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Anda di halaman 1dari 8

1922 November 2012

a noninvasive diagnostic method for skin burn wounds

Department of Power Mechanical Engineering

National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan

dimensionless heat capacity

A three-dimensional vascular model is employed in the present dimensionless thickness of epidermis

study for a unit area of skin covering just one single pair of T reference temperature difference

terminal artery-vein vessels. The tissue temperature and the

dimensionless intensity of a thermal radiation

blood temperatures in artery and vein vessels are solved with a

multi-grid system. A strong countercurrent heat exchange dimensionless temperature

between the bloods inside artery and vein vessels is evidenced. mean temperature of tissue

The mean temperature of the tissue over the cross-section of the dimensionless thermal conductivity

unit skin area is evaluated. The resulting one-dimensional perfusion parameter

function is regarded as the normal tissue temperature valid for

density, ( kg m 3 )

large area of skin in view of the symmetric and periodic structure

of the paired artery-vein vessels in nature. A three-dimensional dimensionless time

bioheat equation then is formulated by superposing the effect of dimensionless temperature

skin burn wound on the normal skin temperature with and dimensionless normal skin temperature

without thermal radiation exposure. Finally, the bioheat pseudo-Biot number

equation is employed to simulate the process of active dynamic b

thermography (ADT) for grade assessment of skin burn wounds. blood perfusion, ( m 3 s 1m 3 )

The decaying factor of the skin surface temperature is found to subscript

decrease monotonically in the self-cooing stage after a thermal a artery

radiation heating. The boundary of grades IIa and IIb in a large a0 secondary artery

burn wound might be detected by tracking the peak of the b blood

gradient of decaying factor within 30 seconds after the thermal c core

radiation is turned off. d dermis

ed epidermis

Nomenclature v vein

Bi Biot number v0 secondary vein

c dimensionless radius of secondary vessel

1.Introduction

cp specific heat, ( J kg 1K 1 )

sweat evaporation rate, ( Wm 2 )

Ev The first attempt to quantitatively describe heat transfer in human

tissue with blood flow effect was presented by Pennes [1]. He

ev dimensionless sweat evaporation rate added a source term b b (c p )b (1 k ) (Ta T ) to the heat

h ambient heat transfer coefficient, ( Wm 2 K 1 ) conduction equation for tissue temperature by considering heat

k thermal conductivity, ( Wm 1K 1 ) transfer from blood to tissue, where Ta and T denote arterial

L reference length or thickness of dermis, (m) blood and tissue temperatures, while b , (c p ) b and b are

m b mass flow rate of blood, ( kg s1 ) density, specific heat and perfusion of blood, respectively. The

q dimensionless heat flux at z 0 equilibrium factor

Qm heat generation by metabolism, ( Wm3 ) Tv T

k (1)

Q tr intensity of thermal radiation, ( Wm2 ) Ta T

qm dimensionless heat generation by metabolism

is a prescribed constant in the range 0 k 1 throughout the

(r , z ) cylindrical coordinates tissue. Pennes [1] assigned k 0 by assuming thermal

rb dimensionless radius of a round burn wound equilibrium between venous blood and tissue ( Tv T ). This is

r0 dimensionless radius of the computational domain the well-known Pennes equation.

T temperature or tissue temperature, (K)

t time, (s) The Pennes equation has gained widespread acceptance ever

since it was published in 1948, although its validity has been

( x, y, z ) Cartesian coordinates

seriously questioned in many applications [2, 3]. One of the

Greek symbols major problems is the countercurrent heat exchange taking place

decaying factor between artery and vein in paired artery-vein vessels. The net

d thermal diffusivity, ( m 2 s 1 ) heat lost to the tissue from the vessel pairs was found to be the

predominant mode of bioheat transfer for vessels of 50 200 m

in diameter [4-6]. This behavior has been confirmed by the

numerical investigation for a branching countercurrent network

in Brinck and Werner [7]. To take this effect into account,

some nonvascular models were proposed to improve the Pennes

equation by altering the equilibrium factor such as the efficiency

function [3] and the correction coefficient [6].

The artery and vein vessels in skin are typically paired. Their

diameters are less than 200 m in general [6]. Hence, the

countercurrent heat exchange in the vessel pairs might be

significant. Henriques and Moritz [8] were the pioneers in the

study of skin burn injury. They found that a first degree burn

occurs when the skin is maintained at a temperature above

44C . Recently, a few mathematical models of heat transfer in

skin have been proposed for some thermal hazards including

contact burn, scald burn, flash fire, and thermal radiation

exposure [9-12]. However, these models are all based on the

conventional Pennes equation without considering the effect of

countercurrent heat exchange in vessel pairs.

Skin consists of three layers, namely epidermis, dermis, and Figure 1. A schematic vascular system of the skin.

hypodermis. The grades of skin burn wound are classified

according to the burn wound depth. Grades I, IIa, IIb, and III

correspond to destruction of epidermis, shallow dermis, deep

equation then is employed to simulate the ADT process on burn

dermis, and full dermis thickness, respectively. The burn

wounds as in the experiment by Renkielska et al. [14]. A new

wounds of grades I and IIa would heal spontaneously within 3

parameter is proposed to estimate the boundary of grades IIa and

weeks of the burn, whereas both grades IIb and III need surgery.

IIb in large burn wounds from the different responses of the

In clinical practice even an inexperienced doctor has no difficulty

normal and burned skins.

in distinguishing grades I and III burn wounds. However,

differentiation between grade IIa and IIb is still problematic.

Accurate prognosis is only 50-70% in clinical evaluation based 2. Three-dimensional vascular model

on visual inspection [13]. 2.1 Governing equation

To assess the burn wound depth more accurately, Renkielska et al. Figure 1 illustrates a schematic vascular system of the skin [6, 7].

[14] developed a noninvasive diagnostic method termed as active The blood vessels (including artery and vein) beneath the muscle

dynamic thermography (ADT) for relatively large burn areas. are known as the primary vessels. The blood circulates between

They conducted an experiment on young domestic pigs (each the primary vessels and the cutaneous vessels by separate riser

weighted approximately 20 kg) in view of the high degree of vessels. The blood enters the secondary artery in the bottom of

functional and structural similarity of pig skin to human skin [15]. the dermis with a temperature Ta 0 approximately the same as

The wounds were inflicted by an aluminum rod which was

applied to the skin at controlled temperature and time. One day that in the primary artery. Next, the blood rises to the top of the

after the burn the ADT experiment was performed with a short dermis by the terminal artery, and then flows to the terminal vein

optical excitation (halogen lamps of 1000W). The optical through a capillary bed (not shown in Fig. 1). Subsequently, the

blood descends to the secondary vein by the terminal vein. The

heating resulted in a surface temperature rise of about 2.5C

blood temperature in the secondary vein Tv 0 is slightly smaller

followed by a self-cooling stage. The skin surface temperature

was assumed to decrease exponentially with a constant time than Ta 0 . There is no blood vessel in both epidermis and

constant during the self-cooling stage. The time constant was hypodermis.

calculated for each of the burn wounds, while the wound depth

was determined by the method of histological analysis [16]. The terminal vessels are roughly 20-40 m in diameter. They

form a pair of countercurrent heat exchanger as mentioned earlier.

Based on the experimental results, Renkielska et al. [14] The spacing between the terminal vessel pairs is the typical

concluded that burn wound having a time constant longer than length of the capillary bed, 500-1000 m . The typical diameter

10.125 s would heal after 3 weeks of burn spontaneously,

otherwise it would be unhealed. This discrimination threshold of the secondary vessels is 50-100 m [6, 7]. In the present

is equivalent to a burn wound shallower or deeper than 60% of study, diameter and spacing of the terminal vessels are assumed

the dermis thickness at the measurement sits. However, of the to be 30 and 750 m , respectively, while the distance between

23 burn wounds investigated in their study, two wounds with the terminal artery and terminal vein is 30 m (60 m center-

similar burn depth (57.5% and 62.1%) had significantly different to-center). The diameter of the secondary vessels is 75 m .

time constants (18.125s and 8.125s). By contrast, two time The average thicknesses of the epidermis, the dermis, and the

constants of essentially the same value (10.200 s and 10.023 s) hypodermis are, respectively, 75, 1500, and 10000 m [12].

corresponded to burn wounds of healed and unhealed with totally

different burn depths (22.0% and 67.8%). Hence, the time Figure 2 shows a simple 3D model for a unit skin area that

constant suggested by Renkielska et al. [14] is not necessarily an contains just one single pair of terminal artery and vein. The

efficient parameter for assessment of burn wounds grades. dimensionless coordinates ( x, y, z ) is normalized with the

thickness of the dermis L 1500 m such that the

The purpose of the present work is to formulate a bioheat

dimensionless thicknesses of the hypodermis and the epidermis

equation with a superposition technique for normal and burned

skins in particular. The effect of countercurrent heat exchange are 6.667 and 0.05 , respectively. Due to symmetry,

in artery-vein vessel pairs is taken into account. The bioheat the computational domain b x b , 0 y b , 0 z 1

where / n represents the normal heat flux on the tissue

side of the vessel surface. The perfusion parameter is

proportional to m b which is the mass flow rate of blood inside

the blood vessels.

The hypodermis possesses a large thickness and a low thermal

conductivity. It provides a good insulation for the muscle under

the skin. This implies that the temperature inside the dermis is

essentially maintained by the secondary vessels. For simplicity,

the secondary artery and vein are simplified as a flat surface of

width 2c ( c y c ) on the bottom of the dermis ( z 0 ) as

illustrated in Fig. 2. This gives rise to the boundary condition

on the surface z 0

( x, y, 0)

0 for y c

z

( x , y , 0) b 0 for 0 y c (5)

Figure 2. A 3D vascular model for one single pair of terminal where b 0 ( a 0 v 0 ) / 2 is the average temperature of the

artery and vein.

secondary artery and vein. On the skin surface ( z 1 ), the

convective boundary condition is

is employed, where b 0.25 . The radius of the secondary ( x, y, 1 )

vessel is c 0.025 . All of the thermophysical properties in the Bi ( x, y, 1 ) ev 0 (6a)

z

tissue are assumed constant.

h L L Ev

After imposing the assumptions and introducing the Bi , ev (6b)

dimensionless transformation, ked ked T

, , qm (2) the sweat evaporation rate. The boundary conditions in the y-

L2 T k d T

coordinate assume the form

the energy equation inside the tissue of the dermis and the

( x, 0, z ) ( x, b, z )

hypodermis is expressible as 0, 0 (7)

y y

( ) ( ) ( ) qm (3) due to symmetry, while the periodic boundary condition is

x x y y z z

imposed in the x-coordinate

where d and k d are, respectively, the thermal diffusivity (b, y, z ) (b, y, z )

and thermal conductivity of the dermis. Q m is the heat

generation by metabolism. The dermis and the epidermis are ( x 2b, y, z ) if x b

( x, y, z ) (8)

represented by 0 z 1 and 1 z 1 , respectively. The ( x 2b, y, z ) if x b

thermal conductivity is a step function. Its value is unity in

the dermis, and jumps to another constant k ed / k d in the The temperatures on the surfaces of the terminal artery and vein

are, respectively,

epidermis. Similarly, the specific heat jumps from unity in

the dermis to ( c p )ed /( c p ) d in the epidermis. The ( x, y , z ) a ( z ) , ( x, y , z ) v ( z ) (9)

reference temperature difference is assigned as T Ta0 T The initial condition for the artery blood temperature (4a) is

with T being the ambient temperature.

a ( 0) a 0 (10)

Both blood temperatures inside the terminal artery and vein are

Owing to the very tiny vessels, the blood temperature inside the

assumed one-dimensional. They are governed by the total heat

capillary bed is essentially the same as the surrounding tissue at

transfer across the wall of the blood vessels, i.e.

z 1 . Hence, one assigns the initial condition

d a

dz

(

a n

) ds (4a) v (1) (1) (11)

d v

(x, y, z) dx dy

1

dz v

(

n

) ds (4b) ( z)

ad ad

(12)

(4c) the cross-section area of the dermis.

kd L

xi 0.05 (i 1) x , y j ( j 1) y (13)

51 after a series of grid tests. To conserve computational effects,

the other coarse grid system with a grid mesh of 5x 5y

x i 0.25 5 (i 1) x , y j 5 ( j 1) y (14)

remainder of the physical domain ( 0.25 x 0.25 and

0 y 0.25 ). The temperature of the outer boundary of the

fine grid system at x 0.05 and y 0.05 is provided by the

solution of the coarse grid system. Similarly, the temperature of

the inner boundary of the coarse grid system at x 0.045 and

y 0.045 is determined by the solution from the fine grid

system. Both gird systems have the same gird size in z-

coordinate,

z k (k 1)z (15)

dermis and the epidermis ( z 1 ) is located at the middle of the

two successive grid points z 91 and z 92 .

literature [9, 12] are employed in the present computation, i.e.

k d 0.37 , k ed 0.21 , k hd 0.16 ,

are W m 1 K 1 , kg m 3 , J kg 1K 1 , respectively. The

2

sweat evaporation rate is assumed Ev 10 W m , while the

Figure 3. (a) Isotherms on the plane y 0 . (b) Isotherms on the

metabolism heat is negligible in skin ( Qm 0 ) [12]. Under

plane z 0.3 .

normal condition the blood perfusion rate is

b 0.024 m3 s 1m 3 [12]. It is equivalent to

8 1

m b 2.110 kg s or 0.125 in the present

configuration. The other two dimensionless parameters in Eq.

(6b), the sweat evaporation and the Biot number, would be

ev 0.006803 if the reference temperature difference is

T 10.5C , and Bi 0.05 if the ambient heat transfer

coefficient is h 7 W m 2 K 1 [12].

problem is solved with the conventional central difference

scheme and the SIS solver [17]. The resulting isotherms on the

planes y 0 and z 0.3 are shown in Fig. 3(a) and 3(b),

respectively. In Fig. 3(a) the increments of the isotherms

employed in dermis and epidermis are 0.002 and 0.001,

respectively. From Fig. 3(a), one sees that the blood

Figure 4. The mean tissue temperature ( z ) and blood temperature in the terminal artery decreases from a (0) 1 to

temperatures in artery a (z ) and in vein v (z ) at 0.1 a (1) 0.959 while that in the terminal vein increases from

and 0.2 . v (1) 0.9583 to v (0) 0.994 . This implied a strong

countercurrent heat exchange in the paired artery-vein vessels

through the gap between them as observable from Fig. 3(b).

2.3 Numerical method and the results

Figure 4 reveals the mean temperature ( z ) over the cross-

In the present study, a uniform fine grid system is employed in section of the dermis (12) at two representative perfusion

the vicinity of the terminal vessels ( 0.05 x 0.05 and parameters 0.1 and 0.2 . The perfusion parameter

0 y 0.05 ), after exercise could be twice as larger as in rest. It is very

interesting to note that the mean temperature of the dermis ( z )

is essentially independent of the perfusion rate.

Figure 5 shows the effect of the Biot number on the mean

temperature of the tissue ( z ) under normal condition

( 0.125 ). The Biot number is seen to have a significant

influence on the tissue temperature. Nevertheless, the mean

temperature of the tissue ( z ) is always a linear function of z

in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis has a smaller

thermal conductivity ( k ed / k d 0.5676 ) and thus a larger

temperature gradient. For convenience, the mean temperature

of the tissue ( z ) is correlated by

( z) ( z ) (17)

where

q

( z) (1) ed (1 z)( ) for 0 z 1

ed

q

( z) (1) (1 z)( ) for 1 z 1 Figure 5. Influence of Biot number on the mean tissue

ed temperature ( z ) at 0.125.

1 q e

(1) ( )( ) v f1

Bi ed Bi

vessels (see Eq. (18)). In the skin burn wound area ( 0 r rb ),

ed 1 Bi (0.8 ed )

the burned secondary vessels provide no heat energy. The heat

f1 0.01812 0.03995Bi 0.08439Bi2 0.08799Bi3 0.03359Bi4 flux at z 0 would come from the core temperature c (at

z ) beneath the hypodermis. Hence, the boundary

f 2 0.9797 0.2651Bi 0.1411Bi2 0.03627Bi3 (18)

condition is assumed

The correlation is valid for 0 Bi 1 and ev 0.006803 .

The particular function (z ) is the solution of the one- (r,0, ) k hd

( c (r,0, )) , (22)

dimensional problem z kd

d d d (0)

( )0, q , Boundary condition (22) can be regarded as an insulation surface

dz dz dz because the pseudo-Biot number is very small ( 0.065 ) in

d (1 ) general. On the skin surface ( z 1 ), the convective

Bi (1 ) (ev Bi f1 ) 0 (19) boundary condition is employed

dz

Bi (ev Bi f1 ) 0 (23a)

dz

Consider a round burn wound of radius rb . The bioheat

equation for the skin tissue in and around the burn wound can be L Qtr

(23b)

written as ked T

( ) ( ) (20)

r r r r z z source such as halogen lamps. It is noted that Eq. (23a) has

been corrected by adding the term Bi f1 to match Eq. (19)

where ( r , z ) is a dimensionless cylindrical coordinate system

when the mean temperature is used instead of the local

normalized with reference length L. The definition of the mean

temperature for the tissue. Finally, the boundary conditions

temperature of the skin tissue (r, z, ) is the same as that in at r 0 and r r0 are assigned as

the previous section. The formulation is performed in the

region of 0 r r0 and 0 z 1 that might cover

(0, z, ) (r0 , z, )

thousands of terminal vessel pairs. The skin is normal in the 0 , 0 (24)

annulus rb r r0 where the boundary condition should be r r

(r,0, )

q (21) reduce to the one-dimensional steady problem (19) in the absence

z

Figure 7. Variation of skin surface temperature after thermal

Figure 6. Isotherms of (r, z, ) for the case of rb 5 , radiation exposure.

Bi 0.05 , c 1.02 , and 0 .

Finally, let the solution revealed in Fig. 6 be the initial condition.

As suggested by Renkielska et al. [14] a thermal radiation of

of burn wound ( rb 0 ) and thermal radiation exposure ( 0 ). intensity Qtr 441Wm 2 is applied on the skin surface

Therefore, one gets the governing equation

(covering the burn wound) for 30.42s to raise the skin surface

temperature by about 2.5C , then turn off the halogen lamps

( ) ( ) (25) and leave the skin cooling-off gradually. The thermal radiation

r r r r z z in dimensionless form is

( ) (28)

0 0

(0, z, ) (r0 , z , )

0, 0

r r

based on the reference time L2 / d 23.4s . The time step

(r , 1 , ) employed in the computation is 0.05 (or 1.17s ). The

Bi (r , 1 , ) ( ) 0

z resulting skin surface temperature is shown in Fig. 7. The burn

wound area ( 0 r rb ) is seen to have a larger temperature

(r ,0, ) decaying factor

0 for rb r r0

z

/

(29)

(r ,0, )

(r ,0, z ) q ( c (0)) for 0 r rb (26)

z

( r , z , ) ( r , z , ) ( z ) (27)

Eq. (25) arises from the time-dependent thermal radiation ( ) .

It appears that the solution of Eqs. (25) and (26) is (r , z, ) 0

for normal skin without thermal radiation exposure ( rb 0 and

0 ). Figure 6 shows the resulting isotherms of the solution

(r, z, ) for the case of rb 5 , Bi 0.05 , c 1.02 , and

0 , while the computation domain is truncated at r0 50 .

The burn wound has a low temperature as compared to the

normal skin due to the burned secondary vessels. The minimum

temperature occurring at the center point of the burn wound is

(0, 1 ) 0.76 on the skin surface. It corresponds to 34C

if the reference temperature difference and the ambient Figure 8. Decaying factor of skin surface temperature after

temperature are T 10.5C and T 26C , respectively. thermal radiation exposure.

of skin burn wounds. Figure 9(a) and 9(b) show the distribution

of / r in the periods of 0 t 30.42s and

30.42s t 152.10s for the case of Bi 0.05 and rb 5 .

From Fig. 9(a) the gradient of the decaying factor is seen to have

a sharp peak at r rp near the boundary of the burn wound

( r p rb ). As time elapses the peak moves left gradually, while

the second peak emerges at t 143s (see Fig. 9(b)). For

convenience, the ratio r p / rb as a function of time is presented

in Fig. 10 for various sizes of burn wound. Figure 10 indicates

that r p is closed to rb at the very beginning of the cooling

stage. Therefore, the burn wound area ( 0 r rb ) might be

detected by tracking the first peak of the decaying factor gradient

of the skin surface temperature ( r rp ) within 30 seconds after

the halogen lamps are turned off.

4. Conclusion

In the present study, a one-dimensional function is obtained for

the tissue temperature of normal skin based on a three-

dimensional solution of a vascular model. Next, a three-

dimensional bioheat equation is formulated by superposing the

effect of skin burn wound on the normal skin temperature.

Finally, the proposed bioheat equation is employed to simulate

the method of active dynamic thermography for grade assessment

of skin burn wounds. Based on the numerical results, the

following conclusions are drawn.

(a) A strong countercurrent heat exchange between the bloods

inside the terminal artery and vein vessels is evidenced.

(b) The three-dimensional bioheat equation proposed in the

present study is able to handle a large area of skin burn wound.

(c) The decaying factor of the skin surface temperature decreases

Figure 9. Variation of / r with time after thermal monotonically in the self-cooing stage after a thermal radiation

radiation exposure for Bi 0.05 and rb 5 . heating.

(d) The boundary of grades IIa and IIb in a large skin burn wound

area might be detected by tracking the peak of the decaying

factor gradient of the skin surface temperature within 30 seconds

after a thermal radiation heating.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their appreciation to the National

Science Council of Taiwan for the financial support of this work

through the contract NSC 100-2221-E-007-085.

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temperatures in the rising human forearm, J. of Applied

Physiology 1 ,1948, 93-122.

[2] Wissler, E.H., Pennes 1948 paper revisited, J. Applied

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[3] Brinck, H. and Werner, J., Efficiency function:

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[4] Weinbaum, S. and Jiji, L.M., A new simplified bioheat

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