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AS 2885.2-2007 Pipelines - Gas and liquid petroleum Welding

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AS 2885.22007

Part 2: Welding
Australian Standard

PipelinesGas and liquid petroleum


AS 2885.22007
This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee ME-038, Petroleum Pipelines. It was
approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 27 November 2006.
This Standard was published on 27 March 2007.

The following are represented on Committee ME-038:


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Australian Corrosion Association


Australian Gas Association
Australian Institute of Petroleum
Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association
Australian Pipeline Industry Association
Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia
Cooperative Research Centre for Welded Structures
Department of Labour New Zealand Check
Department of Minerals and Energy WA
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Department of Mines and Energy (Qld.)


Department of Mines and Energy (N.T.)
Department of Natural Resources and Environment (Vic.)
Gas Association of New Zealand
Ministry of Energy and Utilities N.S.W.
Primary Industries and Resources S.A.
Welding Technology Institute of Australia (WTIA)

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 05463.

Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-


up-to-
to- date
Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
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notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au,
mail@standards.org.au or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
AS 2885.22007
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Australian Standard
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PipelinesGas and liquid petroleum

Part 2: Welding

Originated as AS CB281992.
Previous edition AS 2885.22002.
Third edition 2007.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 0 7337 8141 1
AS 2885.22007 2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee ME-038, Petroleum Pipelines, to supersede AS 2885.22002.
The objective of this Standard is to provide requirements for the welding of pipeline
designed and constructed in accordance with AS 2885.1.
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The objective of this revision is to include editorial changes, and technical changes, which
became necessary as a result of experience in the use of the Standard in the four years since
the previous edition was issued. The most important changes that have been made are the
following:
(a) Material has been included defining the information that needs to be submitted in
order that other welding processes that may be submitted for inclusion in the Standard
may be considered.
(b) Changes have been made to the application clause to clarify where the Standard is
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intended to be applied.
(c) The methods and the requirements for qualifying welding procedures have been
clarified.
(d) A requirement for fracture toughness testing has been reintroduced for welds made to
the requirements of Tier 1 where the welds are not made entirely with E4110
electrodes. (This requirement was inadvertently omitted from the 2002 edition.)
(e) Important changes, corrections, and clarifications have been made to the essential
variables.
(f) The notched tensile test used in the previous Standard to determine whether
overmatching is achieved has been deleted pending the performance of further
research.
(g) The acceptance criteria for the macro test have been clarified.
(h) Changes have been made to the permissible limit and method of qualifying the limit
of high-low.
(i) Changes have been made to the methods used for non-destructive examination and to
the method of interpreting and sentencing the depth of gas pores.
(j) The previously accepted convention that root slag intrusions be sentenced as undercut
has been reintroduced after being inadvertently lost.
The above list of changes is not intended to be complete. Users of the Standard should not
rely upon the list in order to ascertain whether there have been changes made to the
previous version of the Standard.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
3 AS 2885.22007

CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 8
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1.2 QUALIFICATION AND APPROVAL........................................................................ 9


1.3 RETROSPECTIVITY................................................................................................ 10
1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................ 11
1.5 DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................... 11
1.6 ROUNDING OF NUMBERS .................................................................................... 15
1.7 CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE) ................................................................................ 15

SECTION 2 MATERIALS
2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 16
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2.2 CONSUMABLES...................................................................................................... 16

SECTION 3 POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT AND POST-WELD COOLING


3.1 POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT......................................................................... 18
3.2 POST-WELD COOLING .......................................................................................... 18

SECTION 4 WELDING POSITIONS


4.1 DESIGNATION ........................................................................................................ 19
4.2 LIMITS OF QUALIFIED POSITIONS ..................................................................... 19

SECTION 5 QUALIFICATION OF A WELDING PROCEDURE


5.1 PURPOSE OF QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE.................................... 23
5.2 TYPES OF WELDS .................................................................................................. 23
5.3 DOCUMENTATION AND APPROVAL.................................................................. 24
5.4 METHODS OF QUALIFICATION........................................................................... 24
5.5 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION........................................................... 26
5.6 CHANGES IN A WELDING PROCEDURE ............................................................ 27
5.7 TEST PIECE SIZE .................................................................................................... 27
5.8 TEST PIECE MATERIAL ........................................................................................ 27
5.9 PREPARATION AND ASSEMBLY OF TEST PIECES........................................... 28
5.10 TEST CONDITIONS................................................................................................. 28
5.11 SUPERVISION OF THE TEST WELD .................................................................... 28
5.12 IDENTIFICATION OF THE TEST WELD............................................................... 28

SECTION 6 ASSESSMENT OF THE TEST WELD TO QUALIFY A WELDING


PROCEDURE
6.1 METHOD OF ASSESSMENT .................................................................................. 35
6.2 VISUAL EXAMINATION........................................................................................ 35
6.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION.................................................................. 35
6.4 DESTRUCTIVE TESTS............................................................................................ 35
6.5 REPEATED TESTS .................................................................................................. 39
6.6 RECORD OF RESULTS ........................................................................................... 39
6.7 PERIOD OF VALIDITY ........................................................................................... 39
6.8 DISQUALIFICATION OF A QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURE.................... 39

SECTION 7 QUALIFICATION OF A WELDER OPERATOR


7.1 PURPOSE OF QUALIFYING A WELDER.............................................................. 41
7.2 CATEGORIES AND SCOPE OF WELDER OR OPERATOR QUALIFICATION .. 41
7.3 METHODS OF QUALIFICATION........................................................................... 41
AS 2885.22007 4

7.4 QUALIFICATION BY TESTING............................................................................. 41


7.5 ESSENTIAL VARIABLES FOR WELDERS AND OPERATOR ............................ 42
7.6 TEST PIECE ............................................................................................................. 43
7.7 ASSEMBLY OF TEST PIECES................................................................................ 44
7.8 AUTOMATIC WELDING EQUIPMENT................................................................. 44
7.9 CATEGORIES OF TEST WELDS............................................................................ 44
7.10 MAKING A TEST WELD ........................................................................................ 44
7.11 SUPERVISION OF A TEST WELD ......................................................................... 44
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7.12 IDENTIFICATION OF A TEST WELD ................................................................... 45

SECTION 8 ASSESSMENT OF TEST WELDS FOR WELDER OR OPERATOR


QUALIFICATION
8.1 METHOD OF ASSESSMENT .................................................................................. 46
8.2 VISUAL EXAMINATION........................................................................................ 46
8.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION.................................................................. 46
8.4 REPEATED TEST .................................................................................................... 46
8.5 RECORD OF RESULTS ........................................................................................... 46
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8.6 CLASSIFICATION OF CATEGORIES OF WELDS................................................ 47


8.7 PORTABILITY OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION ............ 47

SECTION 9 WELDER OR OPERATOR QUALIFICATION AND DISQUALIFICATION


9.1 RECIPROCITY OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION ............ 48
9.2 PERIOD OF VALIDITY ........................................................................................... 48
9.3 QUALIFICATION RECORD.................................................................................... 48
9.4 DISQUALIFICATION OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION . 48

SECTION 10 DESIGN OF A WELDED JOINT


10.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 49
10.2 BUTT WELDS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF EQUAL NOMINAL WALL
THICKNESS ............................................................................................................. 49
10.3 BUTT WELDS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF UNEQUAL NOMINAL WALL
THICKNESS ............................................................................................................. 49
10.4 REINFORCEMENT OF A BUTT WELD ................................................................. 49
10.5 FILLET WELD ......................................................................................................... 49
10.6 WELDING OF THREADED JOINTS....................................................................... 50
10.7 REINFORCEMENT OF A WELDED BRANCH CONNECTION............................ 50
10.8 REINFORCEMENT OF MULTIPLE OPENINGS.................................................... 50
10.9 FORGED BRANCH FITTING.................................................................................. 50
10.10 FABRICATED ELBOW OR BEND.......................................................................... 50
10.11 EFFECT OF COMPONENTS UPON PIG PASSAGE .............................................. 50
10.12 OFFSET OF LONGITUDINAL WELDS .................................................................. 51
10.13 DISTANCE BETWEEN WELDS.............................................................................. 51

SECTION 11 PRODUCTION WELDS


11.1 WELDING PROCESS............................................................................................... 54
11.2 WELDING EQUIPMENT ......................................................................................... 54
11.3 WELDER AND WELDING PROCEDURE .............................................................. 54
11.4 SUPERVISION OF WELDING ................................................................................ 54
11.5 SAFETY IN WELDING............................................................................................ 54
11.6 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF ELECTRODES, FILLER RODS AND
FLUXES.................................................................................................................... 54
11.7 WELDING IN ADVERSE CLIMATE CONDITIONS.............................................. 54
11.8 PREPARATION FOR WELDING ............................................................................ 55
11.9 METHOD OF MAKING THE WELD PREPARATION........................................... 55
11.10 ACCURACY OF ALIGNMENT ............................................................................... 55
5 AS 2885.22007

11.11 LINE-UP CLAMP ..................................................................................................... 55


11.12 TACK WELDS.......................................................................................................... 55
11.13 WORKING CLEARANCE........................................................................................ 55
11.14 PLACEMENT OF WELD PASSES .......................................................................... 55
11.15 ARC STRIKE AND ARC BURN .............................................................................. 56
11.16 CLEANING............................................................................................................... 56
11.17 PEENING .................................................................................................................. 56
11.18 INSERT PATCHING ................................................................................................ 56
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11.19 PREHEAT AND INTERPASS TEMPERATURE..................................................... 56


11.20 POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT......................................................................... 56
11.21 IDENTIFICATION OF A PRODUCTION WELD.................................................... 56

SECTION 12 WELDING AND CUTTING ON A PIPELINE AFTER COMMISSIONING OR


AFTER HYDROSTATIC TESTING
12.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 57
12.2 SAFETY.................................................................................................................... 57
12.3 HOT REPAIR OF LEAKING GAS-FILLED PIPELINES ........................................ 57
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12.4 WHERE GAS IS NOT ESCAPING........................................................................... 58


12.5 PIPELINES CONTAINING PETROLEUM FLUIDS OTHER THAN LEAN
NATURAL GAS ....................................................................................................... 58
12.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDER(S) ........................................................................ 58
12.7 QUALIFICATION OF SUPERVISORS AND INSPECTORS.................................. 58
12.8 FIT-UP BEFORE WELDING AND CUTTING ........................................................ 58
12.9 EXAMINATION AND TESTING ............................................................................ 58
12.10 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 59

SECTION 13 WELDING ONTO AN IN-SERVICE PIPELINE


13.1 GENERALPIPELINE CONTAINING FLAMMABLE OR PRESSURIZED
FLUID ....................................................................................................................... 60
13.2 PRECAUTIONS TO BE UNDERTAKEN BEFORE IN-SERVICE WELDING....... 60
13.3 LINING ..................................................................................................................... 60
13.4 SAFETY.................................................................................................................... 60
13.5 INSPECTION BEFORE WELDING ......................................................................... 60
13.6 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION BEFORE WELDING........................................... 61
13.7 WELDING CONSUMABLES................................................................................... 61
13.8 HEAT INPUT............................................................................................................ 61
13.9 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES ................................................. 61
13.10 WELDING SEQUENCE ........................................................................................... 62
13.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDER(S) ........................................................................ 64
13.12 QUALIFICATION OF SUPERVISORS AND INSPECTORS.................................. 64
13.13 FIT-UP BEFORE WELDING ................................................................................... 64
13.14 EXAMINATION OF TESTING................................................................................ 64
13.15 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 64
13.16 WELDING OF TEST ASSEMBLY........................................................................... 64

SECTION 14 ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION WELDS AND REPAIR WELDS


14.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 65
14.2 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL ....................................................................... 65
14.3 RESPONSIBILITIES ................................................................................................ 65
14.4 METHODS OF EXAMINATION ............................................................................. 65

SECTION 15 VISUAL EXAMINATION


15.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................. 66
15.2 METHOD OF EXAMINATION ............................................................................... 66
15.3 EXTENT OF VISUAL EXAMINATION.................................................................. 66
AS 2885.22007 6

15.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 66


15.5 UNDERCUT DEPTH MEASUREMENT ................................................................. 66

SECTION 16 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


16.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................. 68
16.2 ORGANIZATIONS UNDERTAKING NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION .... 68
16.3 QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONNEL..................................................................... 68
16.4 METHODS................................................................................................................ 68
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16.5 AMOUNT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION.......................................... 68


16.6 EXEMPTION FROM RADIOGRAPHIC OR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION ..... 69
16.7 TIMING OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION............................................. 70

SECTION 17 RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION


17.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 71
17.2 SAFETY AND PROTECTION FROM IONIZING RADIATION ............................ 71
17.3 DENSITY .................................................................................................................. 71
17.4 IMAGE QUALITY.................................................................................................... 71
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17.5 UNDERCUT DEPTH MEASUREMENT ................................................................. 72


17.6 GAS PORE DEPTH MEASUREMENT.................................................................... 73
17.7 INTEPRETATION AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIOGRAPHS............................... 74
17.8 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 75
17.9 REPORT OF RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION ................................................... 75
17.10 RETENTION OF RADIOGRAPHS .......................................................................... 75

SECTION 18 QUALIFYING A RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE


18.1 RADIOGRPHIC PROCEDURE ................................................................................ 76
18.2 METHOD OF QUALIFYING THE RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE .................... 76
18.3 TEST CONDITIONS................................................................................................. 77
18.4 RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION DOCUMENTATION............. 77
18.5 PERIOD OF VALIDITY ........................................................................................... 77

SECTION 19 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION


19.1 MANUAL ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION ........................................................... 78
19.2 MECHANIZED ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION................................................... 79

SECTION 20 MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING


20.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................. 82
20.2 METHOD .................................................................................................................. 82
20.3 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL ....................................................................... 82
20.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 82

SECTION 21 DYE-PENETRANT TESTING


21.1 PURPOSE ................................................................................................................. 83
21.2 METHOD .................................................................................................................. 83
21.3 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL ....................................................................... 83
21.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE ................................................................................ 83

SECTION 22 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE FOR GIRTH WELD DISCONTINUITIES


22.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 84
22.2 TIER 1 CRITERIAWORKMANSHIP STANDARD ............................................. 87
22.3 TIER 2 CRITERIAGENERALIZED FITNESS-FOR-PURPOSE STANDARD.... 96
22.4 TIER 3 CRITERIAENGINEERING CRITICAL ASSESSMENT ....................... 101
7 AS 2885.22007

SECTION 23 REPAIR OF AN UNACCEPTABLE WELD


23.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 102
23.2 REPAIR METHODS ............................................................................................... 102
23.3 QUALIFICATION OF THE REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE .......................... 102
23.4 INSPECTION .......................................................................................................... 102
23.5 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE .............................................................................. 102

SECTION 24 REMOVAL OF AN ARC BURN


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24.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 103


24.2 REPAIR BY GRINDING ........................................................................................ 103
24.3 METHOD OF INSPECTION .................................................................................. 103
24.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE .............................................................................. 103
24.5 CLEANING AFTER TESTING .............................................................................. 103

SECTION 25 CUTTING OUT AN UNACCEPTABLE WELD OR AN ARC BURN........... 104

SECTION 26 RECORDS....................................................................................................... 105


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APPENDICES
A ITEMS REQUIRING APPROVAL ......................................................................... 106
B LIST OF REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ............................................................... 108
C SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION OF CELLULOSIC WELDING
ELECTRODES........................................................................................................ 111
D GUIDANCE ON GMAW WELDING CONSUMABLES FOR MECHANIZED
PIPELINE GIRTH WELDS .................................................................................... 115
E AVOIDANCE OF HYDROGEN ASSISTED COLD CRACKING (HACC)........... 116
F EXAMPLE OF WELD PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FORM .......................... 120
G EXAMPLE OF WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD FORM . 122
AS 2885.22007 8

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard
PipelinesGas and liquid petroleum

Part 2: Welding
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SECT ION 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard specifies the minimum requirements for materials, welding consumables,
welding processes, weld preparations, qualifications of welding procedures and personnel,
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and fabrication and inspection requirements for the construction and maintenance welding
of carbon and carbon-manganese steel pipelines down to 3.2 mm wall thickness designed
and constructed in accordance with AS 2885.1. The welding of corrosion-resistant alloy
steel pipelines, or pipelines with wall thickness less than 3.2 mm, is not precluded but is not
expressly covered by this Standard. The welding of such pipelines has to be given special
consideration.
The welding may be done by a manual metal arc, submerged arc, gas tungsten arc, gas
metal arc, flux cored arc, oxyacetylene, or by a combination of these using a manual, semi-
automatic, or automatic welding technique or a combination of these techniques. The welds
may be produced by position or roll welding or by a combination of position and roll
welding.
Other processes may be submitted for inclusion in the Standard upon provision of the
following information:
(a) A description of the welding process.
(b) A proposal on the essential variables.
(c) A typical welding procedure qualification record and a welding procedure
specification.
(d) Weld inspection methods.
(e) Types of weld discontinuities and their proposed acceptance limits.
(f) Repair procedures.
This Standard is applicable to the welding of joints in or on pipelines, and the field welding
of pipeline assemblies. This Standard may be applied to the factory fabrication of pipeline
assemblies manufactured from pipes and fittings. See Figure 1.1 for examples.
NOTE: The welding of fittings may present special difficulties when using typical pipeline
welding procedures (see Appendix E).

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


9 AS 2885.22007

(a) M a i n l i n e va l ve a s s e m b l y
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( b) Ins u l ati n g j o i nt a s s e m b l y
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(c) S c ra p e r tra p a s s e m b l y

(d ) Pi g g i n g b a r te e a s s e m b l y (e) A n c h o r f l a n g e

FIGURE 1.1 EXAMPLE OF ASSEMBLIES THAT MAY BE WELDED IN ACCORDANCE


WITH THIS STANDARD

1.2 QUALIFICATION AND APPROVAL


Welding shall be performed by qualified personnel, in accordance with documented
qualified and approved welding procedures.
Items requiring approval in accordance with this Standard are listed in Appendix A.
Activities undertaken within the scope of this Standard shall be directed by a pipeline
licensee appointed for the purpose of giving approvals as defined in this Standard. The
process for any delegation of the pipeline licensees power shall be in accordance with
Figure 1.2.

www.standards.org.au Standards Australia


AS 2885.22007 10

New Project

Pipeline licensee
approval
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Yes Authority No
to approve
(See Note) delegated

Contractor 3rd party


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Audit

Pipeline licensee
approved

NOTES:
1 The use of AS/NZS ISO 3834.1 and AS/NZS ISO 3834.2 is recommended when the authority
to approve is delegated.
2 The audit shall be conducted on behalf of the pipeline licensee. It may be conducted by a
third party. The audit shall address the items listed in Appendix A.

FIGURE 1.2 APPROVAL PROCESS

It is not intended that this Standard be applied to the following:


(a) Station pipework as defined in AS 2885.1.
(b) Longitudinal welds or spiral welds made during the manufacture of a pipe or a
component.
(c) Underwater welding.
(d) Hyperbaric welding.

1.3 RETROSPECTIVITY
It is not intended that this Standard be applied retrospectively to existing installations.
Welding procedures complying with and welder qualifications in accordance with the
appropriate previous editions of this Standard may continue to be used for the maintenance
of existing installations.
New welding procedures and new welding qualifications shall be qualified in accordance
with this Standard.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


11 AS 2885.22007

1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


A list of the documents referred to in this Standard is given in Appendix B.

1.5 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions given below apply.
1.5.1 Accessory
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A component of a pipeline other than a pipe, valve, or fitting, but including a relief device,
a pressure-containing item, hanger, support, and all other items necessary to make a
pipeline operative whether or not such items are specified by the Standard.
1.5.2 Approved and approval
Approved by the pipeline licensee and includes obtaining the approval of the relevant
statutory authority where this is legally required.
NOTE: Approval requires a conscious act and is given in writing.
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1.5.3 Burn-off rate


The ratio of length of electrode consumed to the length of weld pass deposited. Burn-off
rate is proportional to the heat input, divided by the square of the electrode core wire
diameter.
NOTE: WTIA Technical Note 1 provides information relating burn-off rate to heat input
1.5.4 Component
Any part of a pipeline other than a pipe.
1.5.5 Construction
All activities required to fabricate, construct and test a pipeline, and to restore the right of
way.
1.5.6 Defect
A discontinuity or imperfection of sufficient magnitude to warrant rejection on the basis of
the requirements of this Standard.
1.5.7 Design temperatures
The range of the metal temperatures to be expected in construction, testing and normal
operation.
1.5.8 Diameter
The outside diameter nominated in the material order, ignoring the manufacturing tolerance
provided in the specification under which the pipe was manufactured.
1.5.9 Discontinuity
A generic term for material imperfections (see Clause 1.5.21), which includes defects (see
Clause 1.5.6) and non-rejectable irregularities.
1.5.10 Engineering critical assessment (ECA)
A formal process for the assessment of structures containing discontinuities, in order to
determine whether the structure is fit for purpose.
NOTE: The process involves the use of fracture mechanics and requires consideration of the
discontinuity, the stress, and the material properties for the likelihood of failure arising from
fracture, plastic collapse, fatigue, buckling, creep, corrosion/erosion, and leakage.

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AS 2885.22007 12

1.5.11 Engineering design


The detailed design of a pipeline system, developed from process and mechanical
requirements, complying with the requirements of this Standard and including all necessary
specifications, drawings, and supporting documents.
1.5.12 Environment
The complex of climatic, demographical, geotechnical, oceanographic, and biotic factors
that acts on a pipeline influencing the design, construction, testing, inspection, operation,
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and maintenance.
1.5.13 Essential variable and non-essential variable
1.5.13.1 Essential variable
Variable in which a change outside specified limits requires requalification of welding
procedure or welder or operator qualification.
1.5.13.2 Non-essential variable
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Variable in which a change outside specified limits does not require requalification of the
welding procedure.
NOTE: Non-essential variables are those Items in Table 5.4(A) that do not appear in the list of
essential variables in Table 5.4(B).
1.5.14 Fitting
A component, including any associated flanges, bolts, and gaskets, used to join pipes, to
change the direction or diameter of a pipeline to provide a branch, or to terminate a
pipeline.
1.5.15 Fluid
Any vapour, liquid, gas, or mixture thereof.
1.5.16 Gas
Any hydrocarbon gas or mixture of gases, possibly in combination with liquid petroleum
condensates or water.
1.5.17 Heat input (arc energy)
EI 60
Q=
V 1000
where
Q = welding energy input, in kilojoules per millimetre
E = arc voltage, in volts (RMS value for a.c.)
I = welding current, in amperes (RMS value for a.c.)
V = welding speed, in millimetres per minute
NOTE: Both the arc voltage and welding current have to be measured accurately with voltage
measured between the electrode holder or contact tube and the work piece.
1.5.18 Hot repair
Repair welding on a pipeline containing hydrocarbon gas under controlled conditions with a
burning gaseous atmosphere present due to escape of the pipeline contents.
1.5.19 Hot tap
A connection made to a pipeline containing hydrocarbon fluid.

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13 AS 2885.22007

1.5.20 Hydrogen assisted cold cracking (HACC)


A form of brittle cracking that occurs at near-ambient temperature in the weld or
heat-affected zone or ferritic steel weldments, due to the combined effects of hydrogen
arising from welding, together with tensile stress and a susceptible microstructure.
NOTE: The time delay after welding at which HACC occurs depends upon the particular
circumstances, especially the hydrogen concentration. With low levels of hydrogen it may be 24 h
or more.
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1.5.21 Imperfection
A material discontinuity or irregularity that is detectable by inspection in accordance with
this Standard.
1.5.22 Inert gas shielding
Shielding gas consisting principally of argon, helium, or a mixture of the two.
1.5.23 In-service welding
Welding onto a pressurized product-filled pipeline.
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1.5.24 Inspector
A person appointed by the pipeline licensee to carry out inspections required by this
Standard.
1.5.25 Location class
An area classified according to its general geographic and demographic characteristics.
1.5.26 Mainline pipework
Those parts of a pipeline between stations, including pipeline assemblies.
1.5.27 Matching (undermatching)
The ability of a full scale welded joint containing discontinuities at the limit of the
acceptance criteria to match the strength of the pipe and to ensure that under displacement-
controlled loading plastic strains occurs in one or both of the pipes before the weld breaks.
1.5.28 May
Indicates
(a) the existence of an option; and
(b) a course of action that is permissible within the limits of the Standard.
1.5.29 Natural gas
Gaseous hydrocarbons (mainly methane) from underground deposits, the production of
which may be associated with the production of crude petroleum. The gas is described as
wet or dry according to the proportion of readily condensable hydrocarbons, which it
contains. This term also applies to the purified product.
1.5.30 Nominal thickness (N)
The thickness nominated in the material order, ignoring the manufacturing tolerance
provided in the specification under which the pipe was manufactured.
1.5.31 Non-planar discontinuity
Weld discontinuities not included in the planar category, including volumetric
discontinuities such as porosity, root concavity, burn through, hollow head, and slag
inclusions.

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AS 2885.22007 14

1.5.32 Pipeline licensee


The organization responsible for the design, construction, testing, inspection, operation and
maintenance of facilities within the scope of the Standard.
1.5.33 Pig
A device that is propelled inside a pipeline by applied pressure.
NOTE: Pigs can be of various types, such as gauging pig for checking a pipeline bore, a swabbing
pig for cleaning a pipeline, or an intelligent pig for checking wall thickness, deformation or
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cracking, or the integrity of the coating of a pipeline.


1.5.34 Pig trap (scraper trap)
A fabricated component to enable a pig to be inserted into or removed from an operating
pipeline.
1.5.35 Pipeline assemblies
Assemblies of pipe, valve and fittings that are considered to be integral parts of the pipeline
(see AS 2885.1).
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NOTE: Such assemblies are usually prefabricated off-site.


1.5.36 Planar defect
A category of unacceptable weld discontinuities that are assumed to have only two
dimensions and which, in fracture mechanics terms, are considered to be equivalent in
behaviour to a crack.
NOTE: The fitness-for-purpose-based acceptance criteria in Tier 2 of this Standard classify the
various discontinuity types into planar and non-planar categories. The workmanship based
acceptance criteria in Tier 1 do not require classification of discontinuities according to whether
they are planar or non-planar.
1.5.37 Preheat temperature
The temperature immediately prior to the commencement of welding. The preheat
temperature may be the ambient or pre-existing temperature of the joint, or it may result
from the heating of the parent metal in the region of the weld.
NOTE: A minimum preheat temperature may be required, for example, to avoid hydrogen
cracking in the weld metal or heat-affected zone. A maximum value may also be specified in
order to achieve particular levels of toughness and/or strength. It is recommended that preheat be
measured at least 75 mm from the weld line.
1.5.38 Pre-tested pipe
A pipe or a pressure-containing component that has been subjected to a pressure test in
accordance with this Standard before being installed in a pipeline and intended to be used
for tie-in or maintenance purposes.
1.5.39 Shall
Indicates that a statement is mandatory.
1.5.40 Should
Indicates a recommendation.
1.5.41 Sour service
Piping conveying crude oil or a natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide and an aqueous
liquid phase in a concentration that can affect materials.
NOTE: The limits defined in NACE MR0175 are deemed, for the purposes of this Standard, to
constitute sour service.

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15 AS 2885.22007

1.5.42 Thickness for design internal pressure ( dp)


The thickness of material, calculated according to the equations in the design section of this
Standard, required for the material to be capable of withstanding the design internal
pressure.
1.5.43 Weld metal deposition repair
Repair method for loss of thickness.
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NOTE: For example, repairing corrosion defects by surfacing with deposited weld metal whilst
the pipeline is in service.
1.5.44 Weldability
The ability of a metal to be welded under given fabrication conditions in a specific
weldment, and to perform satisfactorily in service.
1.5.45 Welding operator
A person who operates automatic welding equipment
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1.5.46 Weldolet
An integrally reinforced sit-on branch fitting that is designed and manufactured according
to a nominated Standard.
NOTE: Weldolet also refers to similar integrally reinforced sit-on/set-in branch fittings (e.g.,
threadolets, sockolets, latrolets, elbowlets, sweepolets).
1.5.47 Yield strength
Either
(a) the specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) to which the pipe is purchased; or
(b) the actual yield strength (AYS) being the hoop stress determined from the pressure at
the strength test end point as specified in this Standard.
NOTE: The yield strength may be represented by a material grade, e.g., X60 (Yield strength
413 MPa).

1.6 ROUNDING OF NUMBERS


An observed or calculated value shall be rounded to the nearest unit in accordance with
AS 2706.

1.7 CARBON EQUIVALENT (CE)


For the purpose of this Standard, the carbon equivalent (CE) shall be calculated in
accordance with the International Institute of Welding (IIW) formula, i.e.,
Mn Cr + Mo+V Cu+Ni
CE = C + + +
6 5 15

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AS 2885.22007 16

S E C T I ON 2 M A T E R I A L S

2.1 GENERAL
The requirements of this Section are applicable to the welding of materials that comply with
AS 2885.1.
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2.2 CONSUMABLES
2.2.1 Electrodes for manual metal-arc welding
Welding electrodes for manual metal-arc welding shall comply with the Standards listed in
Table 2.2.1, as appropriate.
The following should be taken into account for manual arc welding electrodes:
(a) Lower strength electrodes (see welding process column in Table 2.2.1) should be used
for welding of all passes for pipe and components in material up to and including
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grade X60.
(b) Unless it can be shown that it is difficult to meet the required mechanical properties
(see Clause 22.3.1(c)), lower strength electrodes should be used for the first pass,
when welding pipe and components of material greater than grade X60.
(c) Electrodes for manual metal-arc welding should be selected and specified in
accordance with Appendix C.
2.2.2 Wires for automatic welding
Wires for automatic welding shall comply with the Standards listed in Table 2.2.1, as
appropriate.
NOTE: The selection of wires for automatic welding should take into account the information
given in Appendix D.
2.2.3 Storage and handling of consumables
Consumables shall be stored and handled as follows:
(a) Electrodesin accordance with one or more of the following:
(i) Recommendations of the manufacturer.
(ii) Requirements of the relevant Standard.
(iii) Recommendations in WTIA Technical Note 3.
(b) Filler rods and fluxesin accordance with one or more of the following:
(i) Recommendations of the manufacturer.
(ii) Requirements of the relevant Standard.

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17 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 2.2.1
WELDING CONSUMABLES

Welding process Standard Electrode type Remarks


Manual metal-arc welding using lower
AS/NZS 4855 Cellulose MMA Note 6
strength cellulose electrodes
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ANSI/AWS A5.1
Manual metal-arc welding using medium
AS/NZS 4857 Cellulose MMA Note 6
strength cellulose electrodes
ANSI/AWS A5.5
Manual metal-arc welding using lower
AS/NZS 4855 Basic coated MMA
strength hydrogen-controlled electrodes
ANSI/AWS A5.1
AS/NZS 4857 Basic coated MMA
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ANSI/AWS A5.5
Manual metal-arc welding using medium
AS/NZS 4857 Basic coated MMA
strength hydrogen-controlled electrodes
ANSI/AWS A5.5
Submerged arc welding AS 1858.1 Fused or bonded Note 1
ANSI/AWS A5.17
Gas tungsten-arc welding AS/NZS 1167.2
ANSI/AWS A5.18

ANSI/AWS A5.28
Note 2
Gas metal-arc welding AS/NZS 2717.1 Solid wire
and 5
ANSI/AWS A5.18
ANSI/AWS A5.28
Flux cored arc welding AS/NZS ISO 17632 Gas-shielded flux-cored Note 3
AS/NZS ISO 17632 Self-shielded flux-cored Note 3
ANSI/AWS A5.20 Gas-shielded flux-cored Note 4
ANSI/AWS A5.20 Self-shielded flux-cored Note 4
ANSI/AWS A5.28 Self-shielded flux-cored Note 4
NOTES:
1 Any combination of these electrodes and fluxes may be used to qualify a procedure. Each combination is
to be identified by its complete classification number (e.g., F6A2-EM12K or F7A1-EL12 as specified in
ANSI/AWS A5.17, EL12-FMM-W501 as specified in AS 1858.1).
2 Any combination of electrodes and gases may be used to qualify a procedure. Each combination is to be
identified by its complete classification number (e.g., ER 70S-6 as specified in ANSI/AWS A5.18, ES2-
GC-W500H as specified in AS/NZS 2717.1), and each shielding gas to be specified by brand name or
mix analysis.
3 Any combination of electrodes (with or without gas) may be used to qualify a procedure. Consumables
are to be identified by the complete classification number (e.g., ETP-GN-W402). Where a shielding gas
is used, this shall be specified by brand name or mix analysis.
4 Any combination of electrodes may be used to qualify a procedure. Consumables are to be identified by
the complete classification number (e.g., root pass E71T-GS, other passes E71T8-K2).
5 See also Appendix D.
6 See also Appendix C.

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AS 2885.22007 18

SE C T I ON 3 P O S T- W E L D H E A T T RE A T M E N T
AND POST-WE LD CO O L I N G

3.1 POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT


Components that comply with a nominated Standard normally do not require post-weld heat
treatment, but, where determined to be necessary under the provisions of Clause 5, post-
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weld heat treatment shall be carried out in accordance with AS 1210, or an approved
method.

3.2 POST-WELD COOLING


The use of deliberate accelerated cooling of a weld shall be permissible provided
(a) it shall not be used before the weld has cooled to 300C; and
(b) if it used before the weld has cooled to 100C, it shall be regarded as an essential
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variable and shall be qualified as an item of the welding procedure.

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19 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 4 WE LD I N G POS IT I O NS

4.1 DESIGNATION
Positions for test welds shall be designated as shown in Figure 4.1, and shall be within 5
of the nominal position.
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Where the position of a production weld cannot be related to one or more of the designated
weld positions, a special test position shall be used.

4.2 LIMITS OF QUALIFIED POSITIONS


The position used in the welding procedure qualification test and welder qualification tests
shall also qualify other positions as shown in Table 4.2(A).
For reciprocity of weld types for welder qualification see Table 4.2(B).
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AS 2885.22007 20

TABLE 4.2(A)
POSITIONS FOR WELDING PROCEDURE AND WELDER QUALIFICATION
TESTS FOR BUTT, FILLET, SLEEVE AND BRANCH WELDS ON PIPE AND
RECIPROCITY OF TYPES OF WELD AND POSITION (see Note 3)
Type of weld and position qualified
Qualification test on pipe
(see Note 2)
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Type of weld Position of axis


Butt Fillet Branch Sleeve
Description Symbol Pipe Weld
Butt 1G Horizontal Horizontal 1G
(girth) rotated (flat)
2G Vertical Horizontal 1G and 2G 2F and 2FR
fixed
5G Horizontal Multiple 1G and 5G Any
fixed
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6G Inclined 45 Multiple Any Any


fixed
2G and 5G1 Vertical Horizontal and Any Any
(see Note 1) fixed, and multiple
horizontal
fixed
Fillet 2F Vertical Horizontal 2F and 2FR
fixed
2FR Horizontal Horizontal 2FR
rotated
4F Vertical Horizontal 2F, 2FR, and
fixed (overhead) 4F
5F Horizontal Multiple Any 5F
fixed (sleeve)
Branch 2B 315 to 45 Horizontal 1G and 2G 2F and 2FR 2B
(see Note 4) (flat)
4B 135 to 225 Horizontal 1G and 2G 2F, 2FR, and 2B and
(overhead) 4F 4B
5B 45 to 135 Multiple 1G and 2G Any Any
Sleeve 5F Horizontal Multiple Any Any
fixed
1G Plate Downhand butt Downhand Any 1G Plate
plate (flat)
2G Plate Horizontal butt Horizontal Any 1G and
plate 2G Plate
4G Plate Overhead butt Overhead Any Any
plate
NOTES:
1 Qualified by separate tests for each position or a combination of 2G and 5G test welds.
2 Refer to Figure 4.1 for the types of welds and positions.
3 Table 4.2(B) gives reciprocity of weld types for welder qualification (see also Clause 8.6).
4 Tee butt welds qualify fillet welds as listed. Fillet welds do not qualify tee butt welds. Butt welds qualified
by branch connection weld procedure qualification tests shall be restricted to the types of butt welds involved
in the branch connection (see also Clause 10.9).

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21 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 4.2(B)
RECIPROCITY OF WELD TYPES FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION
Weld types qualified in welder
qualification test
Weld type number qualified without further testing
Type (Note 1)
number of Description of weld
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weld
1 1G butt weld with pipe 1
horizontal and rotated
2 2G butt weld with pipe 1 2
vertical and fixed
3 5G butt weld with pipe 1 3 8
horizontal and fixed
4 2G and 5G butt weld or a 1 2 3 4 8
6G butt weld with pipe
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inclined 45 and fixed


5 2G and 5G butt weld or 6G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
butt weld plus mark out, cut,
fit and weld a reinforced sit-
on tee-butt branch D/3 in
position 5B
6 Mark out, cut, fit and weld a 6 7 8 9
reinforced sit-on tee-butt
pipe branch D/3 in position
5B
7 Mark out, cut, fit and weld 1 2 7 8 9
in position 5B either a sit-on
bevelled end forged fitting
or a sit-on tee-butt pipe
branch
8 Make a fillet weld in 8
position 5F on the socket
weld end of a forged fitting,
a socketed pipe, a slip-on
flange, a bracket, a pad or a
plain end sit-on branch
9 Mark out, cut, fit, and weld 1 2 7 8 9
in position 5B either a
forged set-in branch or a
non-reinforced set-in pipe
branch
10 Fit and weld either a 8 10
circumferential split sleeve
or a tee fitting with a
longitudinal single V butt
weld with backing strip and
ends fillet-welded
NOTES:
1 For reciprocity of welding positions, see Table 4.2(A) (see also Clause 8.6.)
2 Qualified by separate tests in each position or a combination of 2G and 5G test welds.

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AS 2885.22007 22

Type of weld Welding positions

Butt weld
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Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe vertical Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe inclined
Pipe rotated Pipe fixed Pipe fixed 45 Pipe fixed
Flat position, 1G Horizontal position, 2G Multiple position, 5G Multiple position, 6G
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Fillet weld

Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe vertical Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe vertical
Pipe rotated Pipe fixed Pipe fixed Pipe fixed
Horizontal position, 2FR Horizontal position, 2F Multiple position, 5F Overhead position, 4F

Sleeve/
Stopple
fitting weld
Axis of pipe horizontal 1G Plate with backing 2G Plate with backing 4G Plate with backing
Pipe rotated strip strip strip
Multiple position, 5F Longitudinal weld Longitudinal weld Longitudinal weld
Circumferential fillet

Branch weld
(Including
set-in, set-on
and -O-let
type fittings)

Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe horizontal Axis of pipe horizontal


Axis of branch normal Axis of branch normal Axis of branch normal
Pipe and branch fixed Pipe and branch fixed Pipe and branch fixed
Branch weld positioned Branch weld positioned Branch weld positioned
within 45 to 135 within 135 to 225 within 315 to 45
Multiple position, 5B Overhead position, 4B Horizontal position, 2B

FIGURE 4.1 WELD TEST POSITIONS

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23 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 5 QUA L I F I C AT I ON O F A WE LD I N G


P R O CE D U RE

5.1 PURPOSE OF QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE


A welding procedure shall be qualified to demonstrate that the production welds made in
accordance with the welding procedure
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(a) have the required mechanical properties such as strength, ductility and hardness;
(b) are sound, i.e., free from cracks, unacceptable porosity or other defects; and
(c) are free from the risk of hydrogen assisted cold cracking (HACC).
The basis of the design of the welding procedure for the avoidance of HACC shall be
documented in the welding procedure specification. Requirements for the avoidance of
HACC, including recommended methods for designing out HACC from welding
procedures, are given in Appendix E.
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NOTE: A suitable form of documentation is given in Appendix F.

5.2 TYPES OF WELDS


5.2.1 General
The types of welds encountered in petroleum pipeline systems are the following:
(a) Production welds of joints in or on pipelines, field welding of pipeline assemblies and
fabrication of pipeline assemblies manufactured from pipes and fittings (see
Clause 1.1)
(i) Mainline
(ii) Tie-in
(iii) Special class (e.g., tie-in weld not subject to pressure testing)
(iv) Repair welds (see Clause 23.2)
(v) Welds on components
(vi) Temporary welds used in construction (e.g., test headers)
(b) In-service welds.
(c) Welds made in accordance with other standards (e.g., station piping and components
to AS 4041).
5.2.2 Types of welds requiring welding procedure qualification
The types of welds requiring welding procedure qualification are the following:
(a) The production welds listed in Clause 5.2.1(a), which shall be qualified by one of the
methods listed in Clause 5.4.
(b) In-service welds, which shall be qualified in accordance with Clauses 12 or 13 of this
Standard.
(c) Repair welds, which shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 23 of the Standard.
(d) Welds made in accordance with other standards, which shall be qualified in
accordance with the relevant Standard.

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AS 2885.22007 24

5.3 DOCUMENTATION AND APPROVAL


Regardless of the method of qualification, the welding procedure shall be documented in a
welding procedure specification (WPS) in accordance with Clause 5.4, and shall be
approved.
NOTE: A suitable form of documentation is given in Appendix F.

5.4 METHODS OF QUALIFICATION


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5.4.1 General
There are four methods of qualifying a welding procedure, as follows:
(a) Qualification by testing.
(b) Qualification by documentation of previous testing and approval.
(c) Qualification by prequalification without testing.
(d) Qualification by the use of supervision.
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A flow chart illustrating these methods is shown in Figure 5.4.1.


NOTE: Developing a repair procedure at the same time as the main procedure is good practice.

Q u a l i f i c ati o n by Q u a l i f i c ati o n by Q u a l i f i c ati o n


Q u a l i f i c ati o n
d o c u m e ntati o n of p re - q u a l i f i c ati o n by u s e of
by te sti n g
p rev i o u s te s ti n g w i th o u t te s ti n g super vision

A p p rova l of we l d i n g
p ro c e d u re p ro p o s a l
( W PP)

R e c o rd of R e c o rd of C o m p l i a n c e w i th s et En g i n e e r i n g
s u c c e s s f u l p ro c e d u re p rev i o u s l y c o n d i ti o n s a s s e s s m e nt /
q u a l i f i c ati o n a p p rove d W P Q R (C l au s e 5.3) j u s ti f i c ati o n
te st we l d ( W P Q R)

We l d i n g p ro c e d u re
s p e c i f i c ati o n ( W PS)

A p p rova l

FIGURE 5.4.1 FLOW CHART SHOWING QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURE

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


25 AS 2885.22007

5.4.2 Qualification by testing


Where a welding procedure is to be qualified by testing, a sufficient number of test welds,
having regard to the range of essential and non-essential variables in the welding procedure
specification, and the intended use of the procedure shall be made in accordance with
Clauses 5.5 to 5.11 and the proposed welding procedure, and shall be examined, tested and
assessed in accordance with Clause 6.
Where the procedure is intended to qualify a range or ranges of essential variables that are
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broader than the permissible limits given in Table 5.4.2(B), it shall be necessary to qualify
the procedure using more than one test weld with values of the essential variables chosen to
span the qualified range taking into account the tolerances in Table 5.4.2(B).
The specified ranges of the essential variables may be extended at any time by the welding
and testing of additional test welds. Such changes shall be documented in a revised welding
procedure specification.
The ranges of non-essential variables may be extended by documentation only.
NOTE: The welding procedure qualification test may also be used to qualify a welder (see
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Clause 7.3(B)).
Where the weld meets all the criteria of acceptance, and the results have been recorded (see
Clause 6.6), the welding procedure shall be qualified.
5.4.3 Qualification by documentation of previous testing and approval
Part or all of the welding procedure qualification tests may be waived on production of
approved documentary evidence that similar welds have been made and tested, and that the
welding procedure has been qualified previously in accordance with one of the following:
(a) This Standard or any of its previous editions.
(b) AS 1697.
(c) AS 4041 or AS 1210 through AS 3992.
(d) ANSI ASME B31.3, ANSI B31.4 or ASME B31.8 through ASME IX.
(e) ANSI API 1104.
(f) DNV OS F101 or AS 2885.4
This method of qualification shall apply only to Tier 1 defect acceptance criteria as
described in Clause 22.
For new pipeline, the essential variables of this Standard shall apply. For the application of
previously qualified procedures to existing pipeline systems, the essential variables
applicable to the previous qualified procedure may be applied.
5.4.4 Qualification by prequalification without testing
This method of qualification is not applicable to the welding of fittings or welding on live
pipelines or where the design minimum temperature is below 0C.
A welding procedure may be qualified by being deemed to be prequalified when the
following restrictions are met:
(a) The joints are butt joints between pipes of equal thickness.
(b) The weld preparation is in accordance with Figure 10.2.
(c) The pipe diameter is within the range DN 50 to DN 500.
(d) The pipe thickness is equal to or greater than 4.8 mm and less than 10 mm.
(e) The pipe grade does not exceed X60 and the carbon equivalent does not exceed 0.40.

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AS 2885.22007 26

(f) The welding process is MMAW using E4110 electrodes in the vertical down
direction.
(g) The number of passes is not less than 3.
(h) The time lapse between starting the root pass and starting the hot pass shall not
exceed 8 min.
(i) The arc energy is not less than 0.5 kJ/mm, or burn-off rate is not less than 1.00 for
3.2 mm electrodes or 0.50 for 4.0 mm electrodes.
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(j) The preheat is not less than that determined by reference to WTIA Technical Note 1.
(k) The lifting and lowering practice is restricted to normal lifts as defined in
Appendix E.
NOTE: Extreme lifts may be dealt with within this Clause by adhering to the provisions of
Paragraph E9.2.2, Appendix E.
(l) The welds are made by welders qualified in accordance with this Standard.
(m) All consumables are used within the manufacturers recommendations.
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Prequalified welding procedures, which are qualified under this Clause, are deemed suitable
for use by dint of their long satisfactory use and do not require testing in accordance with
Clause 5.4.1. Prequalified welding procedures shall be documented in accordance with
Clause 5.2.
5.4.5 Qualification by the use of supervision
In special circumstances outside the restrictions of Clause 5.4.4 and where qualification by
testing or documentation is not practicable, a limited number of special welds may be made
by qualified welders working under the direct and continuous supervision of a qualified
welding engineer.
NOTE: An example of these special circumstances might be the welding into a pipeline of a large
and expensive fitting where it would not be practicable to meet the test weld requirements of this
Standard.
The welding engineer shall have formal qualifications in welding engineering, and shall be
experienced in the welding of a pipeline, including specifically qualification in the type of
welds that are proposed.
The welding procedure used for supervised welds shall be documented and shall be
approved. The documentation shall include a statement of the qualifications and experience
of the welding engineer who will supervise the welds.

5.5 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION


The purpose of the welding procedure specification is to document and record the nominal
and, where appropriate, average values of the essential and non-essential variables of the
welding procedure, and the limits of these variables.
Table 5.4.2(A) lists the items that are to be defined for each welding procedure.
Table 5.4.2(B) lists the essential variables for qualified welding procedures. Weld passes in
a butt weld shall be identified as shown in Figure 5.5.
NOTES:
1 The terms essential variable and non-essential variable are defined in Clause 1.5.
2 A welding procedure specification may be presented in any suitable form (written or tabular),
that suits the needs of the organization responsible for qualification of the welding procedure.
A suitable form for welding procedure detail is given in Appendix F.
3 A suitable form for test weld record is given in Appendix G.

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27 AS 2885.22007
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FIGURE 5.5 IDENTIFICATION OF WELD PASSES IN A SINGLE-SIDED BUTT WELD

5.6 CHANGES IN A WELDING PROCEDURE


5.6.1 Change in an essential variable
The following shall be observed:
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(a) Where a change is made to an essential variable in a qualified welding procedure


beyond the qualified range of the welding procedure specification, or the permissible
limit in Table 5.4.2(B), whichever is greater, the welding procedure specification
shall be changed, and the new procedure shall be qualified.
(b) Changes beyond the limits in Table 5.4.2(B) may be made without requalification
provided the following criteria is met:
(i) The changes are shown by appropriate documentary evidence in the form of an
amendment to the qualified welding procedure not to increase the risk of
HACC. This evidence should take into account the material in Appendix E and
WTIA Technical Note 1.
(ii) The changes do not involve an increase in carbon equivalent of more than 0.10
above that used for the procedure test weld.
(iii) The amended welding procedure specification is approved.
5.6.2 Change in other than an essential variable
Where a change is made to other than an essential variable, the welding procedure
specification shall be modified but need not be requalified.

5.7 TEST PIECE SIZE


The size of the test piece(s) used for welding procedure qualification test welds shall
involve at least one complete welded joint of the type for which the procedure is to be
qualified, and shall be sufficient to provide the required number of test specimens.

5.8 TEST PIECE MATERIAL


The test piece material shall comply with the following:
(a) Test piece material used for welding procedure qualification test welds shall be of the
same specification, grade or class, and outside diameter, as will be used in the major
part of the production. The wall thickness shall take into account the limits in the
essential variables and, where there is a choice, it should preferably be at the upper
end of the range qualified.

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AS 2885.22007 28

(b) For material grades equal to or greater than X70, the test piece material shall be from
the manufacture, and shall have the same nominal composition as the material
represented. Combinations of materials from different manufacturers that have been
individually qualified do not require separate qualification for the combination (see
Table 5.4.2(B) 1 (b)).
(c) Where a weld is to be made between a material grade less than X70 and another with
material grade equal to or greater than X70, a welding procedure qualification test
weld made on the higher grade shall qualify the combination.
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(d) Material with a higher carbon equivalent shall be deemed to be valid for a parent
metal with a lower carbon equivalent.

5.9 PREPARATION AND ASSEMBLY OF TEST PIECES


The joint preparation of test pieces shall be in accordance with the qualified procedure and
shall be within the specified dimensional tolerances. The preparation should preferably be
made by the same method as will be used in production.
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Test pieces shall be assembled in the required position so that the weld can be made in
accordance with the welding procedure specification. Tack welding shall be carried out as
per the welding procedure.

5.10 TEST CONDITIONS


Subject to the requirements of Appendix E, the test weld shall be made under conditions
that simulate the worst case likely to be encountered during construction or operations
including, where these are required by Appendix E, the use of full-length suspended pipes,
line-up clamps, lowering off, support and environmental conditions. The welding preheat,
heat input or burn-off rate shall be at or near the lower end of the range to be qualified.
Where delay in completing some joints is anticipated, the test weld shall simulate that
delay.

5.11 SUPERVISION OF THE TEST WELD


The test weld shall be made under continuous supervision to ensure that all the
requirements of the welding procedure specification are complied with and that the weld is
free from unauthorized repairs.
The supervisor shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 11.4.
The test should be terminated at any stage when it becomes apparent to the supervisor that a
satisfactory weld cannot be made.

5.12 IDENTIFICATION OF THE TEST WELD


Each qualified welding procedure and each welder or operator shall be uniquely identified.
This identification shall be clearly marked on the test piece adjacent to the weld.

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29 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 5.4.2(A)
ITEMS FOR QUALIFIED PROCEDURES
Item (see Note 1) Remarks
PIPE
1 (a) Material specification Pipe and components complying with the AS 2885 set of
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Standards, another relevant Australian Standard, or another


Approved Standard
(b) Material manufacturer Where material grade X70
(c) Material carbon equivalent (CE) Mn C r + M o + V C u + N i
CE = C + + +
6 5 15
2 Wall thickness Nominal wall thickness of each component of the joint
3 Diameter group Applicable to the diameter of each pipe, branch pipe or
component
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PROCESS
4 Welding process The arc welding process (e.g., MMAW, automatic GMAW,
GTAW, or a nominated combination)
DESIGN
5 Preparation Joint preparation e.g., type and details of bevel, root face,
and gap, and the dimensional tolerances upon the
preparation. For high-low limits refer to Clause 15.4.3
6 Weld shape and size Shape and size of welds
7 Backing Type of backing or consumable insert (if used)
8 Passes Number and sequence of passes (including stripper passes)
9 Position Positions shown in Table 4.2(A)
10 Direction of welding Vertical up or vertical down
FILLER
11 Filler metal Size and classification of electrode or welding wire for each
pass
SHIELDING
12 Shielding gas (a) Type and composition of gas or gas mixture used for
shielding or backing
(b) Nozzle or cup size
(c) Type and flow rate for shielding or backing gases
13 Shielding flux Type, size, classification, make, and brand of flux
ELECTRICAL
14 Electrical characteristics Arc type, current, polarity and voltage for each size of
electrode.
PROCEDURE
15 Number of welders Minimum number of root and hot pass welders
16 Removal of line-up clamp, and/or type Minimum percentage of root pass completed before release
of lift (see Note 4) of clamp. Where less than 100% the location of the
completed proportion shall be specified (see Notes 5 and 6).
The type of lift shall also be specified
17 Tack welding (if used) Number and size of tacks employed
(continued)

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AS 2885.22007 30

TABLE 5.4.2(A) (continued)

Item (see Note 1) Remarks


18 Time lapse between individual Maximum time lapse
passes (see Note 2)
(a) between the start of the root pass and the start of the
hot pass; and
(b) between subsequent passes
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19 Preheat temperature and interpass Heating method, width heated, preheat temperature and
temperature interpass temperature
20 Post-weld heat treatment and post- (a) For post-weld heat treatment, the heating method,
weld cooling width heated, minimum and maximum temperature,
time at temperature, method of temperature
measurement, and control of maximum and minimum
cooling rates
(b) For deliberate accelerated post weld cooling above
100C, the method and intensity or rate of cooling
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21 Heat input or burn-off rate Heat input or burn-off rate for each pass
(see Note 3)
CLEANING
22 Cleaning Equipment and method used
DEFECT ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
23 Visual inspection and NDE acceptance The tier of acceptance criteria for girth weld discontinuity
criteria
NOTE: Item indicates the specification topic.

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31 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 5.4.2(B)
ESSENTIAL VARIABLES FOR QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES
Item (see Note 1) Essential variable
PIPE
1 Material (a) Change of material grade between <X70 and X70 or
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from X70 to a higher grade


(b) Where material grade X70Material manufacturer
(combinations between different material manufacturers
do not require separate qualification, see Clause 5.8(b))
(c) For actual CE values of < 0.35, an increase of carbon
equivalent of > 0.05 above that used for the procedure
test weld
(d) For actual CE values of 0.35, an increase of carbon
equivalent of > 0.03 above that used for the procedure
test weld (see Clause 5.6.1(b))
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2 Wall thickness (see Note 5) Tier 1: Change of material thickness in a component of a


joint between <0.5 nominal thickness and >1.2 nominal
thickness
Tier 2 and Tier 3: Change of material thickness in joints
with the same nominal thickness between <1 nominal
thickness and >1.2 nominal thickness
In tapered joints or branch welds the thickness to be
considered shall be the effective thickness on the thicker side
of the joint. The effective thickness shall be as defined in
WTIA Technical Note 1
3 Diameter group Change in nominal outside diameter outside the diameter
(see Note 4) groups qualified as follows:
(a) D 60.3 mm
(b) 60.3 mm < D 508 mm
(c) D >508 mm where D is the nominal diameter of the test
weld
Or, as an alternative to the diameter groups given above,
where there is a change in diameter from a qualified
procedure of more than 50% of the nominal outside diameter
PROCESS
4 Welding process (a) A change from one welding process or combination to
another
(b) Change from a manual operation to semi-automatic or
automatic operation, or vice versa
(c) Change of automatic welding system used
DESIGN
5 Preparation (a) Any change to the nominal dimensions of the weld
preparation and their tolerances
(b) An increase in the permitted level of high-low beyond
the limits of Clause 15.4.3
6 Weld shape and size Change beyond that permitted by joint design (see Clause 10)
7 Backing Deletion or addition or change of a backing material or
consumable insert
(continued)

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AS 2885.22007 32

TABLE 5.4.2(B) (continued)

Item (see Note 1) Essential variable


8 Passes Not limited unless it is a reduction to less than 4 passes
9 Position Change in position other than as permitted by Table 4.2(A)
10 Direction of welding Change between vertical up and vertical down
FILLER
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11 Filler metal (electrodes, (a) Any change in classification of welding consumables as


filler wire) specified by Table 2.2.1
(b) Change in diameter of electrode, filler wire or rod for
the root pass
(c) For single-sided butt welds and fillet welds, any change
of root pass electrode brand name

(d) For electrodes of higher strength than E4110, a change


in any of the following:
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(i) The type or nominal level of alloying elements


used in the weld metal
(ii) Manufacturer and factory of origin
(iii) A significant change in the proportion of the
thickness welded with different electrode
classifications
(e) For GMAW or FCAW electrodes, a change in brand
designation, factory of origin or electrode diameter
SHIELDING
12 Shielding gas (a) Change between one gas or mixture and another gas or
mixture
(b) Decrease in shielding gas flow rate by more than 10% or
decrease in the nozzle or cup size
(c) Change of gas backing parameters
13 Shielding flux (a) Change in flux type, size, classification
(b) Change in combination of flux and electrode, which
results in a different classification number
ELECTRICAL
14 Electrical characteristics (a) Change of polarity of the electrode
(b) Change of electrical current between a.c. and d.c.
(c) Change of arc type between spray arc, globular arc,
pulsed arc, and short-circuiting (dip transfer) arc or
between the use of a conventional power source and a
controlled waveform power source.
(d) Change of more than 10% in contact tube-to-work
distance
(e) Change of current and/or voltage to a value outside the
manufacturers published recommended range or, when
working outside the manufacturers recommended range,
the qualified range of values of current and/or voltage
PROCEDURE
15 Number of welders Decrease in number of welders used on any root pass, or hot
pass, in the procedure test weld
(continued)

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33 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 5.4.2(B) (continued)


16 Removal of line-up clamp (a) A reduction in the proportion of root pass welded before
(if used) and/or a change in the type the line-up clamp is released
of lift
(b) A change from normal to extreme lift
(see Appendix E)
17 Tack welding (if used) A reduction in the number or size of tack welds or both
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18 Time lapse between individual passes Increase in time lapse beyond the qualified range
(see Note 2 and Clause 5.10)
19 Preheat temperature and interpass (a) For material grades of less than X70 a decrease in
temperature material temperature of more than 25C below or an
increase of more than 75C above that used in the
procedure test weld
(b) For material grades of X70 or higher a decrease in
material temperature of more than 10C below or an
increase of more than 75C above that used in the
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procedure test weld


Note: Refer to Clause 5.9 which requires the test weld to be
made under conditions that simulate the worst case to be
encountered in production.
20 Post-weld heat treatment and post- (a) Change in post-weld heat treatment
weld cooling
(b) Change in post-weld cooling method and intensity, or
rate of cooling (see Clause 3.2)
21 Heat input or burn-off rate (a) For mechanized or automatic welding, a change of heat
(see Note 3) input of more than 15% of the nominated average used
in the procedure test weld
(b) For manual metal-arc welding a reduction of heat input
or burn-off rate on the root pass of more than 10%, or on
the other passes a change of more than 20%
22 Cleaning Equipment and method used
DEFECT ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
23 Visual examination and NDE An increase in the Tier number
acceptance criteria

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AS 2885.22007 34

NOTES TO TABLE 5.4.2(B)


1 The essential variable specifies the limits outside which re-qualification is required. Changes in non-
essential variables require documentation but do not require re-qualification. Non-essential variables
are those Items in Table 5.4.2(A) which are not listed as essential variables in Table 5.4.2(B).
2 The method of defining time lapse shall be the same for production welds as is used for procedure
qualification welds. It is recommended that the time lapse from start of root pass to start of hot pass be
the defined method to avoid uncertainties associated with root repairs.
3 Burn-off rate is defined as the ratio of length of electrode consumed to the length of weld pass
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deposited. WTIA Technical Note 1 provides information relating burn-off rate to heat input.
4 The essential variables in Table 5.4.2(B) primarily address the risk of HACC. This is clearly evident by
the latitude extended to the range of thickness (Item 2). Tier 2, however, permits increased defect limits
based on demonstrated mechanical properties, i.e., weld metal strength matching and fracture
toughness. Although Tier 2 defect limits are proportional to wall thickness, variations in wall thickness
can strongly influence defect tolerance. This is principally a consequence of the fact that planar defects
are assumed to be one weld pass deep (i.e., 3 mm). Such an assumed defect depth in thin-walled pipe
can significantly change the requirement of weld strength matching (despite the proportional decrease
in defect limit). For this reason the Tier 2 and Tier 3 lower limit multiplier for thickness range is more
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restrictive than that for Tier 1.


5 Research work carried out by the CRC for welded structures (CRC-WS) has shown that for normal lifts
(see Appendix F) the additional strains, over and above the weld contraction strains, caused by lifting
and lowering are small for pipe diameters less than DN 500 It has also shown that providing due
attention is paid to the other factors governing the risk of HACC, the removal of the line-up clamp after
at least 50% of the root pass is completed, does not by itself cause cracking.
6 The proportion of the root pass that is completed before clamp release shall be 50%.
7 Where the proportion of the root pass that is completed before the line-up clamp is released is <100%,
then at least 80% of both the top and bottom quadrants shall be completed before clamp release.

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35 AS 2885.22007

SEC T I ON 6 AS SE SSM EN T O F T H E T E ST
WE LD TO Q U A L I FY A WEL D I NG PROCEDURE

6.1 METHOD OF ASSESSMENT


The test weld made to qualify a welding procedure shall be assessed in the following
manner and sequence:
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(a) Visual examination


(b) Non-destructive examination using the same methods as those proposed for the
assessment of production welds.
(c) Destructive tests.
The assessment may be stopped at any stage when results are unsatisfactory.
The assessment shall be made on a test piece that has been cooled under representative
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conditions.
Final non-destructive examination shall not be carried out until 24 h after the weld has been
completed.
Except for branch connections or in-service weld location, pre-existing laminar
imperfections in the parent metal shall not be cause for rejection of test welds. Additionally,
cracking of regions of mid-section segregation in the heat-affected zone of the parent metal,
where there is no significant through thickness dimension, shall not be cause for rejection.
NOTE: Non-destructive examination may be used to locate areas substantially free from
discontinuities before the test specimens required for destructive tests are taken (see
Clause 6.4.1).

6.2 VISUAL EXAMINATION


The external surface and the internal surface of the test weld shall be visually examined in
accordance with Clause 15.

6.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


The test weld shall be subjected to non-destructive examination in accordance with
Clause 16. For welds involving fittings, and for all welds in materials having SMYS
413 MPa, the internal root surface of the weld shall be examined by magnetic particle
testing.

6.4 DESTRUCTIVE TESTS


6.4.1 Types of test and number of test specimens
The types of test and the number of test specimens required shall be as shown in
Table 6.4.1.
Test specimen shall be spaced evenly within the test welds.
Test specimens shall be cut from the test piece by a method that does not change the
properties of the test specimens.
Where a test piece has been assessed for soundness by a non-destructive examination, test
specimens for tensile tests and bend tests shall be taken from locations that are free from
discontinuities.
Reports of destructive tests shall include the identification of the welding procedure and the
welder or operator.

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AS 2885.22007 36

6.4.2 Fracture toughness tests


This Standard contains three alternative acceptance criteria (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) for
discontinuities assessed by non-destructive examination (see Clause 22). The toughness test
shall be performed when
(a) the criteria for acceptance of discontinuities is Tier 1 and the weld is not made
entirely with E4110 electrodes; or
(b) the criteria for acceptance of discontinuities is Tier 2 or Tier 3.
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These properties should be determined from appropriate tests performed on the procedure
qualification test weld.
Where fracture toughness tests are required, the type of test, the method of carrying out that
test, the location and preparation of the test specimens, and the criteria of acceptance shall
be approved.
The most common test methods that are used to assess fracture toughness in pipeline girth
welds are the Charpy test (see AS 1544.2) and the crack tip opening displacement test (see
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AS 2205.7.3).
6.4.3 Transverse butt tensile strength test
The purpose of a transverse butt tensile test is to determine the tensile strength of a test
specimen containing weld metal, the heat-affected zone and parent metal affected by the
welding taken transversely from a butt welded joint.
The following applies to transverse butt tensile strength tests:
(a) Method A transverse butt tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with
AS 2205.2.1 and the following:
(i) Test specimen The test specimen shall comply with the following:
(A) Where the outside diameter of the pipe is not greater than 33.4 mm, a full
section test specimen may be used.
(B) Where the outside diameter of the pipe is greater than 33.4 mm, the test
specimen shall comply with AS 2205.2.1.
(ii) Dressing of the face and root surfaces of the test specimen is optional except
where the criteria of acceptance for girth weld discontinuities is Tier 2 in which
case the reinforcement shall be removed from both surfaces (see
Clause 22.3.1(c) and Table 6.4.1).
(b) Criteria of acceptance Where the test specimen breaks in the weld metal or the heat-
affected zone, the tensile strength shall be not less than
(i) where the parent metals have the same specified minimum tensile strength, the
specified minimum tensile strength of the parent metal; or
(ii) where the parent metals have differing specified minimum tensile strengths, the
lower specified minimum tensile strength of the parent metals.
(c) Reporting of results The report shall include the identification of the welding
procedure, the welder or operator, and the location of the fracture and whether the
weld is dressed. Where the test specimen breaks outside the weld metal or heat-
affected zone and where the tensile strength is less than 95% of the specified
minimum tensile strength of the parent metal, the cause shall be investigated and
reported.
6.4.4 Transverse guided side bend test
The purpose of the transverse guided side bend test is to assess sidewall fusion in welds
made by a gas metal-arc or a flux-cored arc welding process.

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37 AS 2885.22007

The following applies to transverse guided side bend tests:


(a) Method A transverse guided bend test shall be carried out in accordance with
AS 2205.3.1 with the former diameter equal to four times the test specimen thickness.
Where the material wall thickness is less than the standard thickness of the
AS 2205.3.1 standard test specimen (10 mm), the thickness of the test specimen shall
be reduced so that it is equal to the material wall thickness.
NOTE: This measure is designed to make the test specimen at least square so as to avoid
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difficulties in bending.
(b) Criteria of acceptance The test specimen shall have none of the following:
(i) Cracks that do not originate from one of the edges.
(ii) Cracks that originate from one of the edges and have a length greater than
3 mm.
(iii) Any other discontinuity that does not comply with the criteria of acceptance
specified in Clause 22.
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In GMAW welds, minor amounts of lack of fusion that comply with the NDE
acceptance criteria can sometimes exhibit a crack-like appearance. Provided
they occur on the fusion boundary and do not exceed the NDE acceptance limits
their occurrence shall not constitute failure of the bend test.
(c) Reporting of results The report shall include the identification of the welding
procedure, and identification of the welder or operator.
6.4.5 Macro testCross-section examination
The purpose of a macro test is to
(a) provide a record of the number, disposition and sequence of weld passes;
(b) assess the soundness of the weld; and
(c) reveal the presence of hardened zones by the response to etching and so possibly
indicate the need for additional hardness traverses beyond the minimum given in
AS 2205.6.1.
The following applies to macro-examination tests:
(a) Method A macro test cross-section examination shall be carried out in accordance
with AS 2205.5.1 using a magnification of approximately 5, and a photo-
macrograph shall be prepared at a suitable magnification in the range 2 to 5.
(b) Criteria of acceptance The test specimen shall be deemed to be acceptable if the
polished surface of the weld and the heat-affected zone shows the following:
(i) The number and sequence of weld passess is as specified in the welding
procedure.
(ii) Freedom from discontinuities that do not comply with the criteria of acceptance
specified in Clause 22.
In order to meet this requirement it may be necessary to investigate and
determine the length of discontinuities that appear on the polished plane of the
macro test piece. If this is necessary it shall be done by reference to the results
of the non-destructive examination. If the non-destructive examination did not
reveal the discontinuity, or if no non-destructive examination was performed,
the investigation shall be undertaken using metallography.
(iii) Freedom from discontinuities greater than one weld pass depth.

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AS 2885.22007 38

6.4.6 Hardness test


The purpose of the hardness test is to measure the hardness of the weld metal, heat-affected
zone (HAZ), and parent metal on prescribed traverses located in the regions of expected
maximum and minimum hardness.
The following applies to hardness tests:
(a) Test specimen The test specimen shall be that used for the macro test. It shall be
prepared in accordance with AS 2205.6.1.
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(b) Method A Vickers hardness test shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.6.1.
Care shall be taken to ensure that, in addition to the minimum requirements for
traverse locations shown in AS 2205.6.1, the information derived from the macro test
(see Clause 6.4.5) is used to ensure that traverses are located so as to find the
maximum hardness.
(c) Criteria of acceptance The maximum hardness in the weld zone shall not exceed
350 HV for non-sour environment, and 250 HV for sour environment. Sour
environments are defined in NACE MR-0175. These environments may cause stress
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corrosion cracking (SCC) of susceptible materials. It should be noted that highly


susceptible materials may fail in less severe environments.
6.4.7 Charpy V-notch impact test
The purpose of the Charpy V-notch impact test is to provide an empirical measure of the
fracture toughness of the weld metal in girth welds. Charpy tests are mandatory when the
criteria for acceptance of girth weld discontinuities is Tier 2 (see Clause 22.3 and
Table 6.4.1) or Tier 3 and where the weld is not made entirely with E4110 electrodes.
The following applies to Charpy V-notch impact tests:
(a) Test specimen Charpy test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with
AS 2205.7.1.
(b) Method Charpy tests shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.7.1 at the
lowest design temperature at which the combined stress, resulting from internal
pressure and external loads, exceeds 30% SMYS.
(c) Criteria of acceptance The average absorbed energy for each set of three test
specimens shall be 40 J. The minimum absorbed energy for individual specimens
shall be 30 J. These requirements shall be reduced pro rata for sub-size test
specimens.
6.4.8 Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) test
The purpose of the CTOD test is to provide a quantitative fracture mechanics based
measure of the fracture toughness of the weld metal in girth welds. CTOD tests are only
mandatory when the criteria for acceptance of girth weld discontinuities is Tier 2 (see
Clause 22.3 and Table 6.4.1), and where the thickness is greater than 13 mm. CTOD tests
are also likely to be necessary when Tier 3 acceptance criteria are used. In that case CTOD
tests may be required when the thickness is less than 13 mm.
The following applies to CTOD tests:
(a) Test specimen CTOD test specimens shall be prepared in accordance with BS 7448.2
using the standard B 2B test specimen.
(b) Method CTOD tests shall be performed in accordance with BS 7448.2 at the lowest
design temperature at which the combined stress, resulting from internal pressure and
external loads, exceeds 30% SMYS.
(c) Criteria of acceptance The results of CTOD tests shall meet a requirement of
0.15 mm average and 0.10 mm minimum individual.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


39 AS 2885.22007

6.5 REPEATED TESTS


6.5.1 Visual examination and non-destructive examination
Where a test weld fails to comply with the criteria of acceptance for visual examination or
non-destructive examination, another test weld shall be made and subjected to the same
examination. If this additional test weld fails, the welding procedure shall be deemed not to
comply with this Standard.
6.5.2 Destructive testing
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Destructive tests shall be repeated in accordance with the following:


(a) Tensile test Where a test specimen for a tensile test fails to comply with the criteria
of acceptance, another test specimen shall be taken from a location in the same test
piece, determined by the inspector, if there is sufficient material or from another test
piece. This test specimen shall be subjected to the test. If this additional test specimen
fails, the welding procedure shall be deemed not to comply with this Standard.
(b) Other destructive tests Where a test specimen fails to comply with the criteria of
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acceptance for destructive testing, another two test specimens shall be taken from a
location in the same test piece, determined by the inspector, if there is sufficient
material or from another test piece. These test specimens shall be subjected to the
same test as the one that failed. If either of these additional test specimens fail, the
welding procedure shall be deemed not to comply with this Standard.
6.5.3 Cause of failure
Where any further test piece or test specimen fails to comply with the criteria of acceptance
for visual examination, non-destructive examination or destructive testing, the cause of
failure should be established before any further testing is carried out.

6.6 RECORD OF RESULTS


Where the assessment has demonstrated that the weld is satisfactory, a record to the effect
that a weld made to the particular welding procedure specification complies with this
Standard shall be signed by the person responsible for the test, and thus qualify the welding
procedure.
A record of the results of each test and any test that has been repeated shall be made for
each welding procedure specification.

6.7 PERIOD OF VALIDITY


A qualified welding procedure shall remain valid within the limitations of the essential
variables until the qualification is withdrawn.

6.8 DISQUALIFICATION OF A QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURE


Where it has been demonstrated and established that welds made to a qualified welding
procedure fail to comply with the criteria of acceptance and it has been determined that the
welder is not responsible for the failure, the cause of the failure shall be determined and the
qualification of the welding procedure may be withdrawn.

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AS 2885.22007 40

TABLE 6.4.1
WELDING PROCEDURE TEST WELDSTYPE OF DESTRUCTIVE TEST AND
NUMBER OF SPECIMENS
Type of destructive test and number of specimens from each test piece
(Note 1)

Nominal Nominal Charpy


Type of Side CTOD
Tensile Hardness V-notch
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thickness outside bend test Macro test


weld (Note 2) (Note 4) test
( N) diameter (D) (Note 3) (Note 5)
(Note 5)
(Clause (Clause (Clause (Clause (Clause (Clause
6.4.3) 6.4.4) 6.4.5) 6.4.6) 6.4.7) 6.4.8)
mm mm (set of 3) (set of 3)
Circum- 33.4 1 1 1
ferential
butt
>33.4 60.3 1 1 1 1 1
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13 >60.3 114.3 1 2 2 2 1
>114.3 323.9 2 2 2 2 1
>323.9 4 4 2 2 2
114.3 1 2 2 2 1 1
>13 >114.3 323.9 2 4 2 2 1 1
>323.9 4 4 2 2 2 1
Fillet All All 4 2
Branch: All All 4 2
tee-butt
and fillet
Longi- All All 2 2 2 2
tudinal
butt
joints
Repair All All 1 1

Weld All All 2 4 2


metal
deposit
repair
(Note 6)
NOTES:
1 Where two or more welders or operators make a weld, at least one of each test specimen type shall be taken to
represent each welders or operators work.
2 Where the criteria for acceptance of girth weld discontinuities is Tier 2 (see Clause 22.3.1(c)), the weld
reinforcement shall be removed.
3 Except for weld metal deposit repair welds, side bend tests are applicable only to welds made by gas metal-arc
and flux cored welding processes.
4 The hardness test shall be made on the macro test specimens.
5 Applicable where the joint is not made entirely with E4110 electrodes and/or when the criteria for acceptance of
girth weld discontinuities is Tier 2 or Tier 3 (see Clause 22).
6 Weld metal deposit repairs to pipelines made in accordance with Clause 13.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


41 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 7 QUA L I F I C AT I ON O F A WE LDER


O PE RA T O R

7.1 PURPOSE OF QUALIFYING A WELDER


A welder shall be qualified in order to demonstrate an ability to follow the appropriate
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qualified welding procedure and the dexterity to make welds using that procedure to the
requirements of this Standard.

7.2 CATEGORIES AND SCOPE OF WELDER OR OPERATOR QUALIFICATION


This Standard specifies three categories of qualification, as follows:
(a) Category 1 (multiple qualification) A welder holding a Category 1 (multiple
qualification) may weld any type of joint and in any position, but shall be limited by
the welding procedure essential variables and welder essential variables.
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(b) Category 2 (partial qualification) A welder holding a Category 2 (partial


qualification) may weld only the type or types of weld (see Table 4.2(B)), the weld
pass(es), and the section of the weld and in the position qualified (see Table 4.2(A)),
but shall be limited by the welding procedure essential variables and the welder
essential variables.
(c) Category 3 (operator qualification) An operator holding a Category 3 (operator
qualification) may weld the type or types of weld using automatic welding and in the
positions qualified, but shall be limited by the welding procedure essential variables
and the welders and operators essential variables.
NOTE: Automatic welding does not include semi-automatic welding, which is qualified as
Category 1.

7.3 METHODS OF QUALIFICATION


A welder or operator shall be qualified by one of the following methods:
(a) The welding of a test piece that simulates the production weld, and its subsequent
examination, testing, and assessment in accordance with Clause 8.
(b) The production of documentary evidence showing that the test piece required for the
qualification of the welding procedure has been welded, and that the procedure has
been qualified.
(c) Where a welder holds a Category 2 (partial qualification) and is required to qualify
for a Category 1 (multiple qualification), the successful making of the appropriate
additional test welds.
(d) Assessment of the welder or operators first production weld in accordance with
Clause 8.1.

7.4 QUALIFICATION BY TESTING


Where a welder or operator is to be qualified by testing, a test weld shall be made on a
suitable test piece in accordance with a qualified welding procedure.
The test weld shall be examined and tested. Where the weld complies with this Standard
and the results have been recorded (see Clause 8.5), the welder or operator shall be
qualified.
Where two or more welders or operators qualify on a single test piece, each welder or
operator shall be qualified for that position used and section or portion of the weld made.

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AS 2885.22007 42

Part or all of the welder or operator qualification tests may be waived on production of
evidence that similar welds, within the limits of the essential variables (Table 7.5) have
been made within the previous 12 months.

7.5 ESSENTIAL VARIABLES FOR WELDERS AND OPERATOR


Essential variables for welders and operators shall be as listed in Table 7.5.
NOTES:
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1 Essential variables for a welder or operator are those variables in which a change outside the
limits shown in Table 7.5 is considered likely to result in a change in the mechanical
properties and soundness of a weld, e.g., a change in technique or welding process, change in
welding position.
2 The essential variables associated with the welder or operator qualification and welding
procedure qualification are not the same; welder or operator qualification is a function of the
essential variables listed in Table 7.5.
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Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


43 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 7.5
ESSENTIAL VARIABLES FOR QUALIFIED WELDERS AND OPERATORS
Categories (see Notes)
Category 3
Item Category 1 Category 2
qualification
qualification qualification
(automatic
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(multiple) (partial)
welding)
1 Welding process
Change of welding process or combination of welding
A A A
processes
2 MaterialThickness
Change of material thickness ( N ) beyond the range N/2
to 1.5 N, where N equals the thickness used in the A A
welding procedure qualification test weld
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3 MaterialOutside diameter
Change of outside diameter beyond the range qualified
A
in the welding procedure qualification test weld
4 Joint design
Change of basic joint design used for the welding
procedure qualification test (e.g., angle of bevel, root A A
gap, root face)
Deletion of backing strip or a consumable insert in a
A A A
single-sided butt weld
5 Welding position
Addition of welding positions not qualified by the
A A
welder qualification test weld
6 Direction of welding
Change of direction of welding between vertical-down
A A A
and vertical-up
7 Filler metal
Change of flux type from one flux type to another
A A A
(e.g., cellulose to basic)
8 Electrical characteristics
Change between spray arc, globular arc, pulsed arc, and
A A A
short-circuiting arc (dip transfer)
NOTES:
1 The categories are defined in Clause 7.2.
2 A indicates applicability.

7.6 TEST PIECE


The size of the test piece(s) used for a welders qualification shall be sufficient to provide
the required number of test specimens.
The material for the test piece(s) shall be within the limits of the welding procedure
essential variables and the welder and operator essential variables.
The joint preparation shall be within specified tolerances for production, and should
preferably be made by the same method as that used in production.

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AS 2885.22007 44

7.7 ASSEMBLY OF TEST PIECES


A test piece shall be assembled so that the weld can be made in accordance with the
qualified welding procedure and in the required position.
If tack welds are used, they shall be made in accordance with the qualified welding
procedure.

7.8 AUTOMATIC WELDING EQUIPMENT


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Where an operator is to be tested on automatic welding equipment, the equipment shall be


identical to that used in production, and it shall have been demonstrated that the equipment
can make an acceptable welding procedure test weld. The operator shall be adequately
trained on the automatic welding equipment before making the test weld.

7.9 CATEGORIES OF TEST WELDS


7.9.1 General
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The type and number of test welds shall be appropriate to the category of qualification
required.
7.9.2 Test welds for Category 1 (multiple qualification)
The welder shall make a butt weld and a branch weld as follows:
(a) Butt weld The welder shall make a butt weld, without a backing ring, on pipe in
either
(i) the 5G position; or
(ii) the 6G position.
(b) Branch weld The welder shall mark out, cut, fit, and weld a reinforced bevelled end
sit-on branch to a pipe run. The outside diameter of the branch pipe shall be not less
than one-third of the outside diameter of the pipe run.
The branch weld shall be made with
(i) the pipe run in either the 5G position or the 6G position;
(ii) the branch in the 5B position; and
(iii) the angle between the axis of the pipe run and the branch at 90.
7.9.3 Test welds for Category 2 (partial qualification)
The welder shall make one or more of the types of welds classified in Table 4.2(B).
Where the welder does not mark out, cut, and fit a branch but only welds the joint, the
welders record shall be marked WELDING ONLY .
7.9.4 Test welds for Category 3 (operator qualification)
An operator shall make a butt weld using automatic welding equipment.

7.10 MAKING A TEST WELD


The test weld shall be made in accordance with the qualified welding procedure.

7.11 SUPERVISION OF A TEST WELD


A test weld for a welder or operator qualification test shall be made under continuous
supervision, to ensure that the requirements of the welding procedure specification are
followed and that the weld is free from unauthorized repairs.

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45 AS 2885.22007

The test should be terminated at any stage when it becomes apparent to the person
supervising the test that the welder or operator does not have the ability required to produce
a satisfactory weld.

7.12 IDENTIFICATION OF A TEST WELD


The identification of the qualified welding procedure specification and each welder or
operators identification shall be clearly marked on the test weld. The top (or other
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appropriate orientation) shall also be marked on the test weld along with the limits of each
welders or operators work in circumstances where more than one welder or operator is
involved.
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AS 2885.22007 46

SE C T I O N 8 A S S E SSM EN T O F T E ST W E L D S
FOR WE LDE R OR OPERATOR QUA L I F I CAT I ON

8.1 METHOD OF ASSESSMENT


A test weld made for welder or operator qualification shall be assessed by each of the
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following methods:
(a) Visual examination.
(b) Where production welds are to be subject to non-destructive examination, assessment
by non-destructive examination (using the methods to be used for the assessment of
production welds).
NOTE: Destructive tests may be used to supplement non-destructive examination.
(c) Where production welds are not subject to examination, or assessment by either non-
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destructive examination or macro-examination in accordance with Clause 6.4.5.


(d) Where more than one welder or operator is involved in making a test weld,
assessment by each of the applicable methods.

8.2 VISUAL EXAMINATION


The external surface and, where practicable, the internal surface of the test weld shall be
visually examined in accordance with Clause 15. The visual examination shall include
measurement of the height of weld reinforcement in order to ensure compliance with the
requirements of Figure 15.4.2 where applicable.
NOTE: Experience has shown that excessive weld reinforcement height particularly at the top and
bottom of welds has been a problem in the field, which has caused serious difficulties in meeting
the density requirements in radiographic inspection. For this reason it is important that an
assessment be made of the capability of the welder to produce welds within the required
reinforcement limits.

8.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


Where production welds are to be subjected to non-destructive examination, the test weld
shall be subjected to non-destructive examination in accordance with Clause 16.

8.4 REPEATED TEST


8.4.1 General
Where the test weld fails to comply with the acceptance criteria and, in the opinion of the
inspector, the welder or operator is not responsible for the failure, one further test weld may
be made and subjected to the same examination. At the discretion of the inspector, a period
of practice, prior to the second test, may be allowed.
8.4.2 Repeated failure
If the second test weld fails to comply with the criteria of acceptance under similar
circumstances, the cause shall be investigated. Where appropriate, the welding procedure
should be an aspect of the investigation.

8.5 RECORD OF RESULTS


A record of the results of the assessment of each test, including any repeated test, shall be
made for each welder or operator qualification test.

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47 AS 2885.22007

Where tests have demonstrated that the weld is satisfactory, a record to the effect that a
weld made to the particular qualified welding procedure complies with this Standard shall
be signed by the person responsible for the test, thus qualifying the welder.

8.6 CLASSIFICATION OF CATEGORIES OF WELDS


In order to reduce the number of test welds required for welder or operator qualification,
welds shall be classified in accordance with Table 4.2(B).
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8.7 PORTABILITY OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION


It is recommended that, subject to the approval of the pipeline licensee, welder or operator
qualification tests undertaken by others be accepted provided these tests have been
(a) carried out in accordance with this Standard or the appropriate previous edition of
this Standard; and
(b) fully documented.
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AS 2885.22007 48

S E C T I O N 9 W E L D E R O R O PE RA T O R
QUA L I F I CAT I O N AND D I SQUA L I F IC A T I ON

9.1 RECIPROCITY OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION


A welder who qualifies for a Category 1 (multiple qualification) shall be qualified for a
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Category 2 (partial qualification) within the limitations of welder essential variables, and
without further testing.
A welder who has qualified to make a weld having one type number shall be qualified to
make welds having other type numbers in accordance with Table 4.2(B).

9.2 PERIOD OF VALIDITY


A welders or operators qualification shall remain valid until withdrawn (see Clause 9.4)
provided, during the preceding 12 months, the welder or operator has been engaged in
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welding to the same qualified welding procedure, or a procedure that is within the essential
variables for qualified welders and operators in Table 7.5.

9.3 QUALIFICATION RECORD


A record shall be made of the tests undertaken by each welder or operator and of the
detailed results of each test.
A list of qualified welders or operators, including the identification symbol or mark, and the
qualified welding procedures for which each is qualified shall be signed by the inspector
and maintained by the pipeline licensee.

9.4 DISQUALIFICATION OF A WELDERS OR OPERATORS QUALIFICATION


Where production welds made by a specific welder or operator frequently fail to comply
with the criteria of acceptance, thus demonstrating that the welder or operator no longer has
either the ability to follow the qualified welding procedure or the dexterity to make a
satisfactory weld, the welders qualification shall be withdrawn.
The welder or operator shall be requalified again before making further production welds or
repairs to welds.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


49 AS 2885.22007

SECT I O N 1 0 D E S IG N O F A W E L D E D J O I N T

10.1 GENERAL
A welded joint shall be designed to be capable of withstanding the design forces, and
strains presented by AS 2885.1 and, for pressure-containing components, shall be leak-tight
in accordance with AS/NZS 2885.5.
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Details of the weld preparations shall be in accordance with those shown in the qualified
welding procedure specification. The welding procedure specification shall include
tolerances for all of the specified dimensions.

10.2 BUTT WELDS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF EQUAL NOMINAL WALL


THICKNESS
The weld preparation for a butt weld between components of equal nominal wall thickness
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shall be single V type, double V type, or an approved preparation.


For a manual metal-arc welding process, joints using the combination of weld preparations
shown in Figure 10.2 are preferred.
For other welding processes, the weld preparation shall have been shown to be satisfactory
by being qualified in the welding procedure test.

10.3 BUTT WELDS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF UNEQUAL NOMINAL WALL


THICKNESS
The weld preparations on a butt weld between components of unequal nominal wall
thickness shall be as shown in Figure 10.3.
When the specified minimum yield strengths of the components to be jointed are unequal,
the deposited weld metal shall have tensile strength at least equal to that of the thinner
component as demonstrated by carrying out a transverse butt tensile strength test in
accordance with Clause 6.4.3. This may be demonstrated by a joint using the thinner
material only. In the case of the thicker component, the thickness for design internal
pressure shall be not greater than 1.5 times the nominal thickness of the thinner component.

10.4 REINFORCEMENT OF A BUTT WELD


The height of the weld reinforcement of a butt weld shall comply with Clause 15.4.2, and
with any requirements specified in the engineering design. Unless otherwise specified in the
design, this Standard does not specify minimum levels of weld reinforcement beyond filling
the joint flush with the parent metal.

10.5 FILLET WELD


10.5.1 Dimensions of a fillet weld
A fillet weld may be slightly convex or slightly concave and shall have the specified leg
length or throat thickness. The size of fillet weld shall be the leg length of the largest
isosceles triangle that can be inscribed in the weld section. The size, convexity or concavity
and leg lengths shall be measured to the nearest 0.5 mm on a section scribed with lines as
shown in Figure 10.5. The depth of the concavity or the height of the convexity shall be
equal to or less than 2 mm.

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AS 2885.22007 50

10.5.2 Fillet welding a lug, boss or pad


A fillet-welded lug, boss, or pad shall comply with the following:
(a) Dimensions The length of a lug shall be not less than 50 mm. A boss should be
circular with a diameter not less than 50 mm. Rectangular or square pads may be
used, provided the corners of the pad are rounded.
(b) Lugs The long sides of a rectangular lug shall be in the circumferential direction of
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the pipe.
(c) Surface preparation The area of the pipe to which the connection is to be made shall
be clean and be free from oil, scale, and surface-connected defects.
(d) Fitting The attachment shall be shaped to the circumference of the pipe or pressure-
containing component.
10.5.3 Miscellaneous fillet welds
The size of fillet welds for flanges, sleeve and forged socket fittings shall be as specified in
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AS 4041.

10.6 WELDING OF THREADED JOINTS


Welding shall not be carried out on threaded joints for any purpose, including sealing
against leakage.

10.7 REINFORCEMENT OF A WELDED BRANCH CONNECTION


The reinforcement of a welded branch connection shall be determined from AS 2885.1.

10.8 REINFORCEMENT OF MULTIPLE OPENINGS


The reinforcement of multiple openings shall be determined from AS 2885.1.

10.9 FORGED BRANCH FITTING


A forged branch fitting with integral reinforcement shall be designated sit-on or set-in.
The weld between a set-in branch fitting and a pipe shall be designated a tee-butt weld.
The weld between a sit-on branch fitting and a pipe shall be designated a single bevel butt
weld. The welding of forged branch type fittings with integral reinforcement, such as
Weldolets, is shown in AS 4041. The weld joint design shall be in accordance with the
AS 2885.1.

10.10 FABRICATED ELBOW OR BEND


The pressure-containing welds in a fabricated elbow or bend shall be full penetration butt
welds.

10.11 EFFECT OF COMPONENTS UPON PIG PASSAGE


The method of welding components into pipelines, which may require pigging during their
design life, shall
(a) allow free passage of pigs in the main pipeline; and
(b) prevent entry of main pipeline pigs into the branch line.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


51 AS 2885.22007

10.12 OFFSET OF LONGITUDINAL WELDS


Longitudinal welds on the opposite sides of a girth weld shall be staggered. The minimum
offset distance between such welds shall be not less than six times the pipe wall nominal
thickness.

10.13 DISTANCE BETWEEN WELDS


A weld for a welded branch pipe or a weld for an attachment to the pipe should not be
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located within a distance of approximately 6 times the pipe wall nominal thickness from a
longitudinal weld, spiral weld, or circumferential weld in the pipe.
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NOTE: The standard root face dimension is 1.6 0.8 mm.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 10.2 END PREPARATIONS AND ACCEPTABLE COMBINATIONS OF END


PREPARATIONS

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AS 2885.22007

Standards Australia
52

NOTE: The standard root face dimension is 1.6 0.8 mm.

USING MMAWUNEQUAL NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS


FIGURE 10.3 WELD PREPARATIONS FOR BUTT WELDS

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53

FIGURE 10.5 CROSS-SECTION OF A FILLET WELD

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
AS 2885.22007 54

SECT ION 11 PRODUCT I ON WE LDS

11.1 WELDING PROCESS


Production welds shall be made in accordance with previously defined and qualified
procedures of Clause 5.3(a), (b), (c) or (d), and within the limits of essential variables.
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NOTE: It is recommended that gas tungsten arc welding or gas welding be used for butt welds on
pipe of outside diameter 42.2 mm and less.

11.2 WELDING EQUIPMENT


Welding equipment shall be of a size and type suitable for the work. It shall be maintained
in a condition that will ensure the production of satisfactory welds, the continuity of
operation and the safety of personnel.
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11.3 WELDER AND WELDING PROCEDURE


All welds shall be made by qualified welders or operators using a qualified welding
procedure.

11.4 SUPERVISION OF WELDING


Welding shall be carried out under the supervision of an approved person who has had
appropriate experience and training in the supervision of welding of pipelines and the use of
ancillary equipment.
NOTE: AS 1796 provides rules for certification of welding supervisors.

11.5 SAFETY IN WELDING


11.5.1 General
All welding operations shall comply with the Australian Standards relevant to safety in
welding.
11.5.2 Welding site
A thorough check shall be made in and around the welding site to ensure there are no
substances that could constitute a risk of fire or explosion.

11.6 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF ELECTRODES, FILLER RODS AND


FLUXES
Electrodes, filler rods and fluxes shall be stored and handled in accordance with
Clause 2.2.3, in such a manner that will prevent damage or deterioration.
Consumables in opened containers shall be protected from deterioration.
Damaged material shall not be used.

11.7 WELDING IN ADVERSE CLIMATE CONDITIONS


Welding shall not be carried out under climatic conditions that contribute to persistent
defects.
Where a gas-shielded arc-welding process is used and winds or draughts could impair the
quality of the weld, welding habitats or windshields should be used.

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55 AS 2885.22007

11.8 PREPARATION FOR WELDING


11.8.1 Edge preparation
Surfaces and edges to be welded shall be smooth, uniform and free from cracks, fins, tears,
and other defects that could affect the soundness of the weld. Surfaces to be welded and
surfaces adjacent to the weld shall be free from paint, scale, slag, moisture, rust, grease, or
other foreign matter.
11.8.2 Internal cleaning
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The internal surface of the pipe shall be free of loose debris. It should be swabbed if
necessary.

11.9 METHOD OF MAKING THE WELD PREPARATION


The weld preparation shall be made in the manner specified in the qualified welding
procedure specification.
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11.10 ACCURACY OF ALIGNMENT


Components shall be assembled to provide alignment within the limits of Clause 15.4.3.

11.11 LINE-UP CLAMP


Line-up clamps shall have the following attributes:
(a) Provide rounding of pipe ends (removal of ovaling does not expand pipe diameters).
(b) Accommodate dimensional tolerances in abutting pipes.
(c) Provide even distribution of high-low.
(d) Have appropriate gap setting.
(e) Provide access for welding operation.
(f) They shall not damage pipe coating (both internal and external)
(g) They shall not contaminate the weld (pick up impurities).
NOTE: Line-up clamps require specific settings and maintenance.
The line-up clamp shall be released only after the length of root pass is equal to or greater
than that specified in the qualified welding procedure specification.

11.12 TACK WELDS


Tack welds shall only be used as a means of alignment during welding when tack welding is
specified in the qualified welding procedure. Tack welds shall be deposited only in the weld
groove and, where the tack weld is to be incorporated into the finished weld, full fusion at
the root shall be obtained. The length of individual tack welds shall not be less than 25 mm
or 20% of the outside diameter of the pipe, whichever is the lesser. Tack welds that are
unsound shall be ground out.

11.13 WORKING CLEARANCE


There shall be safe access and clearance for welding.

11.14 PLACEMENT OF WELD PASSES


Consecutive or adjacent weld passes shall not be started at the same circumferential
position.

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AS 2885.22007 56

11.15 ARC STRIKE AND ARC BURN


An arc shall be struck only on the fusion faces or the surfaces of the parent material that
will be fused into the weld. An arc burn that results from an inadvertent arc strike shall be
removed in accordance with Clause 24 or 25. The work return clamp shall make good
electrical contact with no evidence of arcing.

11.16 CLEANING
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Each pass of weld metal shall be cleaned in the manner specified in the qualified welding
procedure.

11.17 PEENING
Peening shall not be carried out on the root pass or the capping pass or passes. On filler
passes, peening shall be carried out when specified in the qualified welding procedure.

11.18 INSERT PATCHING


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Insert patching shall not be carried out.

11.19 PREHEAT AND INTERPASS TEMPERATURE


11.19.1 General
The preheat and interpass temperature shall be that specified in the qualified welding
procedure. Both parts of the parent metal shall be at the required temperature at the time
that welding is commenced.
11.19.2 Application of preheat and interpass temperature
The specified preheat and interpass temperatures shall be maintained during all stages of
welding including tack welding.
11.19.3 Extent of heating
The full thickness of both parts of the parent metal shall be heated to the required
temperature. The width of the heated band on either side of the centre-line of the weld shall
be not less than 75 mm or three times the width of the weld, whichever is the greater.
11.19.4 Monitoring of preheat and interpass temperature
The temperature shall be monitored at positions that are not less than 25 mm from the weld
position by the use of temperature-indicating crayons or paint, thermocouples, pyrometers,
or other appropriate methods.
11.19.5 Condensation
Where preheating is specified in the qualified welding procedure, and where a gas flame is
used for preheating, no condensation or moisture shall remain. Where the metal temperature
is less than 100C, the flame should not be directed into the weld preparation.

11.20 POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT


Where specified in the qualified welding procedure, post-weld heat treatment shall be
carried out.

11.21 IDENTIFICATION OF A PRODUCTION WELD


A production weld shall be identified in an approved manner.

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57 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 12 WE LD I N G AND CUTT I N G ON A


P IPE L I NE A F T E R C O M M I SS IO N I N G O R A FT E R
HYDR O ST A T I C T E ST I N G

12.1 GENERAL
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This Section specifies the requirements for welding or cutting in special situations on a
pipeline after commissioning or hydrostatic testing (for example, a pipeline repair where
gas is escaping) where the pipeline will not be subjected to another pressure test before it is
returned to service. All welding procedures and welding operations shall be qualified,
documented and approved under conditions that simulate those that are expected during
field welding. Pipeline repair welding shall be continuously supervised.
NOTE: Guidance on methods for the repair of pipelines is given in WTIA Technical Note 20.

12.2 SAFETY
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All of the activities associated with welding or cutting on pipelines containing flammable
and/on pressurized substances involve a high risk. The procedures that are qualified in
accordance with Clause 12.1 shall include a thorough risk assessment in accordance with
AS 2885.1. The risk assessment shall include the safety of personnel and suitability of
equipment. These safe working procedures shall be approved.
Specific attention should be paid to the risk of ignition or electrocution due to the pipeline
being at an elevated potential with respect to earth, and the likelihood that it may carry
substantial currents.
Bonding cables should be installed prior to cutting, to effectively bypass any current that
may be flowing in the pipeline especially if the methods of cutting employed are not
expected to cause ignition.
The pipeline shall be earthed prior to the commencement of welding or cutting. Because of
the potentially hazardous nature of the earthing procedure, the earthing procedure shall be
approved.
The formation of mixtures of flammable vapour, including gas and air, shall be prevented.

12.3 HOT REPAIR OF LEAKING GAS-FILLED PIPELINES


Hot repair of leaking gas-filled pipelines shall only be permitted when all of the following
conditions prevail:
(a) The pipeline contents are known to be natural gas as defined in AS 4564.
(b) A slight flow of gas is kept moving toward the point where thermal cutting or welding
is being done.
(c) The gas pressure is controlled to a slight positive pressure of approximately 150 Pa
gauge.
(d) All slots or open ends are sealed with tape, tightly fitted canvas or both, or other
suitable means, as soon as they are made so as to maintain positive pressure and
prevent the formation of an explosive air/gas mixture.
(e) Two openings are not uncovered at the same time.
NOTE: This is particularly important where the two openings are at different elevations.
(f) Any escape of gas is ignited and kept burning.
(g) Where the gas is toxic, adequate precautions are taken to protect all personnel
including the public.

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AS 2885.22007 58

In addition to the requirements of Clauses 12.1 and 12.2, the hot repair procedures shall
include approved procedures for the following:
(i) The detection of explosive mixtures.
(ii) The means of maintaining work site to mainline valve communication.
(iii) The method of regulating gas pressure.
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12.4 WHERE GAS IS NOT ESCAPING


Where work is to be carried out on a pipeline containing gas, but where gas is not escaping,
the requirements of Clause 13 shall apply.

12.5 PIPELINES CONTAINING PETROLEUM FLUIDS OTHER THAN LEAN


NATURAL GAS
Welding shall only be carried out on a pipeline containing petroleum fluids other than lean
natural gas (see AS 2885.1) when no fluid is allowed to escape from the pipeline.
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A pipeline that contains, or has contained, petroleum fluids other than lean natural gas but
has not been purged shall be cut only by mechanical means. Care shall be taken to prevent
ignition due to electrical sparking (see Clause 12.2).
Where a pipeline is filled with air and connected to a source of petroleum fluids other than
lean natural gas that cannot be completely isolated, the following procedure should be
adopted during welding, thermal cutting, or repair operations:
(a) Purge the pipeline.
(b) Ensure that
(i) combustible hydrocarbon fluid cannot flow towards the work site; and
(ii) valves that isolate the work from the source of hydrocarbon fluids do not leak.
NOTE: It may be necessary to install stopples or spheres on each side of the work site.
(c) Frequently test the atmosphere at the work site to ensure that an unsafe accumulation
of hydrocarbon fluid does not occur as work progresses.

12.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDER(S)


The welder(s) shall be qualified for the welding position, the welding process, and the
configuration of the joint.

12.7 QUALIFICATION OF SUPERVISORS AND INSPECTORS


The supervisor and inspector shall be qualified by experience and training in the welding or
cutting of pipelines containing or having contained hydrocarbons, and in accordance with
Clause 14.2.

12.8 FIT-UP BEFORE WELDING AND CUTTING


Weld preparations shall be made accurately, and shall be in accordance with the qualified
welding procedure.

12.9 EXAMINATION AND TESTING


The finalized weld and adjacent material shall be subjected to appropriate 100% non-
destructive examination.

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criteria of this Standard.
12.10 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE
59

Welds shall comply with the visual inspection and non-destructive examination acceptance

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
AS 2885.22007 60

SECT ION 13 WE LD I N G ONTO AN I N -


S E R V ICE P I PE L I N E

13.1 GENERALPIPELINE CONTAINING FLAMMABLE OR PRESSURIZED


FLUID
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Where a pipeline contains stationary or flowing flammable fluid, or the internal pressure is
greater than 50 kPa gauge, welding shall comply with the requirements of Clauses 13.2 to
13.15.
NOTES:
1 Examples of in-service welding include fully welded repair sleeves, hot tap fittings, branch
connections and weld metal deposition repairs.
2 Guidance on methods for repair of pipelines is given in WTIA Technical Note 20.
3 At times there may be a need for control of the operating pressure and flow rates in order to
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provide suitable conditions for welding.


4 Welding onto pipelines that contain multiphase fluids requires special consideration.
5 Welding onto pipelines with a wall thickness less than 4.8 mm requires special consideration.
Research by CRC-WS has shown that the variability in heat input with MMAW for wall
thickness less than 4.8 mm revealed a significant high risk of burn-through.

13.2 PRECAUTIONS TO BE UNDERTAKEN BEFORE IN-SERVICE WELDING


13.2.1 Avoidance of hydrogen-assisted cold cracking (HACC) and burn through
The selection of heat input and preheat for welding on pipe with flowing hydrocarbons is a
compromise between two opposing possibilities. At high heat input, the drop in the yield
stress of the steel pipe at elevated temperature may lead to localized blow-out or
generalized bulging. Pressure reduction may be necessary. At low heat input, the heat sink
effect from the flowing fluid and the usually thick enclosing sleeve may promote hydrogen
cold cracking, and preheat is usually necessary. The heat sink effect makes the achievement
of effective preheat difficult.
13.2.2 Risk assessment and risk management plan
Prior to the commencement of any work, a risk assessment shall be undertaken to examine
all of the potential threats to the public, operating personnel, and the continuity of supply
that will arise during or as a result of the in-service welding, and a risk management plan
shall be developed and approved to mitigate the risks.

13.3 LINING
The effect of welding upon internal linings shall be considered.

13.4 SAFETY
Detailed safety procedures shall be established and approved before work begins.

13.5 INSPECTION BEFORE WELDING


The location of pipe to be welded shall be defined and the specification of the pipe shall be
established. The pipe in the region of the welding shall be free of all coating material that is
deleterious to the weld, or which could interfere with the inspection of the pipe.
The pipe to be welded shall be inspected visually and by non-destructive means, and at least
the following shall be reported:
(a) Actual wall thickness.

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61 AS 2885.22007

(b) Diameter, and ovality.


(c) Any external or internal corrosion.
(d) Any laminations or inclusions in the vicinity of the area to be welded.
(e) Any unsoundness of a longitudinal weld or spiral weld in the vicinity of the area to be
welded.
(f) Remaining wall thickness in the corrosion pit areas for weld metal deposition repairs.
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13.6 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION BEFORE WELDING


13.6.1 Purpose of examination
The purpose of the examination is to determine and record the integrity of the pipe wall in
the area that is to be affected by the welding operation.
13.6.2 Method
The method of examination and the reference sensitivity shall be as specified in AS 1710,
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for wall thicknesses greater than 5.0 mm. Where the wall thickness is between 3.2mm and
5.0mm, a 510 MHz twin crystal probe shall be used.
13.6.3 Criteria of acceptance
The following applies:
(a) Welding shall only be carried out where the pipe is demonstrated to be free of
significant laminations, inclusions, or unsoundness of any longitudinal seam or spiral
seam.
(b) The results of the ultrasonic examination shall be the subject of an engineering
assessment prior to any welding being undertaken.

13.7 WELDING CONSUMABLES


Welds shall be made with a hydrogen-controlled process.

13.8 HEAT INPUT


The heat input (arc energy) and size of electrode shall be approved.

13.9 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES


Welds shall be made in accordance with a documented, qualified and approved welding
procedure developed in accordance with Clause 5, which takes into account pressure and
cooling effects from the flow of fluid in the pipeline upon which welding is to be
conducted, and which simulates site conditions. The essential variables in Table 5.4.1(B)
only apply to welds that are not directly affected by product pressure and cooling effects
such as the longitudinal seams on line stop fittings or sleeves. These joints shall be fitted
with a low carbon steel back-up strip or suitable tape to prevent penetration of the weld into
the carrier pipe.

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AS 2885.22007 62

All welding that is affected by product pressure and cooling effects such as circumferential
fillet welds, weld metal deposition and branch welds shall be qualified by simulated testing
(see Note 1). No essential variables apply to these welds; however, grouping of certain
conditions may be permitted when approved. The grouping of conditions shall involve
sound engineering judgement and be fully investigated and documented with respect to
burn-through and hydrogen cracking potential and should include worst case welding
procedure qualification testing.
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NOTES:
1 Figure 13.9 describes the suggested procedure qualification test assembly.
2 Thermal analysis tools are available from Battelle, PRC-I and the CRC for Welded Structures.

13.10 WELDING SEQUENCE


The recommended welding sequences are shown in Figure 13.10.
Backstep welding technique for the longitudinal joints should be considered to minimize
weld shrinkage effects in the case of thin wall carrier pipe.
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FIGURE 13.9 SUGGESTED IN-SERVICE WELDING TEST ASSEMBLY

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63

FIGURE 13.10 RECOMMENDED WELDING SEQUENCES

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
AS 2885.22007 64

13.11 QUALIFICATION OF WELDER(S)


The welder(s) shall be qualified for the welding position, the welding process, and the
configuration of the joint. For heat input control procedures, the welder shall be able to
demonstrate the ability to maintain a heat input level within the range specified. For temper
bead procedures, the welder shall be able to demonstrate proper bead placement.

13.12 QUALIFICATION OF SUPERVISORS AND INSPECTORS


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The supervisor and inspector shall be qualified by experience and training specifically
related to in-service welding on pipeline and in accordance with Clause 14.2.

13.13 FIT-UP BEFORE WELDING


Weld preparations shall be made accurately, and shall be in accordance with the qualified
welding procedure. All components shall fit the pipe, and care shall be exercised to ensure
that any longitudinal weld preparations are suitably aligned. Buttering passes may be
required on the carrier pipe or fitting to accommodate gaps above those specified in the
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welding procedure.
NOTE: Consideration should be given to suitable means of preventing compression of the pipe
due to the contraction of the longitudinal welds on the fitting.

13.14 EXAMINATION OF TESTING


The finalized weld and adjacent material shall be subjected to the appropriate 100% non-
destructive examination, including tests for the presence of lamellar tearing.
Before cutting the line pipe with a hot tapping tool, the weld and adjacent material should
be leak-tested at a pressure not greater than the current internal pressure of the pipeline.
Delayed cracking due to residual hydrogen in the weld metal may occur. Final non-
destructive examination shall be carried out not sooner than 24 h after completion of
welding, followed by leak testing.

13.15 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE


The criteria of acceptance for all in-service welding shall be as specified in Tier 1 Criteria
as specified in Clause 22.1.9.

13.16 WELDING OF TEST ASSEMBLY


For in-service welding, pipeline operating conditions that affect the ability of the flowing
contents to remove heat from the pipe wall shall be simulated while test joints are being
made.
NOTE: Filling the test section with water and allowing water to flow through the test section
while the test joint is being made has been shown to produce thermal conditions equivalent to or
more severe than any typical in-service welding application (see Figure 13.9). Other media (e.g.,
water mist or motor oil) may be used to simulate less severe thermal conditions.

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65 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 14 ASSESSMENT OF PROD UCT I ON


WE LDS AND REPA IR WE L DS

14.1 GENERAL
Production welds shall be examined and assessed in accordance with this Clause 14.
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14.2 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL


Personnel involved in the inspection of welds, or in the interpretation of results of testing,
shall have qualifications or experience appropriate to the task, and shall be approved.

14.3 RESPONSIBILITIES
The responsibilities of inspectors shall include the following:
(a) The witnessing of all welding procedure qualification test welds and their
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examination and testing.


(b) The witnessing of all welder or operator qualification test welds and their
examination and testing.
(c) The examination of all production welds.
(d) Ensuring that all reports and records are made as required.

14.4 METHODS OF EXAMINATION


Production welds shall be subjected to the following:
(a) Visual examination in accordance with Clause 15.
(b) Non-destructive examination in accordance with Clause 16.
(c) For pipelines longer than 10 km, welding procedure qualification testing of a
minimum of three production cut-out welds for weld procedure verification. These
shall be taken at random, preferably at the end of a pipe string for least impact on
production. The welds shall be chosen to verify the applicability of the welding
procedure at the extremes of the envelope encompassed by the qualified welding
procedure. Typically, this would involve choosing welds with low heat input
(maximum welding speed) and/or low ambient temperature and/or high restraint.

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AS 2885.22007 66

SECT ION 15 V ISU A L E XAM I NAT I O N

15.1 PURPOSE
The weld shall be examined visually to determine that the surfaces of the weld are free from
unacceptable discontinuities and the weld is dimensionally correct including that the height
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of weld reinforcement is within the limits necessary to achieve effective radiography as


shown in Figure 15.4.2.

15.2 METHOD OF EXAMINATION


Visual examination shall be undertaken without magnification other than normal
prescription spectacles. Appropriate measuring tools and gauges may be used.

15.3 EXTENT OF VISUAL EXAMINATION


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The full length of each weld shall be examined.

15.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE


15.4.1 All welds
Welds shall not contain any visible discontinuities that exceed those specified in Clause 22.
The dimensions of the weld shall comply with those shown in the welding procedure
specification.
15.4.2 Butt welds
The weld preparation shall be completely filled. In order to permit effective radiography of
those welds that are to be radiographed, the height of external weld reinforcement shall be
not greater than that specified in Figure 15.4.2. Welds that are to be radiographed, which do
not comply with the weld reinforcement limits, shall be ground in order to achieve
compliance.
15.4.3 Alignment (high-low)
The alignment of pipe ends shall minimize the offset between abutting surfaces. For pipe
ends of the same nominal thickness, the offset shall not exceed 3 mm for pipe with wall
thicknesses greater than 6.4 mm, and 2 mm for pipe with wall thicknesses equal to or less
than 6.4 mm. Larger variations are permissible provided the welding procedure is
requalified with a higher limit of high-low.

15.5 UNDERCUT DEPTH MEASUREMENT


Undercut depth measurement shall consist of the following:
(a) External undercut The only permitted method for measuring and sentencing external
undercut shall be visual or mechanical measurements.
(b) Internal undercut The primary means of measuring internal undercut depth shall be
visual or mechanical measurements. Where direct measurement is not possible,
undercut comparator shims or reference radiographs in accordance with Clause 17.5
may be used.
If a disagreement occurs between the visual/mechanical methods and the other
methods, the former shall take precedence.

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67

TO ACHIEVE EFFECTIVE RADIOGRAPHY


IN BUTT WELDS THAT ARE TO BE RADIOGRAPHED IN ORDER
FIGURE 15.4.2 MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF EXTERNAL WELD REINFORCEMENT

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
AS 2885.22007 68

SECT ION 16 NON-DEST RUCT IVE


EXAM I NAT I ON

16.1 PURPOSE
The methods of non-destructive examination, the equipment, and the examining personnel
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shall be collectively capable of producing indications of discontinuities in welds, which can


be interpreted and evaluated in order to determine whether the criteria of acceptance have
or have not been attained.
Discontinuities shall be evaluated in accordance with Clause 22.

16.2 ORGANIZATIONS UNDERTAKING NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


Organizations undertaking non-destructive examination shall comply with the requirements
of AS ISO/IEC 17025.
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16.3 QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONNEL


Non-destructive examination personnel engaged in the supervision or interpretation of
results shall be qualified in accordance with AS 3998 or equivalent.

16.4 METHODS
Non-destructive examinations shall be made in accordance with a qualified procedure using
one of the following methods, unless an exemption applies (see Clause 16.6):
(a) Radiographic examination.
(b) Ultrasonic examination.
NOTE: The preferred method of ultrasonic examination is with a mechanized system in
accordance with Clause 19.2.
Welds made by GMAW welding should be examined with mechanized ultrasonic testing.
These examinations may be supplemented with one or both of the following non-destructive
tests:
(i) Magnetic particle testing.
(ii) Penetrant testing.

16.5 AMOUNT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


16.5.1 General
The determination of the amount and the specified location of NDE shall be considered as
part of the process of risk assessment conducted in accordance with AS 2885.1.
Where quality monitoring systems are available, the information derived from monitoring
should be used to select the regions chosen for NDE.
16.5.2 Butt welds and tee-butt welds
Except where otherwise approved, all butt welds and tee-butt welds in the following
locations shall be subjected to non-destructive examination:
(a) A road or railway reserve.
(b) A stream, river, reservoir, public water supply or water catchment area that could be
polluted by a leak from the pipeline.

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69 AS 2885.22007

(c) A branch connection not subject to hydrostatic testing.


(d) A tunnel, pipe bridge or overhead structure.
(e) Areas subject to flooding, possible severe land movement (see AS 1170.4) or
subsidence.
(f) A depth of cover greater than 5 m.
(g) Welds on fittings.
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(h) Welds qualified under the terms of Clause 5.4.5.


In addition to the above, non-destructive examination shall be carried out on all butt welds
that are
(i) contained in pipeline assemblies manufactured in accordance with AS 2885.1;
(ii) part of a pipeline that will not be hydrostatically tested before being placed into
operation;
(iii) any part of a telescoped pipeline to which a test pressure factor of less than 1.25 will
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be applied;
(iv) in reclaimed pipe used in accordance with AS 2885.1;
(v) repaired pipeline, including a 75 mm overlap at each end of the repair; or
(vi) so specified by the pipeline licensee.
As well as items listed above, an additional number of butt welds shall be subjected to non-
destructive examination, and this number shall be dependent on the class of pipeline as
follows:
(A) Class T1 location and Class T2 location .........100% of the total number of butt welds.
(B) Class R2 location.............................................15% of the total number of butt welds.
(C) Class R1 location.............................................10% of the total number of butt welds.
16.5.3 Welders or operators work
A sample of each welders or operators work for each day shall be selected by the
inspector and be non-destructively examined.
Where 100% of the selected number of butt welds has been specified (see Clause 16.5.1),
the full length of each weld shall be examined.
Where the pipeline licensee exercises its option for less than 100% of all butt welds to be
examined, the length of weld examined for each welder or operator shall be one of the
following:
(a) The total length of each selected weld.
(b) Partial lengths from a sufficient number of welds to ensure that the equivalent length
to Item (a) above is examined.

16.6 EXEMPTION FROM RADIOGRAPHIC OR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION


Subject to the approval of the pipeline licensee, where it is not practicable to carry out a
radiographic examination or an ultrasonic examination due to the weld geometry, an
approved non-destructive examination by magnetic particle testing or dye-penetrant testing
shall be made.

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AS 2885.22007 70

Where a butt weld in pipeline assemblies is made on pipe of outside diameter of 114.3 mm
or less, and the pipe is to operate at a nominal design stress not exceeding 60% SMYS and
the welded joint is pressure tested prior to operation, the non-destructive examination may
be magnetic particle testing or dye-penetrant testing instead of radiographic examination or
ultrasonic examination.
Fillet welds shall not be radiographed.
At the option of the pipeline licensee, the non-destructive examination of fillet welds and
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socket welds may be by magnetic particle testing or dye-penetrant testing instead of


ultrasonic examination.

16.7 TIMING OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION


The elapsed time after welding is completed at which NDE is performed will affect the
likelihood of detecting HACC.
The timing of NDE is not restricted by this Standard, except for
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(a) weld procedure qualification tests (see Clause 6.1); and


(b) welds made in accordance with procedures in which the risk of HACC has not been
designed-out in accordance with Appendix C.
Where the risk of HACC is other than remote, the NDE on production welds shall be
conducted after at least 24 h have elapsed after the completion of welding.

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71 AS 2885.22007

SECT ION 17 RAD I OGR APH IC EX AM I N AT I O N

17.1 GENERAL
The radiographic examination shall comply with all of the requirements of this Standard.
The procedure shall be documented and qualified, or be previously qualified and approved.
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Gamma-radiography shall only be used where the risk of HACC is designed out from the
welding procedure and where permitted by the Note in Table 17.4.
NOTES:
1 AS 2177 should be referred to for guidance.
2 The preferred technique of radiographic examination of welds in pipelines is that of using an
internal orthogonal x-ray radiographic crawler as, inter alia, the detectability of imperfections
including cracks is superior to that obtained using high-energy gamma rays or double-wall
exposure techniques.
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17.2 SAFETY AND PROTECTION FROM IONIZING RADIATION


All radiographic examination shall be carried out in accordance with statutory State and
Federal health and safety regulations.

17.3 DENSITY
The radiographic density through the parent metal shall be as follows:
(a) X-radiography ............................................ not less than 2.5 and not greater than 4.0.
(b) Gamma-radiography ................................... not less than 3.0 and not greater than 4.0.
The radiographic density through the weld metal shall not be less than 1.3.
Weld reinforcement shall be within the limits of Figure 15.4.2.
If the density in the parent metal falls within the range specified above but the required
minimum for the weld metal is not met, then the weld reinforcement shall be ground in the
regions of insufficient density and the radiograph(s) shall be retaken so that the above
requirements are met.

17.4 IMAGE QUALITY


The image quality indicator (IQI) shall be a wire type complying with AS 2314.
NOTE: The specification of wire type IQI in AS 2314 complies with ISO 1027 and DIN 54109.2.
Radiographic image quality is indicated by the smallest wire visible in the radiograph
assessed through the parent metal. IQI wire numbers for corresponding nominal wall
thicknesses shall comply with Table 17.4.

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AS 2885.22007 72

TABLE 17.4
IMAGE QUALITY INDICATOR (IQI)
SENSITIVITY vs MATERIAL THICKNESS
IQI to DIN 54109/ISO 1027
IQI on film side
Nominal wall
thickness Single wall/ Double wall/
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mm single image single image


Number Diameter Number Diameter
mm mm
> 3.0 4.5 15 0.125 14 0.16
> 4.5 6.2 14 0.16 13 0.20
> 6.2 8.4 14 0.16 13 0.20
> 8.4 12.0 13 0.20 12 0.25
15.9
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> 12.0 12 0.25 12 0.25


> 15.9 20.0 11 0.32 11 0.32
> 20.0 32.0 10 0.40 10 0.40
> 32.0 40.0 10 0.40 10 0.40
> 40.0 50.0 9 0.50 9 0.50
NOTE: Welds in pipe Grade AP15L X60 or lower, welded entirely
with low strength electrodes and in R1 locations, may be examined
using gamma-radiography. Image quality indicator wire visibility
using this technique may be reduced by 1 in the first three rows.

17.5 UNDERCUT DEPTH MEASUREMENT


Where radiography is used as the only method of determining internal undercut (see
Clause 15.5), the images of discontinuities that have been identified as undercut shall be
assessed for depth by comparing the density of its film image with the density of the film
images of grooves of given sizes cut into a comparator shim. Alternatively, undercut may
be assessed for depth by comparing production radiographs with reference radiographs
prepared from weldments of the same thickness and welding procedure, and where the
depth of real examples of undercut has been measured by macro examination.
Undercut comparator shims shall comply with the following:
(a) Material A comparator shim shall have the same radiographic opacity as the
material under examination.
(b) Dimensions The dimensions of comparator shims shall be as shown in Figure 17.5.
(c) Location A comparator shim shall match the curvature of the pipe and shall be
placed alongside and parallel with the edge of the external weld with the grooves on
the inside radius. The shallowest groove on the comparator shim shall be placed
closest to the weld.
(d) Number of comparator shims Comparator shims shall be visible as follows:
(i) For panoramic exposures, a minimum of two comparator shims spaced
approximately equidistant shall appear on the radiograph. The separation of
comparator shims shall not exceed 400 mm.
(ii) Where a multi-exposure method is used, comparator shims should be located
adjacent to the image quality indicators or at locations where undercut is
expected.

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73 AS 2885.22007

(iii) Where a multi-exposure or multi-film method is used, at least one shim should
be visible on each cut length of film of 400 mm or less.
(e) Method of assessment of undercut using comparator shims To assess the relative
depth of undercut, compare the density of the actual undercut with the density
observed in the machined grooves of known depth in the undercut comparator. This
may be achieved by totally masking all areas of the radiograph, with the exception of
a window that is of comparable size with the actual undercut, and comparing the
density observed in the same size window of the machined grooves.
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NOTES:
1 Tolerance on depth of groove 0.05 mm.
2 A Charpy V-notch tool should be used to produce the grooves.

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 17.5 UNDERCUT COMPARATOR SHIM

17.6 GAS PORE DEPTH MEASUREMENT


The images of discontinuities that have been identified as gas pores (GP) shall be assessed
for depth (through thickness dimension) by comparing the density of its film image with the
density of the film images of flat bottom hole.
The gas pore comparator shim shall comply with the following:
(a) Material The comparator shim shall have the same radiographic opacity as the
material under examination.
(b) Dimensions The dimensions of the comparator shim shall be as shown in
Figure 17.6.

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AS 2885.22007 74

(c) Method of use Reference radiographs shall be made of the comparator shim and test
weld. These reference radiographs shall be used in order to assess the depth of gas
pores in production radiographs.

50
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15

PLAN VIEW
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END VIEW
0.5 1.0 2.0 3.0
H o l e d e pth s

SIDE VIEW

T h i rd a n g l e p rote c ti o n

G a s p o re s h i m

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 17.6 GAS PORE COMPARATOR SHIM

17.7 INTEPRETATION AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIOGRAPHS


Discontinuities observed on radiographs shall be identified, sized, and assessed in
accordance with Clause 22. Defects shall be correlated with the radiograph, located with
respect to the weld and recorded on a test report.
Defects shall be identified, and symbolized in accordance with AS 4749.
NOTE: Where the terminology and abbreviations used in AS 4749 do not adequately describe
some of the discontinuities found in pipeline welds, additional descriptive abbreviations may be
required (e.g., I = internal; E = external; HB = hollow bead; AS = arc strike; WT = wagon tracks;
A = absence of defects; DIP = debris in pipe).

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75 AS 2885.22007

17.8 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE


The weld shall comply with Clause 22.

17.9 REPORT OF RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION


A test report shall be made in accordance with AS 2177 and the requirements of this
Standard.
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17.10 RETENTION OF RADIOGRAPHS


Radiographs shall be retained for a minimum of three years.
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AS 2885.22007 76

SECT ION 18 QUA L I F Y I NG A


R AD I O G R A PH I C PRO CE D U RE

18.1 RADIOGRPHIC PROCEDURE


A radiographic procedure shall be developed and documented in accordance with AS 2177
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and the requirements of this Standard. It shall include all the necessary information to
enable radiographs to be taken, processed, and interpreted to the requirements of this
Standard.
The documented radiographic procedure shall include the following information:
(a) Pipe size classified according to the dimensions, nominal bore, outside diameter and
wall thickness.
(b) Material specification.
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(c) Construction specification.


(d) Acceptance specification or Standard, or both.
(e) Method of weld identification.
(f) Radiographic method designation (see AS 2177).
(g) Equipment consisting of the following:

X-radiography Gamma radiography


(i) Orthogonal panoramic (i) Panoramic
Focal spot size Source type
Tube voltage Source size
(ii) Directional (ii) Directional
Focal spot size Source type
Tube voltage Source size

(h) Film type.


(i) Intensifying screens (type and thickness).
(j) Diagnostic film length.
(k) Source to film distance.
(l) Source offset angle.
(m) Image quality indicator (type and designation).
(n) Undercut comparator.
(o) Film processing/chemicals used.
(p) Density range to be achieved.

18.2 METHOD OF QUALIFYING THE RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE


Radiographs of a complete weld shall be taken, processed and interpreted in accordance
with the radiographic procedure. The weld may be selected from a number of welding
procedure qualification and/or welder qualification welds or any production weld. The
resultant radiograph(s) shall comply with the approved procedure.

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77 AS 2885.22007

The height of reinforcement on this typical weld should approximate the maximum
specified in Figure 15.4.2.
Images of discontinuities observed on the radiograph shall be reported and recorded in
accordance with Clause 17.6.
The radiographic results of this weld shall be documented in a report having the same
format as reports issued for inspection of production welds.
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18.3 TEST CONDITIONS


A test radiograph shall be made under conditions that simulate those to be encountered
during construction.

18.4 RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION DOCUMENTATION


Where the assessment has demonstrated that the radiograph is satisfactory and
discontinuities in the weld can be identified, a record to the effect that the radiograph made
to the particular radiographic procedure complies with this Standard shall be maintained in
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the radiographic procedure specification documentation.

18.5 PERIOD OF VALIDITY


A qualified radiographic procedure shall remain valid until it is withdrawn.

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AS 2885.22007 78

SECT ION 19 U LTRASO N IC E XAM I N AT I ON

19.1 MANUAL ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION


19.1.1 General
The ultrasonic examination of a weld shall be performed using an approved documented
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and qualified procedure. For wall thicknesses in excess of 6 mm, the procedure shall
comply with AS 2207. For wall thicknesses less than 6 mm, the test method shall be
approved.
The effectiveness of the ultrasonic procedure shall be demonstrated on a mock up weld (or
section thereof) that is typical of those made in production and containing artificial
discontinuities in the form of appropriately placed side-drilled holes or machined grooves.
19.1.2 Purpose
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The purpose of an ultrasonic examination is to detect discontinuities in the weld, the heat-
affected zone, and in the parent metal immediately adjacent to the weld. Manual ultrasonic
examination may be suitable
(a) as an alternative to radiographic examination in pipe where the weld root geometry is
consistent, such as is achieved with automatic welding methods;
(b) as a supplement or an alternative to radiographic examination in the determination of
particular discontinuities; and
(c) where due to geometry or lack of access (radiographic examination is not
appropriate).
19.1.3 Method
The methods of test shall be appropriate to the type of weld to be examined.
Where there is a possibility of transverse cracking in the weld, appropriate scanning
patterns shall be employed.
NOTE: The examination of the weld root area for discontinuities in single preparation welds
poses problems associated with the root profile/penetration bead, which usually gives a strong
ultrasonic reflection. This reflection needs to be separately identified from indications given by
other discontinuities.
19.1.4 Surface preparation
It is important to ensure that the minimum surface preparation is adequate for and
appropriate to the level of testing.
The shape of weld reinforcement may limit interpretation. In such cases additional surface
preparation may need to be carried out. To fully evaluate a weld, surface preparations
categorized by AS 2207 as SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4 may be necessary.
19.1.5 Sensitivity
Welds shall be scanned using an adequate level of sensitivity to ensure that all relevant
discontinuities are detected. Discontinuities so detected shall be subsequently evaluated
using the appropriate sensitivity and recording requirements as follows:
(a) Tiers 1 and 2 Evaluation sensitivity shall be Level 2 in accordance with AS 2207.
(b) Tier 3 Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA). Evaluation sensitivity shall be
Level 1 in accordance with AS 2207.
NOTE: See Clause 22 for further information about Tiers 1, 2 and 3.

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79 AS 2885.22007

Irrespective of the evaluation sensitivity used, all cracks shall be sized for length and
height.
19.1.6 Assessment
An assessment of the discontinuities detected in a weld shall be made.
Discontinuities shall be identified and symbolized. The terminology and abbreviations
described in Clause 17.6 and AS 4749 may be used for this purpose.
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19.1.7 Criteria of acceptance


The weld shall comply with Clause 22.
19.1.8 Report
The results of tests shall be reported in accordance with AS 2207.
19.1.9 Qualification of personnel
Personnel shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 16.3.
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19.2 MECHANIZED ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION


19.2.1 General
The ultrasonic examination of a weld shall be made in accordance with DNV OS-F101.
19.2.2 Purpose
The purpose of an ultrasonic examination is to detect discontinuities in the weld, the heat-
affected zone, and in the parent metal immediately adjacent to the weld.
Mechanized ultrasonic examination may be used as the prime method for non-destructive
examination of manual and mechanized welded pipeline girth welds where the thickness
exceeds 6 mm or, for lesser thicknesses, where approved and a satisfactory level of
performance can be demonstrated.
19.2.3 Method
The weld shall be examined by scanning from both sides of the weld from the external
surface in accordance with Appendix E of DNV OS-F101.
19.2.4 Reference standard
Calibration shall be carried out on a uniquely identified reference standard manufactured
from a sample of unflawed project-specific line pipe representing the pipe being tested. The
pipe used for the reference standard shall be traceable to the rolling mill, steel
manufacturer, steel grade and be of the same nominal dimensions as the pipe being tested.
The dimensions of the reference standard shall be clearly specified in the procedure and the
size, location, orientation, form, method of manufacture and manufacturing tolerances of
each of the reference reflectors shall be detailed.
If pipe is procured for a project where there are a number of suppliers or manufacturing
routes or different material grades required, the shear wave acoustic velocity in the
longitudinal and transverse directions shall be determined for each supplier, manufacturing
route and grade.
If the shear wave acoustic velocities deviate by more than 5% from that determined for the
reference standard, either
(a) additional reference standards shall be made; or
(b) software shall be reconfigured to compensate for the deviations.

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AS 2885.22007 80

19.2.5 Reference reflectors


Reference reflectors shall be machined in the reference standard. The size and location of
reference reflectors shall be determined for the project after the welding procedure has been
established. These machined reflectors shall be designed and located to simulate the
following:
(a) Lack of root fusion
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(b) Lack of side wall fusion


(c) Root undercut
(d) Porosity if B-scan or C-scan imaging is used.
Reference reflectors shall be no larger than the maximum acceptable defects they simulate.
Incompletely filled groove and external undercut shall be evaluated by visual examination.
19.2.6 Procedure
19.2.6.1 Static calibration
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Static calibration shall be carried out at the commencement of each production run and in
accordance with the following:
(a) The system shall be optimized for field inspection using the relevant reference block.
(b) All transducers shall be positioned at the appropriate stand-off position and adjusted
to provide an optimized signal from the relevant calibration reflector and gain
adjusted to the specified percentage of full screen height.
(c) The gain level for each transducer shall be recorded as the primary reference
sensitivity for respective transducers.
19.2.6.2 Dynamic calibration
Dynamic calibration shall be carried out under production conditions and in accordance
with the following:
(a) Where the temperature difference between the reference standard surface, probe
wedge material and examination surface causes shifts in the refracted angle that
results in the system not being able to provide the required zone discrimination, a
means of regulating the temperature of the reference standard or probe wedge
material, or both, shall be employed.
(b) The rotational speed of the test unit shall be the same as for production testing.
(c) The same couplant medium and couplant delivery system shall be used.
Dynamic calibration shall be carried out at intervals in accordance with Clause 19.2.7.
19.2.7 Calibration verification frequency
In addition to the requirements of Appendix E of DNV OS-F101, calibration shall be
verified by dynamic test on the reference standard and the scan recorded at the following
intervals:
(a) Commencement of a shift.
(b) Completion of a shift.
(c) Before continuing testing after any break, e.g. meal times.
(d) After every tenth weld or every 2 h, whichever comes first.

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81 AS 2885.22007

(e) Unless it can be demonstrated that the testing system is tolerant to wider variations in
temperature while maintaining sensitivity and accuracy of detection, whenever there
is a difference of temperature of the test pipe of more than 10C from the temperature
of the reference standard at the last calibration verification.
(f) After any change of components or repair or adjustment of the system.
(g) After any change of wall thickness, grade or change to material from another
supplier.
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19.2.8 Criteria of acceptance


The weld shall comply with Clause 22.
19.2.9 Report
The results of tests shall be reported in accordance with Appendix E of DNV OS-F101. The
raw data from the test may be presented as a computer graphic, graphical print out or
C-scan map. If data is stored electronically and computer presentations are used for
reporting purposes, the data shall be stored in a form that allows re-creation of computer
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screen images or strip chart or other hard copy presentations at the original resolution so as
to enable re-evaluation of the test data by a third party.
19.2.10 Retention of raw data
The raw data shall be stored for a minimum of three years. The medium used for such
storage shall be suitable for that purpose. In order to guard against corruption or damage to
electronic data files it is recommended that duplicate copies be held.

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AS 2885.22007 82

S E C T I O N 2 0 M A G N E T I C PA RT IC L E
T E ST IN G

20.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of a magnetic particle test is to locate discontinuities that are on or near the
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surface of the weld and adjacent parent metal.

20.2 METHOD
Magnetic particle testing shall be carried out in accordance with AS 1171 and the
following:
(a) Method of magnetization The method of magnetization shall be magnetic flow
(sustained).
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(b) Cleaning after testing Magnetic particle medium shall be removed after testing. A
corrosion inhibitor may be applied.
(c) Test report A test certificate shall be issued.

20.3 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL


Personnel shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 16.3.

20.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE


The weld shall not contain any discontinuities that are on or near the surface of a weld and
adjacent parent metal that do not comply with Clause 22.

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83 AS 2885.22007

SE C T I ON 2 1 DY E - PE N E T RA N T T E ST I N G

21.1 PURPOSE
The purpose of dye-penetrant testing is to locate discontinuities that are open to the surface
of a weld and adjacent parent metal.
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21.2 METHOD
Dye-penetrant testing shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2062 and the following:
(a) Type of testing medium The type of testing medium shall contrast in colour and be
water washable.
(b) Cleaning after testing The penetrant and the developer shall be removed after
testing. A corrosion inhibitor may be applied.
(c) Reports A test certificate shall be issued.
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21.3 QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL


Personnel shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 16.3.

21.4 CRITERIA OF ACCEPTANCE


The weld shall not contain any discontinuities that are open to the surface of a weld and
adjacent parent metal that do not comply with Clause 22.

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AS 2885.22007 84

SECT I O N 2 2 C R IT E R I A O F A CCE PT A N CE
FOR G I RTH WE LD D I SCO NT I NU I T I ES

22.1 GENERAL
The criteria of acceptance for girth weld discontinuities in this Standard are based on a
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three-tier system. The choice of which tier is to be used shall be approved. Figure 22.1
shows the procedure for selection of acceptance criteria.
Welds that comply with the selected criteria of acceptance shall be deemed to comply with
this Standard. Production welds that do not comply with the selected criteria shall be
repaired (see Clause 23 or 24) or cut out (see Clause 25).
Acceptance criteria are as follows:
(a) Tier 1 (see Clause 22.2) Tier 1 acceptance criteria are based on commonly
achievable standards of good workmanship.
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Such acceptance criteria are very similar to ANSI/API 1104, which is the de facto
international Standard of workmanship for pipeline girth welds. They are also similar
to the requirements of the superseded editions of this Australian Standard except for
wall thicknesses less than 7 mm where limits on embedded defects have been reduced
from 50 mm to 25 mm in length, on the basis of Australian research.
NOTE: Tier 1 may be used without any special pre-qualification requirements. It is expected
that Tier 1 will be most commonly applied where the special requirements of the other tiers
are not justified by the scale of the project.
(b) Tier 2 (see Clause 22.3) Tier 2 acceptance criteria are based on generalized fitness-
for-purpose criteria. Weld discontinuities that would not be acceptable under the
workmanship standards of Tier 1 may be acceptable to Tier 2.
The principal basis for the Tier 2 criteria is the European Pipelines Research Group
(EPRG) EPRG guideline on defects in transmission pipeline girth welds, April 1994
edition. Australian experience, which formed the basis for the 1987 edition of this
Standard, and the results of recent Australian research work undertaken by the CRC
for Welded Structures have also been taken into account (see also Preface).
The use of Tier 2 acceptance criteria requires certain special requirements to be met.
The most important of these is that because the limits are based on experimentally
validated plastic collapse considerations, the welds have to be shown to have
adequate toughness in order to ensure that failure does not occur by brittle fracture.
Australian research has shown that when strength matching can be demonstrated the
Tier 2 limits can be extended down to 5 mm wall thickness and up to grade X80.
However in practice the demonstration of strength matching is difficult, and this
Standard (see Clause 22.3 Note 1) only allows the application of Tier 2 grades above
X65 when wide plate or full section pipe tensile tests are used to demonstrate
overmatching. The application of Tier 2 to wall thickness less than 7 mm is not
allowed.
(c) Tier 3 (see Clause 22.4) Tier 3 acceptance criteria are fitness-for-purpose criteria
developed from an engineering critical assessment (ECA) carried out expressly for
the project concerned.
The use of approved engineering critical assessment (ECA) procedures for the
development of fitness-for-purpose acceptance criteria for particular circumstances
has been permitted by this Australian Standard for some time. This means that a two-
tier system in which ECA was Tier 2 has already been established.

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85 AS 2885.22007

NOTES:
1 This new edition of the Standard retains the option of using ECA procedures for
particular circumstances, and this is designated as Tier 3.
2 It is likely that in most cases, because actual operating conditions will be known and
therefore assumptions do not need to be as conservative as in the generalized case used in
Tier 2, the criteria of Tier 3 may, subject to satisfactory levels of fracture toughness,
permit the acceptance of more severe discontinuities than both Tiers 1 and 2.
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3 BS 7910 and API579 describe ECA procedures that are suitable for use for this
application. Alternatively, wide plate tests or full-scale tests could be used.
Pre-existing laminar imperfections in the parent metal, which comply with the requirements
of ANSI/API Spec 5L, shall be acceptable, unless they do not meet the requirements for
ultrasonic inspection of Clause 19.
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AS 2885.22007 86
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NOTE: The decision tree does not show access to Tier 2 acceptance criteria from the workmanship standards of Tier 1.
This is because in normal circumstances the prerequisite conditions in Clause 22.3.1 would not have been met, which is
not intended to prevent the application of quality control practices aimed at the normal achievement of workmanship
standards whilst allowing a fall-back position to Tier 2. In such circumstances, the abovementioned prerequisite
conditions will need to be met.

FIGURE 22.1 PROCEDURE FOR SELECTION OF CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTANCE FOR


GIRTH WELD DISCONTINUITIES

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87 AS 2885.22007

22.2 TIER 1 CRITERIAWORKMANSHIP STANDARD


22.2.1 Inadequate penetration
Inadequate penetration without high/low lack of penetration (LP) is defined as the
incomplete filling of the weld root. This condition is shown schematically in
Figure 22.2.2(a). LP shall be unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:
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(a) The length of an individual indication of lack of penetration (LP) exceeds 25 mm.
(b) The aggregate length of indications in any continuous 300 mm length of weld exceeds
25 mm.
(c) The aggregate length of indications of lack of penetration (LP) exceeds 8% of the
weld length in any weld less than 300 mm in length.
NOTE: See Table 22.2.7 for the summary of Tier 1 acceptance criteria for girth weld
discontinuities.
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22.2.2 Inadequate penetration due to high-low


Inadequate penetration (LP) due to high/low LP(H/L) is defined as the condition that exists
when one edge of the root is exposed (or unbonded) because adjacent pipe or fitting joints
are misaligned, and where high/low (H/L) is a condition where the pipe or fitting surfaces
are misaligned. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 22.2.2(b). LP(H/L) is
deemed not to be a defect and shall be acceptable unless incomplete fusion is also present.
22.2.3 Incomplete fusion
Incomplete fusion, lack of fusion at the root (LR) or lack of fusion at the side (LS) is
defined as a discontinuity between the weld metal and the base metal that is open to the
surface or buried for LS. This condition is shown schematically in Figure 22.2.2(c). LR or
LS shall be unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:
(a) The length of an individual indication exceeds 25 mm.
(b) The aggregate length of indications in any continuous 300 mm length of weld exceeds
25 mm.
(c) The aggregate length of indications exceeds 8% of the weld length in any weld less
than 300 mm in length.
22.2.4 Incomplete fusion due to cold lap
Incomplete fusion due to cold lap [lack of inter-pass fusion (LI) or lack of side wall fusion
(LS)] is defined as a discontinuity between two adjacent weld beads, or between the weld
metal and the base metal that is not open to the surface. This condition is shown
schematically in Figure 22.2.2(d) and Figure 22.2.2(f). It shall be unacceptable when any of
the following conditions exist:
(a) The length of an individual indication exceeds 25 mm for N <7, or 50 mm for N 7.
(b) The aggregate length of indications in any continuous 300 mm length of weld exceeds
25 mm for N <7, or 50 mm for N 7.
(c) The aggregate length of indications in any weld length less than 300 mm exceeds 8%
of the weld length for N <7 or 20% of the weld length for N . 7.

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AS 2885.22007 88

(a) Lack of root penetration (LP)


Part of original bevel root face not fused
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Misalignment

(b) Lack of root fusion & misalignment LP(H/L)


Part of original bevel root face not fused
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(c) Lack of side wall fusion (LS)


Part of original bevel side wall not fused

(d) Lack of inter-run fusion (LI)


Part of adjacent weld pass not fused

FIGURE 22.2.2 (in part) SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF TIER 1 DEFECTS

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89 AS 2885.22007

(e) Internal or root concavity (SRC)


The weld root face is below the adjacent base metal surface
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(f) Lack of root fusion (LR)


Part of the original bevel root face not fused
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(g) Piping porosity (EC)


Elongated porosity which typically extends from the weld crater

(h) Inclusions (IN/IL)


Trapped discontinuities typically welding slag

FIGURE 22.2.2 (in part) SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF TIER 1 DEFECTS

22.2.5 Root concavity


Root concavity (SRC) is defined and shown schematically in Figure 22.2.2(e). Any length
of internal concavity is acceptable, provided the density of the radiographic image of the
internal concavity does not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent base metal. For areas that
exceed the density of the thinnest adjacent base metal, the criteria for burn-through (see
Clause 22.2.6) are applicable.
22.2.6 Burn-through
A burn-through (BT) is defined as a portion of the root bead where excessive penetration
has caused the weld puddle to be blown into the pipe, leaving a hole in the root of the weld.
Criteria shall be as follows:
(a) For pipe with an outside diameter 60 mm, a BT shall be unacceptable when any of
the following conditions exist:
(i) The maximum length or width dimension exceeds 6 mm and the density of the
BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent base metal.
(ii) The maximum length or width dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal
wall thicknesses joined, and the density of the BTs image exceeds that of the
thinnest adjacent base metal.
(iii) The sum of the maximum length or width dimensions of separate BTs whose
image density exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent base metal exceeds 13 mm
in any continuous 300 mm length of weld or the total weld length, whichever is
less.

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AS 2885.22007 90

(b) For pipe with an outside diameter <60 mm, a BT shall be unacceptable when any of
the following conditions exist:
(i) The maximum length or width dimension exceeds 6 mm and the density of the
BTs image exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent base metal.
(ii) The maximum length or width dimension exceeds the thinner of the nominal
wall thicknesses joined, and the density of the BTs image exceeds that of the
thinnest adjacent base metal.
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(iii) More than one BT of any size is present and the density of more than one of the
images exceeds that of the thinnest adjacent base metal.
22.2.7 Slag inclusions
A slag inclusion is defined as a non-metallic solid entrapped in the weld metal or between
the weld metal and the pipe metal. Elongated slag inclusions (e.g., ILs), continuous or
broken slag lines or wagon tracks (WTs) are usually found at the fusion zone. Isolated slag
inclusions (INs) are irregularly shaped and may be located anywhere in the weld. For
evaluation purposes, when the size of a radiographic indication of slag is measured, the
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indications maximum dimension shall be considered its length (see Figure 22.2.2(h)). The
unacceptability of slag inclusions is as follows:
(a) For pipe with an outside diameter 60 mm, slag inclusions shall be unacceptable
when any of the following conditions exist:
(i) The length of an IL indication exceeds 50 mm. Parallel IL indications separated
by approximately the width of the root bead (wagon tracks) shall be considered
a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1 mm. In that
event, they shall be considered separate indications.
(ii) The aggregate length of IL indications in any continuous 300 mm length of
weld exceeds 50 mm.
(iii) The width of an IL indication exceeds 2 mm.
(iv) The aggregate length of IN indications in any continuous 300 mm length of
weld exceeds 13 mm.
(v) The width of an IN indication exceeds 3 mm.
(vi) The aggregate length of IL and IN indications in any continuous 300 mm length
of weld exceeds 8% of the weld length.
(b) For pipe with an outside diameter <60 mm, slag inclusions shall be unacceptable
when any of the following conditions exist:
(i) The length of an IL indication exceeds three times the thinner of the nominal
wall thicknesses joined. Parallel IL indications separated by approximately the
width of the root bead (wagon tracks) shall be considered a single indication
unless the width of either of them exceeds 1 mm. In that event, they shall be
considered separate indications.
(ii) The width of an IL indication exceeds 2 mm.
(iii) The aggregate length of IN indications in any continuous 300 mm length of
weld exceeds two times the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined and
the width exceeds one-half the thinner of the nominal wall thicknesses joined.
(iv) The aggregate length of IL and IN indications in any continuous 300 mm length
of weld exceeds 8% of the weld length.

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91 AS 2885.22007

22.2.8 Porosity
Porosity is defined as gas trapped by solidifying weld metal before the gas has had a chance
to rise to the surface of the molten puddle and escape. Porosity is generally spherical but
may be elongated or irregular in shape, such as piping (wormhole) porosity (WH). When
the size of the radiographic indication produced by a pore is measured, the maximum
dimension of the indication shall apply to the following criteria:
(a) Individual porosity (GP) or scattered porosity (PU) shall be unacceptable when any of
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the following conditions exist:


(i) The depth in the through-thickness dimension exceeds 30% of the wall
thickness.
(ii) Surface breaking porosity with any dimension exceeding 1.5 mm is present.
(b) Cluster porosity (PG) that occurs in any pass except the finish pass shall comply with
the criteria in Item (a) above. PG that occurs in the finish pass shall be unacceptable
when any of the following conditions exist:
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(i) The diameter of the cluster exceeds 13 mm.


(ii) The aggregate length of PG in any continuous 300 mm length of weld exceeds
13 mm.
(iii) The depth of an individual pore within a cluster in the through-thickness
dimension exceeds 30% of the wall thickness.
(c) Hollow-bead porosity (HB) is defined as elongated linear porosity that occurs in the
root pass. Hollow bead is deemed not to be a defect and is acceptable when it does
not reduce the weld thickness to less than that of the thinner parent metal as assessed
from the radiographic density, or by the width of the discontinuity assuming it is of
circular cross-section. See Figure 22.2.2(g). HB that exceeds this limit shall be
unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:
(i) The length of an individual indication of HB exceeds 13 mm.
(ii) The aggregate length of indications of HB in any continuous 300 mm length of
weld exceeds 50 mm.
(iii) Individual indications of HB, each greater than 6 mm in length, are separated
by less than 50 mm.
(iv) The aggregate length of all indications of HB exceeds 20% of the weld length.
22.2.9 Cracks
Cracks shall be unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:
(a) The crack, of any size or location in the weld, is not a shallow crater crack or star
crack.
(b) The crack is a shallow crater crack or star crack that has a length or width exceeding
4 mm.
NOTE: Shallow crater cracks or star cracks are located at the stopping point of weld beads and
are the result of weld metal contractions during solidification.
22.2.10 Undercutting
Undercutting is defined as a groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe or root of
the weld and left unfilled by weld metal. A discontinuity known as root slag intrusion,
which occurs at the toe of the root bead, is recognized as an intrinsic feature of cellulosic
electrode welds in pipelines. Root slag intrusions shall be classified as undercut for the
purposes of sentencing to this Standard.

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AS 2885.22007 92

Undercutting adjacent to the cover pass SUC(ext) or root pass SUC(int) shall be
unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:
(a) The individual or aggregate length of indications of SUC with a depth greater than
0.8 mm, in any continuous 300 mm length of weld, exceeds 50 mm.
(b) For wall thicknesses of 7 mm and greater, the individual or aggregate length of
indications of SUC with a depth >0.8 mm exceeds 20% of the weld length.
(c) For wall thicknesses of less than 7 mm, the individual or aggregate length of
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indications of SUC with a depth >0.4 mm exceeds 20% of the weld length. The depth
of internal undercut shall be assessed in accordance with Clause 15.5.
22.2.11 Root slag intrusion
Root slag intrusions shall be classified as undercutting and be included with undercutting
for sentencing (see Clause 22.2.10).
22.2.12 Accumulation of discontinuities
Excluding incomplete penetration due to high-low and undercutting, any accumulation of
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discontinuities shall be unacceptable when any of the following conditions exist:


(a) The individual or aggregate length of indications in any continuous 300 mm length of
weld exceeds 25 mm for N <7, or 50 mm for N 7.
(b) The individual or aggregate length of indications exceeds 8% of the weld length for
N <7 or 20% of the weld length for N 7.
22.2.13 Coincident discontinuities
The following applies to coincident discontinuities:
(a) Discontinuities that have length limits in Tier 1 shall be unacceptable, regardless of
length, when more than one different type of discontinuity, whether having a length
limit or not, is superimposed upon another in the same position in the weld so that it
is likely that the total defect depth is more than one weld pass.
(b) Discontinuities that do not have length limits in Tier 1, such as certain conditions of
porosity, hollow bead, root concavity, and undercut shall be acceptable, regardless of
length, when more than one different type of discontinuity is superimposed upon
another in the same position in the weld provided they do not collectively reduce the
weld thickness below that of the thinner parent metal as assessed from the
radiographic density.
22.2.14 Pipe or fitting discontinuities
Arc burns, longitudinal seam discontinuities, and other discontinuities in the pipe or fittings
detected by radiographic testing shall be reported to the pipeline licensee. Their disposition
by repair or removal shall be as directed by the pipeline licensee.
NOTES:
1 See Clauses 15.5 and 17.5 for information on the methods of measurement of undercut depth.
2 See Clauses 24 and 25 for information dealing with arc burns.

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TABLE 22.2.7
SUMMARY OF TIER 1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR GIRTH WELD DISCONTINUITIES
This summary of Tier 1 acceptance criteria for girth weld discontinuities is provided for the convenience of the user and is to be read in conjunction with Clause 22.2.

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Acceptability limits

Clause Type of discontinuity Aggregate length/width/diameter Aggregate


Individual
in any continuous 300 mm length length/width/diameter in weld
length/width/diameter
of weld <300 mm long
22.2.1 Inadequate penetration (without H/L) (LP) >25 mm >25 mm >8% weld length
22.2.2 Inadequate penetration due to H/L (LP(H/L)) Incomplete fusion also present
22.2.3 Incomplete fusion (LR or LS) >25 mm >25 mm >8%
22.2.4 Incomplete fusion due to cold lap (LI) or
lack of side wall fusion (LS) N 7 mm >25 mm >25 mm >8% weld length
N <7 mm >50 mm >50 mm >20% weld length
93

22.2.5 Root concavity (SRC) Any length acceptable if radiographic density of internal cavity does not exceed that of thinnest
adjacent base metal. Otherwise burn through criteria apply
22.2.6(a) Burn through (BT): outside pipe dia. 60 mm >13 mm where density of BTs image exceeds that of thinnest adjacent
Max. length or width base metal
22.2.6(b) <60 mm >6 mm or thinner wall *More than one of any size
thickness and density of BTs present and the density of more
image exceeds that of thinnest than one of the images exceeds
adjacent base metal that of the thinnest adjacent base
metal
22.2.7(a) Slag inclusions 60 mm IL >50 mm or width >50 mm
>2 mm
IN width >3 mm >13 mm
IL+IN >8% weld length
(continued)

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
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TABLE 22.2.7 (continued)


AS 2885.22007

Acceptability limits

Standards Australia
Clause Type of discontinuity Aggregate length/width/diameter Aggregate
Individual
in any continuous 300 mm length length/width/diameter in weld
length/width/diameter
of weld <300 mm long
22.2.7(b) <60 mm dia. IL >3 lesser thickness or width 2 lesser thickness
>2 mm
2 lesser thickness and width half
IN
lesser thickness
IL+IN >8% weld length
Wagon tracks shall be considered a single indication unless the width of either of them exceeds 1 mm.
In that event, they shall be considered separate indications.
22.2.8(a) Porosity: Individual gas pore (GP) Through thickness dimension
of individual pore >30% of the
thickness or any dimension of
94

surface breaking porosity


>1.5 mm
22.2.8(b) Cluster (PG): other than finish pass See Item (a)
finish pass >13 mm dia., or through >13 mm, or through thickness
thickness dimension of dimension of individual pore >30%
individual pore >30% of the of the thickness
thickness
22.2.8(c) Hollow bead (HB) >13 mm
If HB reduces weld thickness to less than that of or individual lengths each >50 mm >20%
thinner parent, or by the width of the discontinuity >6 mm are separated by
then unacceptable if <50 mm
22.2.9 Cracks (KL, KT, KE, KC) All cracks shall be unacceptable except shallow crater or star crack with a maximum dimension of 4 mm
22.2.10(a) Undercutting (SUC) all thicknesses if depth >0.8 mm >50 mm >50 mm
(continued)

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TABLE 22.2.7 (continued)


Acceptability limits
Aggregate length/width/diameter Aggregate

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Clause Type of discontinuity Individual
in any continuous 300 mm length length/width/diameter in weld
length/width/diameter
of weld <300 mm long
22.2.10(b) N 7 mm; if depth >0.8 mm >20% weld length >20% weld length
22.2.10(c) N <7 mm; if depth >0.4 mm >20% weld length >20% weld length
22.2.11 Root slag intrusionshall be classified as undercutting, see 22.2.10
22.2.12 Accumulation (exclude incomplete penetration
due to hi lo and undercutting) N <7 mm >25 mm (individual or aggregate) >8% (individual or aggregate)
N 7 mm >50 mm (individual or aggregate) >20% (individual or aggregate)
22.2.13(a) Coincident discontinuities with length limit More than one type of discontinuity, whether having a length limit or not, superimposed and total depth
likely to exceed one weld pass
2.2.2.13(b) Coincident discontinuities without length limit More than one type of discontinuity superimposed so that weld radiographic density is reduced to less
95

than that of the thinner parent metal


22.2.14 Pipe or fitting discontinuities (arc burn, longitudinal seams and other defects)repair or removal at the direction of the pipeline licensee

Standards Australia
AS 2885.22007
AS 2885.22007 96

22.3 TIER 2 CRITERIAGENERALIZED FITNESS-FOR-PURPOSE STANDARD


22.3.1 General
Discontinuities, other than cracks that do not reduce the weld thickness to less than 90% of
the thinner of the parent metal thicknesses, are acceptable.
The generalized fitness-for-purpose criteria of Tier 2 are based on limit load/net section
plastic collapse considerations. All of the following requirements apply:
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(a) Either
(i) the welds shall be made in their entirety with E4110 electrodes; or
(ii) charpy V-notch impact tests, performed as part of the welding procedure
qualification test, shall meet a minimum requirement of 40 J minimum average
and 30 J minimum individual at the lowest design temperature at which the
combined stress exceeds 30% SMYS.
The requirement in Item (ii) is applicable to full-size test pieces. The test piece size
shall be the largest standard size that can be obtained. The requirement shall be
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reduced pro rata according to the cross-sectional area of the test piece (see
Clause 6.4.7).
(b) For welds in material greater than 13 mm thick, crack tip opening displacement
(CTOD) tests shall be performed in accordance with AS 2205.7.3 and shall meet a
requirement of 0.15 mm minimum average and 0.10 mm minimum individual at the
lowest design temperature at which the combined stress exceeds 30% SMYS (see
Clause 6.4.8).
(c) Transverse butt tensile tests shall be performed as part of the welding procedure
qualification test with the weld reinforcement removed by dressing. The tests are
acceptable if the specimens fail in the pipe material or if the specimens break in the
weld metal with a tensile strength greater than, or equal to, the specified minimum
tensile strength of the pipe material.
(d) The nominal thickness shall lie within the range 7 mm to 25 mm.
(e) Each defect is assumed to be confined to a single weld pass not greater than 3 mm in
depth. If there is a suspicion of a single defect being greater than 3 mm then Tier 2
acceptance criteria shall not be applied. These criteria shall only be applied to
pipeline girth welds between pipes of equal grade and nominal thickness.
(f) The pipe SMYS shall not exceed 448 MPa.
(g) Service conditions shall not include onerous fatigue conditions (see Note 2).
NOTES:
1 The weld discontinuity acceptance limits in this Standard are based on those in the EPRG
Guidelines referred to elsewhere and also on Australian research by the CRC for Welded
Structures, which has assessed thin-walled high-strength pipeline girth welds. The values of
defect length are founded upon plastic collapse calculations that include assumptions
regarding the flow stress and the yield/tensile ratio of the girth weld metal and the pipe parent
metal, and the requirement that the yield strength of the weld metal be equal or exceed that of
the parent pipe. The Australian research has demonstrated that a certain level of weld metal
yield strength undermatching can be tolerated within the requirements of Tier 2 while
maintaining defect tolerance. It should be noted that, as mentioned in Paragraph C3 of
Appendix C, the notched tensile test, which was used to determine yield strength matching,
has been removed from the Standard along with a return of Tier 2 criteria to those in the 1995
edition of this Standard; however, the wide plate and full section pipe tension tests can still be
used to define defect limits for particular weld consumable pipe grade combinations and can
be applied to those pipe grades now excluded from Tier 2.
2 Normal daily pressure fluctuations due to line packing are not deemed to constitute onerous
fatigue conditions.

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97 AS 2885.22007

22.3.2 Tier 2 acceptance criteria


The Tier 2 acceptance criteria are described in Table 22.3.2(A) and Figure 22.3.2.
Equations to the lines in Figures 22.3.2 are set out in Table 22.3.2(B).
Tier 2 Acceptance limits for some common pipe sizes are given in Table 22.3.2(C).

TABLE 22.3.2(A)
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WELD DISCONTINUITY ACCEPTANCE LIMITS FOR TIER 2


Type of discontinuity Tier 2 acceptance criteria
External profile The maximum height of external weld reinforcement shall comply with Figure 15.4.2 The
(non-planar) weld shall be completely filled
Planar root concavity Root concavity that does not reduce the thickness of the weld below 90% of the thickness
(see Note 3) of the parent metal shall be acceptable regardless of length
Non-planar root cavity Root concavity that reduces the thickness of the weld below 90% of the thickness of the
(see Note 4) parent metal shall be assessed against the all defects line in Figure 22.3.2
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Non-planar undercut Depth less than 0.8 mmno limit


Planar undercut Depth greater than 0.8 mmplanar defect in Figure 22.3.2
Inadequate penetration and all Planar defect in Figure 22.3.2
lack of fusion defects (planar)
Cracks (planar) Not allowed
Crater cracks Maximum dimension of 4 mm
(see Note 5)
(non-planar)
Burn-through Burn-throughs less than 6 mm long and less than one weld pass (3 mm) depth have no
(non-planar) structural significance and are not limited under Tier 2. Burn-throughs longer than 6 mm
shall be assessed using the root concavity limitations if the depth is less than one weld
pass. Burn-throughs more than one weld pass (3 mm) deep are not allowed
Porosity The depth of individual gas pores in the through-thickness dimension exceeds 30% of the
(non-planar) wall thickness.
Other porosity is of no structural significance and is not limited by Tier 2
Hollow bead All defects in Figure 22.3.2. Hollow bead that does not reduce the thickness of the weld
(see Notes 3, 4 & 7) below 90% of the thickness of the parent metal shall be acceptable regardless of length
(non-planar)
Slag inclusions All defects in Figure 22.3.2
(see Note 6) (non-planar)
Interaction If the defect is separated from a planar defect by a distance smaller than the length of the
(planar and non-planar) shorter of the two defects, then re-categorize as a single planar defect (defined for the
purposes of Figure 22.3.2 as an interacting planar defect) of length equal to the two
individual lengths plus separation. Figure 22.3.2 gives limits for interacting planar defects
Coincident defects Discontinuities that have length limits in this Table are unacceptable regardless of length
(see Note 2) when they are superimposed in the same position in the weld so that the total assumed
defect depth at that position exceeds one weld pass (3 mm)
Discontinuities that do not have length limits in this Table are acceptable regardless of
length when they are superimposed in the same position in the weld provided that they do
not collectively reduce the thickness of the weld below 90% of the thickness of the parent
metal
Systematic and repeated At the option of the pipeline licensee, systematic and repeated occurrences of defects of
defects workmanship may be sentenced according to the requirements of Tier 1

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AS 2885.22007 98

NOTES TO TABLE 22.3.2(A):


1 Clause 22.2 requires that discontinuities that do not reduce the remaining weld thickness below 90% of the thinner
parent metal thickness be ignored. This applies to all types of discontinuity in Table 22.3.2(A).
2 The discontinuities that do not have length limits are as follows:
(a) Defects that do not reduce weld thickness below 90% of the thinner parent metal thickness.
(b) Undercut less than 0.8 mm, where the depth does reduce the weld thickness below 90%. This can occur in
thickness less than 8 mm.
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(c) Porosity having maximum pore size less than 3 mm.


3 The remaining weld thickness relative to the 90% minimum limit when the volumetric defects root concavity, burn-
through, and hollow bead are present is a matter for the radiographers judgment, assisted by reference to the density
of the parent metal and the images of the grooves on the undercut comparator shim.
4 Root concavity, burn-through, and hollow bead that reduce the remaining weld thickness below 90% of the thickness
of the parent metal are assumed to be one weld pass deep.
5 As per Tier 1.
6 Includes wagon tracks.
7 The permitted reduction in weld metal thickness to 90% of parent metal thickness for hollow bead is allowed in the
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Tier 2 fitness-for-purpose acceptance criteria in recognition of the demonstrated achievement of matching strength
in the procedure qualification requirements for Tier 2.

TABLE 22.3.2(B)
EQUATIONS TO THE LINES IN FIGURE 22.3.2
Coordinates at maximum
defect length
Line Equation
Wall thickness Defect length
mm %
Totalall defects 3.91 (wall thickness) + 0.11 12.8 50
Totalall planar defects 2.37 (wall thickness) 5.50 13.0 25
Interacting planar defect 1.54 (wall thickness) 1.92 17.5 25
Individual planar defect 1.04 (wall thickness) 2.48 26.5 25
NOTE: These equations apply only to the sloping portion of the lines.

Standards Australia www.standards.org.au


99 AS 2885.22007

TABLE 22.3.2(C)
TIER 2 ACCEPTANCE LIMITS FOR SOME COMMON PIPE SIZES
millimetres
Maximum acceptable discontinuity length
Volumetric defects
Individual planar
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that reduce wall


Pipe Wall Total all defects, i.e., undercut
Total all thickness below Interacting
diameter thickness planar deeper than 0.8 mm and
defects in 0.90 N, i.e., certain planar
defects in all inadequate
any weld root concavity, burn- defects
any weld penetration and lack of
through, and hollow
fusion defects
bead conditions
7.1 192 78 192 34 62
7.9 213 91 213 39 70
8.7 235 104 235 45 79
219
9.5 256 117 256 51 87
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11.0 297 142 297 62 103


12.7 342 169 342 74 121
7.1 239 97 239 42 77
7.9 266 113 266 49 88
8.7 293 130 293 56 98
273
9.5 320 146 320 63 109
11.0 370 176 370 77 129
12.7 427 211 427 92 151
7.1 284 115 284 50 92
7.9 316 135 316 58 104
8.7 347 154 347 67 117
324
9.5 379 173 379 75 129
11.0 439 209 439 91 153
12.7 507 250 507 109 180
7.1 312 127 312 55 101
7.9 347 148 347 64 115
8.7 382 169 382 73 128
356
9.5 417 190 417 83 142
11.0 482 230 482 100 168
12.7 557 275 557 120 197
7.1 355 144 355 63 115
7.9 395 169 395 73 131
8.7 435 193 435 84 146
406
9.5 475 217 475 94 162
11.0 550 262 550 114 192
12.7 635 314 635 137 225
7.1 400 163 400 70 129
7.9 445 190 445 82 147
8.7 490 217 490 94 165
457
9.5 535 244 535 106 182
11.0 619 295 619 129 216
12.7 715 353 715 154 253
NOTE: Table 22.3.2(C) lists Tier 2 weld