frequency drive(VFD)

The variable speed drive or adjustable speed drive can A VFD which could also be called an
be used in respect of drive systems that utilise AC or adjustable frequency drive, an AC-drive or an
DC motors and occasionally even completely inverter drive can only be utilised on AC
mechanical methods of speed control. As such, a VFD motors. A Variable frequency drive will be
will be a VSD however a VSD will not necessarily be used within electro mechanical drive systems
a VFD. A VSD that uses a DC motor will vary the utilising AC motors and will control the speed
speed and torque of the motor by controlling the and torque of the motor by adjusting the
voltage and current. voltage and input frequency.

18. Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) can be used in lots of fields. Variable frequency drives are widely
used to control the speed of AC motors, like conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine
tool speeds, & other applications that require variable speed with variable torque.

19. The mid frequency resonance phenomenon can be affected by the amount of inertia coupled to the
stepper motor. Inertia is often added in an application to lend a certain stability to the low or zero
torque region, and may help to reduce the effect of the mid frequency resonance.

20. The advantage of micro stepping is smooth operation and the elimination of resonance over its entire
speed range. Smooth operation permits full torque utilization and freedom from rattling and mechanical
wear.

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PART-C ( 5 x 14 = 70 Marks)
21. (a) (i)

-5-Marks

In quadrant I the developed power is positive, machine works as a motor


supplying mechanical energy. This is called forward motoring.
-5 marks
In quadrant II power is negative, machine works under braking opposing
the motion. This is known as forward braking.

In quadrant III and IV can be identified as reverse motoring and braking


respectively.

(ii) Classes of duty


(i) Continuous duty
(ii) Short time duty -4 marks
(iii) Intermittent periodic duty
(iv) Intermittent duty with starting
(v) Intermittent periodic duty with starting and braking
(vi) Contiuous duty with intermittent periodic loading
(vii) Continuous duty with starting and braking
(viii) Continuous duty with periodic speed changes

(OR)

(b) (i) Explanation of heat absorption and heat dissipation in motor and -2 marks
assumption of parameters

=
+
Derivation of temperature rise equation from basic equations.
= + ----- Heat balance equation

= (1 ) -----Heating curve equation -4 marks

3

( ) =

=

= ------- Cooling Equation -4 marks

( ) =

=

(ii) Mechanical braking Electrical Braking

1. Low efficient method 1. High efficient method


2. The energy of the rotating 2. The energy of the rotating parts
parts is wasted as heat in can be converted to electrical energy
friction. which can be utilized or returned to
-4 marks
3. It requires frequent the supply mains.
maintenance like adjustment of 3. It requires very little maintenance
brakes, replacement of brake because of absence of mechanical
linings, they are prone to tear equipments.
and wear. 4. Braking is very smooth, without
4. Depending upon the snatching.
conditions the braking may not 5. It cannot provide holding torque, it
be very smooth. requires electrical energy for
5. This braking is applied to operation.
hold the system may not be
very smooth.

22. (a) (i) Operation of single phase fully controlled converter in discontinuous -2 marks
mode (load current discontinuous)

Input voltage, Output voltage and current waveforms. -2 marks

Steady state analysis and derivation of equation average voltage,


current equations and speed equations.
( )+(+)
= ,


() = [sin( ) sin( ) () ] [1 () ] -6 marks


( )
= 2 () T
()

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(ii) Closed loop control system has the advantage of -4 marks
improved accuracy,
fast dynamic response
and reduced effects of disturbance and system non-linearities
(OR)

(b) (i) Block Diagram of closed loop speed control for DC drive system -5 marks

Explanation of selection of converters and -5 marks


Control for above and below base speed

(ii) Drawbacks of single phase converter fed drives -4 marks


Distortion of supply
Low power factor
Ripple in motor current

23 (a) (i) Block diagram of static scherbius system -5 marks

This system consists of SRIM, two number of phase controlled bridges, -5 marks
smoothing reactor and step up transformer
This system is used for both sub-synchronous speed and super
synchronous speed operation.

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Sub synchronous speed operation
The slip power is fed back to the supply the motor operates in
sub synchronous region.(slip power goes to main supply)
Slip power flows from rotor circuit to bridge-1 (rectifier),
bridge-2(Inverter), transformer and supply
Super synchronous speed operation
The electric power is pumped to the rotor the motor operates in
Super synchronous region.(slip power goes to rotor side)
supply power flows from mains, Transformer, Bridge-2(rectifier),
Bridge-1(Inverter) and rotor circuit.

(ii) Drawbacks of stator voltage control -4 marks


1. Voltage and current waveforms are highly distorted due to
harmonics, which affects the efficiency of the motor.
2. Performance is poor under running condition at low speeds.
3. Operating efficiency is low as resistance losses are high.
4. At low speeds, motor currents are excessive and special
arrangements should be provided to limit the excessive currents.
5. Maximum torque available from the motor decreases with reduction
in stator voltage.

(OR)

(b) (i) Block diagram of cycloconverter fed induction motor drive -5 marks

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Explanation -5 marks
Cycloconverter allows variable frequency variable voltage supply to be
obtained from a fixed voltage and fixed frequency ac supply.
Low harmonic content when operating at low frequencies smooth
motion is obtained at low speeds.
Harmonic content increases with frequency, making it necessary to
limit the maximum output frequency to 40% of the supply frequency.
( 0 to 1/3 of the input frequency)
Thus maximum speed is restricted 40% of synchronous speed at the
mains frequency.
The drive has regenerative braking capability.

(ii) Need for slip power recovery scheme -4 marks


In chopper method of speed control for SRIM, the slip power is wasted
in the external resistance and the efficiency also reduced. However,
instead of wasting the slip power can be recovered by various schemes
for the speed control of slip induction motor and improving the overall
efficiency.

24 (a) (i) Self - controlled synchronous motor drive system -3 marks

Explanation -4 marks
The stator winding of the machine is fed by an inverter that
generates variable frequency variable voltage sinusoidal supply.
The frequency and phase of the output wave are controlled by an
absolute position encoder mounted on machine shaft giving it self -
control characteristics.
Here the pulse train from position sensor may be delayed by the
external command.
The self - controlled motor run has properties of a dc motor both
under steady state and dynamic conditions and therefore is called
commutator less motor (CLM)

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(ii) Variable frequency control -3 marks

Explanation
In the true synchronous mode is an open loop mode in which the
stator frequency is controlled from an independent oscillator. -4 marks
Frequency from its initial to the desired value is changed gradually.
When desired synchronous speed (or) frequency is reached, the rotor
pulls into step, after hunting oscillations.
Variable frequency is not only allows the speed control, it can also
used for smooth starting and regenerative braking. This method is
commonly used for the control of multiple synchronous reluctance (or)
permanent magnet motors.
Frequency f* is applied to a VSI through a delay circuit. Flux
controller block changes this stator voltage with frequency to maintain
a constant flux below rated speed [ (v/f)].

(OR)

(b) (i) Inverter fed synchronous motor drive system -6 marks

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-4 marks
Square wave inverter

Here the dc link voltage is variable i.e. the voltage control is obtained
to the inverter using phase controlled rectifier.
The disadvantage of this method is that the commutation is difficult
at very low speeds.
Hence is applicable since for medium to high speed application.
Since the output voltage is a square wave, the inverter is called
variable voltage inverter (or) square wave inverter.

PWM inverter

The second method is to have voltage control within the inverter


itself using the principles of PWM.
Here the dc link voltage is constant. Here diode rectifier is used on
the line side.
It doesnt have difficulties in commutation at low speeds. It has wide
range of speed applications (even till zero speeds).

(ii) Advantages of margin angle control -4 marks

The difference between the lead angle of firing and the overlap
angle is called the margin angle of commutation. The operation of the
inverter at the minimum safe value of the margin angle gives the
highest power factor and the maximum torque per ampere of the
armature current, thus allowing the most efficient use of both the
inverter and motor.

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25 (a) (i) Variable reluctance stepper motor -5 marks

Explanation
-5 marks
A variable reluctance stepper motor has salient pole stator and rotor.
Rotor has No windings, stator has concentrated coils placed over the
stator poles. Stator winding phase number depends on the connection
of stator coils. When a stator phase excited in a definite sequence from
a DC source with help of semiconductor switches, resultant air-gap
field steps around and rotor follows the axis of air-gap field due to
reluctance torque developed by the tendency of magnetic circuit to
occupy the position of minimum reluctance.

(ii) Features of stepper motor -4 marks


1. They are compatible with digital systems and do not require digital
to analog conversion at the input, as do conventional servos, when
used with digital systems or a computer.
2. While simple open-loop control is good enough for the control of
position and speed, it can also be used in closed loop position and
speed control systems with either analog or digital feedback.
3. A wide range of step angles is available off the shelf from most
manufactures, in the range of 1.8 to 90. The range of torque is
from 1 micro Nm to 50 Nm.
4. Bidirectional control is available

(OR)

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(b) (i) Solar powered pump drive and characteristics -4 marks

Explanation
- 3 marks
The solar panel directly feeds the motor. One can connect the solar
cells to form a low-voltage, high-current (or) Low current, high
voltage unit. A low current- high voltage arrangement is preferred
because of lower proportion of losses in the motor and solar panel. A
dc voltage more than 80 volts may present a serious electrocution
hazard and should be avoided. The solar panel themselves regulate the
maximum output current no starter is required for the dc motor. The
PMDC motor, the torque is proportional to armature current and back
EMF proportional to speed.

The optimum utilization of solar panel, the operation should take place
at the maximum power points. The maximum power points of solar
panel are marked X.

(ii) Battery operated vehicles -3 marks

The drive employs chopper control with regenerative braking


facility. LF and CF filter is employed to filter out chopper control with -4 marks
regenerative braking facility. LF and CF filter is employed to filter out
the harmonics generated by the chopper. MS is a manual switch and
RS a reversing switch. Inductance L is provided to assist regeneration
and keep the ripple in motor current low.

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Motoring Operation

For motoring operation MS kept is kept closed. Transistor switch T is


operated at a constant frequency with variable on time to obtain
variable dc voltage for starting and speed control. When T is on, the
current flows through the source, LF, MS, l, R, armature, S and T.
When T is off, the armature current freewheels through S, D1, MS, L
and R.

Regenerative Braking operation

For regenerative braking operation MS is kept open and motor


armature is reversed with the help of the reversing switch RS making B
is positive with respect to A. When T is on, the armature current builds
up through the path consisting of T, D2 and L. When T is off, the
armature current flows against the battery voltage through the path
consisting of D1, LF, battery, D2 and L and energy fedback is utilised to
charge the battery. The drive is operated with closed loop current
control. As the torque is directly proportional to the current, this gives
closed loop torque control. By appropriately controlling the torque the
driver sets the vehicle speed at a desired value.

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