fema 440

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fema 440

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- Seismic Analysis of Multi Storied RC Buildings- Part 4
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- Seismic Study of Building with Roof Top Telecommunication Towers
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shaking demand.

0.9

8.2 Procedures for Kinematic Effects

The ground motions imposed at the foundation of a 0.8

structure can differ from those in the free field due to

averaging of variable ground motions across the

foundation slab, wave scattering, and embedment 0.7

Simplified Model

effects. These effects are referred to here as kinematic b e = 65 ft

interaction effects, and they tend to be important for 0.6 b e = 130 ft

buildings with relatively short fundamental periods b e = 200 ft

(i.e., periods < 0.5 s), large plan dimensions, or 0.5 b e = 330 ft

basements embedded 10 feet or more in soil materials.

This section presents procedures to account for

kinematic effects on building structures. 0.4

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

A ratio of response spectra (RRS) factor can be used to Period (s)

represent kinematic interaction effects. An RRS is

simply the ratio of the response spectral ordinates Figure 8-2 Ratio of response spectra for base slab

imposed on the foundation (i.e., the foundation input averaging, RRSbsa, as a function of period,

motion, FIM) to the free-field spectral ordinates. Two T, and effective foundation size, be.

phenomena should be considered in evaluating RRS:

base slab averaging and foundation embedment, both of 1.2

which are introduced in the preceding section. Base- 1 be

RRSbsa = 1 the value for

slab averaging occurs to some extent in virtually all 14,100 T

buildings. The slab-averaging effect occurs at the T = 0.2 s (8-1)

foundation level for mats or spread footings

interconnected by either grade beams or reinforced 3. If the structure has a basement embedded a depth e

concrete slabs. Even if a laterally stiff foundation from the ground surface, evaluate an additional

system is not present, averaging can occur at the first RRS from embedment (RRSe) as a function of

elevated level of buildings with rigid diaphragms. The period (see Figure 8-3). The curves in Figure 8-3

only case in which base-slab averaging effects should are described by the following:

be neglected is in buildings without a laterally

connected foundation system and with flexible floor 2e

and roof diaphragms. Foundation embedment effects RRSe = cos the larger of 0.453 or the

should be considered for buildings with basements. Tnvs

Such effects should not be considered for buildings RRSe value for T = 0.2 s. (8-2)

without basements, even if the footings are embedded.

Embedment effects tend to be significant when the where

depth of basements is greater than about 10 feet. The

following simplified procedure (adapted from Kim and e = foundation embedment (in feet)

Stewart (2003) and other sources) is recommended for vs = shear wave velocity for site soil conditions,

analysis of these two kinematic interaction effects as a taken as average value of velocity to a depth

function of period, T, of the structural model: of be below foundation (ft/s)

1. Evaluate the effective foundation size be = ab , n = shear wave velocity reduction factor for the

where a and b are the full footprint dimensions (in expected PGA as estimated from Table 8-1.

feet) of the building foundation in plan view.

2. Evaluate the RRS from base-slab averaging 4. Evaluate the product of RRSbsa times RRSe to

(RRSbsa) as a function of period (see Figure 8-2). obtain the total RRS for each period of interest. The

An approximation to the curves in Figure 8-2 is spectral ordinate of the foundation input motion at

given by the following: each period is the product of the free-field spectrum

and the total RRS.

Chapter 8: Procedures for Including Soil-Structure Interaction Effects

reinforced slab and/or grade beams); however,

Fo un d ati on /Fre e- Fie ld R R S

1

tion to all structures except those without both

an interconnected foundation and rigid floor

0.8 and roof diaphragms.

c. has not been rigorously studied for structures

0.6 e = 30 ft with plan dimensions greater than 200 ft.; how-

v s = 2500 ft/s

ever, it is considered reasonable to extend the

v s = 1200 ft/s application to these conditions, provided that

0.4

v s = 600 ft/s the foundation elements are laterally connected.

0.2 d. has not been rigorously studied for structures

with pile-supported foundations; however it is

considered reasonable to extend application to

0

pile-supported structures in which the cap and

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2

soil are in contact or in which the caps are later-

Period (s) ally connected to one another by a slab or grade

beams.

Figure 8-3 Ratio of response spectra for embedment

RRSe, for an embedment, e, of 30 feet as 8.3 Procedures for Foundation Damping

a function of period, T, and shear wave

velocity, vs. Damping related to foundation-soil interaction can

significantly supplement damping that occurs in a

Table 8-1 Approximate Values of Shear Wave structure due to inelastic action of structural

Velocity Reduction Factor, n components. The damping from foundation-soil

interaction is associated with hysteretic behavior of soil

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) (not to be confused with hysteretic action in structural

components) as well as radiation of energy into the soil

0.10g 0.15g 0.20g 0.30g from the foundation (i.e., radiation damping). These

n 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.65

foundation damping effects tend to be important for

stiff structural systems (e.g., shear walls, braced

frames), particularly when the foundation soil is

5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 for other periods if desired relatively soft (i.e., Site Classes D-E).

to generate a complete spectrum for the foundation

input motion (FIM). The effects of foundation damping are represented by a

If desired, more detailed procedures can also be used, modified system-damping ratio. The initial damping

which are described in Appendix E. ratio for the structure neglecting foundation damping is

referred to as i, and is generally taken as 5%. The

Limitations associated with application of this approach damping attributed to foundation-soil interaction alone

include the following, each of which is explained in (i.e., the foundation damping) is referred to as f.

Appendix E: Finally, the damping ratio of the complete structural

system, accounting for foundation-soil interaction, as

Kinematic interaction effects should be neglected for well as structural damping, is referred to as 0. The

soft clay sites such as Site Class E. change in damping ratio from i to 0 modifies the

Embedment effects can be neglected for foundations elastic response spectrum. The spectral ordinates are

embedded in firm rock (Site Classes A and B). reduced if 0 > i.

The base-slab averaging model: A number of factors influence the foundation damping

a. underestimates reductions in ground motions factor f (see Appendix E). Subject to the limitations

for foundation materials that consist of firm noted below, the following simplified procedure can be

rock (Site Classes A and B). used to estimate f and the subsequent spectral ordinate

change due to the modified damping ratio of the

b. has not been rigorously studied for structures complete structural system, 0.

without large in-plane stiffness (continuous mat

Chapter 8: Procedures for Including Soil-Structure Interaction Effects

1. Evaluate the linear periods for the structural model structures, and as the vertical distance from the

assuming a fixed base, T, and a flexible base, T foundation to the centroid of the first mode shape

using appropriate foundation modeling assump- for multi-story structures. In the latter case, h* can

tions. Guidelines for the evaluation of soil spring often be well-approximated as 70% of the total

stiffnesses are provided in FEMA 356 and ATC-40. structure height. The quantity Kx is often much

In those calculations, the strain-degraded shear larger than K*fixed, in which case an accurate

modulus should be used to represent the soil stiff- evaluation of Kx is unnecessary and the ratio,

ness. K*fixed/Kx, can be approximated as zero.

2. Calculate the effective structural stiffness of the

The equivalent foundation radius for rotation is

SDOF oscillator for fixed base conditions as

then calculated as

2

2 1

*

K fixed = M* (8-3)

T 3 (1 ) K 3

r = (8-7)

8G

where M* is the effective mass for the first mode

calculated as the total mass times the effective mass The soil shear modulus, G, and soil Poissons ratio,

coefficient (see ATC-40 Eqn. 8-21). , should be consistent with those used in the

evaluation of foundation spring stiffness.

3. Determine the equivalent foundation radius for

translation as 6. Determine the basement embedment, e, if applica-

ble.

Af

rx = (8-4) 7. Estimate the effective period-lengthening ratio,

Teff / Teff , using the site-specific structural model

developed for nonlinear pushover analyses. This

where Af is the area of the foundation footprint if period-lengthening ratio is calculated for the struc-

the foundation components are inter-connected ture in its degraded state (i.e., accounting for struc-

laterally. tural ductility and soil ductility). An expression for

the ratio is

4. Calculate the translational stiffness of the founda-

tion, Kx. This can be evaluated using the procedures 0.5

Teff 1 T

2

in FEMA 356 (Chapter 4) or ATC-40 (Chapter 10).

= 1 + 1 (8-8)

For many applications, the translational stiffness Teff T

can be estimated as

Kx = Grx (8-5) for the system (i.e., including structure and soil

2

effects). Thus, the ductility must be estimated prior

where G = effective, strain-degraded soil shear to the actual solution and subsequently verified.

modulus (see FEMA 356, Table 4.7) and = soil

Poissons ratio (0.3 for sand, 0.45 for clay). 8. Evaluate the initial fixed-base damping ratio for the

structure (i), which is often taken as 5%.

5. Calculate the equivalent foundation radius for rota- 9. Determine foundation damping due to radiation

tion, r, by first evaluating the effective rotational damping, f, based on Teff / Teff , e/rx, and h/r,

stiffness of the foundation, K, as using the plots in Figures 8-4 and 8-5. An approxi-

mation to those curves is given by the following:

( )

* 2

K fixed h*

K = 2

(8-6) T T

2

T *

K fixed f = a1 eff 1 + a2 eff 1 (8-9)

T 1 Teff Teff

Kx

where f is in percent and

Where h* is the effective structure height taken as

the full height of the building for one-story

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