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CRIMINAL LAW Page 1 of 143

Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

CRIMINAL LAW 1

June 17, 2011

Introduction to Criminal Law

Q: What is criminal law?


CRIMINAL LAW branch of law which defines crimes, treats of their nature and provides for
their punishment

Q: Suppose Congress enacted a piece of legislation, and any violation of that law, penalty will be
payment of damages, is that criminal law?

Q: Suppose the form of penalty will be confiscation of license, is that criminal law?

Q: How will you define a crime?


*what particular act constitutes the crime
*what are the elements of the acts

Q: What is criminal procedure?


CRIMINAL PROCEDURE body of rules that enforces or regulates criminal law, provides for the
steps in the prosecution and/or conviction of an accused.

Q: Is there any difference between criminal law and criminal procedure?


Yes.

Q: What are the differences?


CRIMINAL LAW CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
*substantive *procedural/remedial
*GENERALLY prospective, *prospective, BUT CAN BE applied RETROACTIVE
unless favorable to the accused,
provided accused is not a habitual
delinquent
*only comes from the legislative *can be promulgated by the judiciary
or law-making body; never from
the executive or judiciary
*in favor of the ends of substantial justice

Q: who is a habitual delinquent?


A person who within a period of 10 years from the date of his last release or conviction of the
crimes of 1) serious or less serious physical injuries, 2) robo, 3)hurto 4)estafa or 5) falsification,
he is found guilty of any of said crimes a third time or oftener (Art 62, rpc)

Q: Suppose accused is a HD, will there be prospective or retroactive application of criminal law?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 2 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Is criminal law the same as the RPC?


Yes

Q: What is a crime?
Generic term used to refer to a wrongdoing punished either in RPC or under a special law
Q: Who has the power to enact laws?
Congress (Legislative)

Q: Is the power of Congress absolute?


No. There are limitations. It should not violate the constitution

Q: We call our penal code, the REVISED PENAL CODE, why, which penal code was revised?
The Spanish Penal Code

Q: How was it revised?


*A committee was formed pursuant to Administrative Order No. 94 by the Department of
Justice.
*The committee was formed on Oct 18, 1827
*The committee was composed of Anacleto Diaz (head); Quintin Paredes; Alex Reyes and
Mariano De Joya

Q: How did the revision come about?


*the RPC contains provisions of the Spanish penal code, US Penal Code and SC decisions of the
Philippines before the creation of the RPC

Q: What are the sources of criminal law?


*Revised Penal Code
*Special Penal Laws enacted or passed by the Philippine Commission, Philippine Assembly,
Philippine Legislature, National Assembly, Batasang Pambansa, Congress of the Philippines
*Penal Presidential Decrees issued during Martial Law (only because the President at that time
had legislative power, but generally, the Executive branch cannot issue EO or PP that are penal in
nature)
*Spanish Penal Code
*US Penal Code (we copied the ff crimes from the US Penal Code: estafa, malversation, etc)

Q: Who has the power to define crimes?


The State

Q: Why does the State has the power to define crimes?


Because of its police power. The right to prosecute and punish crimes is vested in the sovereign
power, which is the Filipino people.

Q: When did the RPC took effect?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 3 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Jan 1, 1932

Q: Why is there a long lapse of time in the effectivity and approval of the RPC?
So that PH will be familiarized with the new provisions of the RPC

Q: Who approved the RPC?


US President

Q: What are the theories in criminal law?


Classical, Positivist, Mixed

CLASSICAL
-the objective is retribution
- the emphasis is on the crime
-consistent with the saying an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
- man has free will to do or not to do
- the criminal liability arises from knowledge and freedom
-man is a rational being
-example: RA 9372 (Human Security Act of 2007)

POSITIVIST
-the objective is reformation
-the emphasis is on the criminal
-believes that crime is a social phenomenon
-sees man as a moral/human being
-man by nature is good
-man is exposed to environment where man is compelled to do a crime
-example: RA 9344 (Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006)
Probation Law of 1976
Indeterminate Sentence Law

MIXED
-combines the classical and the positivist
-applied classical theory for heinous crimes
-applies the positivist for economic and social crimes

Q: What do we apply in the Philippines?


Mixed. Our system is a little bit of classical and a little bit of positivist. The RPC is classical and
recent laws enacted by the legislature are positivist in nature.

Q: What is the degree of proof needed to convict an accused of a criminal charge?


Proof beyond reasonable doubt

Q: Is this absolute?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 4 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

No.
In the crime of treason, PBRD is not the only requirement. There is a requirement of the 2
witness rule

Q: May a person be convicted by reason of the spirit of the law?


No. Only by the language of the law. It should be clear and in case of doubt, it should be
favorable to the accused.

June 21, 2011

Q: What are the kinds of repeals?


1. Absolute or Express
-the effect is decriminalization
-the obliteration of a crime
-for pending cases, the case shall be dismissed
-for those serving sentence, they shall be released because there is no more reason for the
accused to serve sentence

2. Partial or Implied
-the crime is still punishable, but modified (in terms of penalty)
-example: the case of Robin Padilla, PD 1866 was partially repealed by RA 8294, which
reduced the sentence for illegal possession of firearms, thus qualifying Robin Padilla for
parole

3. Self-repealing
-deemed repealed upon the expiration of the date specified by the law
-the law dies a natural death
-example: RA 1700 (Anti-Subversion Law) and Rent Control Law

Q: What is the general characteristic of criminal law?


Criminal Law is binding on all persons who live or sojourn in the Philippine territory, regardless of
race, nationality, political affiliation.

Q: Is this rule absolute?


No. The exceptions are: 1. Treaties
2. Laws of preferential application

Q: What is the territorial characteristic of criminal law?


Only crimes committed within the Philippine territory may be prosecuted before Ph court

Q: What is the rationale behind this?


A crime is an offense against the dignity, authority and sovereignty of the Ph territory; and only
the state in which the dignity, authority and sovereignty has been offended has the right to
punish the offender.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 5 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Is the territoriality absolute?


No. The exceptions are: 1. Treaties
2. Laws of preferential application

Q: Other characteristic of criminal law?


Prospective (non retroactivity)
Exception: favorable to the accused
Exception to the exception: accused is a habitual delinquent

Q: Can you give an example of a treaty that is an exception to the generality & territoriality principles of
criminal law?
VFA

Q: Why is VFA an exception?


Generality because even if the accused sojourn in the Philippines, the accused will not be
prosecuted in ph courts
Territoriality because even if the accused committed the crime in the Philippines, the accused
will not be prosecuted in ph courts

Q: Who are the parties to VFA?


US and PH

Q: who are covered by the VFA?


US military personnel
US civilian personnel connected to the US military operations in the Philippines

Q: Who is a US military personnel?


military members of the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard

Q: Is the American Red Cross personnel covered by the VFA?


Yes. Is he is part of the US personnel

Q: What are the types of jurisdiction in VFA?


Exclusive and Concurrent

Q: What do you mean by exclusive & concurrent jurisdiction?


Exclusive exclusive of other courts; vests jurisdiction on one court
Concurrent both countries have jurisdiction

Q: When is it exclusive?
PH have exclusive jurisdiction crimes punishable under PH laws but not punishable under US
laws.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 6 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

US have exclusive jurisdiction - crimes punishable under US laws but not punishable under PH
laws.

Q: When is it concurrent?
Crimes punishable both under PH and US laws.

Q: But, even if jurisdiction is concurrent, when will PH have primary jurisdiction?


*Philippine authorities shall have the primary right to exercise jurisdiction over all offenses
*Especially, when it is a threat to the security of the Philippines,
a) treason b)espionage c)sabotage

EXCEPT:
*crime committed by a US personnel against the property and security of the US Ph has no
jurisdiction, these includes:
1. against the property of the US
2. against the security of the US
3. against the property of another military personnel
4. against the security of another military personnel
5. committed in the performance of official duties

Q: Suppose US military personnel was driving at Roxas Blvd to deliver a confidential letter to the US
embassy, while driving, he run over a pedestrian, which court has jurisdiction?
US. Committed in the performance of official duties.

Q: Suppose one night US military personnel went to the bar, after drinking and being so tipsy, raped a
woman, which court has jurisdiction?
PH. Not in the performance of official duties

Q: Suppose 2 Filipino citizens working as US military personnel in the PH had a quarrel. Filipino 1 shoots
Filipino 2. Who has jurisdiction?
US. Citizenship is immaterial. What is important is attachment to the US military

Q: Suppose the one who was injured filed a civil case for damages, will it prosper?
No. VFA covers only criminal aspect

Q: 1 US marine stole the wallet of another US marine, who has jurisdiction?


US. Property of another military personnel

Q: Suppose you are a judge, the US wrote a letter for you to waive jurisdiction, what will you do?
Generally, the PH has to waive jurisdiction upon request of US. The request for waiver cannot be
rejected.

Q: Is this rule absolute?


No. The request for waiver may be rejected if the crime is of particular importance

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 7 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

RA 9659 (heinous crime)


RA 7610 (child abuse cases)
RA 9165 (dangerous drugs)

Q: Suppose US military personnel committed kidnapping, who has jurisdiction?


PH courts. This is a crime against personal security

Q: Give an example of Laws of Preferential Application that is local in nature?


Constitution
*immunity suit of president
*absolute immunity of Congress for privilege speeches
*Congress immune from libel

NOTE: Art 6, Sec 11, 1987 Consti is not an exception. BECAUSE Congress is only immune from
arrest not from prosecution

Q: What else?
RA 75 Public International Law
Diplomatic immunity and cannot be sued, arrested or punished by the law of the country where
they are officially assigned:
Ambassadors
Sovereign or other chief of State
Ministers plenipotentiary or minister residents
Charge daffairs
Domestic Servants of persons mentioned

NOTE: Consuls and other consular officials are not exempt from criminal liability because they
represent the business, commercial mercantile of their country; while, ambassadors, chiefs of
State, etc. represent the political interests of their country of origin.

WARSHIP RULE
-warship of another country, even though docked in the PH is considered an extension of the
territory of that country

Q: suppose the warship of US is docked at Subic, one day, you went to Subic with your gf, brought her to
the ship, and then raped her. Will you be prosecuted?
No. Warship is an extension US territory

Q: suppose after raping her, you brought your gf to her parents, will you be prosecuted?
No. Warship rule

Embassy Rule same as warship rule

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 8 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Suppose one day, you shut a person at Roxas Blvd, when the police officers were running after you,
you jumped over the fence of US embassy. May the officers arrest you, while you are inside the US
embassy?
No.

Q: What is then the remedy of the officers (Ph government)?


Extradition

Q: suppose a Filipina legally married had sexual intercourse with an American at the Ph embassy. Is there
any crime committed?
Yes. The crime of adultery, but she cannot be prosecuted under Ph courts because of the
embassy rule.

Q: who else is exempt/immune from criminal prosecution?


Executive directors of WHO
Members of the Constitutional Commission
Justices of Supreme Court

Q: How about consular officials?


They are not covered. They are not exempt from criminal liability because they represent the
business, commercial mercantile interests of their country of origin.

Q: Suppose Ambassador of Japan to the US committed a crime in the Philippines, may he be prosecuted?
Yes, because he is not a recognized diplomatic representative of his country to the Philippines.

Article 2

^par 1-5 of Art 2 is not an exemption to the territoriality principle, it is EXTRATERRITORIALITY!

Q: The first instance in Art 2?


Should commit an offense while on Ph ship or airship

Q: What is Ph ship or airship?


Ship registered with MARINA
Airship registered with Civil Aeronautics Board

Q: What are the requirements in order a ship/airship be a Ph ship?


It must be registered in accordance with Ph laws

Q: Why not register in Bureau of Customs?


The law requiring registration in Bureau of Customs had been repealed. Now its Marina and CAB

Q: Does PH include warship?


No. Warship has different rule

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 9 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Suppose a cargo ship in Quezon going to Malaysia, within Ph territory, 1 crew committed homicide
against another crew, who has jurisdiction?
PH. The crime is committed in PH territory
It is not important whether cargo ship is registered or not, because crime committed in Ph
territory. (Territoriality principle)

Q: Suppose that cargo ship traversed through international waters then reached the waters of Malaysia,
1 crew member committed homicide against another. Which court?
Malaysia. Because the crime is committed in Malaysian waters

^Art 2, par 1 ceases to apply if the ship is in the territory of foreign country
^Art 2, par 1 applies only if the ship is in international waters

Q: Suppose you live in a coastal town, then you hired an unregistered motorboat, then you went to intl
waters, then you shoot your gf because you are so depressed because of recitations in criminal law
review, will you be liable?
No. unregistered motorboat

Q: suppose in the same motorboat, a married man with his new gf went on high seas, and there got
married. Is the man liable for any crime?
Yes. He is liable for bigamy. (because he contracted a second marriage)
BUT he cannot be prosecuted because of the territoriality principle. The crime was committed
outside Ph territory.

Q: suppose after the wedding ceremony, you went to a resort, where there is a big reception. In that
resort, you had your honeymoon; will you (married man) be liable for any crime?
No. Not concubinage because mere sexual intercourse not punishable, it must be under
scandalous manner

Q: suppose after your honeymoon, you live together in a condo in Manila, will you be liable?
Yes. Concubinage
Cohabitation; living in a separate home as husband and wife

Q: What are the 2 rules?


English Rule vessel is in the territory of another country, crimes committed in that area are
triable in that other country, unless the crimes committed involve purely internal matters within
the vessel; the emphasis is on the territoriality of the vessel; where the vessel is found

French Rule vessel is in the territory of another country, crimes committed in that area are not
triable in that country, unless the crimes committed have endangered the peace and security of
that country; the emphasis is on the nationality of the vessel; jurisdiction lies where the
merchant vessel is registered.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 10 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

^The PH adheres to the English rule

Q: Cargo ship, registered in Panama while in Manila, 1 crew member shoot the other crew member, who
has jurisdiction?
Ph courts. Crime committed in manila

Q: Cargo ship, registered in Panama, carried shabu, which court has jurisdiction?
Ph courts.

Q: Second instance in Art 2?


Art 2 par 2.
Should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the Philippine Islands or obligations and
securities issued by the Government of the Philippine Islands

Q: what may be the subject of forgery?


Any coin, Currency Note, obligations and securities issued by the Government of the Philippine
Islands

Q: Suppose you have a printing press in Taiwan, and you printed Bagong Lipunan notes (martial law),
liable?
No. Because Bagong Lipunan notes are not legal tender

Q: Suppose coins withdrawn from circulation, liable?


Yes. The law does not distinguish. It says ANY COIN

Q: Suppose in you tampered a lotto ticket, liable?


Yes. Lotto ticket is obligations and securities issued by the GPI

Q: give examples of obligations and securities of GPI


Treasury bills, lotto tickets, bonds of the BSP
^Obligations and Securities of GSIS, SSS, Landbank are not of the GPI because they have their
own charter

Q: any other instance?


Art 2, par 3
Should be liable for acts connected with the introduction into these islands of the obligations and
securities mentioned in the presiding number

^those who introduced the counterfeited items are criminally liable, even if they were not the
ones who counterfeited the obligations & securities
^on the other hand, those who counterfeited the items are criminally liable even if they did not
introduce the counterfeit items

Q: any other instance?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 11 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Art 2, par. 4
While being public officers or employees, should commit an offense in the exercise of their
functions

Q: who is a public officer? (see Art 203)


*taking part in the performance of public functions in the government, or performing in said
government or in any of its branches public duties as an employee, agent or subordinate official,
of any rank or class; and

*that his authority to take part in the performance of public functions or to perform public
duties must be
a. by direct provision of the law, or
b. by popular election, or
c. by appointment by competent authority

Q: Suppose PH ambassador to Germany was given USD 200,000 as a fund to renovate the PH embassy
building in Germany. He used only USD 50,000 for the renovation, and gave the USG 150,000 to his
number 2 in Germany. Is he (ambassador) liable?
Yes. He is liable for malversation of public funds. He may be prosecuted in Ph courts.
He was in custody of the money by reason of his official functions
Q: Suppose our AFP high officials were tasked to scout for firearms abroad, and while they are
negotiating with foreign companies abroad, these companies inserted USD1000 in the proposal folder in
anticipation that their company will be chosen by AFP to be the supplier of our firearms. May these AFP
officials be liable?
Yes. They are liable for bribery.

Q: (follow-up) Even if the act of accepting the bribe was committed abroad, will they still be liable?
Yes, because the act was committed in relation or while the AFP are in discharge of their official
functions.

Q: Suppose Chairman Abalos (comelec) while playing golf in Shanghai, China received USD50,000 in
relation to the ZTE? Is there a crime committed? May he be liable?
Crime anti graft & corrupt practices act
BUT, he cannot be liable/prosecuted before Ph courts because Abalos has nothing to do with ZTE
(paki alamera lang siya). Therefore, he received the money not in connection with his official
function.

Q: Suppose the PH ambassador to Australia is legally married. Can he be prosecuted for concubinage?
No. Crime was committed outside PH
Crime was not in relation to official functions
Elements of concubinage:
1. That the man must be married.
2. That he committed any of the following acts:
a. Keeping a mistress in the conjugal dwelling.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 12 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

b. Having sexual intercourse under scandalous circumstances with a woman who is


not his wife.
c. Cohabiting with her in any other place.
3. That as regards the woman she must know him to be married

Q: Can the PH ambassador use immunity from suit as a defense against PH courts?
No

Q: PH ambassador, married, had sexual intercourse with her American boyfriend in the comfort room of
PH embassy. May he be prosecuted?
Yes. Ph embassy is an extension of Ph territory
For what crime adultery

Q: may the American citizen bf be liable for any crime?


Yes. Adultery
Elements:
*That the woman is married (even if marriage subsequently declared void)
*That she has sexual intercourse with a man not her husband.
*That as regards the man with whom she has sexual intercourses, he must know her to
be married.

Q: Last instance?
Art 2, par 5
Should commit any of the crimes against national security and the law of nations, defined in Title
One of Book Two of this Code.

Q: Give example of crimes against national security?


Treason, espionage, conspiracy to commit treason

Q: How about rebellion?


No. rebellion is crimes against public order

Q: crimes committed by the MILF?


No. Crime against public order

Q: example of violation of the law of nations?


Anti terror law
Crimes against humanity
Genocide

Q: what are the 2 kinds of piracy?


Piracy under the RPC
Piracy under PD 532

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 13 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: what does Art 2 covers?


Piracy under RPC only. Because piracy under PD532 is committed within PH waters

Article 3

Q: What are felonies?


Acts and omissions punishable by law are felonies (delitos).

Q: What do you mean by punishable by law


Punishable by the RPC

Q: how felonies are committed?


Felonies are committed not only be means of deceit (dolo) but also by means of fault (culpa).

Q: What is dolo? What is culpa?


There is deceit when the act is performed with deliberate intent and there is fault when the
wrongful act results from imprudence, negligence, lack of foresight, or lack of skill.

^Violations of RPC felony


^Violations of special penal law offenses
^violations of ordinance misdemeanor (minor infraction of the law)

Q: What are the requisites of felony?


1. Act or omission
2. RPC
3. Voluntary
a. Freedom
b. Intelligence
c. Intent
^ALL MUST BE PRESENT IN ORDER TO INCUR CRIMINAL LIABILITY

Q: Is illegal possession of bladed weapon a felony?


No. It is not under the Revised Penal Code

Atty. Amurao Lecture Highlights:


*To be considered as a felony there must be an act or omission; a mere imagination no matter
how wrong does not amount to a felony.

*An act refers to any kind of body movement that produces change in the outside world. For
example, if you have in your mind that you will rape this beautiful lady, but you did not rape her,
you will not be liable.

*Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea (an act of a criminal should be coupled by a criminal
mind)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 14 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

*It does not mean that if an act or omission is punished under the Revised Penal Code, a felony is
already committed. To be considered a felony, it must also be done with dolo or culpa.

*If you do not have freedom, the act is not voluntary; the act is not a felony

*These are amplified in the some provisions of the RPC, like


Intelligence art 12 insanity, imbecility, minority
Freedom art 12 under compulsion of some irresistible force; fear of greater injury
Intent art 12 by mere accident w/out fault or intent to cause harm

*Mistake of fact is a valid defense

Q: What are the differences between MALA IN SE and MALA PROHIBITA

MALA IN SE MALA PROHIBITA


*intent is essential *intent is not essential
*good faith is a valid defense *good faith is not a valid
defense
*honest mistake of fact is a *honest mistake of fact is not a
defense defense
*punishable under RPC *punishable under special laws
*condemned by society *injurious to public welfare
*act done must be criminal *it is sufficient that the
intent prohibited act was done

Q: give examples of Mala In se?


RPC homicide, murder, parricide, arson and so on

Q: give examples of Mala prohibita


Anti Fencing Law
Bouncing Check Law
Illegal Possession of Firearms
Anti Human Trafficking Law
Anti Hijacking Lack

Q: Suppose your bf is a police officer, 1 day while you were having your date in Luneta Park, your bf had
to answer the call of nature, so he handed to you his pistol, while you were holding it, the officers
arrested you, may you be liable for illegal possession of firearms?
No. Transient Possession not liable
Although I was in possession, although I have no license to posses, Still not liable because I have
no intent, and this is an exception to mala prohibita

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 15 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Suppose the police officers are running after a man, then the man throw his .45 caliber, you were
around the corner and you extended your arms, then the firearm fell on your hands, may you be liable
for illegal possession?
No. Transient possession

Q: Suppose I (atty. Amurao) mortaged my firearm to you for 30 days, and on the 20 th day, there was a
raid in your house, may you be liable for illegal possession?
Yes. There is animus possendi

an act or omission

Act any physical movement of the body (Amurao); any bodily movement
tending to produce some effect in the external world (Reyes)

Omission means inaction; the failure to perform a positive duty which one is
bound to do; there must be a law requiring the performance of an act and
punishing the omission; eg. arbitrary detention; misprision of treason

punishable by the Revised Penal Code


^When there is a conflict between special penal laws and the Revised Penal
Code, in terms of the application of penalties, what to follow?

^What is important is the definition and the classification of the act (whether it
is an offense or a felony)

Special Penal Laws = penalties are stated in terms of years, months, days

Revised Penal Code = penalties are stated in terms of degrees, with death as the
highest penalty; classified as indivisible or divisible

a. indivisible = death and public censure


b. divisible (has 3 periods; what period to apply is dependent on the
aggravating and mitigating circumstances present in the case)

Penalties under the RPC (in descending order in terms of degree)


Death or Capital Punishment - indivisible
Reclusion Perpetua (20yrs & 1day 40yrs)
Reclusion Temporal (12yrs & 1day 20yrs)
Prision Mayor (6yrs & 1day 12yrs)
Prision Correccional divisible
or Destierro (6mos&1day 6yrs)
Arresto Mayor (1mo & 1day 6mos)
Arresto Menor (1day 30days)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 16 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Fine
Public Censure indivisible

the acts done should be voluntary (Amurao)

voluntary - the concurrence of intelligence, freedom, intent (Ortega)


^all should be present in order to incur criminal liability

(a) intelligence no intelligence, no criminal liability; eg. children 15 yrs


old & below are exempt from criminal liability (RA 9344)
(b) freedom no freedom, act is not voluntary, no criminal liability
(c) intent essential to a felony; prosecution has to prove intent; good
faith is a defense

Article 12 of the RPC (Exempting Circumstances) is amplified by the importance


of the element of voluntariness:

(a) intelligence insanity/imbecility [Art.12(1)]; minority [Art.12(2&3)]

(b) freedom under the compulsion of some irresistible force [Art.12(5)]; fear of
greater injury [Art.12(6)]; failure to perform an act required by law when
prevented by some lawful or insuperable cause [Art.12(7)]

(c) intent by mere accident w/o fault or intent to cause harm [Art.12(4)]

Alibi used in defense saying that the act or omission was not done at all; intends to
disprove the existence of an act or omission; weakest defense; can easily be fabricated;
eg. Vizconde case Webbs alibi = he argued that he was in the US when the crime
happened, therefore, he could not have killed the victims, claiming that he is innocent

Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea an act of a criminal should be coupled by a
criminal mind

the defense of honest mistake of fact


- the act done by the accused would have constituted:
(a) a justifying circumstance (Art.11, RPC)
- in all instances = no criminal liability; no civil liability

(b) an absolutory cause [Art.247(2)]

(c) an involuntary act

Requisites for honest mistake of fact as a defense:


1. that the act done would have been lawful had the facts been as the accused

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 17 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

believed them to be
2. that the intention of the accused in performing the act should be lawful
3. that the mistake must be without fault or negligence/carelessness on the part
of the accused

Cases on honest mistake of fact:


1. US v. Ah Chong (landmark case)
- Ah Chong killed friend Pascual thinking he was a thief/ladron
- there was sufficient warning on the part of accused; accused was acquitted
2. US v. Apego
- accused killed her brother-in-law in fear of being raped; guilty of homicide
3. People v. Oanis
- policemen killed the wrong person w/o warning; guilty of murder
4. People v. Bayambao
- accused killed his brother-in-law thinking he was an outlaw
- brother-in-law acted as if he going to attack; accused was acquitted

Motive
- special reasons that impel the accused to act (Amurao)
- the moving power which impels one to action for a definite result (Reyes)
- not an essential element of a felony
- evidence of motive is necessary only in case of: (1) doubt in the identity of the accused
(Amurao), (2) two conflicting versions of the crime
- motive is established by the testimony of the witness
- lack of motive may be an aid in showing innocence

Discernment ability of the accused to determine right from wrong

Exceptions to the general rule on malum prohibitum crimes (PLEASE REFER TO REYES BOOK)

1. Cuenca v. People
- Cuenca was acquitted by the SC from the crime of illegal possession of an unlicensed firearm; it is said
that the SC erred in its decision (Amurao)

2. People v. Landicho
- convicted by the trial court; decision reversed by the Court of Appeals
- the CA held that convicting the accused would be sacrificing substantial justice for mere technicality

3. People v. Mallare
- case was about the delay of the issuance of the license
- the accused convicted by the trial court; decision reversed by the CA
- the CA held that the blame should be put on the government not on the applicant of the license

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 18 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

4. mere transient possession of unlicensed firearm


- not criminally liable
- in the crime of illegal possession of unlicensed firearm, for an accused to be criminally liable, there
should be animus posidendi or intent to possess

Article 4

Concept of proximate cause injury inflicted

Q: What is proximate cause?


Proximate cause is that cause which sets into motion other causes and which unbroken by any
efficient supervening cause produces a felony without which such felony could not have resulted

As a general rule, the offender is criminally liable for all the consequences of his felonious act,
although not intended, if the felonious act is the proximate cause of the felony or resulting
felony.

A proximate cause is not necessarily the immediate cause. This may be a cause which is far and
remote from the consequence which sets into motion other causes which resulted in
the felony.

Immediate cause infection

Q: What is efficient intervening cause?


Efficient Intervening Cause interrupted the natural flow of events leading to ones death

*Victim is under no obligation to submit to medical treatment to reduce or mitigate the liability of the
accused.

Q: A, B, C hold up a bus, a passenger ran away, hit by the car, passenger died. Who is liable?
ABC

Q: Hold up in a nearby grocery store, old man suddenly collapsed seeing the commotion, old man
eventually died, who is liable?
Robbers
Immediate cause heart failure

Q: Suppose Atty Amurao during recit, you collapsed, hit the table and massive bleeding, dead on arrival,
is amurao liable?
No. Recit is not a crime

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 19 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: suppose because of your wrong answers, amurao shouted defamatory words, liable?
Yes. Amurao committed slander

Q: Is it wrong to love a married person?


No. As long as it does not go beyond that point

Q: Sexual intercourse with a married woman, while doing the act, the woman had heart attack, will you
be liable?
Yes. You committed adultery

Q: Man married, had a sexual intercourse with a single woman, the woman had heart attack, died. Will
you be liable?
No. Concubinage is not committed

Q: If under a tree in Luneta?


Yes. Liable for concubinage, under a scandalous manner

Q: both single, man is a teacher, woman is a student, liable?


No. There is no crime

Q: If the student is under 18 years old, will your answer be the same?
No. This time there is a crime. Qualified seduction or rape by grave abuse of authority

Q: What is an impossible crime?

Q: Give the case of Intod

Q: Give the elements of impossible crime vis--vis facts of Intod

Q: Give the case of PP v Jacinto?

Q: do you agree with the decision?

Q: How is theft committed?

Q: Is it an element that the accused should make or actually profit?


No

Q: May a person be liable if he did not commit a crime?


Yes. Impossible crime. Technically no crime, subjectively there is a crime

Q: What is the penalty?


Arresto Mayor or a fine ranging from 200 to 500

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 20 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

^Urbano case

Q: what is the negligence committed by Javier?

Causes which may produce a result different from that which the offender intended, as contemplated
in Art. 4 (1)

1. there is a mistake in the identity of the victim


- also known as error in personae; or napagkamalan
- not a defense in a criminal case; not even a mitigating circumstance
2. there is a mistake in the blow
- also known as aberration ictus
- not a defense in a criminal case; not even a mitigating circumstance
3. the injurious result is greater than that intended
- also known as praeter intentionem

Article 4(1) contemplates that there should be a felony being committed


- emphasis is not on the mere wrongful act; it should constitute a felony
- eg. the act of committing suicide results to others being injured = punishable under Art.4(1) because
although not intended, the injury was caused by means of culpa, which can constitute a felony

Article 4(1) does not apply if the act committed constitutes a crime punishable by special law

Concubinage - instances
- a husband bringing home a woman, that is not his wife, to the conjugal dwelling
- having sexual intercourse under scandalous circumstances
- cohabitation; living in a separate home as husband and wife

Proximate Cause
- there is a chain of causes from an original act that results to an injury
- if the result can be traced back to the original act, then the doer of the original act can be held liable

Efficient Intervening Cause interrupted the natural flow of events leading to ones death

Q: What is impossible crime? What is the reason for punishing?


Suppress criminal propensity

Q: Suppose son forged signature of his father in a check, the deposited the check, but was dishonored, is
this impossible crime?
No. Falsification of commercial document. Forgery is a crime against public interest

Give the elements of forgery

Q: Your room mate kukunin yung jewelry na nasa cabinet na naka-lock, tapos wala pala yung jewelry dun
sa cabinet, impossible crime?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 21 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

No. Theft of key ung tamang sagot

^woman lang ang pwede for forcible abduction

Instances when there is a proximate cause and when there is none

When there is an intervening disease and the disease is:

(a) closely related to the wound(s) = accused is criminally liable

(b) unrelated to the wound(s) = accused is not criminally liable,


because the disease not associated with the wound(s), eg. brain
tumor

(c) a combined force with the wound(s) = accused is criminally liable,


because the mortal wound is a contributing factor to
the victims death

A mortal wound is a contributing factor when:

i. the wound(s) is/are sufficient to cause victims death along with the disease

ii. the mortal wound was caused by actions committed by the accused

2. When the death was caused by an infection of the wound due to the unskilled medical treatment
from the doctors:

(a) if the wound is mortal = accused is criminally liable, because the unskilled treatment
+ infection are not efficient intervening causes

mortal wound + unskilled medical treatment only = accused is criminally liable because
the mortal wound naturally led to the death of the victim

(b) if the wound is slight = accused is not criminally liable, because the unskilled
treatment + infection are efficient intervening causes

*In Urbano v. IAC, the wound caused by accused Urbano was already treated and was in the normal
process of healing which is in approximately 4weeks; but because deceased Javier did not wait for the
wound to heal and still worked by fishing, his wound got infected with tetanus which caused his death.
The actions of the deceased when he still worked without waiting for his wound to heal was an efficient
intervening cause, thus the accused is not liable for his death anymore.

Q: What is the purpose for punishing an impossible crime?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 22 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

The purpose of punishing an impossible crime is to prevent or suppress the criminal tendency of
the accused

Persons found guilty of impossible crimes are sentenced to arrestor mayor (1mo.1day to 6mos.)
pursuant to Article 59 of the Revised Penal Code

Objectively, there is no crime


Subjectively, the crime is present

Should there be a crime committed, in order to be held liable for an impossible crime? YES; the act(s)
should constitute a crime against persons or property

Requisites for an impossible crime under Article 4(2)


1. that the act performed would be an offense against persons or property
2. that the act was done with evil intent
3. that its accomplishment is inherently impossible or that the means employed is either
inadequate or ineffectual
4. that the act performed should not constitute a violation of another provision of the Revised
Penal Code

Rape used to be a crime against chastity; but because of RA 8353, rape was reclassified as a crime
against persons, therefore, one can now be held liable for the impossible crime of rape

In People v. Intod, the Court erred in its decision of considering the acts of the accused as an impossible
crime under Art.4(2) of the RPC because the 4th element/requisite was not satisfied. The acts of the
accused of shooting at the house and damaging the same, can constitute as malicious mischief, which is
a crime against property. Therefore, the accused should have been charged with the latter instead of
finding them guilty only of the impossible crime of murder.

July 4, 2011

Q: Who incurs criminal liability?

Q: What is a proximate cause?

Q: if there is a crime intended and a crime committed is different, what is the extent of criminal liability?
The lesser penalty will be imposed.
If the crime intended has a lesser penalty, then that will be charged
If the crime committed has a lesser penalty, then that will be charged

Q: Suppose you will rob a jeepney, because of fear, the passenger jumped of and died, will be liable?
Yes. Because I am committing a felony, and I am liable for its effects.
Q: Suppose Amurao during your recit, pointed a gun at you because of your wrong answers, then you
collapsed and died. is amurao liable?
Yes. There is grave threat

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 23 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Suppose the gun was a toy gun, liable?


Yes, still liable. There is still threat

Q: Suppose because of your low grade in criminal law review, you break up with your boyfriend being so
sad, your bf collapsed and died, liable?
No. Breaking up is not a felony

Q: Suppose while you and your boyfriend is doing the act itself (do I need to elaboratealam mo na
yan), your bf collapsed and died, will you be liable?
No. The act of having sex is not a felony.

Q: even if you are not married to each other?


Yes sir

Q: suppose your bf is married, are you liable?


Yes. Concubinage

Q: Suppose man had sexual intercourse with married woman, but the woman consented, crime?
Adultery

Article 5

Article 5(1) Requirements:


1. the act committed by the accused appears to be not punishable by law

2. but the court deems it proper to repress such act

3. in that case, the court must render the proper decision by dismissing the case and acquitting
the accused

4. the judge must then make a report to the Chief Executive through the Secretary of Justice
stating the reasons which induce him to believe that the said act should be made the subject of
penal legislation

Basis for Article 5(1):


Nullem crimen, nulla poena sine lege.- There is no crime if there is no law that punishes the act

Why dismiss? In the absence of a law that will punish the accused, the judge cannot impose a penalty
because the duty of the judge is only to interpret or apply the law; the judge cannot reprimand or curse

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 24 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

the accused because it would equate to public censure; the reprimand would be inconsistent with the
acquittal

Article 5(2) Excessive Penalties

Q: What are the requirements?

1. the court after trial finds the accused guilty


2. the penalty provided by law and which the court imposes for the crime committed appears to
be clearly excessive because:
(a) the accused acted with lesser degree of malice and/or
(b) there is no injury or the injury caused is of lesser gravity
3. the court should not suspend the execution of the sentence
4. the judge should submit a statement to the Chief Executive through the Secretary of Justice,
recommending executive clemency

The President has the power to grant executive clemency, through pardon, parole, commutation
(reduction of sentence), reprieve or amnesty

Article 5(2) may not be invoked in cases involving acts mala prohibita because said article only
applies to acts mala in se because the ruling is based on the phrase in the provision, takes into
consideration the degree of malice

Article 6

Q: What are the stages in the commission of a felony?


Consummated a felony is consummated when all the elements necessary for its execution and
accomplishment are present
Frustrated - it is frustrated when the offender performs all the acts for execution which would
produce the felony as a consequence but, nevertheless, do not produce it by reason of causes
independent of the will of the perpetrator
Attempted there is an attempt when the offender commences the commission of the felony
directly by overt acts and does not perform all the acts for execution which should produce the
felony by reason of some cause or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance

NOTE: Available only in RPC.

Q: Give example of each (consummated, frustrated, attempted)

Q: What are the phases?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 25 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Subjective phase from the time the offender commences the commission up to the
performance of the last act where he still has control; an attempted felony is committed within
the subjective phase and does not go beyond this phase

Objective phase frustrated and consummated felonies are within the objective phase
(a) frustrated the felony is complete but still is still not produced as far as the offender is
concerned

(b) consummated when all the elements under the Revised Penal Code are present

REMEMBER: in Arson
(a) consummated = so long as a part of the building is burned, no matter how small

(b) frustrated = if only the contents of the building (eg. chairs and tables) are burned

(c) attempted = contents havent been burned

^Intent is always established. Kahit pa apprehended at the time ot in the act of bringing/getting
gasoline attempted pa din

^Indeterminate stage intent is not yet established

Q: Suppose built in cabinets, burned the clothes in the cabinet, including the cabinet?
Consummated arson, deemed part of the bldg

Q: Supposing, the accused brought gasoline into a building, with the intent to burn the building, but
was apprehended by the security guard; did the crime of arson commence?
YES, thus the accused is liable for attempted arson, because the bringing of gasoline was
already an overt act while the apprehension was the reason other than his own spontaneous desistance.

Q: Supposing, using the same set of facts above, but without the intent to burn the building, is there
criminal liability?
NO, in fact there is no crime, because the acts were only in an indeterminate stage.

Q: Suppose the white board was burned?


White board not an integral part

Q: when is the crime in the attempted stage?

Indeterminate Stage we do not know what crime is in the mind of the offender; the crime has not
yet been determined; there are still two possibilities when the accused was caught

According to Prof. Amurao, when a person is accused of committing a felony, we have to first establish
the crime in the mind of the offender to establish the commencement of the commission of the felony;

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 26 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

otherwise, the situation when he was caught would be in an indeterminate stage, wherein the crime
that the accused intended to do could not be determined

Theft/Robbery
- both these crimes are committed by taking the personal property of another and, with the
intent to gain

- the difference is that in robbery, there is the use of force or violence

- so long as the act stated in the RPC is done, the crime is consummated

- it does not matter how long the property was in the possession of the accused; it does not
matter whether the property was disposed or not; what matters is whether or not there was
asportacion = unlawful taking

- momentary possession consummates the crime of theft or robbery

- returning the item to the owner is immaterial; has no effect to the crime

- upon consummation of the crime, criminal liability automatically attaches

Q: you are walking in recto, cellphone was snatched, but it was return to you. What stage?

Consummated

Q: suppose in a private subdivision, with intent to commit robbery, you are tinkering with the lock of a
gate, the security guard apprehended you. Liable?
Yes. Attempted robbery

Q: suppose you intent to commit robbery, then you place a ladder at the wall of the house, when you
place the ladder, you were apprehended. Liable?
Yes. Attempted robbery

Q: if no intent?
Not liable

Q: accused trying to open your car, problem is silent with the intent, may you be liable for attempted
theft?
No.
Opening the door of the car only indeterminate stage

Q: Supposing, the accused was tinkering with the lock of the gate of a neighbors house, without the
intent to commit a felony; is he liable for anything?
NO, because the situation was in an indeterminate stage wherein it could not be determined
what the accused intended to do

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 27 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Supposing, the accused jumped over the fence into another persons house without the intent to
commit robbery, is he liable for attempted robbery?
NO, but he is liable for the crime of trespassing

^Same with arson, when a person is accused of committing a felony, we have to first establish
the crime in the mind of the offender to establish the commencement of the commission of the
felony; otherwise, the situation when he was caught would be in an indeterminate stage,
wherein the crime that the accused intended to do could not be determined

In People v. Lamahang, the accused was able to open one board of the door to private respondent Tan
Yus store, when the police caught him. The SC ruled that the accused is not liable for attempted
robbery because the intent to rob Tan Yus store was not established, thus when accused was caught, it
was in an indeterminate stage. But the Court held him liable for attempted trespass to dwelling

In People v. Salvilla, the accused were held liable for the crime of robbery with serious illegal detention
and serious physical injuries, and not frustrated robbery, even without physical taking or possession of
the money they demanded because the money was within the dominion, which the accused had
control over and it was where the crime was being committed. During whole time when negotiations
went on between the accused and the police, the crime of robbery was deemed consummated

Q: suppose hold up in a grocery store, hold uppers asked the cashier to place the money inside a bag, no
one hold the money. Is the crime consummated?
Yes. There is constructive control

July 5, 2011

Crimes involving the taking of human life/ Crimes against persons


- these crimes are committed by killing a person (MHPI):

i. Murder killing a person with attending or aggravating circumstances

ii. Homicide killing a person without attending circumstances

iii. Parricide killing a relative, i.e. spouse, parent, child, sibling, etc.

iv. Infanticide killing a child less than three (3) days old

- even without intent, the moment the victim dies, intent is presumed by operation of law and
the crime is consummated
- if the victim doesnt die but the wound inflicted is mortal, it is frustrated
- if the there is no intent to kill, but the wound inflicted is mortal or fatal, the crime is not either
MHPI but serious physical injuries

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 28 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Mortal when the wound inflicted can cause the death of the victim; when death will follow
- for frustrated & attempted cases, it is important to determine intent to kill

Q: Supposing, in a car accident, the accused hits a person causing mortal wounds, but the victim does
not die, is the driver-accused liable for frustrated homicide?
NO, he is only liable for serious physical injuries

Rules on crimes against persons (MHPI) and the stages of execution

1. victim dies, with or without the intention to kill, intent is conclusively presumed by operation
of law, the crime is consummated MHPI

2. victim does not die, with the intent to kill, mortal wounds were inflicted, the crime is
frustrated MHPI

3. victim does not die, with the intent to kill, non-mortal wounds were inflicted, the crime is
attempted MHPI

4. victim does not die because there was only an overt act and no wound was inflicted, but there
was intent to kill, the crime is attempted MHPI

5. victim does not die, without the intent to kill, mortal wounds were inflicted, the crime is
serious physical injuries

6. victim does not die, without the intent to kill, non-mortal wounds were inflicted, the crime is
less serious or slight physical injuries

Illustration:

Death Intent Gravity of the wound Crime

(1) YES presumed of course mortal! Consummated MHPI

(2) NO YES mortal wounds Frustrated MHPI

(3) NO YES non-mortal wounds Attempted MHPI

(4) NO YES overt act only, no wound Attempted MHPI

(5) NO NO mortal wounds Serious physical injuries

(6) NO NO non-mortal wounds Less serious/Slight physical injuries

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 29 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

In People v. Trinidad, the trial court held the accused criminally liable of two counts of murder (for killing
Soriano and Laroa) and frustrated murder (for shooting at Tan). The SC modified the decision by ruling
that the accused was liable for two counts of murder and attempted murder, not frustrated, because the
wound inflicted on Tan was not mortal or fatal

In People v. Lim San, the trial court held the accused criminally liable of attempted murder for stabbing
Keng Kin in the left eye. The SC modified the decision by ruling that the accused should be liable of
frustrated murder because not only was it established that there was intent to kill, but also the wound
inflicted was mortal. It just so happened that the victim did not die because of the prompt and efficient
medical assistance given to the victim. The treatment was the cause independent of the will of the
accused.

In Mondragon v. People, the SC held that the accused was only guilty of less serious physical injuries
because when the accused and the victim were hacking each other with their bolos, there was no intent
to kill on neither party; and also because the victim did not die since the wounds were not mortal

RAPE
- the crime of rape is consummated by mere penetration of the male organ, no matter how slight

Q: Supposing, the penetration was only 2 millimeters deep, consummated?


YES, no matter how slight the penetration is, it is still consummated

Q: Supposing, the rape was consummated because there was penetration, but according to the medical
examination, the victim was still a virgin, can the accused still be held liable for consummated rape?
YES, as long as there is penetration, the rape is consummated.

In People v. Orita, the medical examiner testified that the victim was still a virgin therefore the rape may
not have been consummated. But the SC ruled that the testimony of the victim herself should be given
greater weight because she herself can feel whether or not there was penetration.

Instances of attempted rape:


- when the skirt of the victim has been lifted, no matter what position

- when the accused mounted on the body of the victim

- when there is epidermal touching of the genital organs of the accused and the victim

The difference between attempted rape and acts of lasciviousness is that with the former, there is
carnal knowledge or the intent to have sexual intercourse is established

There is no such thing as frustrated rape; the only exception was when the SC ruled in People v. Eria
that the accused was guilty of frustrated rape. Thereafter, no one has since been held guilty of frustrated
rape.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 30 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ESTAFA
- the elements for the crime of estafa are (1) deceit, and (2) damage
- without one of the two elements, estafa would not be consummated

In US v. Dominguez, the SC ruled that the accused was guilty of frustrated estafa because before
accused could cause damage by disposing of the money that he deceitfully took, he was apprehended by
their stores supervisor, which was the cause independent of the will of the accused.

OTHER INSTANCES FOR HOMICIDE AND OTHER CRIMES


Q: Supposing, with intent to kill, the accused pulls out a gun then points it at someone, what crime is
the accused liable for?
Attempted homicide

Q: Supposing, with intent to kill, the accused fires a gun at someone but misses, what crime is the
accused liable for? Attempted homicide

Q: Supposing, using the same set of facts, but without the intent to kill, what crime is the accused
liable for?
- for pulling out the gun and pointing it = grave threat
- for firing the gun = illegal discharge of firearm (obsolete; must be deleted)

Q: Supposing, with intent to kill, the accused fires a gun at someone, then accused leaves thinking that
the victim is already dead. The accused did not know that he missed because the victim played dead.
What crime is the accused liable for? Attempted homicide, attempted because there was no wound, but
there was still intent to kill. What is important is that there was no wound

Q: Supposing, with intent to kill, the accused fires a gun at someone, then accused leaves thinking that
the victim is already dead. The victim is hit but it is not fatal or mortal. What crime is the accused liable
for? Still Attempted homicide, because what is important is the extent or gravity of the wound. (People
v. Orinaga)

Q: suppose a sales lady in the department store, place the jewelry inside her bag, but the jewelry was
recovered by the security guard, crime?
Consummated qualified theft

Q: will recovery affect the stage of the commission?


No

Q: Suppose the sales lady, voluntarily returned, crime?


Still qualified theft.
Taking consummates the crime

Q: suppose the sales lady, sold the jewelry and used the money, crime?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 31 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Estafa

Q: suppose the sales lady, sold the jewelry and returned the money at 6pm?
Frustrated Estafa

Q: suppose 2 crew members discovered the presence of a stow away and they want to eliminate the
stow away, so they decided throw the stow away in the sea, where there is sharp object, but after you
leave, a fishing vessel was there to help the stow away, there was no wound, crime?
Frustrated murder

INTENT TO KILL

Q: 3 armarlite shots neighbor but did not hit?


Attempted

Q: distinguish from illegal discharge of firearm


No intent to kill

Q: distinguish from grave threat?


There is intent to kill

Q: suppose there are 99 wounds, but none was mortal?


Attempted

Q: what is an overt act?


Something you see, feel, touch (do not relate to criminal offense at first)

Article 7

Q: What are light felonies?


Light felonies are infractions of law which have the punishment of arresto menor or a fine not
exceeding 200 pesos

General Rule: Light felonies are punishable only when they have been consummated
Reason: involves insignificant moral and material injuries; if not consummated, the wrong done is so
slight that a penalty is unnecessary

Exception: Light felonies committed against persons or property are punishable even if in the
attempted or frustrated stage
Reason: presupposes moral depravity

For light felonies, the only ones who can be held liable are the principals and accomplices.
For grave or less grave felonies, those who can be held liable are principals, accomplices and even
accessories, because the degree of the penalty to be imposed depends on 3 factors:

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

(1) stages of execution

(2) the degree of participation

(3) the presence of attending circumstances

Q: When punishable?
Only when consummated

Q: Is this absolute?
No. If against persons or property

Q: Reason.

Q: Who shall be criminally liable?


Principals
Accomplices
NOT ACCESSORIES

^Penalty for accomplices -- one degree lower (censure)


^Penalty for accessories two degrees lower (WALA NANG LOWE PA. KAYA NGA HINDI LIABLE
ANG ACCESSORIES)

Q: Who is a principal? An Accomplices? An Accessories?

Article 8

Q: what is conspiracy?

- Conspiracy exists when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the
commission of a felony and decide to commit it

- Proposal exists when the person who has decided to commit a felony proposes its execution to
some other person or persons

General rule: Conspiracy and proposal to commit a felony are not punishable
Reason: because they are mere preparatory acts (Reyes)

Exception: Conspiracy and proposal are punishable only in the cases in which the law specially
provides a penalty thereof

Q: give an example of conspiracy & proposal

Q: the effects of conspiracy

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

There will be collective responsibility

Q: effect of non-establishment of conspiracy?


Accused will be liable only to the extent of participation

Q: if established?
Collective responsibility act of one, act of all

Q: degree of evidence needed to prove conspiracy?


NOT beyond reasonable doubt
Sufficient that the act is closely related to the crime/felony intended to commit

Q: is it necessary that each participate?


No. They must have common criminal design

Q: what do you mean by common criminal design?

Q: what is implied conspiracy?

Q: from what factors may you imply conspiracy?


Acts and words before and after the commission of the felony
Q: is it enough that there is an agreement to commit felony?
No. they must execute the overt act

Q: how would you know if community of purpose exists?


From the acts and remarks of the accused
There must be unity of criminal though

BEFORE, DURING, AFTER -- acts of each of the accused may be separate, independent of each
other but must show close personal association; closely related to each other, there is coordination.

Q: A B C D E (robbers) agreed and decided to commit bank robbery. A stayed in the getaway car 100
meters from the bank; B look-out C disarm the security guard D & E commit robbery. E shot to death the
bank manager. Will A be liable for the death?
YES. There is conspiracy. Act of 1, act of all

Q: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 met in safe house discussed, agreed and decided to commit robbery. When they were
about to rob the bank, they saw the police around the bank. Liable?
No. Mere conspiracy not punishable

Q: 5 members of army decided to commit coup d etat, met in safe house to discuss plan, liable?
Yes. Conspiracy to commit coup d etat is punishable

Q: distinguish conspiracy as a felony and as manner of incurring criminal liability.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 34 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

FELONY RPC punishes mere conspiracy


LIABILITY There must be over act

Q: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, agreed to commit a felony when about to meet the next morning. 5 did not arrive for
emergency purposes. 1, 2, 3, 4 commit the felony and was caught. Is number 5 liable?
No. He is not a conspirator.
A conspirator must agree, decide and execute the over act
5 was not present

Q: suppose 5 drove for 1, 2, 3, 4 but went home early. Liable?


Yes. Driving already an overt act

Q: suppose 5 was not the driver, but he was sittig in front of the van, then after alighting went home,
liable?
No. There is no overt act (pasahero lang siya sa van)

^General Rule if not present in the scene of the crime NO liability


^Exceptions presence is to provide for moral support or to ensure commission of the felony

Cases of conspiracy punishable by law


(i) Article 115 of the RPC Conspiracy to commit treason

(ii) Article 136 Conspiracy to commit coup detat, rebellion or insurrection

(iii) Article 141 Conspiracy to commit sedition

(iv) Article 186 Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade

(v) Conspiracy to commit terrorism - under the Human Security Act (RA9372)

(vi) Conspiracy to commit crimes under the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act (RA 9165)

Cases of proposal punishable by law


(i) Proposal to commit treason

(ii) Proposal to commit coup detat, rebellion or insurrection

- there is no crime of proposal to commit sedition

Q: What is the legal effect of the presence of conspiracy?


- the act of one is the act of all, meaning everyone who participated is equally liable; there is
collective responsibility

For conspiracy, take note of the word agreement


Agreement may be oral or written, express or implied

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 35 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

It is the burden of the prosecution to prove the existence of conspiracy through circumstantial evidence
unless there is a confession or written agreement, which is seldom because criminals will usually deny
their participation or the commission of the crime

Q: What is Implied Conspiracy?


- Implied conspiracy can be inferred from the acts of the perpetrators/accused before, during or
after the commission of the crime

Q: How about the use of words, remarks or language of the perpetrators, can conspiracy still be
ascertained or established? YES

Q: May there be conspiracy when the perpetrators perform separate, distinct and independent acts in
the commission of a crime? YES

Q:May there be conspiracy even if other conspirators do not know who the other conspirators are? YES

*In People v. Manlolo, it was held that there was implied conspiracy on the part of the accused because
they were acting in concert, one performing an act, the other doing another act, all aimed at the same
object

Rule on determining whether there is conspiracy


- based on the (1) acts done before, during or after the commission of the crime, or, based on
the (2) words, remarks or language used before, during or after the commission of the crime, it
is necessary to determine after these acts were done whether the conspirators had the
following:
1. concerted action 3. community of purpose

2. common criminal design 4. joint criminal objective

- all of which are geared towards the attainment of the felony or crime

Suggested cases for conspiracy on this rule


- People v. Salcedo; People v. Briones; Medija, Jr. v. Sandiganbayan

Q: Supposing, only minor acts were done, will the actor still be liable? YES

Q: Supposing, there was no conspiracy, what will happen? The perpetrators of the crime will be
individually liable depending the extent of the degree of each ones participation

In People v. Agapinay, the SC ruled that there was no conspiracy in commission of the murder because
the incident was only a spur of the moment or in this case, a chance stabbing, which cannot be
considered conspiracy, thus they were held individually liable, some as principals and some as
accomplices only

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Supposing, there was only mere presence of a person when the crime was being committed, will he
be liable?
NO, that person not participating shall not be liable because he did not perform any overt act;
there should be an overt act to establish the participation and liability of a person

Q: Supposing, the persons presence when the crime was being committed was to provide was to
provide moral support, or to persuade the participants from performing the acts constituting the
crime, will he be liable?
YES, in both cases the person shall be held criminally liable

In order to hold someone criminally liable, in addition to mere presence, there should be overt acts that
are closely-related and coordinated to establish the presence of common criminal design and
community of purpose in the commission of the crime.

In People v. Taaca, the SC ruled to acquit Regalado because there was no evidence to prove that
Regalado assisted his brother Herminio in the killing of Alfredo Gabuat; there was no proof to show that
Regalados presence was accompanied by overt acts for the commission of the crime and that there was
no proof of conspiracy between the Taaca brothers.

In People v. De La Cruz, the SC also ruled that the mere presence of the Galaw-eys were not enough to
prove that they conspired to the commission of the crime despite the fact Galaw-ey had a grudge against
one of the victims; his participation in a conspiracy cannot be assumed especially when no acts by the
Galaw-eys proved to be connected with the crime.

In People v. Manero, however, the SC ruled that even though the accused-appellants were not present
in the actual commission of the crimes, it was established that they met in an eatery and conspired to
liquidate communist sympathizers; therefore they were still held criminally liable.

Q: Supposing, one person desisted from participating in the actual crime and instead decided to stay
inside the get-away car to wait for the others, is he liable?
YES, he is still liable despite desistance to participate in the actual crime because he can still
assist the others with the escape using the get-away car

Q: Supposing, while committing the crime of robbery, an additional crime was committed that was not
part of the original plan, eg. homicide; can all the participants be convicted of the crime of robbery with
homicide, even though some of them performed very minor acts (i.e. look-outs or drivers, etc)?

YES, they can all be held liable for that same crime, because it is not required that all the
participants perform each and every detail in the commission of the crime; as long as the acts
performed are closely coordinated and that they have the same criminal purpose.

Q: mere presence will one be a co-conspirator?


No

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: presence to give moral support?


Liable

Acts before separate and distinct concerted action

Implied conspiracy during closeness association, common criminal design


Coordination, personal
words, after association with each other community of crimes
remarks
joint criminal objective

Article 9

Q: How do you classify felonies?


According to Penalty

1. Grave Felonies those that the law attaches the capital punishment or penalties that are
afflictive based on Article 25 of the RPC

2. Less Grave Felonies those that the law punishes with penalties whose maximum periods are
correctional

3. Light felonies infractions of law that are punishable by arresto menor or fines

Illustration:
Death

Grave felonies Reclusion Perpetua afflictive penalties

Reclusion Temporal

Prision Mayor

Prision Correccional

Less grave felonies Arresto Mayor correctional penalties

Suspension

Destierro

Arresto Menor

Light felonies Fines light penalties

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Public Censure

The classification in Article 25 of the RPC assumes significance on Article 91 of the RPC on Prescription:

(i) Prescription of a crime refers to the expiration of a certain period, after which a person cannot be
prosecuted for the crime anymore; contemplates that there has been no judgment of conviction yet

(ii) Prescription of penalty refers to the expiration of a period of time after which the penalty imposed
by the courts cannot be enforced anymore; contemplates that there has been a final judgment by the
courts

Q: Does classification applies to special laws?


No

Article 10

- provisions of the Revised Penal Code shall not be applied with of violations of special laws, but
if a special law is silent in terms of a penalty for example, the absence shall be provided by the
Revised Penal Code.
But generally:
- for violations of the RPC = what law governs? the Revised Penal Code
- for violations of special law = what law governs? Special penal laws

Examples of provisions in the RPC that have suppletory application pursuant to Article 10 of the RPC
1. Article 100 Civil Liability; there are two sides of crime, the criminal liability and the civil liability, the
former imposes the penalty prescribed for the crime, the latter is for the payment of damages

2. Article 22 Retroactive Application; the law becomes favorable to the accused as long as he is not a
habitual criminal and is convicted by final judgment

3. Article 17 Principals; are classified into three: (1) by direct participation, (2) by inducement, (3) by
indispensable cooperation

4. Article 45 Forfeiture of instruments or tools used in the commission of the crime

5. Article 39 Subsidiary imprisonment for failure to pay fines

6. Article 8 Conspiracy; in violation of the Human Security Act(RA9372), Dangerous Drugs Act, sec 26
only (RA9165), Bouncing Checks Law (BP22)

*If the Death Penalty was not abolished, it will also be given suppletory application
allowed.

Q: Circumstances affecting criminal liability?


There are five circumstances affecting criminal liability:

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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(1) Justifying circumstances;


(2) Exempting circumstances;
(3) Mitigating circumstances;
(4) Aggravating circumstances; and
(5) Alternative circumstances.
There are two others which are found elsewhere in the provisions of the Revised
Penal Code:
(1) Absolutory cause; and
(2) Extenuating circumstances.

In justifying and exempting circumstances, there is no criminal liability. When an accused invokes them,
he in effect admits the commission of a crime but tries to avoid the liability thereof. The burden is upon
him to establish beyond reasonable doubt the required conditions to justify or exempt his acts from
criminal liability. What is shifted is only the burden of evidence, not the burden of proof.

Article 11

Q: What is a justifying circumstances?


Justifying Circumstances are those where the act of a person is said to be in accordance with
law so that such person is deemed not to have transgressed the law and is free from criminal
and civil liability

Q: Is there civil liability?


Generally no, except in Article 11 (4)

Q: What element of voluntariness is lacking?


Intent; without intent, there is no voluntariness; without voluntariness, there is no felony;
without a felony, there is no criminal liability because there is no crime

Article 11, par 1 Self-Defense

Q: What are the Elements of Self-defense?


1. Unlawful Aggression on the part of the offended party
2. Reasonable Necessity of the Means Employed by the person defending
3. Lack of Sufficient Provocation on the part of the person defending

Q: What may be the subject of self-defense?


Person, right, property, honor or home
(i) defense of person there is danger to the life or limb of the person
(ii) defense of rights
(iii) defense of property should be coupled with danger to the person
(iv) defense of honor

Q: Burden of proof in self-defense?

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

burden lies with the defense

Q: How is self-defense established?


through clear and convincing evidence

Q: Is the accused required to admit having killed the victim?


YES; the accused has to admit having killed the victim before self-defense can be invoked by the
accused

* It is the obligation of the accused to prove self-defense through clear and convincing
evidence; if the evidence is not clear, there will be a conviction

When all the elements of self-defense are present = the person defending himself is free from criminal
liability and civil liability

When only a majority of the elements are present = privileged mitigating circumstance, provided
there is unlawful aggression

When only a majority of the elements are present, there is an incomplete self-defense, but it is still
necessary to have the element of unlawful aggression, because it is the most important element

Unlawful Aggression
- an indispensable element
- a sudden unprovoked unlawful attack that exposes a persons life or limb to actual, real,
imminent danger; mere threatening, imagined or speculative danger is not enough

When there is no unlawful aggression, there is no need to defend oneself; when there is no need to
defend oneself, there is no need for a reasonable defensive act; when there is no need for a reasonable
defensive act, there is no need for reasonable means to prevent or repel something; therefore, without
unlawful aggression, everything else will be erased

Because unlawful aggression produced a danger, there comes a need to eliminate that danger; that
need is a response impelled by self-preservation; the means used to eliminate the danger should be
reasonable and the means needed to be employed can be determined based on the extent of the
unlawful aggression

Q: Supposing, you wrested the knife from a robber. If he is still trying to get back the knife, there is
unlawful aggression, because unlawful aggression is continuing if the attacker is trying to regain control
over the situation

^The first principle in all criminal cases is that: the accused will always be presumed innocent

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

In the constitutional provision on presumption of innocence, it can easily be overthrown by contrary


evidence, but it is different in criminal cases

The presumption of innocence principle, of all disputable presumptions, is the strongest because to
overthrow it, the Court requires that the law proves the guilt of an accused beyond reasonable doubt

The burden or duty to prove guilt lies with the prosecution or the government and they should
introduce evidence beyond reasonable doubt; the prosecution should rely on the strength of its own
evidence and should not depend on the evidence of the defense; these principles, however, will change
when the defense invokes, self-defense, defense of a relative, or defense of a stranger, because the
accused must always admit first the fact of killing the victim, thus the burden is lifted from the
prosecution and shifts to the defense

If the evidence for both sides is weak, the accused will be acquitted

The prosecutions weakness is cured when the defense invokes, self-defense, defense of a relative, or
defense of a stranger because there is an admission of the killing

If the evidence of the defense is not clear and convincing, conviction will be sure, as sure the sun rises
at the East

The admission involved is only an admission of facts, backed up by clear and convincing evidence; it
not an admission of guilt, because if so, the Court can stop the prosecution and render judgment

The Court should put itself in the shoes of the accused during the time when the accused allegedly
defended himself

Q: Supposing, after you wrested the knife from the robber (who is the obvious aggressor in this case),
the robber/aggressor runs away, is there still unlawful aggression?
NO, when the aggressor flees unlawful aggression no longer exists; and if you still kill the
aggressor in this situation, self-defense cannot be invoked anymore

Q: Supposing, using the same facts mentioned earlier, but the retreat of the aggressor was with the
purpose to take a more advantageous position or to get a more effective weapon, to insure the success
of his attack, is there still unlawful aggression?
YES, when the purpose of retreating is to take a more advantageous position or to do something
to insure the success of his attack, unlawful aggression is continuing, therefore the danger is
still continuing; in this case, the accused or the person defending himself, does not have to wait
for the aggressor to get another weapon

Q: Supposing, there is an agreement to fight or a challenge to fight was accepted, is there unlawful
aggression on one of the parties?

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

NO, there is no unlawful aggression in agreements to fight because self-defense cannot invoked
since both parties are assailant and assaulted

Q: Supposing, using the same facts above, there is agreement, but one of the parties attacks the other
even before the agreed time arrives, is there unlawful aggression?
YES, when the attack is made ahead of the time agreed upon, there is unlawful aggression

Q: Supposing, the aggressor used a toy gun and the person defending himself killed the aggressor,
believing that the gun was real, is he still criminally liable?
NO, assuming clear and convincing evidence is provided, and that the accused believed the
weapon/gun to be real, then honest mistake of fact while in self-defense can be invoke

Reasonable Necessity of the Means Employed


- there is a continuing necessity to eliminate the danger
- involves two elements:
1. necessity for the course of action, necessity to eliminate danger
2. necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel that danger
Both should be reasonable
It is not necessary to have material equality or material commensurability between the danger and
the means employed to prevent or repel that danger

In determining reasonable means, the some facts and circumstances can be considered as factors,
such as:
1. emergency to which the person defending himself has been exposed to
2. presence of imminent danger
3. impelled by the instinct of self-preservation
4. nature of the weapon used by the accused compared to the weapon of the aggressor
5. size and/or physical character of the aggressor compared to the accused and other
circumstances that can be considered showing disparity between aggressor and accused
Factors: age, size, location, other circumstances, character or nature of weapon, physical character,
reputation

Q: What is Lack of Sufficient Provocation?


- sufficient provocation should come from the person defending himself/accused
- sufficient provocation should immediately precede the aggression
- Insulting another or committing oral defamation is considered sufficient provocation
- a challenge to fight is considered sufficient provocation

Q: When is provocation sufficient?


-proportionate to the act of aggression and adequate to stir the aggressor to its commission

Q: Who has the duty to prove elements of self-defense?


Accused

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Q: What is the effect of claim of self-defenses on burden of the prosecution?


Shifting the burden of proof
Prosecution is relieved of its duty to prove guilt of accused

Q: May accused be convicted even if evidence of prosecution is weak?


Yes, if the self-defense not established by clear and convincing evidence

Q: does admission of guilt amounts to confession of guilt?


No. Only an admission of fact
Accused must establish the element which is missing to prove that he is not guilty

Q: What are the legal effects


Confession of guilt no necessity for trial, except to prove mitigating & aggravating
circumstances
Admission of fact necessity for trial

Q: May there be self defense even without unlawful aggression?


No. UA is the foundation

Q: how about in incomplete self-defense?


No. UA is always an indispensable element of self-defense, whether complete or incomplete

Through reasonable means

Reasonable (needs to eliminate the danger)


Under instinct of self-preservation

(Life & Limb) There is danger (actual, real, imminent )


not merely imaginary, fanciful, false

Unlawful Aggression,- sudden, unprovoked, illegal attack

Defending Property

Defense of property should be coupled with danger to the person defending oneself; if there is no
danger to the person or the person's life or limb, defense of property cannot be invoked.

Q: In defending property, when is killing the aggressor justified?


*Necessity of unlawful aggression (upon the person defending his property)
*Must be coupled with an attack on your own person

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 44 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

*Such a case, you are not defending your own property, but your own person?
Defense of OWN property not OF property

Q: Suppose hitting only the lower portion of the body, not killing the aggressor, defense of property, may
be claimed?
YES. As long as not to the extent of killing
^pag napatay mo, dapat may assault on your own person, right to life is superior to right to
property

Q: Supposing, using a knife, someone slashed your bag to get its contents, after which you were able to
wrest the knife from him, and you stabbed him, causing him to die, can you invoke defense of property?
NO, because there was no imminent danger to your life or limb since you already have control of
the knife

Q: Supposing, you caught some people inside your house in the act of stealing your household items,
assuming you have a gun, can you use the gun and shoot at them or even kill them?
YES (according to Prof. Amurao, you can even stage the crime scene to your favor) because if you
do not shoot them, they will surely use their weapons against you and even try to kill you
anyway. Its better to hit them first. (Defense of home, check Reyes)

Q: Supposing, a prostitute disagrees to have sexual intercourse with someone, but the latter still forces
his way with the prostitute with carnal knowledge, tries to rape her, then the prostitute takes out a knife
in her bag and stabs the guy, can she invoke defense of honor despite being a prostitute?
YES, a prostitute is still entitled to the right of defense of honor and the knife was a reasonable
means used.

Defense of home
Without assault of person, justified? NO.

Q: In defending your car being stolen, fired at the tires, which hit a by-stander, liable?
No. Justified for all consequences of the act relate to art 4 (par1) not committing a felony

Q: example of unlawful aggression against honor


-slap on the face
-repelled by revolver, reasonable means? No (no rational equivalence)

*Use of the bolo against an unarmed aggressor?


Depends on the circumstances
Such as the size of the aggressor, built, reputation or accessibility of other means

Factor of time interval


Must be simultaneous with the attack or with appreciable interval of time

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 45 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: what is continuing danger?

Q: what is continuing aggression?

Q: example of defense of honor?

Q: example of agreement to fight?

Q: libel against libel, justified?


Yes.

Q: A and B are long standing enemies. Because of their continuous quarrel over the boundaries of their
adjoining properties, when A saw B one afternoon, he approached the latter in a menacing manner with
a bolo in his hand. When he was about five feet away from B, B pulled out a revolver and shot A on the
chest,killing him. Is B criminally liable? What crime was committed, if any?

The act of A is nothing but a provocation. It cannot be characterized as an unlawful aggression


because in criminal law, an unlawful aggression is an attack or a threatened attack which produces an
imminent danger to the life and limb of the one resorting to self-defense. In the facts of the problem
given above, what was said was that A was holding a bolo. That bolo does not produce any real or
imminent danger unless a raises his arm with the bolo. As long as that arm of A was down holding the
bolo, there is no imminent danger to the life or limb of B. Therefore, the act of B in shooting A is no
justified.

Article 11(2) Defense of Relatives

Q: Who are the relatives contemplated?(in the following order)


- spouse
- ascendants
- descendants
- brothers or sisters (legitimate, natural or adopted)
- relatives by affinity in the same degrees (mentioned above)

- relatives by consanguinity within the fourth (4 th) civil degree

applies the same concept of unlawful aggression and reasonable necessity of means
employed, as contemplated in Art. 11(1) on self-defense

Spouse should be the legitimate husband or wife
common law marriages are not included; the common law spouse is considered a stranger
Who can determine being legitimate? the Court; the validity, legality, illegality of the parties cannot be
determined by themselves

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 46 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Supposing a husband defends a common law wife by killing an attacker, can he invoke defense of
relative?
NO, but he may invoke defense of a stranger

Q: Supposing a husband defends a second wife by killing an attacker; considering that the marriage
between him and his first wife is not null and void, thus making his second marriage bigamous, can he
still invoke defense of relative?
YES, the presumption is that all marriages are legal and valid. Even in the absence of a judicial
declaration of nullity (JDN) of the first marriage, the second marriage is considered valid, thus
defense of relative can be invoked.

Q: Supposing the husband and his first wife are on legal separation, then he defends her from an
attacker, can he invoke defense of relative?
YES, because there is no JDN to say that their marriage is null and void.

Q: Supposing, husband and wife successfully annuls their marriage and they have secured a JDN on the
grounds of psychological incapacity, then incidentally, he defends her from an attacker, can he invoke
defense of relative?
NO, because there is no marriage anymore between them; the JDN, once it is approved by the
RTC and is final and executory, it will have an effect wherein as if no marriage existed between
the defender and the one defended; therefore, what can be invoked is defense of a stranger.

Q: Supposing husband and wife has a pending case for annulment due to psychological incapacity of one
of the parties, then incidentally, he defends her from an attacker, can he invoke defense of relative?
YES, because there is no JDN that has nullified the marriage

Ascendants includes parents, grandparents, great grandparents, even great(4x) grandparents


Descendants includes children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, even great(4x) grandchildren
What do ascendants and descendants have in common? They are blood relatives

Q: Supposing, a great, great, great, great grandfather is attacked and is defended by his illegitimate
grandchild, can the grandchild invoke defense of relative?
YES, because the no distinction in the Revised Penal Code whether the descendant should be
legitimate or illegitimate; when the law does not distinguish, the courts cannot distinguish

Q: Supposing, a father defends his adopted daughter from an attacker, can he invoke defense of relative?
NO, defense of relative cannot be invoked because the law does not contemplate adopted
children as descendants and also does not contemplate adoptive parents as ascendants, to
qualify as relatives contemplated under Art. 11(2) RPC

Brothers and Sisters or siblings


1. legitimate siblings of the same parents who are married

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 47 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

2. natural siblings, who at the time of their conception with the same parents, the parents are
not married but are not disqualified by any legal impediment to marry each other; if parents are
disqualified to marry by any impediment, the child is illegitimate
3. adopted there should be a judicial proceeding in court validating the adoption in order to be
considered under defense of relative as contemplated; an extrajudicial proceeding on the
adoption is not enough

Relatives by affinity in same degrees - relatives by marriage


In same degrees applicable to ascendants, descendants, siblings, even grandparents of ones spouse,
i.e. mother-in-law, father-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, etc.
Relatives by consanguinity within the fourth (4th) civil degree
- relatives by blood

Each generation is one degree


Ones parents are in the first (1st) degree
Ones grandparents are in the second(2nd) degree
Ones uncles and aunts are in the third (3rd) degree
Ones first cousins are in the fourth (4th) degree

Illustration:
parent (2nd degree)

(1st degree) (3rd degree)

daughter-in-law-----son daughter-----son-in-law

child child (4th degree)

(starting point, eg. this is you)

Requisites for Defense of Relatives


- aside from (1) unlawful aggression and
(2) reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or repel the aggression,
there is
3rd requisite: if there was provocation arose from the relative being defended, the
person defending should have had no part in that provocation

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 48 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Supposing, your brother provoked someone and started a fight, when you came to his aid, you did not
know that it was your brother who started the fight, but when you saw him, his enemy was on the verge
of stabbing your brother, so you shot his enemy, can you effectively and validly invoke defense of a
relative?
YES, because at that very moment the life and limb of your brother was in actual, imminent and
real danger; there was no time for you to investigate what really happened. The person
defending has the right to act on mere appearance (Amurao)

Q: Suppose man and woman living together without benefit of marriage, can claim self-defense?
No.
Common law spouse not contemplated
They are entitled to claim defense of stranger

Q: Husband and wife, Ph citizens married in hongkong. After marriage, discovered they were 1 st cousins,
solemnizing officer in hongkong not authorized, can they claim defense of relative?
Yes. Absent a judicial declaration, marriage presumed existing

Q: Suppose the action for judicial declaration is pending, can they claim defense of relative?
Yes. There is no judicial declaration yet.

Q: suppose the lower court issued a decision?


Not anymore. As if no marriage. Can claim defense of stranger

Q: suppose what was filed was legal separation, and there is a decree of legal separation, can claim
defense of relative?
Yes. Legal separation doe not terminate marriage.

Q: who are the descendants covered?

Q: A killed a person to defend the honor of B, and illegitimate, defense of relative?


Yes. The law does not distinguish

Q: Who are the other relatives covered?

Q: half blood brothers and sisters?


Yes

Q: Adoptive father defended the adopted daughter?


No. (not contemplated by law)
Q: stepbrother killed accused to defend life and honor of a stepsister?
Yes. Relationship by affinity (brother or sister by reason of marriage)

Q: relative by consanguinity, up to what extent?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 49 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

4th degree

Q: last element in defense of relative?

Defense of stranger
What are the elements?
Give an example

Who are strangers?


- Anyone not enumerated and those not contemplated under Article 11(2)

Requisites:
- same concept of unlawful aggression and reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or
repel the aggression; aside from those two there is a 3rd requisite: the person defending should not be
induced by revenge, resentment, or other evil motive

Article 11(4) Avoidance of greater evil or injury

- Requisites:
1. the evil actually exists
2. the injury feared be greater than that done to avoid it
3. there be no other practical and less harmful means of prevention
The damage to another contemplated are: (Reyes)
-injury to persons
- damage to property
Ones own life is more important than anyone else (Amurao)
The greater evil should not be brought about by the negligence or imprudence of the person who
committed the offense

Q: criminal liability? No

Q: Civil liability? Yes, should be borne by the persons benefited


Example : Sinking ship -- jettison

Article 11(5) Fulfillment of Duty/Lawful Exercise of Right or Office


- Requisites:
1. that the accused acted in the performance of a duty or in the lawful exercise of a right or
office
2. that the injury caused or the offense committed be the necessary consequence of the due
performance of duty or lawful exercise of such right or office

The fulfillment of duty must be done carefully, with due performance; no carelessness, no
negligence/imprudence, no abuse

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 50 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

The exercise of public office was committed with negligence and abuse of authority = are not
applicable, the exercise must be lawful!

Q: Supposing, a raiding team tasked to confiscate drugs broke the class cabinets in search of the drugs,
was there abuse of authority? YES, because due performance of duty should have been employed

Q: Can this be invoked if there was negligence?


No.

Q: if there is abuse of authority?


No

Q: Prison guards escorting prisoners on the way to the court, one prisoner escaped, despite warning
shots, prisoner still ran away, guard shot the prisoner at the back who died, liable?
No

Q: warrant of arrest, NBI to arrest criminal and bring before the RTC of Manila. When the officers are at
the house of the accused, the accused refuse to open the door, NBI forcibly open and destroyed the
doors, liable?
No.

Q: proceeded directly without announcing their authority, liable?


Yes. There is abuse, exceeding authority, did not follow procedure

Q: example of lawful exercise of a right


Doctrine of self help

Article 11(6) Obedience to a lawful order by a superior officer


-Requisites
1. that an order has been issued by a superior
2. that such order must be for some lawful purpose
3. that the means used by the subordinate to carry out said order is lawful

When the order is not for a lawful purpose, the subordinate who obeyed it is criminally liable
The subordinate is not liable for carrying out an illegal order of his superior if he is not aware of the
illegality of the order and he is not negligent

Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS)


- refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychological and behavioral symptoms found in
women living in battering relationships as a result of cumulative abuse (Republic Act 9262: Anti-
Violence Against Women and Children Act)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 51 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Battery refers to an act of inflicting physical harm upon a woman or child resulting to the physical,
psychological or emotional distress (RA 9262)

Q: Who can verify or confirm whether a woman suffers from Battered Woman Syndrome?
Only a certified psychologist or psychiatrist can prove the existence of Battered Woman
Syndrome in a woman

Q: What is the legal effect of the proof of existence of BWS in a woman?


Those found by the courts to be suffering from BWS do not incur criminal and civil liability
notwithstanding the absence of any of the elements of the justifying circumstance of self-defense
under the Revised Penal Code (Section 26, Republic Act 9262)

The legal effect of BWS is of the same level with the justifying circumstances in Art.11 of the RPC,
except par. 4.
Even without unlawful aggression on the part of the deceased husband or male partner, the act of the
woman shall still not incur criminal and civil liability

Q: Who are the women who can invoke Battered Woman Syndrome?
- wife - any woman having a sexual relationship with a man

- girlfriend - including dating women, if relationship is intimate

- former wife - common law wife

- former wife whose marriage with her has been annulled by a judicial declaration of
nullity (JDN)

-children

It not necessary that the woman suffering from BWS is still in a relationship with the man that she
killed or harmed.

Doctrine of Stand your ground when in the right


- The law does not expect you to run away

- When in the right, defend your right or position, defend yourself

- A total opposite of the old doctrine of retreating to the wall, where the law expects you to run
away and avoid defending yourself

Q: What is the legal effect of BWS?


No criminal liability
No civil liability

Q: May a battered husband claim it as a defense?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 52 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

No. The law says only woman

Q: What is a dating relationship?

Q: You break up with your gf, she was emotionally & psychologically wrecked, is this battery?
Yes. (hayden kho case)

Q: Protection Order under RA 9262?


-prevented from living in same community or house with the battered woman
-it must be issued by court or baranggay

Q: Can you file violation of RA 9262 together with parricide or physical injuries?
Yes. RA 9262 without prejudice to the filing of any other civil or criminal action

Q: woman suffering from BWS, killed husband, liable for parricide?


No. it is not necessary that UA exist

Q: how will court determine BWS?


Certified psychiatrist or psychologist

Article 12

Q: What is an exempting circumstance?


- a circumstance if present during the commission of the crime will free the accused from
criminal liability

- there is a crime, but there is no criminal


- burden of proof to prove the existence of an exempting circumstance: lies with the defense

Q: Distinguish justifying from exempting

Justifying Exempting

- there is neither a crime - there is a crime but there is

nor a criminal no criminal

- the act is justified and the - the act is not justified but the

actor is not criminally liable actor is not criminally liable

- there is no civil liability - there is civil liability except in

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 53 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

except in paragraph 4 paragraphs 4 and 7

Article 12(1) Imbecility and Insanity


- an imbecile or an insane is entitled to be exempted, unless the latter acted during a lucid
interval

Imbecile one who is deprived completely of reason or discernment and freedom of will when
committing a crime; exempted in all cases; mentality is comparable to a child 2-7 years old
Insanity not so exempt because during a lucid interval, the person can act with intelligence

Q: what is permanent sickness?


Imbecility

Q: Which is not permanent?


Insanity

Q: Insanity before the commission of the crime, legal effect?


Not exempt
During exempt
After not exempt, but proceeding will be suspended
*insanity must be at the time of the commission of the offense unless is proven to subsist until
commission

Q: What is the test for the degree of insanity for it to count as an exempting circumstance?
The tests of the degree of insanity are the existence of:
1. complete deprivation of intelligence

2. total deprivation of freedom of will

Mere abnormalities of the mental facilities are not enough

Q: Supposing, a man suddenly just stabs another person, he then began to run away because he knew he
committed a crime, then as the authorities tried to catch him, as they got closer to him, he ran even
faster, can he invoke insanity as an exempting circumstance?
NO, the fact that he was running away was an indication that he was not deprived of
intelligence because he knew he did, and by running faster to avoid the authorities was an
indication of not being totally deprived of his freedom of will because of his intention to escape

Q: Who has the Burden to prove insanity:


lies with the defense, (According to Reyes, through circumstantial evidence if clear and
convincing)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 54 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Evidence of insanity must refer to the time preceding the act or at the very moment of
execution

Q: Supposing, the offender becomes insane only after the commission of the crime or during trial, can he
still invoke the exempting circumstance of insanity?
NO, because what is counted and considered in determining whether there was insanity, is the
time preceding the act or the moment of execution

Feeblemindedness not exempting because s/he can still distinguish right from wrong; not equivalent
to insanity
Somnambulism or sleepwalking must be clearly proven to be considered an exempting circumstance
under this Article; acts of the sleepwalker should not be voluntary
Malignant malaria can cause insanity, therefore, can be considered as an exempting circumstance
under this Article
Basis for exemption complete absence of intelligence

Temporary Insanity yes, exempting

Article 12(2 & 3) Minority (repealed by Republic Act 9344 or the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act)

RA 9344, Section 6 a child 15 years of age or below at the time of the commission of the crime shall
be exempt from criminal liability but will undergo an intervention program; a child above 15 years of
age or below 18 years of age shall be exempt and be subjected to an intervention program unless
s/he acted with discernment in which case such child will be subject to the appropriate proceedings in
accordance with this Act

Children falling under this Act are referred to as a child in conflict with the law; normally minor
offenders are referred to as the accused, juvenile delinquent, prisoner, respondent, etc. but it is
contemplated that these terms refer to persons who have committed crimes; RA 9344 prohibits the
use of these terms to refer to minor offenders, only the abovementioned term can be used

For a child in conflict with the law there is a presumption of the absence or lack of intelligence
Offenders are free from criminal liability but are still civilly liable

The legal effect of the exemption: the child shall be given to the custody of the parent or guardian; in
their absence, the custody is given to the following, according to their order of availability:
(a) registered non-governmental organization
(b) registered religious organization
(c) member of the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC)
(d) local office of the Dept. of Social Welfare & Development (DSWD)
(e) national office of the Dept. of Social Welfare & Development (DSWD)

Another effect is that the minor is subjected to an intervention or diversion program which involves:
seminars and classes on family and mediation, skills improvement, emotional management, etc.; other

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 55 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

diversion programs are for reformation and rehabilitation, in which the public prosecutor usually
initiates the recommendation for the minor to be subjected under the program

Q: What is a child at risk?

General Rule for minors above 15 or below 18 years of age: exempted, because the presumption is
that they acted without intelligence

Exception: the minor acted with discernment

How is discernment determined? (Reyes)


(1) manner of committing the crime

(2) conduct of the offender

Discernment can also be determined by the words uttered by the minor attendant to the commission
of the act, eg. the words, Buti nga sayo!, which indicates an expression of accomplishment, victory
or satisfaction

When the case has been decided by the court

If the judgment is an acquittal, the decision shall immediately take effect without suspension, and the
decision shall be promulgated and pronounced
What is the significance of promulgation?
- it is full of significance; the decision is read in open court

- immediately after the reading the judgment of acquittal becomes immediately final and executory,
which cannot be subject for any motion of reconsideration, hence the decision cannot be either
reversed or modified

If the judgment is conviction, the promulgation of the decision and the sentence shall be suspended by
the court; the minor shall be ordered to undergo intervention, which shall have the following effects:
(a) If after the intervention, there is reform on the part of the minor, the minor shall be returned to the
court to dismiss the criminal case and dismiss the charges against the minor

(b) If after the intervention, there is no reform, the minor shall be returned to the court for the
promulgation of the decision against the minor; then, the court shall either decide on the sentence
or extend the intervention

Only when there is refusal to be subjected to reformation or when there is failure to reform can the
child be subjected to criminal prosecution and the judicial system

Other effects of Republic Act 9344


(i) decriminalizes the sniffing of rugby by a minor

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

(ii) decriminalizes the violation of a minor of the Anti-Mendicancy Law, which prohibits begging or
beggars

(iii) decriminalizes vagrancy and prostitution, punished under the RPC, when committed by a minor
15 years old or below; the minor will not be criminally liable

(iv) criminal records of minors above 15 or below 18 years of age are kept confidential in order to
protect the honor and reputation of the minor

(v) exempts minors from the offense of refusing to acknowledge the fact that s/he had been involved
or convicted in a criminal case before

(vi) minors can deny under oath their criminal involvement or conviction; cannot be charged with
perjury or falsification or misrepresentation, for concealing the criminal involvement or conviction;
purpose: to give the minor a new lease in life and to prevent the stigma of conviction which extends in
a long-term basis, i.e. in looking for job or protecting the families reputation

(vii) retroactive application of RA 9344 on persons who were convicted and are currently serving time
for crimes they committed when they were minors above 9 or below 15 years of age when they
committed the offense, because minors who acted with discernment under this age bracket, were not
exempted from criminal liability before under the RPC, but has already been repealed by RA 9344;
their criminal liability is erased therefore they shall be released

Q: Supposing, a 10-year old, who is apparently very intelligent, commits a crime, will he be exempted
from criminal liability considering the high level of intelligence of the child?
YES, he is still exempted; what is important is the age of the child at the time of the commission
of the crime; it doesnt matter whether the child was extremely intelligent

Status Offenses (under RA 9344) refers to offenses which discriminate only against a child, while an
adult does not suffer any penalty for committing similar acts; these shall include curfew violations,
truancy, parental disobedience and the like

Status offenses when committed by a minor are punishable, but are not punishable anymore under RA
9344

Status offenses when committed by an adult are not punishable

The Dangers of Republic Act 9344 (Amurao)


- can be abused or taken advantage of by crime syndicates that use minors as instruments for
the commission of crimes

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 57 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- The effect of the liberal exemptions of RA 9344 what will happen to the victims if the
offenders, who are minors, will be exempted all the time? Victims will take the Filipino way =
taking the law into their own hands
With reference to RA 9344, the Philippines is not yet ready for that kind of law. (Amurao)
Basis for the exemption of a minor: absence or lack of intelligence

Article 12(4) - Accident


- Elements:
1. a person is performing a lawful act
2. the act is done with due care
3. causes an injury to another by mere accident
4. injury was done without fault or intention of causing it

Q: What is an Accident?
Q: What are the Requisites?
Q: What are the Legal Effects of Accident?
No civil liability
No criminal liability

Examples of exceptions

Q: Driver with an expired license? NOT exempt

Q:Not registered 1 year delinquent? NOT exempt- not lawful act

With defective breaks, w/n Speed limits proper lane?


Not exempt-fault or negligence

Tires of car already worn out? Not exempt


In tiptop condition, brand new tires? Not exempt
Of 7 passengers in the car- overloading

Right lane empty, overtook the car? Not exempt


Left lane is for overtaking

Overtaking on the left lane, hit a child who suddenly crossed the road? Yes, exempt.

Absolutory cause (Art.247)


Par.1 not exempt from criminal liability. There is a penalty-destierro. It is still an unlawful act.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 58 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

If all the elements are present, the legal effect is that the accused shall incur no criminal liability and
no civil liability
If not all the elements are present, Article 67 of the RPC will apply and the penalty prescribed is
arresto mayor to prision mayor for grave felonies
There is negligence when = the accused tried to overtake another vehicle on the right side of the road
because this is a violation of traffic laws
Speeding along the road is an example of an act done without due care
Basis for exemption absence of intent

Article 12(5) Compulsion of Irresistible Force


-Elements:
1. compulsion to commit the crime is by means of physical force or violence
2. physical force or violence is irresistible
3. the physical force or violence must come from a 3rd person

Presupposes that a person is compelled by means of force or violence


Irresistible Force degree of force which is external or physical force which reduces the person to a
mere instrument and the acts produced are done without his will and against his will (Amurao)
Basis for exemption absence of freedom

Article 12(6) Impulse of an Uncontrollable Fear


- Requisites: (Reyes)

1. that the threat which causes the fear is of an evil greater than or at least equal to that which
he is required to commit

2. that it promises an evil of such gravity and imminence that the ordinary man would have
succumbed to it

Presupposes intimidation or threat, not force or violence

- Elements:
1. the existence of an uncontrollable fear
2. the fear must real and imminent
3. the fear of an injury is greater than or equal to that committed
All the elements must concur
Basis for exemption - absence of freedom

Q: What element of voluntariness is absent?


Intent, Freedom

Q; Par.6 Distinguish 6 and 5.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 59 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Nature of threat greater or equal?

Difference between irresistible force and uncontrollable fear:


Irresistible Force involves the use of violence or physical force to compel

Uncontrollable Fear involves the use of threat or intimidation to compel

Article 12(7) Failure to Perform a Lawful Act Due to Lawful or Insuperable Cause
- Elements:
1. an act is required by law to be done
2. that a person fails to perform such act
3. that the failure to perform such act was due to some lawful or insuperable cause
Failure to deliver arrested persons to the proper authorities due to problems regarding distance and
transportation is a lawful or insuperable cause

A typhoon causes the failure to perform the lawful act is an insuperable cause

Basis for exemption absence of intent

Absolutory Causes those where the act committed is a crime but for reasons of public policy and
sentiment, there is no penalty imposed

Instigation is an illegal act because the public officer plants the seed of criminality in the mind of the
person or offender (Amurao); the public officer induces an innocent person to commit the crime which
the public officer conceived (Reyes)
Entrapment is a legal act because the purpose is to capture or trap the lawbreaker
Buy-bust operations are forms of entrapment, hence they are legal

Arbitrary Detention with warrant


Art. 125 (Warrantless arrest)

Instigation vs. Entrapment- e.g. buy bust operation


Give examples
Private individual both
Effects of criminal liability of:
Instigator-liable as principal by inducement
Instigated- principal by direct participation
Put absolutory as to direct participation

Article 13

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Q: what is mitigating circumstance?


- those which, if present in the commission of the crime, do not entirely free the actor from
criminal liability but serve only to reduce the penalty

Q: What are the Kinds?


Ordinary
Privileged

Par.1 of Art. 13 becomes a privileged mitigating circumstance because of Art.69 (Amurao)


Art.69 makes par.1 of Art.13 a priv. mit. Circumstance.

Classification:
ORDINARY PRIVILEGED

- offset by a generic aggravating - cannot be offset by a generic

circumstance aggravating circumstance

- penalty lowered to minimum - penalty lowered by degree

Mitigating and aggravating circumstances are not applied to special penal laws because the penalties
in special penal laws cannot be divided into three periods

Article 13(1) Incomplete Justifying or Exempting Circumstances


- is considered a privileged mitigating circumstance, provided, majority of the elements required to
justify or exempt are present

- for the justifying circumstances of self-defense, defense of relative and defense of stranger = the
element of unlawful aggression should always be present

*All elements of JC or EC present exempt or justified


*IE elements but not majority ordinary mit. Circ.
*Majority of the elements are present- priv. mit. Circ.
Provided that in self defense, defense of relative or defense of stranger, Unlawful aggression is
present.

Q: Give an example.

Example of mitigating circumstance of incomplete accident


(see page 259 of book) There was fault.

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Woman sleeping in her room. Janitor happened to enter the room to clean. He accidentally touched
the hand of the woman. Believing her honor was in danger, shot the janitor using a gun under her
pillow? (US vs. Apego)
Mit. Circ.- Mistake of fact of the woman.

Priv. Mit. Circ. Of self-defense


(N.B. Unlawful Agression + either of requisites 2 or 3)

Q: 50 meters away- privileged?


No, considering the distance UA not present

Article 13(2) Minority


- covers minors above 15 years but below 18 years of age (16-17 years old), who acted with
discernment
- shall be entitled to the benefits of a privileged mitigating circumstance
Basis for mitigation: diminution of intelligence

Bet. 15 or 18 with discernment- mit (reduced by one degree)


Without discernment- exempting

RA 9344 did not amend Art. 68


Refuse to submit Diversion program
Violation of conditions
Not for best interest
Diversion program- commencement of criminal action- if eventually sentenced to conviction Art.
68 will apply.

Article 13(3) Praeter Intentionem


- offender did not intend to commit so grave a wrong

- disproportion of the means employed to execute the crime and the consequences produced; there
should have been an intent at the moment

Basis for mitigation: lack or diminution of intent

Factor to determine existence of praeter intentionem, intent being a state of mind.


1) weapon used
2) nature of injury; number of injury
3) part of the body injured (location of injury)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 62 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

4) manner of inflicting injury

Treachery - External
Yes. Qualifying aggravating if external in nature can co-exist with praeter intentionem which is
internal. CLEAR?

Q: A intend to injure AMurao hit in the right shoulder Did not submit to medical treatment. Amurao
died.

1st question: Is A liable? Yes, par. 1 Art.4


Was there treachery? Yeshence murder (qualified by treachery)
Because Amurao died, intent to kill is by law conclusive.

Q: People v. Enriquez (Abuse of superior strength)


Intent to threaten only
How would you classify? Ordinary.
Legal effect? Minimum
Except- if cancelled by generic aggaravating circ.

Q: Claim par. 3 in violation of special penal laws?


No, intent is immaterial in offenses.

Q: True or false: All mitigating circ. Can be appreciated in special penal laws?
No, penalties not graduated and divisible into min, med, max periods, In general)
Except: Age

Article 13(4) Presence of Sufficient Provocation or Threat

Q: What are the requisites?


1. provocation must be sufficient
2. must originate from the offended party
3. that the provocation must be immediate to the act or crime committed by the person who is
provoked

Q: What is provocation?
Provocation any unjust or improper conduct or act of the offended party capable of exciting,
inciting or initiating anyone

Q: When is provocation Sufficient


adequate to excite a person to commit the wrong and must accordingly be proportionate to its
gravity

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- depends on:
(1) the act constituting the provocation
(2) the social standing of the person provoked
(3) the place and time when the provocation was made
Threats should immediately precede the act
Basis of the mitigation: diminution of intelligence and intent

Q: Elements: (SOI)

Q: Test to determine whether provocation can be considered mitigating. What kind of provocation?
Sufficient.

Q: When is provocation sufficient?


P. 273

Q: How soon must the crime be committed?


No time to regain his reason and to exercise self-control
-meaning of immediately is not with reference to the lapse of time per se

*Relate to RATIO OF THE LAW


But lapse of time to regain self-control

-personal to you (the provocation)

Q: What is the determining factor?


Influence or effect of the provocation
(w/c means that lapse or interval of time is allowed depending on gravity of offense)

Q: Acts of lasciviousness committed against you (2pm); Borrowed knife (230 pm)
Mitigating under par. 4?
Yes.
Q: Under par. 6?
Yes.
Q: May you consider both together?
No, alternatively arising from the same facts.

Q: Is acts lasciviousness a grave offense?


Yes.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 64 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Article 13(5) Immediate Vindication of Relatives/Himself


- Requisites:
1. that a grave offense has been done on the one committing the felony or on his relatives
2. felony committed in vindication of such grave offense; a lapse of time is allowed between the
vindication and the doing of the grave offense

Difference between PROVOCATION and VINDICATION


Provocation Vindication
- it is made directly only to the person - the grave offense may be
committing the felony committed also against the
offenders relatives
- the cause that brought about the - offended party must have done
provocation need not be a grave a grave offense to offender or
offense his relatives
- it is necessary that the provocation or - vindication of the grave offense
threat immediately precedes the act may be proximate which allows an
without interval of time interval of time

Reason for the difference: vindication concerns the honor of a person


To determine whether the personal offense is grave, the ff. are considered:
- social standing of the person

- time when the insult was made

- place where the insult was made

- sometimes, even the age may be considered

Basis for the mitigation: diminution of the conditions of voluntariness

Q: There are 3 mit. Circ. Present. Will you be entitled to the benefits of these MC?
No. Arose only out of 1 fact/ set of facts.

Q: 9:30 mother informed you that your sister was raped. You searched for him with a revolver. Did not
find him. Found him after 3 days.
Passion or obfuscation? No.
Provocation? No.
Vindication? Yes.

Q: What is required in vindication?


Lapse of time
Q: What if after one week, vindication?

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Law says immediate

Q: Difference of meaning of immediate in par. 4 and 5?


Yes.

8 months, vindicating?

Q: Chinaman eloped with sweetheart. Parent of sweetheart considered it an offense against family.
Father looked ofr daughter. Found her in the house of the chinaman. Then father knocked, Chinaman ran
and refused to talk with father. Father enraged shot chinaman.
1) How many mit. Circ.?
Vindication of grave offense
Passion or obfuscation
2) Must grave offense constitute a crime?
No.

Q: Supposing you have a first cousin, girl, so close to you, who was raped by neighbor. You looked for
neighbour and shot him dead.
What mit. Circ? Vindication?
No, first cousin not contemplated under vindication (relatives)

Q: Requirements of passion or obfuscation?

Q: Common law husband ask common law wife to return home. Wife refused. Husband was humiliated
by reason of which he stabbed common law wife.
May claim passion or obfuscation? No.
Vindication of grave offense? No, not enumerated by law.

Q: Humiliation, slandered in public, is it a crime?


Yes.
Q: It is a grave offense against you?
Q: What is the crime committed? Slander,
Q: May be committed by a common law wife against a common law husband? Yes.

Q: Presence of P&O, V, and SP- Yes


Q: Can you consider all of these in your favour?
P&O- No, not lawful sentiment; not lawful legitimate relation
SP- Yes
V- Yes

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 66 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Old man has his own family already but not contented with wife went out every night . Met an
attractive woman in a prostitution house, he convinced woman to leave the prostitution house and they
lived together as husband and wife. Wife left.

After several days, she was found in another prostitution house, convinced her to to go back.
Woman adamant in her refusal. Woman said Ayoko na sayo, Matanda ka na. Mahina na tuhod
mo. Old man was enraged, stabbed her.

Q: May old man claim P&O?


No. People v. Bello is an exception (p. 290-291)

4,5,6 are interrelated because they can exist in a single act but not necessarily appreciated separately.

Article 13(6) Passion or Obfuscation


- Elements:
1. the accused acted upon impulse
2. the impulse must be so powerful that it naturally produced passion or obfuscation in the accused
Reason: these are causes naturally producing in a person powerful excitement that he
loses reason and self-control thereby diminishing the exercise of willpower
Rule: the passion or obfuscation should arise from lawful sentiments in order to be
mitigating

- Requisites:
1. that there be an act, both unlawful and sufficient to produce such a condition of mind

2. that said act which produced the obfuscation was not far removed from the commission of the
crime by a considerable length of time, during which the perpetrator might recover his natural
equanimity

Difference between PASSION or OBFUSCATION and IRRESISTIBLE FORCE


Passion or Obfuscation Irresistible Force
- a mitigating circumstance - an exempting circumstance
- cannot give rise to irresistible force - requires physical force
because passion or obfuscation has no
physical force
- the passion or obfuscation is in the - must come from a third person
offender himself
- must arise from lawful sentiments - is unlawful

Difference between PASSION or OBFUSCATION and PROVOCATION


Passion or Obfuscation Provocation
- produced by an impulse which may - must come from the injured party
be caused by provocation

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 67 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- the offense which engenders - must immediately precede the


perturbation of mind need not be commission of the crime
immediate; it is only required that the
influence thereof lasts until the
moment the crime is committed
- the effect is loss of reason and - the effect is also loss of reason
self-control on the part of the and self-control on the part of the
offender offender

Article 13(7) Voluntary Surrender/Voluntary Confession of Guilt

Voluntary Surrender
- Requisites:
1. that the offender had not been actually arrested
2. that the offender surrendered himself to a person in authority or to the latters agent
3. that the surrender was voluntary
Voluntary to be appreciated, voluntary surrender must be spontaneous in such a manner that it
shows the interest of the accused to surrender unconditionally to the authorities, either because (1) he
acknowledged his guilt or (2) because he wishes to save them the trouble and expense necessarily
incurred in his search and capture
Intention to surrender without actually surrendering is NOT mitigating

Voluntary Confession of Guilt


- Requisites:
1. that the offender spontaneously confessed his guilt
2. that the confession of guilt was made in open court that is before the competent court that is to try
the case
3. that the confession of guilt was made prior to the presentation of evidence for the prosecution

Even after arraignment, voluntary confession can still be mitigating, when with the consent of the
public prosecutor, there is an amendment in the information = still voluntary confession (as was held in
the midterms)
Voluntary confession is usually done during arraignment
What has been admitted need not be proven by evidence; judgment can already be rendered but both
sides can still present evidence to prove aggravating or mitigating circumstances

Arraignment charges are being read to the accused in open court in a language known to him; if the
charges are read in a language not known to him, the arraignment or plea is void.
It is the duty of courts to read charges in a language known to him

Promulgation physical and actual reading of the sentence to the accused


- can be limited to just the dispositive portion (the wherefore clause)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- if there is an acquittal, the decision is final and executory and not appeallable because of the risk of
double jeopardy

- if there is a conviction, the accused has 15 days to avail of legal remedies, if not availed after, the
conviction becomes final and executory

Basis for mitigation: lesser perversity of the offender

Q: How many MC? two


1) Voluntary surrender- Ordinary (not generic)
2) Voluntary confession of guilt

Paragraphs 3 to 10 are all ordinary mitigating

Reason for considering voluntary surrender mitigating?


1. Act of repentance and
2 respect for law, and
3. saves time, resources and energy for his search and capture

To whom must VS be done?


Person-in-authority, Define (p.305)
Agent

e.g. of P-I-A
Brgy. Chairman
City Mayor
Judge, Governor
Prosecutor, Congressman
President, Professors, Teachers
Agents
Police officers
Members of AFP
Brgy. Tanods
NBI agents
Sheriffs

Killd neighbor, surrender to Amurao, voluntary surrender? Yes.

Board members of GSIS? Yes.

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 69 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Of Landbank? Yes.
DBP? Yes.
SSS? Yes.
PAGCOR? Yes.

Q: Supposing accused after killing neighbour just stayed in his house. When police officers arrived, went
with them voluntarily- mit? No.

Voluntary surrender not synonymous with non-flight.

Direct, positive, unequivocal act showing an intention to submit himself voluntarily either save the govt
from the time and expenses or as a sign of acknowledgment of guilt or repentance (Amurao)

Offender on radio that he was #1 suspect in slaying of politician, he came to the police to clear his name,
he has a pending case for rape. Voluntary surrender? No.

Will surrender only if


1) He is given special treatment
2) ref
3) aircon
Voluntary surrender? No.

After committing crime, accused went into hiding. He was found after several months. Hiding place
surrounded by authorities.

He came out saying I surrender. VS?


No ( Internal) Meaning of spontaneous.

Voluntary Confession Par. 10 of Art.14.

A case for homicide filed against accused in Batanes. Upon learning, the accused hiding in Tawi-tawi
surrendered to Brgy. Chairman of Tawi-tawi?
Yes. Place of surrender not significant. It need not be the place where the case is filed.

Q: Phil. Ambassador to Australia, if accused is in Australia upon learning of the case filed? Yes.

Q: If surrendered to Australian Prime Minister? No, not a P-I-A or agent under the Phil laws

Q: On the way to the police precinct, was apprehended? Yes.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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CRIMINAL LAW Page 70 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Q: Did not offer resistance? No.

Q: Issued warrant, surrendered to Brgy. Tanod? Yes.


Even if warrant is already issued? Yes, as long as not served.

10 months after issuance, surrendered? No. No longer spontaneous.

Surrender to mother-in-law? No.

Q: Requisites of VCG:

Competent court- meaning?


Court trying the case
Open court- meaning? Even if doors are closed?
Yes.

Reason behind VCG? Act of repentance, Acknowledgment of guilt

Accused willing to plead guilty with condition


Ref, aircon, computer set? No.

When to plead? Arraignment.

Pre-trial? (There is presentation of witnesses, documents, and gist of testimony)


After inspection of evidence and conclusion, the evidence against him is strong.

Stages
Arraignment
Pre-trial
Trial

ONLY SUBMISSION, NOT PRESENTATION

Prosec presented 1st eyewitness, clear & convicning testimony


After 1st witness, concluding that he would be convicted , withdrew guilty plea. Mitigating? No.

N.B. NOT prior to termination


Witness only sworn-in, no testimony yet mitigating? Yes.

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 71 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Amend info to a lesser offense w/o protest willing to plea guilty, mitigating? Yes.

Article 13(8) Deafness and Dumbness


- must restrict the means of action, defense or communication with others

Basis for mitigation: offender does not have complete freedom of action; diminution of freedom and
voluntariness

Bald? No.
Blind? Yes.
Partial blindness? Yes.
Deaf by one ear? Yes.
Crippled? Yes.
Toothless? Yes!

When must the physical defect be present? At the time of the commission of the crime.
ORDINARY MIT.
Legal effects.

Article 13(9) Illness


- the offender has diminished exercise of willpower; loss of willpower may even be exempting
- deprivation of consciousness

Basis for mitigation: diminution of intelligence and intent

Accused prosecuted for simple theft (shoplifting in a mall)


During trial, it was proved that he was a kleptomaniac. Mitigating? Yes.

If prosecuted for frustrated homicide?


No, not related to the offense committed.

Accused prosecuted for rape. During trial proved to be sex maniac, Mitigating? Yes.

NO CONTROL OF THEIR OWN WILL AS FAR AS THE OFFENSE IS CONCERNED

Same fact-sex maniac. Prosecuted for Robbery? No.

Article 13(10) Other Analogous Circumstances

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Example?
Blind, 60 years old-70 years of age
Restitution- voluntary surrender.
Creditor, debtor.
Running away and refuses to pay.
Victim brought to the hospital for treatment- voluntary surrender.
Giving victim a certain amount for- voluntary confession.

Jealousy. You saw your girlfriend walking hand-in-hand with another man, you inflicted physical injuries?
Passion or obfuscation.

Other mit. Circ. In the RPC?


Infanticide or abortion to conceal disgrace or dishonor.
Adultery- there is abandonment by the offended party. (Unjustified)

Article 14
Q: What are aggravating circumstances?
- those if present, are not automatically offset by mitigating circumstances
- may increase the penalty provided by the law without exceeding the maximum penalty or it changes
the nature of the crime

- Classification:
1. Generic those that generally apply to all crimes, eg. Recidivism, Aid of Minors, Advantage taken by
Public Position, etc

2. Specific those that apply to particular crimes, eg. Ignominy, Treachery

3. Qualifying Those that change the nature of the crime, eg. Treachery, Evident Premeditation, Cruelty,
etc.

4. Inherent necessity accompanies the commission of the crime, eg. sex is inherent in crimes against
chastity

Difference between Generic and Qualifying


GENERIC QUALIFYING

- can be offset by an ordinary - cannot be offset by an ordinary

mitigating circumstance mitigating circumstance

NOTES BY:
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year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- the legal effect is to increase - it changes the nature of the crime

the penalty to the maximum - give the crime its proper and exclusive

without exceeding the limit name

Both qualifying and generic circumstances must be alleged in the information; the prosecution cant
prove an aggravating circumstance during trial (p.326 #3 in the comparison part in the Reyes book is
wrong)

Article 14(1) Advantage Taken of Public Position


- a generic aggravating circumstance

- based on Republic Act 7659, in crimes committed by a public officer, the penalty prescribed by law is
always at the maximum, regardless of the mitigating circumstances presented and regardless of the
nature of these mitigating circumstances

Public Officer for advantage taken to be appreciated, s/he must use the influence, prestige or
ascendancy which his office gives him as the means by which s/he realizes his purpose.
There should be a deliberate intent to use the influence, prestige or ascendancy

Is it enough that the offender is a public officer? NO, he has to use the influence, prestige or
ascendancy given to him by his office
Supposing, a police officer enters the house then ties up the residents and robs them, can the
aggravating circumstance of advantage taken of public position be appreciated? YES
Supposing, a traffic enforcer take over the car of a driver and speeds away, he is convicted of robbery,
can the aggravating circumstance of advantage taken of public position be appreciated? YES
Supposing some members of the barangay council asked for financial sponsorship for the education of
the community, then the project turned out to be false, can the aggravating circumstance of
advantage taken of public position be appreciated? YES
Supposing, if these crimes were attendant of negligence, passion or obfuscation, vindication, or
sufficient provocation, can the aggravating circumstance of advantage taken of public position be
appreciated? NO, because these circumstances are incompatible with advantage taken of public
position since deliberate intent is absent in these instances.
Supposing, a police investigator asked a rape victim to enter a room where he committed acts of
lasciviousness on the rape victim, can the aggravating circumstance of advantage taken of public
position be appreciated? YES

The aggravating circumstance of advantage taken of public position is NOT appreciated when the
public position is an integral element or inherent in the offense; In the ff crimes, public position is
inherent:
- bribery - malversation of public funds

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 74 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- indirect bribery - falsification of public documents

- RA 3019 - other crimes against public officers under the RPC

Basis for the aggravation: the greater perversity of (1) personal circumstances of the offender, and (2)
means used to secure commission of the crime

Article 14(2) Contempt or Insult to Public Authorities


- Requisites:

1. the public authority is engaged in the exercise of his official functions

2. the public authority is not the victim of the crime

3. offender knows him to be a public authority

4. his presence has not prevented the offender from committing the crime

Supposing, one Sunday, the mayor just finished mass, he saw two people fighting, he mediated upon
introducing himself, can the aggravating circumstance of contempt or insult of public authorities be
appreciated? YES, because regardless of the day, even if Sunday is not a working day, the official
function of the mayor, in this case to maintain peace and order, does not stop as long as he is within
his jurisdiction
Supposing, using the same facts above, the two people attacked the mayor, can the aggravating
circumstance of contempt or insult of public authorities be appreciated? NO, because the public
authority should not be the offended party
Supposing, using the same facts, but the mayor attended the mass in another town, can the
aggravating circumstance of contempt or insult of public authorities be appreciated? NO, because
mediating would not be part of his official functions in that other town.
Supposing, using the same facts above, but the two people did not know that the one mediating was
in fact the mayor, can the aggravating circumstance of contempt or insult of public authorities be
appreciated? NO, the offenders have to know that he is the mayor or a public authority

Q: Supposing mayor of town X attending wedding in town Y. A crime was committed. Aggravating?
No. Must be within his jurisdiction. Not engaged in official duties.

Article 14(3) Disregard of Rank, Age, Sex or Dwelling of the Offended Party
- there are FOUR circumstances in this paragraph

- rank, age, sex have a common denominator = respect due to offended party

Disregard of rank of the offended party


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
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Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation, vindication or those with sufficient
provocation = because of the lack of intent

- this can be done to a person in authority or his agent

- there should be deliberate intent to disregard or insult = accompanied with the difference in rank, and
manifested by deliberate acts

- inherent in the crime of direct assault

Supposing, a sergeant was driving a jeep in a careless manner, then he hit a general, can the
aggravating circumstance of disregard of rank be appreciated? NO, there was no deliberate intent to
disregard the rank of the general
Supposing, physical injuries were made against Prof. Amurao by his student, can the aggravating
circumstance of disregard of rank be appreciated? YES, because Prof. Amurao is a person in authority
and ranks higher than the student.
Supposing, a sergeant sees his wife embracing a general, then he ran over them, can the aggravating
circumstance of disregard of rank be appreciated? NO, because this circumstance was attendant of
passion or obfuscation

Disregard of age of the offended party


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance

- not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation, vindication or those with sufficient
provocation = because of the lack of intent

- for this circumstance to be appreciated, the disparity of age between offender and victim can be
determined if the victim can be the father of the accused; a disparity of 15 years or more

- tender age = for children; old age = for old people

Supposing, the offender was 90 years old when he stabbed the 105-year old victim, can the
aggravating circumstance of disregard of age be appreciated? YES, even if the offender was also very
old, the disparity of their ages still matters

Disregard of sex of the offended party


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance

- not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 76 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation, vindication or those with sufficient
provocation = because of the lack of intent

- the victim contemplated in this paragraph should be a woman

- the offender should act with deliberate intent to disrespect the woman

- disregard of sex is absorbed in treachery

- dwelling may mean temporary dwelling

Dwelling
- a place or structure that satisfies the requirements of domestic life of a person

- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance

- there no provocation on the part of the offended party

- all the ingredients of the crime should be done in the dwelling

- if the offender and offended are both occupants of the same house, dwelling cannot be appreciated

Supposing, the crime was committed in the garage of the house, can the aggravating circumstance of
dwelling be appreciated? YES, because the garage is part of the dwelling
Supposing the crime was done in the roof? YES
Supposing, a child was kidnapped while at the stairs of the dwelling, there was no ransom but the
child was killed in Cavite, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be appreciated? YES, because
the stairs is still part of the dwelling
Supposing, a husband kills his wife in their conjugal dwelling, can the aggravating circumstance of
dwelling be appreciated? NO
Supposing, the housemaid killed the employers child, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling
be appreciated? NO
Supposing, the accused was on the road when he shot the victim who was at the stairs, can dwelling
be appreciated? YES
Supposing, if the victim was in the yard going to the direction of the stairs, can the aggravating
circumstance of dwelling be appreciated? NO
Supposing, the victim was about to step on the stairs? can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling
be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the employer raped their maid, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be
appreciated? NO
Supposing, the houseboy killed the housemaid, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be
appreciated? NO
Supposing, the wife killed her husband in the conjugal house, can the aggravating circumstance of
dwelling be appreciated? NO

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 77 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing the wife commits adultery, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be appreciated?
YES
Supposing, the owner of the house and the dwelling of the victim, where the victim was a tenant, can
the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be appreciated? YES, because dwelling may mean temporary
dwelling
Supposing, the owner was killed in the toilet, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be
appreciated? YES, because the toilet is part of the dwelling
Supposing, the owner of the house was killed 500 meters from the toilet which was situated outside
the house, can the aggravating circumstance of dwelling be appreciated? NO, because if you destroy
the toilet, the house remains intact

Basis of the aggravation: Place of the commission of the crime; the sanctity of privacy that the law
provides the human abode

Q: How many ACs? 4

1.) Rank
2.) Sex
3.) Age
4.) Dwelling

Q: Rank and abuse of public functions can co-exist?


Yes
w/ SP? No, incompatible
w/ P/O? No

Q: Is it enough that the offended oarty be of higher rank?


No. Deliberate intent and with disregard
- Same with age
- Same with sex (not enough that offended party is a woman)

Q: Disregard of rank. Felony committed with negligence?


No. Deliberate intent and negligence are incompatible
- With P/O? No.
- Provocation? No
- Vindication? Yes

Q: General has illicit relations with a wife of a Sergeant. Sergeant saw them in tight embrace, shoots the
General. Aggravating?
No. with passion and obfuscation (p/o)
Vindication of grave offense with disregard of rank? Yes they are not inconsistent.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 78 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Age

Q: Accidental meeting between offender and offended?


No. must have deliberate intent
Q: Spur of the moment?
No. same reason. Applies also to Rank
By accident? No.

Rank is a generic

Q: what is the Legal effect?


Not offset by any ordinary mitigating circumstance. Raises the penalty to the maximum
- Can be offset by mit circumstance

Q: When there are 2 or more generic agg, not offset by ordinary mit, can the penalty go beyond the max
prescribed by law? No.
When there are 10? No.

Must not exceed the penalty prescribed by law for the offense

What is the required age difference? 15 years at least (could be the father)

Legal effect? Not offset by any ordinary mitigating circumstance. Raises the penalty to the maximum

- Can be offset by mit circumstance

When there are 2 or more generic agg, not offset by ordinary mit, can the penalty go beyond the max
prescribed by law? No.

When there are 10? No.

Must not exceed the penalty prescribed by law for the offense

What is the required age difference? 15 years at least (could be the father)

Age is generic

95- offended; 90- offender age aggravating? No.

Old man humiliated you in public. You stabbed him. Aggravating? No. Sufficient provocation is
incompatible.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 79 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

You attacked a 60 yo man who filed a criminal case against you. Aggravating? Yes. No passion or
obfuscationg.

-Passion or obfuscation must arise from unlawful action.

You stabbed an old man who aimed a revolver at you. Not aggravating. No sufficient provocation.

Age is generic

95- offended; 90- offender age aggravating? No.

Old man humiliated you in public. You stabbed him. Aggravating? No. Sufficient provocation is
incompatible.

You attacked a 60 yo man who filed a criminal case against you. Aggravating? Yes. No passion or
obfuscationg.

-Passion or obfuscation must arise from unlawful action.

You stabbed an old man who aimed a revolver at you. Not aggravating. No sufficient provocation.

Sex

Q: Considered in rape as aggravating?


No. inherent
Generic
Can be appreciated in crimes against person? Yes but not in rape (inherent)

Accused intended to kill husband.Saw husband and wife walking. Fired at the husband but hit the wife.
Not aggravating. No deliberate intent.

Why is sex aggravating? Wemen belong to the weaker sex.

If the woman is a black belter? No longer aggravating. Reason for law dont exist anymore.

Rank, Age, Sex and Dwelling common element? RESPECT (deliberate disregard of the respect)

Dwelling

What is dwelling? (*Lloyd used the definition in the book. MALI)

Generic

Comfor room a dwelling? No.

Dwelling a place of structure which satisfies the requirements of domestic life of a person

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 80 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Is it enough that the crime be committed in the dwelling? No. deliberate disregard of the respect due to
the offended party in the dwelling.

- Incomapatible with negligence


- Incompatible with p/o
- Incompatible with sufficient provocation
-Vindication can co-exist with dwelling? Yes. They are not incompatible.

Accused shot the victim while on the roof. Dwelling is aggravating

Accused was in the middle of the road. Victim was brushing his teeth by the window of the house.
Dwelling is aggravating, regardless of the location of the offender

Accused under the house of victim. Victim on the upper portion. Aggravating? Yes.

- Carport? Yes
- Comfort room of house? Yes
- If the CR is 500 meters from the house? No. no longer an integral part of the house.
Victim inside car. Car is in carport? Yes.

Son of owner of house, raped housemaid. Not aggravating. Must not be living in the same house.

-Maid only reports from 6 am to 9 pm. Then goes home to family. No.

Family driver reports from 6am to 8pm. Employer was out, driver raped thestay-in housemaid. This is
aggravating.

Siblings brother killed brother? No.

Husband killed paramour in conjugal room. Aggravating against the husband? No

Wife had sex with a stranger in the conjugal room. Aggravating against wife? Yes. See page 354.
Exception to the rule that dwelling is not aggravating if both is living inside.

If the owner is the offender? No, as a general rule

- Exception: lease temporary dwelling

Article 14(4) Abuse of Confidence/Obvious Ungratefulness


- this paragraph contemplates TWO aggravating circumstances

Abuse of Confidence exists only when the offended party has trusted the offender who later abuses
such trust by committing the crime. The abuse of confidence must be a means of facilitating the

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 81 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

commission of the crime. The culprit taking advantage of the offended partys belief that the former
would not abuse said confidence
- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; can be
raised to the maximum

There are instances where abuse of confidence is qualifying:


- qualified theft - qualified rape

- qualified seduction

Requisites:
1. offender had trusted the offended

2. offender abused such trust with the commission of the crime

3. abuse of confidence facilitated the commission of the crime

There should be direct relationship and trust


Confidence must be immediate and personal
Abuse of Confidence is inherent in the ff:
- malversation - qualified theft

- estafa - qualified seduction

Supposing, lovers broke off 1 week before their encounter, can the aggravating circumstance of abuse
of confidence be appreciated? NO
Supposing, a nanny killed 2 yr.old child under her care, can the aggravating circumstance of abuse of
confidence be appreciated? NO, because there is no direct relationship and trust between the nanny
and child
Supposing, the nanny killed the mother of that child under her care, can the aggravating circumstance
of abuse of confidence be appreciated? YES, because there is direct relationship and trust between
the nanny and the parents of the child

Ungratefulness must be obvious, manifest and clear


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; can be
raised to the maximum
- applicable to domestic servants, katiwalas, security guards
- not applicable to if offender and offended both live in the same house

Basis for aggravation: greater perversity of the ways and means employed

Abuse of confidence in estafa? Inherent.

Obvious ungratefulness

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 82 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Employer attempted against the honor of housemaid. After several day, employer invited housemaid to
farm. Raped housemaid. No.

Abuse of confidence? Confidence broken.

Article 14(5) Palace and Places of Commission of Offense


- this paragraph contemplates FOUR aggravating circumstances

- offender must have the intention to commit a crime when he entered the place

- all the four circumstances are not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation, immediate
vindication or those with sufficient provocation = because of the lack of intent

- not applicable to cases involving spurs of the moment or chance meetings

Wisdom behind this circumstance: Why aggravate? Whats with the place? Because the place deserves
respect (applies to all the places mentioned under this paragraph)
Crime committed in the Palace of the Chief Executive
- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum

- Is it necessary that the Chief Executive be there? NO

- the palace contemplated here is the Malacanang Palace

Supposing, the chef of the Chief Executive killed a janitor, can the aggravating circumstance of palace
of the Chief Executive be appreciated? YES, the Chief Executive need not be there
Supposing, a guest shot to death FG Mike Arroyo, can the aggravating circumstance of palace of the
Chief Executive be appreciated? YES
Supposing, using the same facts above, the crime was committed in the lawn, can the aggravating
circumstance of palace of the Chief Executive be appreciated? NO, because the lawn is not part of the
palace
Supposing, using the same facts above, the crime was committed in the presidential mansion, can the
aggravating circumstance of palace of the Chief Executive be appreciated? NO, because the mansion is
not the palace

Crime committed in the Presence of the Chief Executive


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum
- requires the personal presence of the Chief Executive
- Is it necessary that the crime be committed in the Presidential palace? NO

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 83 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, the president personally saw the crime, can the aggravating circumstance of in the
presence of the Chief Executive be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the president, while watching television, saw the crime? can the aggravating circumstance
of palace of the Chief Executive be appreciated? NO
Supposing, on-board a helicopter, the Chief Executive saw the crime from a distance, can the
aggravating circumstance of palace of the Chief Executive be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the offender had no knowledge that the Chief Executive was present or near the place of
the commission of the crime, can the aggravating circumstance of palace of the Chief Executive be
appreciated? NO

Crime committed in the Place where Public Authorities are in the Discharge of their Duties
- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum
- emphasizes the place of the commission of the crime
- the public authority must be in the exercise or performance of ones official function

Crime committed in a Place Dedicated for Religious Worship


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum
- emphasizes the respect that should be afforded to the place

Supposing, there was no ceremony in the church when the crime was committed, can the aggravating
circumstance of place dedicated for religious worship be appreciated? YES
Supposing, there was no priest in the church, can the aggravating circumstance of place dedicated for
religious worship be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the crime was committed in a chapel inside a cemetery (the chapel is used only when
there are masses to be held for purposes of funeral services), can the aggravating circumstance of
place dedicated for religious worship be appreciated? NO, the place of religious worship should hold
religious ceremonies there regularly

Basis for aggravation: greater perversity shown by the place of the commission of the crime, which must
be respected

Generic

Emphasis of par 5? PLACE of the commission of the crime. (respect due to the place)

Pres Noynoy in Times St. Crime committed in Malacanang grounds. (garden). No, must be in palace itself,
not garden.

If the convoy was caught in heavy traffic. Accused knew it was the presidents convoy. Committed holdup
in the streets. Aggravating? Yes

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 84 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Incompatible with negligence, p/o and sp.

President noynoy in helicopter hovering over the projects. Two workers had a fight. One stabbed another
to death within view of president noynoy. Aggravating? Yes.

Place devoted for religious worship.

Generic.

Is it enough that the crime be committed in a place decoted to religious worship? No. deliberate intent.

Accused rape victim while praying in San Beda Abbey? Yes

If in a private chapel in your house? No. 1.) regular worship. Regular religious worship. 2.) must be open
to the public.

Chapels in cemeteries? No.

Public authorities are engaged in the performance generice

Not necessary that the PA must be engaged in the performance of functions. Why? Emphasis is in the
place. Reason is the respect due to the place.

Chief justice asleep in his house. The Office of Chief Justice was robbed. Aggravating? Yes

Office of Senate Pres while SP was sleeping in his house in the middle of the night? Yes

BOOK IS WRONG. It will collide with par 2 if it will be required that the PA should be in the exercise of his
functions.

Article 14(6) Nighttime, Uninhabited Place or Band


- this paragraph contemplates THREE aggravating circumstances
- all the three circumstances are not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation or those
with sufficient provocation

Applicable in cases where:


1. the circumstance facilitated the commission of the crime
2. the circumstance was especially sought for by the offender to insure the commission of the crime or
for the purpose of impunity
- to commit the crime with more ease
- contemplates a planned attack; not a mere encounter

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 85 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

3. the offender took advantage of the circumstance for the purpose of impunity
- to prevent being recognized or to secure himself against detection

Nighttime
- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME
- nighttime means: beginning at the end of dusk and ending at dawn
- it is not enough that it was nighttime
- what is especially sought for by the offender is the darkness of the night
- this circumstance is not applicable to cases involving accidents, accidental meetings, chance
encounters, or spurs of the moment

Supposing, the crime was committed inside a dark movie house at around 4pm, can the aggravating
circumstance of nighttime be appreciated? NO, because was should be especially sought for is the
darkness of night, not the darkness of the movie house when the lights were only off because it was
only 4 in the afternoon
Supposing, the crime was committed inside a movie house when the lights were still open and the
time then was 9pm, can the aggravating circumstance of nighttime be appreciated? NO, because even
though it was nighttime, the place of the commission was well-lighted when it was committed
Supposing, the crime was committed in a place where it was well-lighted by a Meralco lightpost, can
the aggravating circumstance of nighttime be appreciated? NO

Uninhabited Place
- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME
- there should be intent
Spur of the moment Not applicable
What is considered is the reasonable possibility for the victim to receive some help; the degree of
difficulty of giving assistance or help
Solitude (must be sought for to better attain criminal purpose)
- for an easy and uninterrupted accomplishment of their criminal design
- to insure concealment of the offense; security against detection and punishment

Band
- more than three malefactors
- shall have acted together
- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME
What do you mean by armed? only guns? NO, knives are considered; anything that can kill a person
Aggravating in crimes against property and crimes against persons; NOT applicable in crimes against
chastity

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 86 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Basis for aggravation: time & place of the commission & means employed

How many AC? 3

Nighttime generic (with jurisprudence)


Nighttime as absorbed in treachery qualifies homicide to murder
What is nighttime? P. 365
8pm. Met in the classroom. Stabbed amurao. Aggravating? No. classroom is well lighted.
Incompatible with: accidental meeting, negligence, p/o, s/p, spur of the moment.
Started the crime at 5pm (sunset) finishes at 11 pm aggravating? No. unset not dark yet.
Started at 3 am 530 pm sunrise? No.
Deliberate intent.
If the crime was finished only at nighttime not aggravating
Moviehouse. Lights off? No.
Announcement of total eclipse causing total darkness from 3pm to 5 pm. You plan to kill your neighbor
when the eclipse set in. not aggravating
\killed during full moon.no clouds covered the moon. NO
- Nighttime to be aggravating, the accused must have sought the darkness of the night.
In crimes against person may be an indicia of treachery.

Uninhabited place
Generic
Legal effect?
Why aggravating? No possibility of receiving help (TEST)
Deliberate intent
Incompatible with negligence, sp, p/o, chance encounter, spur of the moment,
Can treachery absorb this ac? Yes.

By Band
Generic
Absorbed by treachery? Yes
Synonymous with syndicate? No
- 2 or more
- Not necessarily armed
5 persons commirtted robbery, only 3 armed. Bya band? No. at least 4 armed.

Article 14(7) On occasion of calamity or misfortune


- that the crime be committed on the occasion of a conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic or
other calamity or misfortune

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 87 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

- there should be deliberate intent to take advantage

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases involving accidents, accidental meetings, chance
encounters, or spurs of the moment

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation or those with sufficient provocation

Reason: in the midst of great calamity, instead lending aid to the afflicted, the offender adds to the
victims suffering by taking advantage of their advantage of their misfortune to despoil
The offender must seek for the calamity as an opportunity to take advantage or to commit the crime
Supposing, the offender saw his mortal enemy in a flood, then he killed his mortal enemy, can the
aggravating circumstance of be appreciated? NO
Basis for aggravation: time of the commission of the crime

PARAGRAPH 7

- Qualifying
- Legal effect
- Deliberate intent must take advantage of the calamity
Incompatible with negligence

Conflagration

Retrieving your property. Accidentally met your mortal enemy. Stabbed him. Not aggravating

Incompatible with: p/o, spur of the moment, sp

Conflagration - A stranger took your properties, what is the crime. Qualified theft.

Article 14(8) Aid or Armed Men, etc.


- that the crime be committed with the aid of (1) armed men or, (2) persons who insure or afford
impunity

Armed Men
- at least two (2) men; the law says men; four (4) men = band already

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 88 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Rule: Casual presence of armed men is NOT aggravating


The armed men must take part directly or indirectly in the crime
The offender must avail of the aid
Mere moral or psychological aid or reliance is sufficient
Actual aid is NOT necessary
Persons who insure or afford impunity
- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME

- these persons should have or be in a position to afford impunity

Is a judge a person who can afford impunity? YES


Is an employee a person who can afford impunity? NO
Is a secretary a person who can afford impunity? NO
Is a mistress a person who can afford impunity? NO

Basis for aggravation: means and ways of committing the crime

PARAGRAPH 8

How many? 2

1.) Aid of armed men


2.) Aid of persons who afford impunity
Classification> qualifying

Legal effect?

Requirements:

1.) Took part


2.) Availed or relied
Armed men distinguished from band:

2 4

Direct or indirect directly took part

What kind of aid is contemplated?

Moral or psychological will suffice; material

A and 4 friends decided to kill Amurao. 4 friends all armed outside the gate. A armed with licensed
revolver. 4 friends will only help upon signal. Aggravating? Yes.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 89 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Casual presence of armed men already aggravating? No

Police major celebrating bday. Invited subordinates with service firearms. A guest stabbed another guest
No

Impunity

Qualifying

Legal effect?

e.g. first gentleman approchaed to protect you after killing somebody Yes

Chieftain of ABB-NPA (notorious). Aggravating? Yes. Impunity for Criminal Prosecution. Assurance that
there will be no complainant and witnesses Yes. not required to be legal source.

Mistress of mayor to afford impunity yes

Article 14(9) Recidivism


- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum

Recidivist one who, at the time of his trial for one crime, shall have been previously convicted by
final judgment of another crime embraced in the same title of the RPC
Requisites:
1. that the offender is on trial for an offense

2. that he was previously convicted by final judgment of another crime

3. that both the first and the second offense are embraced in the same title of the RPC

4. that the offender is convicted of the new offense

Supposing, the first offense was acts of lasciviousness in 1980, then the second offense in 2006 was
attempted rape, can the aggravating circumstance of recidivism be appreciated? NO, because acts of
lasciviousness and attempted rape are not embraced in the same title of the RPC; acts of
lasciviousness-crimes against chastity; attempted rape-crimes against persons
Supposing the first offense in 1980 was attempted rape, then the second offense in 2006 was acts of
lasciviousness, can the aggravating circumstance of recidivism be appreciated? YES because
attempted rape then in 1980 was embraced under crimes against chastity, hence both crimes are
embraced in the same title of the RPC
Pardon does not obliterate the fact that the accused was a recidivist
The time or period between the two offenses is immaterial
Basis for aggravation: inclination to crimes

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 90 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- Qualifying
- Legal effect
- Deliberate intent must take advantage of the calamity
Incompatible with negligence

Conflagration

Retrieving your property. Accidentally met your mortal enemy. Stabbed him. Not aggravating

Incompatible with: p/o, spur of the moment, sp

Conflagration - A stranger took your properties, what is the crime. Qualified theft.

Recidivist define

Violation of special penal laws - No, must be in the RPC

Simple theft convict pending appeal

Violation of anti fencing law No

Qualified theft pending appeal

Accomplice in attempted robbery no, final judgment

Before 8353 attempted rape served sentence

Slight physical injuries NO- not embraced

Public interest in the same title of RPC

Falsification of commercial documents

Estafa

- Poperty
1970-2010: not embraced in the same title.

Article 14(10) Reiteracion or Habituality


- that the offender has been previously punished for an offense to which the law attaches an equal or
greater penalty or for two or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty

- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance; penalty can
be raised to the maximum

Requisites:

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 91 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

1. that the accused is on trial for an offense

2. that he previously served sentence for another offense to which the law attaches an equal or greater
penalty or for 2 or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty than that for the new offense

3. that he is convicted of the new offense

Difference between Recidivism and Reiteracion

RECIDIVISM REITERACION

- its enough that a final judgment - its necessary that the offender shall

has been rendered for the 1st offense have served out his sentence for

the 1st offense

- requires that both offenses be - 1st and 2nd offense must not be

embraced in the same title of the RPC embraced in same title of the RPC

- always taken into consideration in - not always an aggravating

terms of the penalty to be imposed circumstance

- previous crimes must be of equal

or greater in penalty (at least one)

or at least two lighter penalties

If the 2nd crime is an offense or crime punishable under a special law, it cannot be considered under
reiteracion because Articles 13, 14, 15 of the RPC are not applicable to special law crimes, applicable
only to crimes defined under the Revised Penal Code.
Supposing, the 1st offense is illegal possession of firearms (a special law crime), punishable by
reclusion temporal, while the 2nd offense is less serious physical injuries, can the aggravating
circumstance of reiteracion be appreciated? YES, if the offender was previously punished for a special
law crime or an offense, the nature of the crime is immaterial; the emphasis is on the punishment or
penalty

Four Forms of Repetition


1. Recidivism 3. Habitual Delinquency/Multi-recidivism

2. Reiteracion or Habituality 4. Quasi-recidivism

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 92 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Habitual Delinquency when a person within a period of 10 years from the date of release or last
conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa, or
falsification, found guilty for a 3rd time or oftener. A habitual delinquent shall suffer an additional
penalty

Quasi-recidivism any person who shall commit a felony after having been convicted by final
judgment before beginning to serve such sentence or while serving the same, shall be punished by the
maximum period of the penalty prescribed by law for the new penalty.

Basis for aggravation: inclination to crimes

Reiteraciion and recidivism distinguish

Murder pardon. Aggravating? Yes. Pardon does not obliterate.

Attempted homicide 6 years probation

Frustrated murder No.

Serious physical injuries 4 years, pobation

Less serious no

Classification generic

Legal effect?

Attempted homicide not alleged but proved during trial appreciate habituality? Yes, generic if
without objection

- Distinguish from habitual delinquency nature of offense 10 years required


- Habituality generic
- Both must be alleged in the information

Article 14(11) Price, Reward or Promise


- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 93 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

The price, reward or promise must be the sole motivating factor for committing the crime; must be for
the purpose of inducing another to perform a deed
There should be two or more offenders: the one who offers, the one who accepts it
Criminal Participation: the one who offers is a principal by inducement, the one who accepts is a
principal by direct participation
It is not necessary that the principal by direct participation receive the reward or promise; what is
important is that the reward or promise was the sole motivating factor otherwise the crime would not
have been committed
Supposing, the one who commits the crime knows of the reward or promise already, can the
aggravating circumstance of price, reward or promise be appreciated? NO, because there was no
motivation already

Basis for aggravation: greater perversity by the motivating power itself

Price, reward or promise

- At least 2 or more offenders


- Must be the sole mitigating power without which there would be no crime
- Qualifyinf legal effects
Giving reward principal by inducement

Acceptor direct participation

Necessary that accused actually received? NO

You approached a gun-for-hire. Paid 50k to kill Amurao. Gun for hire was his former student willing to kill
Amurao without price. Aggravating? No.

Article 14(12) By means of inundation, fire, etc.


- that the crime be committed by means of inundation, fire, poison, explosion, stranding, of a vessel or
intentional damage thereto, derailment of a locomotive, or by the use of any other artifice involving
great waste and ruin

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

There are instances when these circumstances are inherent in the crime, thus cannot be appreciated
as aggravating circumstances:
1. by means of fire- inherent in arson

2. by means of derailment of locomotive inherent in damage to means of communication

3. by means of explosion- without intent to kill, inherent in destruction to property

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 94 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Difference of Par.7 and Par.12


Par.7 = on occasion of calamity or misfortune; not within offenders control

Par.12 = the acts of great waste and ruin are used by the offender as means

Basis for aggravation: means and ways employed

Article 14(13) Evident Premeditation


- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases involving accidents, accidental meetings, chance
encounters, or spurs of the moment

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation or those with sufficient provocation

Evident Premeditation the essence of such is that the execution of the criminal act must be
preceded by cool thought and reflection upon the resolution to carry out the criminal intent during the
space of time sufficient to arrive at a calm judgment

Requisites:
1. the time when the offender determined to commit the crime

2. an act manifestly indicating that the culprit has clung to his determination; through an overt act

3. the date & time when the crime was committed (to compute lapse of time)

4. a sufficient lapse of time between the determination and execution, to allow him to reflect upon the
consequences of his act and to allow his conscience to overcome the resolution of his will

Is the aggravating circumstance of Evident Premeditation compatible with the mitigating circumstance
Immediate Vindication of a Relative for a Grave Offense? YES, the mitigating circumstance and
aggravating circumstance can be appreciated.
Can evident premeditation be present in error in personae? NO
Can evident premeditation be present in aberratio ictus? NO
Supposing, you intended to kill Prof. Amurao, thinking it was him, you shot at the person, who turned
out to be Dean Jara, can the aggravating circumstance of evident premeditation be appreciated? NO,
because there should be deliberate intent to kill Dean Jara
General rule: In aberratio ictus, evident premeditation is NOT applicable

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 95 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Exception: if there was a general plan to kill anyone; if offenders intended to kill anyone
Basis for aggravation: reference to the ways of committing the crime because evident premeditation
implies deliberate planning of the act before executing it

Elements: 4

Classification qualifying

Legal effects?

Incompatible with negligence, spur of the moment, accidental meeting, p/o, sp

Vindication of grave offense? Yes

Error in personae

-general rule: No

Except: if there is a general plan

Accused has a specific victim but willing to kill a person who interfered. Yes

Abberatio ictus: No

Article 14(14) Craft, Fraud, Disguise


- that (1) craft, (2) fraud, (3) disguise be employed

- this paragraph contemplates THREE aggravating circumstances

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

Craft involves intellectual trickery and cunning on the part of accused


Supposing, the accused pretended to be a customer, then he robbed the place, can the aggravating
circumstance of craft be appreciated? YES
Supposing the accused pretended to be a person in authority, for example posing as Meralco officials,
then they commit a crime, can the aggravating circumstance of craft be appreciated? YES

Fraud insidious words or machinations used to induce the victim


Fraudulent machinations and grave abuse of authority will be absorbed in the crime of rape
Fraud is inherent in the crime of estafa

Disguise resorting to any device to conceal identity

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 96 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Examples:
- wearing a mask - use of an assumed name

- wearing a uniform of a police officer

Q: Craft definition
It is Qualifying-legal effects

Example: A, B, C in order to kill D, told the latter they are going on camping, killed D in the forest

Fraud
Qualifying- legal effects
Estafa-legal effect of fraud
It is inherent in the commission of estafa inherent in Art. 213

Disguise
When is there disguise?
Qualifying-legal effect

Example: Several members of Bonnet Gang committed robbery in the highway


Basis of aggravation: means employed

Article 14(15) Abuse of Superior Strength/Means to Weaken Defense


- that (1) advantage be taken of superior strength or (2) means be employed to weaken the defense

- this paragraph contemplates TWO aggravating circumstances

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

- there should be deliberate intent to take advantage of superior strength

Abuse of Superior Strength depends on the age, size, and strength of the parties; it is considered
whenever there is notorious inequality of forces between the victim and the aggressor, assessing a
superiority of strength notoriously advantageous for the aggressor which is selected or taken
advantage of by him in the commission of the crime
If the victim was alternately attacked, there is NO abuse of superior strength
Means to Weaken the Defense
Supposing, the offender intoxicated the victim to materially weaken her, can the aggravating
circumstance of means to weaken defense be appreciated? YES

Article 14(16) Treachery (Alevosia)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 97 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- a specific aggravating circumstance: only applicable to crimes against persons; can treachery be
appreciated in rape? YES

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases involving accidents, accidental meetings, chance
encounters, or spurs of the moment, or on-the-spot decisions to commit the crime

- this circumstance is not applicable to cases attendant of negligence or carelessness

- not applicable to cases attendant of passion or obfuscation or those with sufficient provocation

Treachery
When is there treachery
Qualifying and specific- crimes against person
Qualifying-change the nature of the crime

Incompatible with negligence, sufficient provocation, passion or obfuscation

Can co-exist with voluntary confession of guilt? Yes. With voluntary surrender? Yes. They are not
inconsistent with

BUT IS IT STILL ACCURATE THAT THIS QUALIFYING AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCE CANNOT BE OFFSET BY
ANY MITIGATING CIRC? Yes. Different functions. One is to change the nature of the felony. (AGG) Other is
to reduce penalty by one period after the offense is qualified (MIT)

Does a privileged mit. Circ. Offset a qualifying aggravating? NO.


-Function of qualifying agg. Circ. Is to change the nature of the offense for which the accused stands to
be prosecuted.
-Role of privilege mitigating circ. Is to reduce the penalty by one or two degrees as the case may be from
the proper penalty imposed on the offense as qualified.

Can co-exist with vindication for a grave offense? Yes.

Kill neighbor

W/o treachery- Homicide (reclusion temporal)

w/ treachery- Murder (reclusion perpetua to death)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 98 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

with 1 mit circ. (RP in medium, RP in minimum)


with 1 priv. mit circ. RT (one degree lower from RT)

Treachery can be appreciated in RAPE? Yes, crime against persons.


In a prosecution for rape, by treachery and abuse of superior strength or craft, fraud, disguise- absorbed
in treachery

In prosecution for MURDER qualified by treachery and evident premeditation. Can EP be appreciated so
as to increase penalty in maximum? NO. absorbed in treachery.

Same with inundation, fire, poison, explosion, price, reward or promise.


Aid of armed men, persons who afford impunity, nighttime, calamities or misfortune.

ALL QUALIFYING AGGRAVATING CIRC. Enumerated in People vs. Palaganas can be absorbed by treachery.

Supposing you killed your neighbor with evident premeditation and employed means to weaken defense
and used disguise and took advantage of deep flood. How many qualifying? 4
Assuming there was treachery, how many? 5
Is it necessary for the court to consider all 5 to change the nature of the felony? No. Treachery will
suffice.
Now, what will happen to the other 4 aggravating circ? Deemed absorbed in treachery. They can no
longer be appreciated to impose penalty in the maximum.

TESTS in TREACHERY.
1. Is the attack sudden and unexpected?
2. Was the victim given an opportunity for defense?
3. Was the means employed deliberate and consciously adopted? (3 rd test is the most important.)

Incompatible with casual encounter- even if 1 and 2 were present, if 3 is lacking, there is no treachery.
Incompatible with accidental meeting- spur of the moment.
Incompatibel if killing was preceded by a heated argument. (place the victim on guard to be prepared for
any attack)

Entering carpark, vacant lot


Another vehicle hurrying towards the slot. You got in first. There was a heated argument. He warned
you, Babalikan kita. After two minutes shot you. Was there treachery? None.

If killing was preceded by threat, treachery? No.


Lacking question no. 2.

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 99 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

When attack consists of 2 or more stages


Aggression is interrupted- fatal blow-there was treachery
Continuing-treachery must be present at the inception

Example of #1 (see green notebook)

A saw his enemy B


w/o any warning from behind, inflicted stab wounds.
B was able to avoid. Open fight followed, B fled.
A immediatelt behind, stabbed B. B died. Was there treachery? None. Treachery was not consciously
adopted at the inception and the aggression being continuing.

Example of #2. People v. Canete, US vs. Baluyot

A sa B in a bar. A challenged his enemy B in a fight. They fought inside the bar. A hit B in the back by pipe,
B died. What crime? Homicide only. Chance encounter, not treachery.

Accused found to be intoxicated under influence of drugs? MURDER. Influence of illegal drugs qualifies
crime from homicide to murder. (RA 9165 Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002)

Supposing victim warned not to enter a certain area while walking along the road, somebody stabbed
him from behind, treachery? YES. General warning is not enough to remove treachery.

Is the aggravating circumstance of Treachery compatible with the mitigating circumstance Immediate
Vindication of a Relative for a Grave Offense? YES, because there was intent to take revenge

Rules regarding Treachery


1. applicable only to crimes against persons

2. means, methods, or forms need not insure accomplishment of crime; only to insure execution

3. the mode of attack must be consciously adopted

Requisites
1. That at the time of the attack, the victim was not in a position to defend himself

2. That the offender consciously adopted the particular means, method or form of attack employed by
him

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 100 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

What is important to determine are the following:


- the victims ability to defend himself

- the mode of attack was consciously adopted

Important questions to answer:


1. Was the attack sudden and unexpected?

2. Did the offended have any opportunity to defend himself?

3. Was the mode the attack deliberately or consciously adopted by the accused to insure execution
without risk to the offender?

If the answer to all these questions is YES; then treachery is present

Summary of the rules:


1. When the aggression is a single and continuous act, it must be present right at the inception or
present in the beginning of the assault

2. When the assault is not continuous, or the attack is divisible into two or more stages, or interrupted,
it is sufficient that treachery was present at the time of the mortal blow was inflicted.

Supposing, there was a heated argument between the offender and the offended before they
attacked each other, can the aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? NO, either or
both parties should have been prepared
Supposing, there was a warning from the offender, then after a few minutes he attacked the victim,
can the aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? NO, because there was a chance to
defend himself and pose a risk to the offender
Supposing, your enemy was sleeping, you tapped him, then you shot him as soon as he awakened,
can the aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the victims hands and feet were tied, then mortal wounds were inflicted on the victim,
can the aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the offender buried half of the victims body, then he hacked the victim to death, can the
aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the accused shot the victim who was tied to a coconut tree, can the aggravating
circumstance of treachery be appreciated? YES
Supposing, there was a dispute over a parking space, then the accused shot the victim, can the
aggravating circumstance of treachery be appreciated? NO

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 101 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, the victim suffered frontal mortal wounds, immediately, can the aggravating circumstance
of treachery not be appreciated? NO, because having frontal wounds is NOT conclusive that there was
no treachery
Supposing, the victim suffered mortal wounds at the back, immediately, can the aggravating
circumstance of treachery be appreciated? NO
Note: The location of the wounds does not give rise to the presumption of the presence of treachery

Supposing, the victim hid behind a drum where he could not be seen by the offender, the offender,
knowing that the victim was hiding behind the drum shot at the drum; the bullet penetrated the
drum and hit the victim which caused his death, can the aggravating circumstance of treachery be
appreciated? YES, because the victim was not in a position to defend himself
Supposing, there was an agreement to fight

Treachery cannot be presumed; must be proved by clear and convincing evidence


In treachery, it is not necessary that the person intended to be killed was not the one actually killed
According to Prof. Amurao, treachery is a politician and a buwaya, because it takes everything;
because treachery absorbs all other aggravating circumstances

Basis for aggravation: means and ways employed

Additional notes from Prof. Amurao:


- If the offender was under the influence of drugs in the crime of murder or homicide, this can be
considered a qualifying aggravating circumstance, even in the absence of treachery (pursuant to RA
9165)

- the use of an unlicensed firearm = a special aggravating circumstance for the crime of murder or
homicide; before it was separately prosecuted, but now unlawful possession is only a special
aggravating circumstance that can increase the penalty to the maximum; no separate prosecution

Article 14(17) Ignominy


- that means be employed or circumstances brought about which add ignominy to the natural effects of
the act

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

Ignominy a circumstance pertaining to the moral order which adds disgrace and obloquy to the
material injury caused by the crime
Applicable to crimes against chastity, less serious physical injuries, light or grave coercion and murder
Effect of ignominy: the crime becomes more humiliating or to put the offended party to shame

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 102 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, a woman was raped in the presence of her husband and children, can the aggravating
circumstance of ignominy be appreciated? YES
Supposing, a woman was raped while cogon grass was wrapped around the penis of the offender,
can the aggravating circumstance of ignominy be appreciated? Prof. Amurao thinks that this scenario
falls under the aggravating circumstance of cruelty

Basis for aggravation: means employed

IGNOMINY
Art, 18 and 19- PD 532, accomplices in PD 532
Art. 19 accessories- Anti-fencing law PD 1829 (Obstruction of Justice)
Art. 29 Preventive Imp and crediting

Victim all wounds frontal


Treachery cannot be appreciated? No. Mere presence of frontal wound is not conclusive that no
treachery was employed neither will presence of back wounds be conclusive that treachery was present.
Absent any proof as to how wound was inflicted.

Victim has just awaken, still drowsy when attacked. Treachery? Yes.
Question Hour: Amurao Speaking.
When there are 2 qualifying, one will suffice to change the nature of the crime. What will happen to the
other qualifying? The other will be considered as generic aggravating circumstance- penalty to the
maximum. (Except treachery, because treachery will absorb them)

N.B. Other qualifying circ. Not in art 248 (murder) e.g. craft, fraud, or disguise. They are means of
treachery, absorbed in treachery in Art. 248.)

Article 14(18) Unlawful Entry


- that the crime be committed after an unlawful entry

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

Unlawful Entry an entrance is effected by a way not intended for


Purpose to effect entrance not for escape

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 103 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, the window was used to gain entry into the house, can the aggravating circumstance of
unlawful entry be appreciated? YES
Supposing, the owners of the house commonly use the window as their ordinary means to enter the
house, then the accused entered the door, can the aggravating circumstance of unlawful entry be
appreciated? YES

Unlawful entry is inherent (thus cannot be appreciated as an aggravating circumstance) in the


following crimes:
- robbery with force upon things

- violation of domicile (committed by public persons)

- trespass to dwelling (committed by private individuals)

Basis for aggravation: means and ways employed

Article 14(19) Breaking Wall


- that as a means to the commission of a crime, a wall, roof, floor, door or window be broken

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

To effect entrance only


Should be as a means to commit to crime

Supposing, the accused intended to kill his next-door neighbor by breaking the wall separating them,
then he shot the neighbor, can the aggravating circumstance of breaking wall be appreciated? YES
Breaking wall is inherent in robbery with force upon things

Basis for aggravation: means and ways employed

Article 14(20) Aid of Minor or by Means of Motor Vehicles


- that the crimes be committed (1) with the aid of persons under 15 years of age or (2) by means of
motor vehicles, airships or other similar means

- this paragraph contemplates TWO aggravating circumstances

Aid of Minor
- a generic aggravating circumstance = can be offset by an ordinary mitigating circumstance

- involves the taking advantage of the childs immaturity or innocence

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 104 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Use of Motor Vehicles


- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF
THE CRIME

- the offender should deliberately seek for the use of the vehicle

- the use of the motor vehicle must be the means used to commit the crime

- should facilitate the commission of the crime

Supposing, the accused robbed a house then found a car in front of the house which he used for his
escape, can the aggravating circumstance of use of motor vehicle be appreciated? NO, because the
crime was already accomplished
Supposing, the accused robbed the passengers in a bus, can the aggravating circumstance of use of
motor vehicle be appreciated? YES, even if it is a public vehicle, the circumstance can be appreciated
Supposing, a taxicab was hired, then an argument ensued inside where the accused killed the victim,
can the aggravating circumstance of use of motor vehicle be appreciated? NO, because the motor
vehicle was just incidental to the crime
Are motorized bikes considered? YES
What if it is a motorized bike but the motor is not used? YES
Are road-rollers or pison considered? NO, because it is not motorized as contemplated by the LTO
Use of motor vehicles is inherent in the crime of carnapping

Basis for aggravation: means and ways employed

Article 14(21) Cruelty


- that the wrong done in the commission of the crime be deliberately augmented by causing other wrong
not necessary for its commission

- a qualifying aggravating circumstance = cannot be offset by a mitigating; CHANGES THE NATURE OF


THE CRIME

Cruelty when the culprit enjoys and delights in making his victim suffer slowly and gradually, causing
the victim unnecessary physical pain in the consummation of the criminal act
Requisites:
1. That the injury caused be deliberately increased by causing another wrong

2. That the other wrong be unnecessary for the execution of the purpose of the offender

Is there cruelty when it is done against a dead body? NO, because it did not prolong pain since the
person was already dead
Is there cruelty when it is done against an unconscious person? YES

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 105 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, a dead person was found with 125 stab wounds, can the aggravating circumstance of use
of motor vehicle be appreciated? NO, because the number of wounds is immaterial with cruelty

Ignominy moral suffering


Cruelty physical suffering prolonged

Cruelty cannot be presumed

Basis for aggravation: ways employed

Article 15
- those which must be taken into consideration as aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and
effects of the crime and the other conditions attending its commission

The following are alternative circumstances:


1. Relationship

2. Intoxication

3. Degree of Instruction and Education of the Offender

Article 15(1) Relationship


- considered when the offended party is the:
a. spouse
b. ascendant
c. descendant
d. legitimate, natural, adopted sibling
e. relative by affinity

Q: Supposing, a stepdaughter was raped by her stepfather, can the alternative circumstance of
relationship be appreciated? YES

Relationship is mitigating in crimes against property (RUFA):


1. robbery 3. fraudulent insolvency

2. usurpation 4. arson

Relationship is exempting in crimes of theft, swindling, or malicious mischief if the offender and
offended live together

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 106 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Relationship is aggravating in crimes against persons when the offended is a relative of higher
degree than the offender or when the offender and offended are parties of the same level
If the offended is a relative of lower degree, in the crime of less serious and slight physical injuries,
relationship is mitigating
If the offended is a relative of higher degree, in the same crimes, relationship is aggravating
When the crime is homicide or murder, which resulted to the death of the victim, relationship is
aggravating, regardless of degree.
In crimes against chastity, relationship is ALWAYS aggravating

Article 15(2) - Intoxication


a. mitigating when:

- the drinking is not habitual; or accidental

- if the intoxication is not subsequent to the plan to commit a crime

Reason for mitigation: exercise of will power is impaired


b. aggravating when:

- if habitual

- if intoxication is intentional (fully knowing its effects as a stimulant) or subsequent to the plan to
commit the crime

Reason for aggravation: bolstered courage to commit the crime (intentional); lessens resistance to evil
thoughts (habitual)

Article 15(3) Instruction or Education


- what is measured is the degree of intelligence not the formal education

Low degree of instruction/Lack of education mitigating


High degree of instruction; offender avails of intelligence - aggravating

Supposing, the crime was done not in a civilized society, can the alternative circumstance of low
degree of instruction as a mitigating circumstance YES, it is a mitigating circumstance
Supposing, the accused killed a person, can the alternative circumstance of low degree of instruction
as a mitigating circumstance be appreciated? NO, because killing is inherently wrong
Supposing, the accused committed the crime of treason, can the alternative circumstance of low
degree of instruction as a mitigating circumstance be appreciated? NO, because love for country is a
natural feeling that requires no degree of instruction
Supposing, accused committed crimes against chastity, can the alternative circumstance of low
degree of instruction as a mitigating circumstance be appreciated? NO

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 107 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, accused committed crimes against chastity, can the alternative circumstance of low
degree of instruction as a mitigating circumstance be appreciated? NO
Supposing, accused committed the crime of murder, can the alternative circumstance of low degree
of instruction as a mitigating circumstance be appreciated? NO

Supposing, a lawyer committed the crime of estafa, can the alternative circumstance of high degree
of instruction as an aggravating circumstance be appreciated? YES
Supposing, a doctor prepared a special poison to kill the victim, can the alternative circumstance of
high degree of instruction as an aggravating circumstance be appreciated? YES

Article 16
ARTICLE 16 WHO ARE CRIMINALLY LIABLE
-the following are criminally liable for grave and less grave offenses:

1. Principals
2. Accomplices
3. Accessories

- the following are criminally liable for light felonies:


1. Principals 2. Accomplices

Accessories are not liable for light felonies because the social wrong is so small
Rules on light felonies
1. punishable only when consummated
2. when committed against persons or property and punishable in the attempted or frustrated
3. only principals and accomplices are liable
4. accessories are not liable even in crimes against persons or property

Only natural persons can be active subjects of a crime contemplated under Article 16 of the RPC

Reasons:

1. Under the Revised Penal Code, persons act with personal malice or negligence; artificial/judicial
persons cant act with malice or negligence

2. A juridical person like a corporation cant commit a crime that requires willful purpose or malicious
intent

3. There is substitution of deprivation of liberty for pecuniary penalties in insolvency cases

4. Other penalties like destierro and imprisonment = executed on individuals only

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 108 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Article 17
ARTICLE 17 PRINCIPALS
- the following are considered principals:

1. those who take a direct part in the execution of the act

(By Direct Participation)

2. those who directly force or induce others to commit it (By Inducement)

3. those who cooperate in the commission of the offense by another act without which it would not
have been accomplished

(By Indispensable Cooperation)

Article 17(1) Principals by Direct Participation (PDP)


- Requisites:
1. they participated in the criminal resolution
2. they carried out their plan and personally took part in its execution by acts which directly tended to
the same end

In multiple rape, all the rapists are equally liable, regardless of degree of participation
Without the 2nd requisite, there is only conspiracy = thus there is no criminal liability

Article 17(2) Principals by Inducement (PI)


Principals by Inducement are ONLY liable when the Principal by Direct Participation committed the act
induced
Two ways of becoming principal by induction
1. by directly forcing another to commit a crime

2. by directly inducing another to commit a crime

By directly forcing another to commit a crime (no conspiracy involved)


1. by using irresistible force
2. by causing uncontrollable fear
By directly inducing another to commit a crime
1. by giving price or offering reward or promise = collective criminal responsibility
2. by using words of command

Requisites for the Principal by Inducement


1. that the inducement be made directly with the intention of procuring the commission of the crime

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 109 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

2. that such inducement be the determining cause of the commission of the crime
Inducement may be by acts of command, advice, or through influence or agreement for
consideration; the words of advice or influence must actually move the hands of the principal by direct
participation
The inducement must be the determining cause for the commission of the crime by the principal by
direct participation, that is without such inducement the crime would not have been committed
The inducement must precede the act and must be so influential
If there is a price or reward involved, w/o prior promise = no inducement
By using words of command
- the words must be the moving cause of the offense
1. that the one uttering the words of command must have the intention of procuring the commission of
the crime
2. that the one who made the command must have an ascendancy or influence over the person who
acted
3. that the words used must be so direct, so efficacious, so powerful as to amount to physical or moral
coercion

Efficacious it would seem or it was furnished that the material executor or principal by direct
participation had reason to believe or was made to believe that the deceased did something wrong
4. the words of command must be uttered prior to the commission of the crime; when the words were
uttered after the commencement of the crime = no inducement
5. the material executor has no personal reason to commit the crime

Difference bet. Principal by Inducement & Offender by Proposal


PRIN. BY INDUCEMENT OFFENDER BY PROPOSAL
- inducement to commit the crime - inducement to commit the crime
- liable only when crime is committed - mere proposal to commit is
by the principal by direct participation punishable in treason & rebellion;

person proposed to shouldnt

commit the crime

- inducement involves any crime- applies in treason & rebellion only

Article 17(3) - Principal by Indispensable Cooperation (PIC)


- those who cooperate in the commission of the crime by another act without which it would not have
been accomplished

Cooperate means to desire or wish in common a thing, but that common will or purpose does not
necessarily mean previous understanding for it can be explained or inferred from the circumstances of
each case

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 110 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Requisites:
1. participation in the criminal resolution, that is, there is either anterior conspiracy or unity of criminal
purpose and intention immediately before the commission of the crime charged

2. cooperation in the commission of the crime by performing another act, without which it would not
have been accomplished

First requisite
- requires participation in the criminal resolution
- there must be conspiracy
- concurrence is sufficient
- cooperation indispensable
Second requisite
- cooperation MUST be indispensable
- if dispensable, accused is only an accomplice

Collective Criminal Responsibility (CCR) when the offenders are criminally liable in the same manner
and to the same extent; penalty is the same for all:
a. Principals by Direct Participation CCR

b. Principals by Inducement CCR with Principals by Direct Participation, except those who
directly forced another to commit a crime

c. Principals by Indispensable Cooperation CCR with Principals by Direct Participation

Individual Criminal Responsibility (ICR) in the absence of previous conspiracy, unity of criminal
purpose and intention immediately before the commission of the crime or community of criminal
design, the criminal responsibility arising from different acts directed against one and the same person
is individual and not collective, and each of the participants is liable only for the act committed by him

Article 18
ARTICLE 18 - ACCOMPLICES
- Accomplices are persons who, not being included in Article 17, cooperate in the execution of the crime
by previous or simultaneous acts

Quasi-Collective Criminal Responsibility some of the offenders in the crime are principals; others are
accomplices

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 111 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Participation-proved by positive &competent evidence; cant be presumed

Accomplices have - no previous agreement


- no understanding with the Principal by

- not in conspiracy Direct Participation

Difference between an Accomplice and a Conspirator


ACCOMPLICES CONSPIRATORS

- they know & agree with the - they know & agree with the

criminal design criminal design

- they come to know about the - they know the criminal intention

criminal design after the conspirators because they have decided upon

have decided on it the course of action

- only concurs to the commission of - they decide to commit the crime

the crime; they do not decide; they

merely assent to it and cooperate

- mere instruments performing acts - they are the authors of the crime

NOT essential to the perpetration of

the crime

Requisites for an accomplice:


1. that there be community of design; that is, knowing the criminal design of the principal by direct
participation, he concurs with the latter in his purpose

2. that he cooperates in the execution of the offense by previous and simultaneous acts with the
intention of supplying the material or moral aid in the execution of the crime in an efficacious way

3. that there be a relation between the acts done by the principal and those attributed to the person
charged as accomplice

Rules on Accomplices:

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 112 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

1. the one who had the original criminal design is the person who committed the resulting crime (there
should be a principal by direct participation)

2. an accomplice cooperates only with previous or simultaneous acts

3. an accomplice does not inflict more or most serious wounds

Moral aid may be through advice, encouragement or agreement


Examples of previous acts
- lending of a weapon, knowing of the purpose
- furnishing a drug or sleeping drug, knowing the purpose is for rape
Examples of simultaneous acts
- disarming the victim while the principal is attacking
- preventing the victims from receiving help
- acted as a look-out, without conspiracy
- supplying material or moral aid
- distracting the victim

Article 19
ARTICLE 19 - ACCESSORIES
- Accessories are those who, having knowledge of the commission of the crime and without having
participated therein, either as principals or accomplices, take part subsequent to its commission in any
of the following manners:

1. by profiting themselves or assisting the offender to profit by the effects of the crime

2. by concealing or destroying the body of the crime or the effects or instruments thereof, in order to
prevent its discovery

3. by harboring, concealing or assisting in the escape of the principal of the crime, provided the
accessory acts with of his public functions or whenever the author of the crime is guilty of treason,
parricide, murder, or an attempt to take the life of the Chief Executive or is known to be habitually
guilty of some other crime

Accessories do not participate; they do not cooperate


Accessories must have knowledge of the commission of the crime, then takes part subsequent to the
commission, eg. fencing
Knowledge may be acquired after the acquisition of stolen property

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 113 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Examples of by profiting themselves by the effects of the crime


- received stolen property and used it

- shared in the reward for murder

Examples of assisting the offender by the effects of the crime


- sells the stolen property for the offenders benefit

- runners or couriers for picking-up or getting the ransom money

Examples of by concealing or destroying the body of the crime (or the corpus delicti)
- assisted in the burial to prevent discovery

- concealing or hiding weapons used in the commission of the crime

- furnishes the means to stage the crime scene

Requisites for Article 19(3):


a. accessory is a public officer b. - accessory is a private person

- harbors, conceals, assists in the - harbors, conceals, assists in the

escape - escape

- acts with abuse of his public - crime of principal is treason,

functions parricide, murder, attempt

- crime of principal is any crime against the life of the President,

not a light felony a known habitual criminal

If the principal is acquitted by exemption, accessory may still be convicted


Apprehension and conviction of the principal is not necessary for the accessory to be held criminally
liable
If the principal is at-large or not yet apprehended, the accessory may be prosecuted and convicted

Anti-Fencing Law of 1979 (Presidential Decree No.1612)


Fencing is the act of any person who, with intent to gain for himself or for another, shall buy, receive,
possess, keep, acquire, conceal, sell or dispose of, or shall buy and sell, or in any other manner deal in
any article, item, object or anything of value which he knows, or should be known to him, to have been
derived from the proceeds of the crime of robbery or theft

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 114 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Fence includes any person, firm, association, corporation or partnership or other organization
who/which commits the act of fencing

Article 20
ARTICLE 20 ACCESSORIES EXEMPT FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY
- those who are exempt are the following:

a. spouses c. descendants e. relatives by affinity w/in same degrees

b. ascendants d. legitimate, natural, adopted siblings

- except those that fall under Article 19(1)

Ground for exemption ties of blood; preservation of the cleanliness of ones name
Nephew or niece not included
Accessories not exempt if they: - profited by the effects of the crime
- assisted the offender to profit

PENALTIES
Penalty the suffering that is inflicted by the State for the transgression of a law

Different juridical conditions of penalty


- productive of suffering - certain

- commensurate with the offense - equal for all

- personal - correctional

- legal

Purpose of punishment: To secure justice


Theories justifying penalty
1. Prevention prevent or suppress the danger to the State

2. Self-defense right to punish; protect society from the threat or wrong

3. Reformation correct and reform the offender

4. Exemplarity punishment for deterrence

5. Justice punishment as an act of retributive justice

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 115 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Social defense & exemplarity: justifies the imposition of the death penalty
The penalties under the RPC have a 3-fold purpose
1. Retribution or expiation penalty commensurate with the gravity of the crime

2. Correction or reformation shown by rules that regulate execution of penalties consisting in


deprivation of liberty

3. Social defense shown by its inflexible severity to recidivists and habitual delinquents

Article 21-29
ARTICLE 21 PENALTIES THAT MAY BE IMPOSED
- No felony shall be punishable by any penalty not prescribed by law prior to its commission

ARTICLE 22 RETROACTIVE EFFECT OF PENAL LAWS


- Penal laws shall be retroactive in so far as they favor the person guilty of a felony and is not a habitual
criminal

General Rule prospective effect


Exception favorable to the accused
Reason for the exception former laws repealed or amended are unjust
Article 22 does not apply to the provisions of the Revised Penal Code; but applies to (1) penal laws
enacted before the RPC, and (2) penal laws enacted subsequent to the RPC, which are more favorable
to the accused
Criminal Liability of repealed laws still subsist when:
1. there is a reenactment of the law

2. when the repeal is by implication

3. when there is a saving clause

ARTICLE 23 PARDON BY THE OFFENDED PARTY


- does not extinguish criminal action except in Article 344 of the RPC; but an express waiver can
extinguish the civil liability for the injured party

A pardon by the offended party does not extinguish criminal action, because a crime committed is a
felony or offense committed against the State, eg. estafa - even the offender pays damages to the
injured party, the offender can still be prosecuted
Compromise does not extinguish criminal liability
Under Article 344, in the crimes of seduction, abduction, rape or acts of lasciviousness, there shall be
no criminal prosecution if the offender is expressly pardoned by the parents or grandparents or

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 116 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

guardian of the offended party. In the crime of adultery or concubinage, both offenders (the offending
spouse and paramour) must be pardoned by the offended party
Pardon under Article 344 must be made before the institution of criminal prosecution, unless after the
institution of the criminal action, the offender and the offended decide to get married; This pardon is
only a bar to criminal prosecution
ARTICLE 24 MEASURES OF PREVENTION AND SAFETY THAT ARE NOT CONSIDERED AS PENALTIES
1. Arrest and Temporary Detention 5. Deprivation of Rights with

2. Commitment of a Minor Reparations

3. Suspension from Employment

4. Fines & Other Corrective Measures, administrative or disciplinary in nature

ARTICLE 25 CLASSIFICATION OF PENALTIES


Principal Penalties
Capital punishment Light penalties

Death Arresto Menor

Fines

Afflictive penalties Public Censure

Reclusion Perpetua

Reclusion Temporal

Perpetual or Temporary absolute disqualification Penalties common to the

Perpetual or Temporary special disqualification three preceding classes

Prision Mayor Fine

Bond to keep the peace

Correctional penalties

Prision Correccional

Arresto Mayor

Suspension

Destierro

Accessory Penalties
- Perpetual or Temporary absolute disqualification

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 117 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- Perpetual or Temporary special disqualification

- Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted for, the profession or

calling

- Civil interdiction

- Indemnification

- Forfeiture of confiscation of instruments and proceeds of the offense

- Payment of cost

Classification of penalties according to subject matter


1. Corporal (death)

2. Deprivation of freedom (reclusion, prision, arresto)

3. Restriction of freedom (destierro)

4. Deprivation of rights (disqualification and suspension)

5. Pecuniary (fine)

ARTICLE 26 FINES (AFFLICTIVE, CORRECTIONAL, LIGHT)


Fines and Bond to keep the Peace are:
1. Afflictive over P6,000.00

2. Correctional P200.00 P6,000.00

3. Light Penalty less than P200.00

ARTICLE 27 DURATION OF PENALTIES


1. Reclusion perpetua 20 yrs. and 1 day to 40 yrs.

2. Reclusion temporal 12 yrs. and 1 day to 20 yrs

3. Prision mayor 6 yrs. and 1 day to 12 yrs.

4. Prision correctional, suspension, destierro 6 months and 1 day to 6 yrs.

5. Arresto mayor 1 month and 1 day to 6 months

6. Arresto menor 1 day to 30 days

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 118 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

7. Bond to keep the peace the period during which the bond shall be effective is discretionary on the
court

ARTICLE 28 COMPUTATION OF PENALTIES


(reading matter)

ARTICLE 29 PREVENTIVE IMPRISONMENT


Preventive imprisonment an accused undergoes this when the crime charged is non-bailable, or
even if bailable, he cannot furnish the required bail
The full-time or four-fifths of the time during which offenders have undergone preventive
imprisonment shall be deducted from the penalty imposed

Article 30-35

ARTICLES 30-35 EFFECTS OF PENALTIES


(reading matter)

Civil interdiction shall deprive the offender during the time of his sentence of the rights parental
authority, or guardianship, either as to the person or property of any ward, of marital authority, of the
right to manage his property, and of the right to dispose of such property by any act or any conveyance

Article 36
ARTICLE 36 PARDON; ITS EFFECTS
- shall not restore the right to hold office and the right of suffrage, unless expressly restored by the terms
of the pardon
- shall not exempt the culprit from civil liability

Difference bet. Pardon by the President & Pardon by the Offended


PARDON BY PRESIDENT PARDON BY OFFENDED

- extinguishes criminal liability - does not extinguish criminal

liability, except in Article 344

- cannot include extinction of civil - offended party can waive right

liability to claim civil liability

- should be given only after conviction - should be given before the

institution of the criminal action

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 119 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- may be extended to any of the - must be extended to both offenders

offenders

Article 37
ARTICLE 37 COSTS
1. Fees
2. Indemnities, in the course of judicial proceedings

Article 38

ARTICLE 38 PECUNIARY LIABILITIES; ORDER OF PAYMENT


1. The reparation of the damage caused

2. Indemnification of the consequential damages

3. Fine

4. Costs of proceedings

The order of payment is as stated

Article 39
ARTICLE 39 SUBSIDIARY PENALTY
Subsidiary Penalty a subsidiary personal penalty to be suffered by the convict who has no property
with which to meet the fine, at the rate of one day for each eight (P8) pesos, subject to the rules
provided for in Article 39
Subsidiary penalties should be expressly specified in the conviction because without it, the accused
cannot be compelled to comply with it

Article 40-44
ARTICLES 40-44 ACCESSORY PENALTIES OF ARRESTO
(reading matter)

- Accessory penalties do not have to be specified expressly in the judgment of conviction

- usually, the specific accessory penalties are not specified, they are said generally

Article 45-47

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 120 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ARTICLE 45 CONFISCATION AND FORFEITURE


- the proceeds of the crime must first be submitted to the jurisdiction of the courts, and also the tools
used; if not submitted, the courts cannot adjudicate on the proceeds and tools whether they would be
disposed in favor of the state

ARTICLE 46 PENALTY TO BE IMPOSED UPON PRINCIPALS IN GENERAL


- the penalty prescribed by law for the commission of a felony shall be imposed upon the principals

- the law prescribes a penalty for a felony in general terms, it shall be understood as applicable to the
consummated felony

Penalty in general terms shall be imposed:


1. upon the principals

2. for the consummated felony

Exception when the law fixes a penalty for frustrated or attempted felony

ARTICLE 47 WHEN DEATH PENALTY NOT TO BE IMPOSED


1. minors under 18 at the commission of the crime (repealed by RA 9344)

2. persons over 70 years old

The Death Penalty should be imposed on cases where the law specifies it
The Death Penalty as of now is deemed to be irrelevant

Article 48
ARTICLE 48 COMPLEX CRIMES
1. When a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave felonies (compound crimes)

2. When an offense is a necessary means for committing the other

(complex crime proper)

There must be at least two crimes


Complex crime = ONLY one crime
Complex crimes are more favorable to the accused because instead of being convicted of two separate
counts of the same crime, it is considered as only one

Compound Crime
- Requisites:

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 121 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

1. that only a single act is performed by the offender

2. that the single act produces (i) 2 or more grave felonies, (ii) one or more grave & one or more less
grave felonies, (iii) 2 or more less grave felonies

The single act should produce a grave felony or a less grave felony or a combination of both
Light felonies produced by the same single act should be treated and punished as separate offenses or
may be absorbed by the grave felony

Supposing, you shot your neighbor then the bullet hit two children; the result was your neighbor
died, two children slightly injured, the result was 1 grave and 2 light felonies, is the crime complex or
separate? Separate, because the single act should produce a grave or less grave felony only
Supposing, a single criminal act produced 1 grave felony and 10 light felonies, is the crime complex or
separate? Separate
Supposing, a single criminal act produced 1 less grave felony and several light felonies, is the crime
complex or separate? Separate
Supposing, a single criminal act produced a crime punishable by the RPC and a crime punishable by
special law, is the crime complex or separate? Separate, considered as separate violations
Supposing, Prof. Amurao throws a grenade in class, 5 students died, is the crime complex or separate?
Complex
Supposing, using the same facts above, in addition 3 light felonies were produced, is the crime
complex or separate? Separate
Supposing, Prof. Amurao switched the machine gun to automatic and shot at the students with one
single act of pressing the trigger, producing several injuries, is the crime complex or separate?
Separate, because the what is considered is the no. of bullets discharged (People v. Desierto)
Supposing, Prof. Amurao switched the machine gun to not automatic and fired one bullet aimed at
someone but hit 3 others producing serious physical injuries, is the crime complex or separate?
Complex
Supposing, the act of firing a machine gun produces the crimes of attempted murder and physical
injuries, is the crime complex or separate? Separate, as held by the Court of Appeals
Supposing, two shots were fired directed against two different persons, is the crime complex or
separate? Separate
Supposing, in a notorious village, a commander ordered all his soldiers to shoot at the residents, is
the crime complex or separate? Complex, the SC held in People v. Lawas that it was a complex crime
because there was a single offense since there was a single criminal impulse/intent/purpose
Supposing, a person stole the fighting cocks of his neighbor alternately with three separate,
independent acts, is the crime complex or separate? Complex, as held by the SC in People v. De Leon,
the criminal act was done on the same occasion and the offender was motivated by one criminal
impulse
Supposing, a libelous article was published defaming 5 congressmen specifically identified by their
names, is the crime complex or separate? Separate, because there are as many crimes of libel as
there are persons libeled, provided that the persons are expressly specified; because each of the 5
congressmen may file for libel

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 122 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, using the same facts above except that the congressmen were not identified, is the crime
complex or separate? Complex
Supposing, in a local publication, news writers wrote that the Herrera doctors are inefficient, is the
crime complex or separate? Complex, because the identification was in general terms, not specifically
identified

Complex Crime Proper


- Requisites:

1. that at least two offenses are committed

2. that one or some of the offenses must be necessary to commit the other

3. that both or all the offenses must be punished under the same statute

Necessary means not equivalent to indispensable means

Supposing, the accused kidnapped a girl with intent to kill, brought the victim somewhere then
killed her, is the crime complex? NO, the crime is only murder, because the kidnapping was only a
means to commit the crime of murder
Supposing, law students made a falsified solicitation letter and collected money, is the crime
complex? YES, the falsification of the private document was necessary for the crime of estafa
Supposing, a public official committed malversation through falsification of public documents, is the
crime complex? YES, because the falsification was necessary to commit malversation
Supposing, the accused killed his victim in a building, then committed arson to conceal the murder, is
the crime complex? NO
In the crimes of estafa and falsification, you look at the crime first committed if it was necessary for
the commission of the other; the common element in estafa and falsification is the intent to cause
damage

Supposing, a city treasurer malversed P5million pesos out of taxes then falsified documents to
conceal the malversation, is the crime complex? NO, the crimes are separate
Supposing, in the crime of rebellion, an NPA commander burned villages and killed the villagers in
furtherance of his acts of rebellion, is the crime complex? NO, because the acts he committed were
absorbed in the crime of rebellion
Supposing, in the crime of rebellion, the NPA commander killed someone for personal reasons, is the
crime complex? NO, the crimes are separate
In the crimes of treason or rebellion, when common crimes are committed, (1) in furtherance of or is
related to treason or rebellion, the crimes are absorbed, but (2) for personal reasons or for a private
purpose, the crimes are separate
There is no complex crime of rebellion with common crimes

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 123 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Special Complex Crimes


- Rape with Homicide - Robbery with Serious Physical Injuries

- Robbery with Homicide - Kidnapping with Murder or Homicide

Express provisions in the Revised Penal Code that cannot be complex


- Article 129: search warrant obtained maliciously

- Article 235: maltreatment of prisoners

- Direct Bribery = cannot be complexed

Article 48 is intended to favor the culprit or accused


The penalty for complex crimes is the penalty for the most serious crime, the same to be applied in its
maximum period
Two felonies in a complex crime punishable by imprisonment and fine = only the imprisonment is
imposed

Article 49
ARTICLE 49 PENALTY FOR PRINCIPALS OF CRIME COMMITTED WAS DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WAS INTENDED
applicable only to mistake in identity
Steps

1. identify lesser penalty

2. whichever penalty is prescribed by law,

3. the lesser penalty is always applied or imposed

Article 50-57
ARTICLES 50-57 DEGREES TO WHICH PENALTIES SHOULD BE LOWERED (reading matter)
Participants liability lowered by degrees

consummated frustrated attempted

Principals 0 1 2

Accomplices 1 2 3

Accessories 2 3 4

Article 50 Principals in a frustrated felony


Article 51 Principals in an attempted felony

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 124 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Article 52 Accomplices in a consummated felony


Article 53 Accessories in a consummated felony
Article 54 Accomplices in a frustrated felony
Article 55 Accessories in a frustrated felony
Article 56 Accomplices in an attempted felony
Article 57 Accessories in an attempted felony

Basis for the determination


- under the RPC, penalties can be reduced by degrees

1. stage reached by the crime in its development (consummated, frustrated, attempted)

2. participation of persons liable (principals, accomplices, accessories)

3. privileged mitigating circumstances

All penalties for each crime in the RPC = generally, shall always be imposed unless the law itself
expressly provides, except Article 60

Degree one whole penalty; one entire penalty or one unit of penalties enumerated in the graduated
scales
Period one of the 3 equal portions (minimum, medium, maximum)

Article 58-60
ARTICLE 58 ADDITIONAL PENALTY UPON ACCESSORIES OF ART.19(3)
- Absolute perpetual disqualification if guilty of a grave felony

- Absolute temporary disqualification if guilty of a less grave felony

Article 19(3) public officers who help the author of the crime by misusing their office and duties shall
suffer the additional penalties
ARTICLE 59 PENALTY FOR IMPOSSIBLE CRIMES
- Arresto mayor, with fine of P200-P500

Basis for imposition:


- social danger

- degree of criminality

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 125 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ARTICLE 60 EXCEPTIONS TO ARTICLE 50-57


- shall not be applicable to cases in which the law prescribes a penalty for frustrated and attempted
stages or to be imposed on accomplices or accessories

Article 61
ARTICLE 61 RULES FOR GRADUATING PENALTIES
Divisible Penalties divided into three, so effects of ordinary mitigating circumstances and generic
aggravating circumstances can be applied
Indivisible Penalties eg. reclusion perpetua, public censure, fine
First Rule and Second Rule
Penalty only consists of a degree
The penalty next lower by one degree = penalty immediately following the penalty prescribed by the
law
- single and indivisible = Reclusion perpetua

- penalty next lower in degree = Reclusion temporal

Supposing, accused shot the victim qualified by treachery, but the victim survived, thus accused was
convicted of frustrated murder, the penalty for murder is reclusion perpetua, but since it was
frustrated, the penalty next lower in degree applies, which is reclusion temporal

Fourth and Fifth Rule


Penalty prescribed by law is 1, 2, or 3, several periods
- If one period lower, go down one period in the graduated scale

- If two periods lower, go down two periods in the graduated scale

- If three periods lower, go down three periods in the graduated scale

Example: Prision Mayor


- Supposing the penalty prescribed by law is prision mayor medium period: is in itself a degree; RPC all
divisible penalties are divided into 3 periods; prision mayor medium can be divided into maximum,
medium, minimum

- Prision mayor (6 years and 1 day to 12 years)

12 6 = 6 / 3 = 2

2 = common multiple (add 2 to the periods starting from the minimum)

Minimum 6 years and 1 day to (6+2) 8 years

Medium 8 years and 1 day to (8+2) 10 years Prision mayor

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 126 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Maximum 10 years and 1 day (10+2) 12 years medium

- Prision mayor medium (8 years and 1 day to 10 years)

10 8 = 2 years / 3 = 8 months

8 months = common multiple (add 8 months)

Minimum 8yrs. & 1 day to 8yrs. & 8 months

Medium 8yrs. & 8 months to 9yrs. & 4 months

Maximum 9yrs. & 4 years to 10 years

With the 3 periods of prision mayor medium now determined, the mitigating and aggravating
circumstances attendant can now be applied

Third Rule
- when three penalties are imposed in one (eg. Reclusion temporal Death)

- since Death is not imposed, three periods lowered immediately following

Article 62
ARTICLE 62 - EFFECTS OF THE ATTENDANCE OF MITIGATING AND AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCES AND HABITUAL
DELINQUENCY

First rule: Aggravating circumstances:


1. should not themselves constitute a crime, eg. by means of fire = arson; by means derailment of a
locomotive = destruction of property

- Is unlawful entry a crime in itself? YES

2. should not be included in defining the crime, eg. by means of poison in the crime of murder

3. The maximum period shall be imposed regardless of mitigating circumstances if the offender is a
public officer who took advantage by public position

4. The maximum period shall be imposed for members of an organized or syndicated crime group

Organized or Syndicated Crime Group group of two or more persons collaborating, confederating or
mutually helping one another for purposes of gain in the commission of any crime

Second rule

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 127 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

- Aggravating circumstances are not applicable if inherent in the crime, eg. evident premeditation in
robbery or theft; advantage taken by public position in malversation; sex in crimes against chastity;
breaking wall in malicious mischief

Third rule: Aggravating or Mitigating Circumstances arising from:


1. Moral attributes

Supposing, the victim gave sufficient provocation, which irritated the accused who called his brother
for assistance, then they both killed the victim, can the mitigating circumstance of sufficient
provocation be appreciated for both of them? NO, only to the one who was the target of the
provocation (the accused) and not his brother
2. Private relations

Supposing, your neighbor slapped your mom, then you asked your friend to accompany you to kill
your neighbor, can the aggravating circumstance of immediate vindication of a relative for a grave
offense be appreciated for the both you? NO, only to you because it was your mom who was offended
first and not your friend

3. Personal cause

Supposing, you and your friend entered your neighbors house, not knowing that your friend is
afflicted with kleptomania, can the mitigating circumstance of illness be appreciated for the both of
you? NO, illness can be appreciated only to your friend

Fourth rule: Aggravating or mitigating circumstances apply in the:


- material execution of the act and in the means employed to accomplish it; only to those who had
knowledge at the time of the execution

1. Material execution

Supposing, Prof. Amurao asked his student to simply kill his classmate, but the student applied
cruelty when he killed his classmate, can the aggravating circumstance of cruelty be appreciated with
Prof. Amurao? NO, because he had no knowledge of the material execution used.
Supposing, using the same facts above, but Prof. Amurao told his student to kill his classmate at all
costs, can the aggravating circumstance of cruelty be appreciated with Prof. Amurao? YES
2. Means employed to accomplish

- Principal by direct participation uses poison to commit murder without the knowledge of the
Principal by inducement

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 128 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Habitual Delinquency
Habitual Delinquent a person who, within a period of 10 years from the date of release or last
conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa, or
falsification, found guilty for a 3rd time or oftener. A habitual delinquent shall suffer an additional
penalty
Difference between Habitual Delinquent/Recidivist/Reiteracion

Habitual Delinquent Recidivism Reiteracion

Crimes - specified crimes - 2 crimes embraced in - 2 crimes not

the same title of the RPC embraced in the same

title of the RPC

Period - within 10 years - time bet. 2 offenses - has served sentence

is immaterial for the 1st offense

No. of

Crimes - 3rd time or oftener - 2nd time is sufficient - 2nd time is sufficient

Effects - additional penalty - a generic aggravating - not always an

is imposed circumstance; can be aggravating

offset by an ordinary circumstance

mitigating circumstance

Difference bet. Habitual Delinquency & Subsidiary Imprisonment


Habitual Delinquent Subsidiary Imprisonment

- needs to be alleged in the - does not need to be alleged

information

- should be alleged in the - comes only after the sentence of

beginning conviction

- imposes an additional penalty - imposed only when unable to pay fine

- cannot be considered with a - general allegation will suffice

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 129 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

general allegation, must be

specifically alleged

Requisites for a Habitual Delinquent:


1. offender has been convicted of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa, or
falsification

2. after conviction or after serving sentence again committed within 10 years from his release or date of
first conviction, he was convicted of any of said crimes for the 2 nd time

3. after conviction or after serving sentence for the 2 nd offense again commits and within 10 years of
conviction or release for the 2nd offense, commits a 3rd time or oftener

Additional Penalties
1. For the 3rd time = the penalty for the last crime + Prision correctional medium to maximum

2. For the 4th time = the penalty for the last crime + Prision mayor minimum to medium

3. For the 5th time or more = the penalty for the last crime + Prision mayor maximum to Reclusion
temporal minimum

Total of last penalty and additional penalty = should not exceed 30 yrs.
If the court overlooked the imposition of an additional penalty for habitual delinquency = the
offender cannot be compelled to suffer the additional penalty
In the commission of several crimes occurring on or about the same date shall be considered only as
one for purposes of habitual delinquency
In the conviction for those crimes occurring on or about the same date shall also be considered as one

Article 63
ARTICLE 63 RULES ON INDIVISIBLE PENALTIES
1. For single indivisible penalties (reclusion perpetua) shall be applied regardless of mitigating or
aggravating circumstances, eg. the crime of rape with homicide, with the mitigating circumstances of
voluntary surrender, voluntary confession of guilt, and illness, the penalty shall still be reclusion
perpetua because circumstances are disregarded

2. For two indivisible penalties (sub-paragraphs 1-4 are inapplicable, because there is no death penalty,
therefore theres only one indivisible penalty)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 130 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Exception to disregarding circumstances: if it is a privileged mitigating circumstance (Articles 68 &


69), or if the accused is a minor who acted with discernment = can be entitled to a penalty next lower
in degree

Article 64
ARTICLE 64 RULES FOR PENALTIES WITH 3 PERIODS
- In accordance w/ Articles 76-77 whether there are attending circumstances

First rule
- if neither a mitigating or aggravating circumstance is present = medium period is imposed

Second rule
- if there is a mitigating circumstance = minimum period is imposed

Third rule
- if there is an aggravating circumstance = maximum period is imposed

Fourth rule
- if there is both a mitigating and aggravating circumstance = courts shall offset the circumstances
according to relative weight

Fifth rule
- if there are 2 or more mitigating circumstances and absolutely no aggravating circumstances = the
penalty next lower in degree is imposed

Sixth rule
- whatever the number or nature of aggravating circumstances = courts cannot impose a greater penalty
than prescribed by law in maximum

Seventh rule
- Courts can determine extent of penalty within the limits of each period

Mitigating circumstance must be ordinary = not privileged


Aggravating circumstance must be generic = not qualified or inherent

Article 65-67
ARTICLE 65 RULES FOR PENALTIES NOT IN THREE PERIODS
(reading matter)

ARTICLE 66 IMPOSITION OF FINES

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 131 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

(reading matter)

- of the maximum fine is either added (for aggravating circumstances) or deducted (for mitigating
circumstances) from the maximum fine

- courts must consider:

1. mitigating or aggravating circumstances

2. wealth or means of the culprit

ARTICLE 67 PENALTY FOR INCOMPLETE EXEMPTING CIRCUMSTANCE OF ACCIDENT


- Arresto mayor maximum to prision correccional minimum (grave felonies)

- Arresto mayor minimum to Arresto mayor medium (for less grave felonies)

Light felonies through negligence = no penalty

Article 68
ARTICLE 68 PENALTY FOR MINORS UNDER 18
(repealed by RA 9344)

Minor under 18 who acted with discernment = penalty two degrees lower

Article 69

ARTICLE 69 PENALTY FOR INCOMPLETE JUSTIFYING OR EXEMPTING CIRCUMSTANCES


- lowered by 1 or 2 degrees

Majority of such conditions must be present


In self-defense, defense of a relative, defense of a stranger
- Unlawful Aggression is indispensable

Article 70
ARTICLE 70 SUCCESSIVE SERVICE OF SENTENCE

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 132 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Simultaneous Service if the nature of the penalties will so permit, i.e. Reclusion temporal and
Perpetual Absolute Disqualification (refer to Reyes book for a complete list of penalties that ca be
served simultaneously)
Successive Service if cannot be served simultaneously (such as two jail sentences) shall follow the
scale provided by Article 70 based in the order according to severity
3-fold rule the maximum duration of the convicts sentence shall not be more than 3-fold the length
of the time corresponding to the most severe of the penalties imposed
only applies when the convict has to serve at least 4 sentences
In no case shall the sum total of penalties exceed 40 years
In the scale, Arresto menor comes before destierro because complete deprivation of liberty or
imprisonment in arresto menor is more severe than destierro

Supposing, you are a judge, can you impose the sentence of 500 counts of malversation, which is
each punishable by 15 yrs. of imprisonment, without violating Article 70? YES, because the 3-fold
rule does not refer to the imposition of sentence but refers to the service to the penalty; the courts
can sentence no matter what and no matter how much
The 3-fold rule is the concern of the Director of Prisons, NOT of the courts
If the sum total of all the penalties does not exceed the most severe multiplied by 3, the 3-fold rule
does not apply
Duration of convicts sentence refers to several penalties for different offenses not yet served out = has
to serve continuous imprisonment

Article 71-77
ARTICLE 71 GRADUATED SCALES
Penalties are classified between personal penalties (imprisonment) and political rights (suspension,
fine, etc)
Arresto mayor is followed by destierro

ARTICLES 72-77 (reading matter)


Article 73 Accessory penalties are deemed imposed
Subsidiary imprisonment is NOT an accessory penalty

INDETERMINATE SENTENCE LAW (ACT 4103 AMENDED BY ACT 4225)


- mandatory in nature; whether the courts like it or not, they have to apply the same except for those
mentioned in Sec. 2 who are disqualified

Purpose/Objectives of the ISLAW


1. to uplift and redeem valuable human materials
2. promote economic usefulness
3. prevent unnecessary and excessive deprivation of liberty

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 133 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

The ISLAW was enacted to benefit the accused by allowing the convict not to serve the full sentence
These objectives are attained with the application of the ISLAW

Court fixes a Maximum term and a Minimum term


After serving the Minimum term, the convict shall be entitled to parole upon evaluation of the Board
of Pardons and Parole
The release shall be evaluated by the Court whether the convict is:
- fitted by training for release
- reasonable probability not to commit another crime or violate the law
- compatible with the welfare of society
(take note of this; this was given by Prof. Amurao)

As applied in special penal laws


- the Maximum term should not be more than what is prescribed
- the Minimum term should not be less than what is prescribed
Example: 5 yrs and 1 day to 15 yrs
- the Minimum may be anywhere from 5 yrs to 14 yrs, but not less than 5 yrs
- the Maximum may be anywhere from 6 - 15 yrs. but not more than 15yrs.
As applied in the Revised Penal Code
- the Maximum term should be imposed under the rules of the RPC; penalty prescribed by law after
applying the legal effects of mitigating or aggravating circumstances; only the maximum is affected by
the attending circumstances
- the Minimum term should be within the range of the penalty next lower to that prescribed by the RPC;
the penalty prescribed by law, lower it immediately by one degree, ignore all the mitigating or
aggravating circumstances

Example:
Supposing, accidentally you met your neighbor along the road, he challenged you to a fight and you
accepted the challenge, there was a physical fight, then you inflicted a mortal wound that caused his
death in the hospital, you were charged with homicide, because there were no qualifying
circumstances, and since there was no mitigating and aggravating you should be sentenced to a
medium period of reclusion temporal (for homicide)
- To get Minimum term, immediately get the penalty next to Reclusion temporal, lower by 1 degree =
Prision mayor anywhere within Prision mayor, the court can decide what period, regardless of
attending circumstances
- The Maximum term, considering the absence of attending circumstances, is Reclusion Temporal
medium period
- The sentence now using the ISLAW is Prision mayor in any period as the Minimum term, up to
Reclusion temporal medium period as the Maximum term

If the convict reaches the Minimum term, he shall eligible for parole; terms and conditions can be
imposed by the BPP
Note from Prof. Amurao: It pays to be in good terms with the judge and his wife or his number 2 so you
can get a low Minimum term if not the lowest

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 134 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Surveillance Period during Parole (SP)


1. If there is no violation during the during the special period, the court will issue an order for final
discharge
2. Legal effect of a violation of law or rules:
- release may be revoked
- prosecuted anew
- prolonged change in the terms and conditions of the parole
- made to serve out the remaining unexpired portion of the sentence
During parole, the convict is as free as any normal person except for the terms and condition that have
to be observed

ISLAW is inapplicable with the following:


1. persons convicted of death or life imprisonment
- in terms of death, this refers to the penalty actually imposed in the conviction by the courts, not the
penalty prescribed by the law
- in terms of life imprisonment, what if Reclusion perpetua is imposed, can the ISLAW still be applied?
The SC says NO, its not applicable
2. those convicted of treason, proposal or conspiracy to commit treason
3. those convicted of misprision of treason, rebellion, sedition, espionage
4. convicted of piracy
5. habitual delinquents
6. those who escaped from confinement
7. those who violated the terms of conditional pardon by the President
8. maximum term of imprisonment less than a year
9. those convicted by destierro or suspension
- destierro is a conviction imposed by courts

PROBATION LAW (PD 968)


Probation a disposition under which a defendant after conviction and sentence, is released subject
to the conditions imposed by the court and to the supervision of the probation officer
Objectives/Purpose
1. Promote correction and rehabilitation

2. Opportunity for reformation

3. Prevent commission of offenses

Criteria for granting


- character - environment - institution/community

- antecedents - mental and physical condition

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 135 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Criteria for denying; if the convict:


1. needs correctional treatment

2. has undue risk of committing another crime

3. probation will depreciate seriousness of offense

Inapplicability of the Probation Law


1. a convict sentenced to more than 6 years

2. convicted of subversion other crimes of national security or public order

3. a recidivist

4. previously probationed

5. already serving sentence

There is first, a judgment of conviction imposed by the court

Duration
- not exceeding 6 years and not disqualified

- the accused may file an application for probation with the court

- the court will order an investigation through the probation officer, all the aspects of the life of the
convict

- probation officer submits findings and recommendation

- after submission, court may deny or approve recommendation and admit the accused to probation

- Court may impose duration based on: - rehabilitation

- reformation

- reintegration

Duration of the Probation Period


1. sentence not more than 1 year = probation is less than 2 years

2. sentence more than 1 year = probation is less than 6 years

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 136 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

3. sentence is fine with subsidiary imprisonment = probation is twice the days of subsidiary
imprisonment

After the Probation Period


- the court can issue, upon recommendation by the probation officer, a certificate of final discharge; its
effects are:

1. restored to ones original position

2. liability for the fine is deemed extinguished

When to apply for probation


- 15 days from promulgation, during the reglamentary period

- the convict can either appeal or apply for probation

Supposing, convict filed a notice of appeal, later changed his mind, withdrew his appeal then filed an
application for probation, can he do that? NO, once you file for an appeal, you waive your right to file
for an application for probation, and vice-versa if you first file for an application then later on decide
to withdraw it.
Supposing, a judgment of conviction was made, thus not entitled to probation, so accused filed an
appeal in the CA where his sentence was lowered, qualifying him for probation, can he apply for
probation now? CA says YES, there cant be any waiver of right because he was not
entitled to file an application for probation = theres nothing to

waive

SC says NO, because he already appealed, though with strong dissenting

opinions about it (The SC is supreme, but it is not always right)

Beyond the 15-day reglamentary period, you cant file an application for probation, except in RA 9344,
a child in conflict with the law can file an application for probation anytime

ARTICLES 78-80 (reading matters)


- Article 79 Suspension of Execution

- Article 80 (repealed by RA 9344) involves the diversion and intervention programs for children in
conflict with the law

ARTICLES 81-85 PROCEDURE AND GUIDELINES FOR THE EXECUTION OF DEATH PENALTY (reading matter)
ARTICLE 86 ADMINISTRATIVE MATTER ON PENITENTIARIES
(reading matter)

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 137 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ARTICLE 87 DESTIERRO
- prohibition in a certain place or places designated in the conviction

- not permitted to enter the place or places nor within the radius specified not more than 250, but not
less than 25 kilometers from the place

ARTICLE 88 ARRESTO MENOR


- shall be served in municipal jails

- or for health reasons, can be allowed to stay home (house arrest)

ARTICLE 89 TOTAL EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY


1. Death of a convict = extinguishes personal penalties but not pecuniary

if death comes before final judgment, even pecuniary liabilities are extinguished

2. Service of sentence

- crime is a debt incurred by the offender as a consequence; after service of the sentence, the debt is
paid

3. Amnesty

- extinguishes the penalty and its effects; as if the crime was not committed

4. Absolute Pardon

- an act of grace by the Chief Executive; exempts the person from punishment only

5. Prescription of crime

- forfeiture or loss of the right of the State to prosecute

6. Prescription of penalty

- loss or forfeiture of right of the government to execute the final sentence

7. Marriage of offended woman (Article 344)

- private crimes (abduction, seduction, lascivious acts adultery, concubinage) cannot be prosecuted de
officio

- public crimes (rape) can be prosecuted de officio (meaning initiated in Court by filing a complaint

Marriage can extinguish either crimes


ARTICLE 90 AND 91 PRESCRIPTION OF CRIMES AND COMPUTATION

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 138 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

1. Death, Reclusion perpetua, Reclusion temporal = 20 years

2. Crimes punishable by other afflictive penalties = 15 years

3. Crimes punishable by correctional penalties = 10 years

4. Arresto mayor = 5 years

5. Crimes of libel, or other similar offenses = 1 year

6. Oral defamation/ Slander by deed = 6 months

7. Light felonies = 2 months

The prescriptive period shall commence to run from the discovery of the crime and shall be
interrupted only by filing a complaint or information in court
Commences to run again when such proceedings terminate without the accused being convicted or
acquitted
The prescriptive period shall not run when the offender is absent from the Philippines

Supposing, in 1980 the accused commits a crime, then goes into hiding, he resurfaces 20 years later,
then the government finds a witness, can they institute a case? NO, but if the accused left for the US,
YES he can be prosecuted still
The mere filing of a complaint with the following does not interrupt the prescriptive period:
- Chief of Police - Office of the NBI

- Office of the Provincial Director of the PNP

because these do not constitute the court; they are not part of the judiciary, not part of the courts of
justice

But filing with: Office of the Public Prosecutor or Office of the Ombudsman, may interrupt the
prescriptive period

ARTICLE 92 AND 93 PRESCRIPTION OF PENALTIES AND COMPUTATION


1. Death, Reclusion perpetua = 20 years

2. Crimes punishable by other afflictive penalties = 15 years

3. Crimes punishable by correctional penalties = 10 years

4. Arresto mayor = 5 years

5. Light felonies = 1 year

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 139 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

The prescriptive period shall commence upon evasion of the service of sentence of the convict and
shall be interrupted by the following:
1. if offender gives himself up

2. if he is captured

3. goes to a foreign country with which we have no extradition treaty

4. commits another crime before expiration of the period of prescription

Difference between Prescription of crimes & Prescription of penalties


PRESCRIPTION OF CRIME PRESCRIPTION OF PENALTY

- loss or forfeiture of the State to - loss or forfeiture of the State to

prosecute enforce judgment after a lapse of

time

- period: includes libel, oral - light felonies for 1 year

defamation; difference in time for

light felonies

- starts counting upon discovery of the - starts counting upon the escape or

commission of the crime evasion of service of the sentence

- mere absence from the Philippines - absence from the Philippines

interrupts interrupted only when he goes to a

foreign country without an

extradition treaty with us

- commission of another crime before - commission of another crime

the expiration of the period does not before expiration of the period

interrupt interrupts the prescription

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 140 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ARTICLE 94 PARTIAL EXTINCTION OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY


1. Conditional pardon

- must be delivered and accepted; contract bet. President and the convict

2. By commutation of the sentence

3. For good conduct allowances which culprit may earn

4. Full credit of service of preventive imprisonment

5. Release on Parole

6. Release under Probation

ARTICLE 95 OBLIGATIONS OF THOSE GRANTED CONDITIONAL PARDON


(reading matter)

ARTICLE 96 EFFECT OF COMMUTATION OF SENTENCE


(reading matter)

ARTICLE 97 ALLOWANCES FOR GOOD CONDUCT


1. first 2 years = deduction of 5 days for each month of good behavior

2. 3 - 5 years = deduction of 8 days for each month of good behavior

3. 6-10 years = deduction of 10 days for each month of good behavior

4. 11 & so on years = deduction of 15 days for each month of good behavior

ARTICLE 98 SPECIAL TIME ALLOWANCES


- it is a deduction of 1/5 of the period of the entire sentence: having evaded service during calamity or
catastrophe (Art.158) gives himself up to the authorities within 48 hours; otherwise, if captured 1/5 of
the remaining sentence will added

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 141 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

Supposing, there is a calamity, but you did not escape, will you be awarded the 1/5 deduction? NO,
the law says you have to first escape

ARTICLE 99 WHO GRANTS TIME ALLOWANCES (reading matter)


- The Director of Prisons

Article 100 Civil Liability


In every felony, arises two things:
(i) criminal liability, which can be extinguished by:

- imprisonment - fine

- prescription of liberty

Interested parties are: the government/State/President against the accused who is the only one liable
because penalties are personal

(ii) civil liability, which can be extinguished by:

- restitution - indemnification

- reparation

Interested parties are: the offended party and heirs against the accused and heirs
Civil liability can be extinguished similar to that of contracts

Upon filing of the criminal action, civil action is deemed instituted


If the criminal case was filed first, it shall take precedence
If the civil case was filed first, it will be suspended when the criminal case is filed
Reservation of right loses right to intervene in criminal case, but allows for the institution of an
independent civil action (ICA)
Independent Civil Action (for cases of or claims for damages, defamation, physical injuries) may
proceed simultaneously with the criminal case, but if there is prejudicial question, it shall be decided
first
Prejudicial Question is one which arises in a case, the resolution of which is a logical antecedent of
the issue involved in the said case, and the cognizance of which pertains to another tribunal
Extinction of criminal liability (acquittal) shall not carry the civil action with it unless it is the basis for
the decision

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 142 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

ARTICLE 101 RULES ON CIVIL LIABILITY


- Article 12 pars. 1, 2, 3,5,6 and Article 11(4) are not exempt from civil liability

First rule:
- Article 12 (1, 2, 3) = civil liability devolves to those who have parental or legal authority of them

Second rule:
- Article 11(4) = those who benefited from the harm prevented are civilly liable

Third rule:
- Article 12 (5 & 6) = the persons causing the fear or using violence are primarily liable; in their absence,
those who acted are secondarily liable

ARTICLES 102-103 SUBSIDIARY LIABILITY OF OTHER PERSONS


(reading matter)

ARTICLES 104-109 &111 FORMS OF CIVIL LIABILITY & OBLIGATIONS


(reading matter)

ARTICLE 110 SEVERAL LIABILITIES OF PARTICIPANTS IN A CRIME


The principals, accomplices, accessories shall have several liability; thus, the offended party can ask
payment from any of them
In case of insolvency of the principal, the accomplice is next in line, and so on, if the latter is also
insolvent
3rd person gratuitous requires participation knowledge; requires knowledge on his part of the
commission of the crime

ARTICLE 112 & 113 EXTINGUISHMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITY


- same as extinguishment of contracts

1. by payment or performance

2. by the loss of the thing due

3. by condonation or remission of the debt

4. by the confusion or merger of the rights of the creditor and debtor

5. by compensation

6. by novation

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab
CRIMINAL LAW Page 143 of 143
Lecture & Recitation Notes Atty. Maximo Amurao

NOTES BY:
Josh Villena (2007)| Tin Dabu (2010) | Xina Acosta (2010) |
year 2011: Em Quinto * Hanz Santos * Janna Tecson*Bevs Quintos*Norly
Villanueva*Ayla Salendab