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Abstract

Coordination among protective devices in distribution systems will be affected


by adding distributed generators (DGs) to the existing network. That is
attributed to the changes in power flow directions and fault currents magnitudes
and directions due to the insertion of DG units in the distribution system, which
may cause mis-coordination between protection devices. This paper presents an
approach to overcome the impacts of DG units insertion on the protection
system and to avoid the mis-coordination problem. The proposed approach
depends on activating the directional protection feature, which is available in
most types of modern microprocessor-based reclosers. This will be
accompanied by an updating of relays and reclosers settings to achieve the
correct coordination. It's clear that this approach do not need any extra costs or
any extra equipment to be installed in the distribution system. An existing 11
kV feeder, simulated on ETAP package, is used to prove the suitability and
effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results ensure the possibility of
achieving the proper coordination between protective devices after inserting DG
units if the proper and suitable settings of these devices are realized.

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ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................................. 1
CHAPTER [1] INTRODUCTION TO DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS GENERAL......... 3
1.1 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM...................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Classification of Distribution Systems ....................................................................... 4
1.1.2 AC Distribution.......................................................................................................... 5
1.1.3 DC Distribution ......................................................................................................... 7
1.1.4 Overhead vs Underground System ............................................................................ 8
1.1.5 Connection Schemes of Distribution System ............................................................. 9
1.1.6 Requirements of a Distribution System ................................................................... 12
1.2 SMART GRID.................................................................................................................... 13
1.2.1 The need of Smart Grid ........................................................................................... 13
1.2.2 Smart Grid definition ............................................................................................... 13
1.2.3 Requirements for Smart Grid Integration: .............................................................. 15
1.2.4 Smart Grid Architecture: ......................................................................................... 17
1.2.5 Protection issues of Power Systems......................................................................... 30
1.2.6 Protection relays connected to power system: ........................................................ 34
1.2.7 Synchronization ....................................................................................................... 39
CHAPTER [2] PROTECTION COORDINATION:.......................................................... 43
INTRODUCTION:..................................................................................................................... 43
PROTECTION ISSUES OF MICROGRID: ..................................................................................... 43
1- False tripping: .............................................................................................................. 44
2- Blindness of protection: ............................................................................................... 44
3- Prohibition of automatic reclosing: ............................................................................. 44
4- Unsynchronized reclosing: ........................................................................................... 44
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PROTECTION .................................................................................... 44
1- Objective of Distribution System Protection:............................................................... 44
2-Equipment: .................................................................................................................... 46
3-Criteria for Coordination of Time/Current Devices in Distribution Systems:.............. 52
PROTECTION DEVICE COORDINATION IN RADIAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS IN CLASSICAL &
SMART METHODS .................................................................................................................. 59
Information Required for Coordination Studies: ............................................................. 61
Methods of Identify the Optimum Time Coordination: .................................................... 61
Description of mathematical solution for mis-coordination problem:............................. 63
Notes on Coordination Studies: ........................................................................................ 66
CHAPTER [3] ETAP; CASE STUDY AND DATA APPLICATION: ............................. 67

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Chapter [1] Introduction to Distribution
Systems General
The electrical energy produced at the generating station is conveyed to the
consumers through a network of transmission and distribution systems. It is
often difficult to draw a line between the transmission and distribution systems
of a large power system. It is impossible to distinguish the two merely by their
voltage because what was considered as a high voltage few years ago is now
considered as a low voltage. In general, distribution system is that part of power
system, which distributes power to the consumers for utilization. The
transmission and distribution systems are similar to mans circulatory system.

The transmission system may be compared with arteries in the human body and
distribution system with capillaries. They serve the same purpose of supplying
the ultimate consumer in the city with the life-giving blood of civilization
electricity. In this chapter, we shall confine our attention to the general
introduction to distribution system.

1.1 Distribution System


That part of power system which distributes electric power for local use is
known as distribution system. In general, the distribution system is the electrical
system between the sub-station fed by the transmission system and the
consumers meters. It generally consists of feeders, distributors and the service
mains. Fig. 1 shows the single line diagram of a typical low-tension distribution
system.

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Fig 1

(i) Feeders. A feeder is a conductor which connects the sub-station (or


localized generating station) to the area where power is to be distributed.
Generally, no tappings are taken from the feeder so that current in it remains the
same throughout. The main consideration in the design of a feeder is

(ii) Distributor. A distributor is a conductor from which tappings are taken


for supply to the consumers. In Fig. 1.1, AB, BC, CD and DA are the
distributors. The current through a distributor is not constant because tappings
are taken at various places along its length. While designing a distributor,
voltage drop along its length is the main consideration since the statutory limit
of voltage variations is 6% of rated value at the consumers terminals.

(iii) Service mains. A service mains is generally a small cable which connects
the distributor to the consumers terminal

1.1.1 Classification of Distribution Systems

A distribution system may be classified according to:


(i) Nature of current. According to nature of current, distribution system
may be classified as (a) DC distribution system (b) AC distribution system.
Now-a-days, AC system is universally adopted for distribution of electric power
as it is simpler and more economical than direct current method.

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(ii) Type of construction. According to type of construction, distribution
system may be classified as (a) overhead system (b) underground system. The
overhead system is generally employed for distribution as it is 5 to 10 times
cheaper than the equivalent underground system. In general, the underground
system is used at places where overhead construction is impracticable or
prohibited by the local laws.

(iii) Scheme of connection. According to scheme of connection, the


distribution system may be classified as (a) radial system (b) ring main system
(c) inter-connected system. Each scheme has its own advantages and
disadvantages.

1.1.2 AC Distribution
Now-a-days electrical energy is generated, transmitted and distributed in the
form of alternating current.
One important reason for the widespread use of alternating current in preference
to direct current is the fact that alternating voltage can be conveniently changed
in magnitude by means of a transformer. Transformer has made it possible to
transmit AC power at high voltage and utilize it at a safe potential. High
transmission and distribution voltages have greatly reduced the current in the
conductors and the resulting line losses. There is no definite line between
transmission and distribution according to voltage or bulk capacity. However, in
general, the AC distribution system is the electrical system between the
stepdown substation fed by the transmission system and the consumers meters.
The AC distribution system is classified into (i) primary distribution system and
(ii) secondary distribution system.

(i) Primary distribution system. It is that part of AC distribution system


which operates at voltages somewhat higher than general utilization and handles
large blocks of electrical energy than the average low-voltage consumer uses.
The voltage used for primary distribution depends upon the amount of power to
be conveyed and the distance of the substation required to be fed. The most
commonly used primary distribution voltages are 11 kV, 66 kV and 33 kV.
Due to economic considerations, primary distribution is carried out by 3- phase,
3-wire system.
Fig. 1.2 shows a typical primary distribution system. Electric power from the
generating station is transmitted at high voltage to the substation located in or

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near the city. At this substation, voltage is stepped down to 11 kV with the help
of step-down transformer. Power is supplied to various substations for
distribution or to big consumers at this voltage. This forms the high voltage
distribution or primary distribution.

(ii) Secondary distribution system. It is that part of AC distribution system


which includes the range of voltages at which the ultimate consumer utilises the
electrical energy delivered to him. The secondary distribution employs 400/230
V, 3-phase, 4-wire system. Fig.2 shows a typical secondary distribution system.
The primary distribution circuit delivers power to various substations, called
distribution substations. The substations are situated near the consumers
localities and contain stepdown transformers. At each distribution substation,
the voltage is stepped down to 400V and power is delivered by 3-phase,4-wire
AC system. The voltage between any two phases is 400 V and between any
phase and neutral is 230 V. The single phase domestic loads are connected
between motor loads are connected across 3-phase lines directly. any one phase
and the neutral, whereas 3-phase 400 V

Fig 2

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1.1.3 DC Distribution
It is a common knowledge that electric power is almost exclusively generated,
transmitted and distributed as AC. However, applications, DC supply is
absolutely necessary. For instance, DC supply is required for the operation of
variable speed machinery (i.e., DC motors), for electrochemical work and for
congested areas where storage battery reserves are necessary. For this purpose,
AC power is converted into DC power at the substation by using converting
machinery e.g., mercury arc rectifiers, rotary converters and motor-generator
sets. The DC supply from the substation may be obtained in the form of (i) 2-
wire or (ii) 3-wire for distribution.

(i) 2-wire DC system. As the name implies, this system of distribution


consists of two wires. One is the outgoing or positive wire and the other is the
return or negative wire. The loads such as lamps, motors etc. are connected in
parallel between the two wires as shown in Fig. 3 This system is never used for
transmission purposes due to low efficiency but may be employed for
distribution of DC power.

Fig 3

(ii) 3-wire DC system. It consists of two outers and a middle or neutral wire,
which is earthed at the substation. The voltage between the outers is twice the
voltage between either outer or neutral wire as shown in Fig. 3 The principal
advantage of this system is that it makes available two voltages at the consumer
terminals viz., V between any outer and the neutral and 2V between the outers.
Loads requiring high voltage (e.g., motors) are connected across the outers,
whereas lamps and heating circuits requiring less voltage are connected between

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either outer and the neutral. The methods of obtaining 3-wire system are
discussed in the following article.

1.1.4 Overhead vs Underground System


The distribution system can be overhead or underground. Overhead lines are
generally mounted on wooden, concrete or steel poles, which are arranged to
carry distribution transformers in addition to the conductors. The underground
system uses conduits, cables and manholes under the surface of streets and
sidewalks. The choice between overhead and underground system depends upon
a number of widely differing factors. Therefore, it is desirable to make a
comparison between the two.

(i) Public safety. The underground system is safer than overhead system
because all distribution wiring is placed underground and there are little chances
of any hazard.

(ii) Initial cost. The underground system is more expensive due to the high
cost of trenching, conduits, cables, manholes and other special equipment. The
initial cost of an underground system may be five to ten times than that of an
overhead system.

(iii) Flexibility. The overhead system is much more flexible than the
underground system. In the latter case, manholes, duct lines etc., are
permanently placed once installed and the load expansion can only be met by
laying new lines. However, on an overhead system, poles, wires, transformers
etc., can be easily shifted to meet the changes in load conditions.

(iv) Faults. The chances of faults in underground system are very rare as the
cables are laid underground and are generally provided with better insulation.

(v) Appearance. The general appearance of an underground system is better


as all the distribution lines are invisible. This factor is exerting considerable
public pressure on electric supply companies to switch over to underground
system.

(vi) Fault location and repairs. In general, there are little chances of faults in
an underground system. However, if a fault does occur, it is difficult to locate

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and repair on this system. On an overhead system, the conductors are visible
and easily accessible so that fault locations and repairs can be easily made.

(vii) Current carrying capacity and voltage drop. An overhead distribution


conductor has a considerably higher current carrying capacity than an
underground cable conductor of the same material and cross-section. On the
other hand, underground cable conductor has much lower inductive reactance
than that of an overhead conductor because of closer spacing of conductors.

(viii) Useful life. The useful life of underground system is much longer than
that of an overhead system. An overhead system may have a useful life of 25
years, whereas an underground system may have a useful life of more than 50
years.

(ix) Maintenance cost. The maintenance cost of the underground system is


very low as compared with that of the overhead system because of fewer
chances of faults and service interruptions from wind, ice, lightning as well as
traffic hazards.

(x) Interference with communication circuits. An overhead system causes


electromagnetic interference with the telephone lines. The power line currents
are superimposed on speech currents, resulting in the potential of the
communication channel being raised to an undesirable level. However, there is
no such interference with the underground system.

It is clear from the above comparison that each system has its own advantages
and disadvantages. However, comparative economics (i.e., annual cost of
operation) is the most powerful factor influencing the choice between
underground and overhead system. The greater capital cost of underground
system prohibits its use for distribution. However, sometimes non-economic
factors (e.g., general appearance, public safety etc.) exert considerable influence
on choosing underground system. In general, overhead system is adopted for
distribution and the use of underground system is made only where overhead
construction is impracticable or prohibited by local laws.

1.1.5 Connection Schemes of Distribution System

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All distribution of electrical energy is done by constant voltage system. In
practice, the following distribution circuits are generally used:
(i) Radial System. In this system, separate feeders radiate from a single
substation and feed the distributors at one end only. Fig. 4 (i) shows a single line
diagram of a radial system for DC distribution where a feeder OC supplies a
distributor AB at point A. Obviously, the distributor is fed at one end only i.e.,
point A is this case. Fig. 1.5 (ii) shows a single line diagram of radial system for
AC distribution. The radial system is employed only when power is generated at
low voltage and the substation is located at the centre of the load. This is the
simplest distribution circuit and has the lowest initial cost. However, it suffers
from the following drawbacks:

Fig 4

A. The end of the distributor nearest to the feeding point will be heavily
loaded.
B. The consumers are dependent on a single feeder and single distributor.
Therefore, any fault on the feeder or distributor cuts off supply to the
consumers who are on the side of the fault away from the substation.
C. The consumers at the distant end of the distributor would be subjected to
serious voltage fluctuations when the load on the distributor changes.

Due to these limitations, this system is used for short distances only.

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(ii) Ring main system. In this system, the primaries of distribution
transformers form a loop. The loop circuit starts from the substation bus-bars,
makes a loop through the area to be served, and returns to the substation. Fig.
1.6 shows the single line diagram of ring main system for AC distribution where
substation supplies to the closed feeder LMNOPQRS. The distributors are
tapped from different points M, O and Q of the feeder through distribution
transformers. The ring main system has the following advantages:

A. There are less voltage fluctuations at consumers terminals.


B. The system is very reliable as each distributor is fed via *two feeders. In
the event of faulton any section of the feeder, the continuity of supply is
maintained. For example, suppose that fault occurs at any point F of
section SLM of the feeder. Then section SLM of the feeder can be
isolated for repairs and at the same time continuity of supply is
maintained to all the consumers via the feeder SRQPONM.

Fig 5

(iii) Interconnected system. When the feeder ring is energised by two or


more than two generating stations or substations, it is called inter connected
system. Fig. 1.7 shows the single line diagram of interconnected system where
the closed feeder ring ABCD is supplied by two substations S1 and S2 at points
D and C respectively.

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Fig. 1.7

Distributors are connected to points O, P, Q and R of the feeder ring through


distribution transformers. The interconnected system has the following
advantages:

A. It increases the service reliability.


B. Any area fed from one generating station during peak load hours can be
fed from the other generating station. This reduces reserve power
capacity and increases efficiency of the system.

1.1.6 Requirements of a Distribution System


A considerable amount of effort is necessary to maintain an electric power
supply within the requirements of various types of consumers. Some of the
requirements of a good distribution system are:

(i) Proper voltage. One important requirement of a distribution system is


that voltage variations at consumers terminals should be as low as possible.
The changes in voltage are generally caused due to the variation of load on the
system. Low voltage causes loss of revenue, inefficient lighting and possible
burning out of motors. High voltage causes lamps to burn out permanently and
may cause failure of other appliances. Therefore, a good distribution system
should ensure that the voltage variations at consumers terminals are within
permissible limits. The statutory limit of voltage variations is 6% of the rated

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value at the consumers terminals. Thus, if the declared voltage is 230 V, then
the highest voltage of the consumer should not exceed 244 V while the lowest
voltage of the consumer should not be less than 216 V.

(ii) Availability of power on demand. Power must be available to the


consumers in any amount that they may require from time to time. For example,
motors may be started or shut down, lights may be turned on or off, without
advance warning to the electric supply company. As electrical energy cannot be
stored, therefore, the distribution system must be capable of supplying load
demands of the consumers. This necessitates that operating staff must
continuously study load patterns to predict in advance those major load changes
that follow the known schedules.

(iii) Reliability. Modern industry is almost dependent on electric power for its
operation. Homes and office buildings are lighted, heated, cooled and ventilated
by electric power. This calls for reliable service. Unfortunately, electric power,
like everything else that is man-made, can never be absolutely reliable.
However, the reliability can be improved to a considerable extent by (a)
interconnected system (b) reliable automatic control system (c) providing
additional reserve facilities.

1.2 Smart Grid


1.2.1 The need of Smart Grid
1- Ageing assets and lack of circuit capacity.
2- Thermal Constraints.
3- Operational Constraints.
4- Security of supply.
5- National initiatives.

1.2.2 Smart Grid definition


1- The European Technology Platform defines the Smart Grid as:
A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions
of all users connected to it, in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic
and secure electricity supply.

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2- According to the US Department of Energy:
A smart grid uses digital technology to improve reliability, security, and
efficiency (both economic and energy) of the electric system from large
generation, through the delivery systems to electricity Consumers and a growing
number of distributed-generation and storage resource.

Smart Grid is defined as:


A smart grid uses sensing, embedded processing and digital communications to
enable the electricity grid to be observable (able to be measured and visualized),
controllable (able to manipulated and optimized), automated (able to adapt and
self-heal), fully integrated (fully interoperable with existing systems and with
the capacity to incorporate a diverse set of energy sources

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1.2.3 Requirements for Smart Grid Integration:
The integration of renewable and distributed energy sources, energy storage and
demand-side resources into smart grids is arguably the largest new frontier for
smart grid advancements (DOE 2009b), in particular, when these sources are
connected to smart grids via inverters. Several challenging technical problems
should be addressed in order to fully maximize the benefits of smart grids.
1.2.3.1 Synchronization:
One of the most important problems in renewable energy and smart grid
integration is how to synchronize the inverters with the grid.

There are two different scenarios: one is before connecting an inverter to the
grid and the other is during the operation. If an inverter is not synchronized with
the grid or another power source, to which it is to be connected, then large
transient current may appear at the time of connection, which may cause
damage. During normal operation, the inverter needs to be synchronized with
the source it is connected to so that the system can work properly. In both
scenarios, the grid information is needed accurately and in a timely manner so
that the inverter is able to synchronize with the grid voltage. Depending on the
control strategies adopted, the information needed can be any combination of
the phase, the frequency and the voltage amplitude of the grid.

1.2.3.2 Power Flow Control

A simple reason for integrating renewable energy, distributed


generation and storage systems, etc. into a grid is to inject power to the grid.
This should be done in a controlled manner. Naturally, this is done via directly
controlling the current injected into the grid. Another option is to control the
voltage difference between the inverter output voltage and the grid voltage. As a
result, there are current-controlled strategies and voltage-controlled strategies.
Current-controlled strategies are easy to implement but the inverters equipped
with current controlled strategies do not take part in the regulation of power
system frequency and voltage and hence, they may cause problems for the
system stability when the share of power fed into the grid is significant. It is
more difficult to control voltage than current but voltage-controlled inverters
can easily take part in the regulation of system frequency and voltage, which is
very important when the penetration level of renewable energy, distributed
generation and storage systems, etc. reaches a certain level. The closer to

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conventional synchronous generators these sources behave, the smoother the
operation of the grid is.

1.2.3.3 Power Quality Control:


Power quality is a set of electrical properties that may affect the proper function
of electrical systems. It is used to describe the electric power that drives an
electrical load. Without proper power quality, an electrical device (or load) may
malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. Poor power quality can be
described in different ways, e.g. the continuity of power, variations in
magnitude and frequency, transient changes, harmonic contents in the
waveform, low power factor, imbalance of phases, The integration of renewable
energy, distributed generation and storage systems, etc. into smart grids via
inverters may cause serious power quality issues. A major power quality issue
in these applications is the harmonics in the voltage provided by the inverters
and the current injected into the grid, which can be caused by the PWM
switching effect, and the load current.

1.2.3.4 Neutral Line Provision:


For applications in renewable energy, distributed generation and smart grids,
there is often a need to have a neutral line to work with inverters so that a
current path is provided for unbalanced loads. The provision of a neutral line
also facilitates the independent operation of the three phases so that the coupling
effect among the phases is minimized.
1.2.3.5 Fault Ride-through (Low Voltage Ride Through):
When the penetration level of renewable energy, distributed generation and
storage systems, etc. to the grid reaches a certain level, it is required to be able
to successfully negotiate the short faults that have occurred in the grid, e.g.
voltage

Sags, voltage dips, phase jumps, frequency variations, etc. They can only
disconnect from the grid when the faults are serious.

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1.2.4 Smart Grid Architecture:
Smart grid system generally consists of four parts:
1. The distribution system.
2. The DG sources.
3. Energy storage.
4. Control and communications modules.

The classication of Smart Grid systems is mainly based on the selection of


the above components and the integration with the main electrical grid
network. With regard to grid integration, the Smart Grid system can be grid
connected or isolated. Smart Grid can be operated as AC or DC distribution
networks. Based on DG sources, both AC and DC smart Grid can further be
divided into three types:
Fully conventional
partially conventional/renewable
Fully renewable.

Both AC and DC systems can have energy storage devices incorporated.


The AC smart Grid can further be classied as line frequency or high
frequency AC (HFAC) smart Grid systems. Some of the details of this
classication are also discussed in the following sections.

A- Distribution systems:
In general, transmission and distribution systems and technologies are
considered as AC and DC. Therefore, the distribution network can also be
classied as one of the following;

DC line:
As most DG sources generate DC power and the DC distribution system has
less power quality problems. However, most loads are operated on AC
system.

Line frequency AC:


AC Grid systems are operated at line frequency. The DGs are connected in a
common bus in the smart Grid system. The generated DC current from the
DGs are transformed to 50 Hz AC by a suitable power electronics converter
and then transmitted to the load side.

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High frequency AC:
Using high frequency AC (HFAC) to transmit electricity in smart Grid systems
is a new concept which is still under development. In HFAC smart Grid
systems, the DGs are connected to a common bus. The electricity generated by
the DG is converted to a high frequency (typically 500 Hz) AC by power
electronic devices and is transmitted to the load side. It is then converted to 50
Hz AC by an AC/AC converter.

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19
DC bus, AC bus and HFAC bus systems congured as smart Grids. A
number of merits and demerits together with applications of these three
systems are identied. In the case of merits, it is identied that the DC bus
has higher reliability, lower losses, less power quality problems and no
power converter is required. The AC bus has better reliability, easier
connection to the utility grid and lower average cost. HFAC bus has fewer
PQ problems, lower volume and weight.

B- Distributed generation resources (DG):


Distributed generation (DG) technologies applicable for smart Grid may include a range
of technologies:

Wind power system.


Solar photovoltaic (PV) system.
Hydro power system.
Geothermal energy.
Biogas.
Ocean energy.
Single-phase.
Three-phase.
Induction generators.
Synchronous generators.

1- Photovoltaic (PV) system:


Solar PV generation involves the generation of electricity from solar energy,
which is free and inexhaustible.
The overall performance of a PV system depends on the:
a. Geolocation and resource information such as solar intensity, cloud
cover and temperature.
b. System efciency of PV modules, DC-DC converters and the inverters
together with their controlling mechanism.

Fluctuation in irradiance and cloud cover plays a vital role in creating voltage
disturbances. This disturbance can disconnect the inverter from the grid and
thus can cause loss of energy supplied. Considering the long-term
performance, PV systems show a remarkable degradation of efciency due to
the variation of the source and performance of the converter.

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Fig. 2. smart Grid system.

2- Wind turbines (WT):

Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) converts wind energy to


electrical energy. WECS has been popular for many years. The basic
structure of a wind power system is made of two parts: one mechanical and
one electrical. In the mechanical part, rotational energy is extracted from the
kinetic energy of the wind and in the electrical, part the rotational energy is
transformed into electric energy. The main part of the wind turbine is the
tower, the rotor and the nacelle. The nacelle accommodates the mechanical
power transmission components and the electrical generator. The rotor may
contain two or more blades. The wind turbine captures the kinetic energy of
the wind through the rotor blades and transfers the energy to the electrical
generator through the gearbox. The generator shaft is driven by the wind
turbine to generate electrical power. Wind turbines may have a horizontal
axis or vertical axis conguration.

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Fig.3. AC smart Grid system.

Fig. 4. HFAC smart Grid schematic.

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3- Micro-hydro:
is a generation technology that produces electricity from the ow of water.
This energy generation system depends on the topography and annual
precipitation of the area. In the absence of signicant hydro storage, the
system suffers from large variation of water ow due to uneven rainfall and
results in variation in generation. Run-of-river systems are often used in
micro-hydro power systems which do not require a large storage reservoir.
The motion of the shaft can be used for mechanical power such as pumping
water. This can also be used to power a generator to produce electricity.

Power Quality (PQ) issues related to DG sources:


Power quality in smart Grid systems has become an important issue as the
penetration of DG sources, either connected to the grid or as part of a smart
Grid. Solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel are the leading DG sources.
Power quality problems related to these DG sources have been identied in
Table 2. This table shows that, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) solar PV
and wind energy systems causes almost all the PQ problems such as voltage
sag/swell, over/under voltage, voltage and current harmonics and icker.
Compared to PV and wind, small/micro hydro systems have fewer power
quality problems. The main advantages of these RESs are they are pollution-
free. Conventional diesel generation also has fewer power quality problems
such as voltage sag/swell, over/ under voltage and icker. The main
disadvantage of this source is that it emits CO2which pollutes the
environment. At the same time, for stability and reliability of the system, PQ
control including fault management is one of the basic criteria to be
considered and therefore more emphasis should be given to improving PQ
problems in DG resources and smart Grid.

C- Energy storage
One of the main requirements for successful operation of a smart Grid
is inclusion of energy storage devices, which balances the power and
energy demand with generation.
Energy storage devices perform the following functions:
Ensure power balance in a smart Grid despite load uctuation and
other transients. DGs with their lower inertia have less capability to
respond to these disturbances.
When there are dynamic variations in intermittent energy sources,

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they provide ride-through capability and allow the DGs to operate as
dispatchable units.
Provides the initial energy requirement for a transition between
grid-connected or/from islanded operation of smart Grid.

When a new load comes on line, it results a slight change in system


frequency. A smart Grid system with several DG sources designed to
operate in an island mode must provide storage options to ensure energy
balance. Due to the large time constants (from 10 to 200 s) of the
responses of some DG, such as fuel cell and micro-turbines, storage
devices must be able to balance the power following system disturbance
and/or signicant load changes. In case of sudden system changes such as
load-following situations, these devices act as AC voltage source. As these
devices have physical limitations, they can store a nite capacity of
energy. The backup energy storage devices must be included in smart Grid
to ensure the uninterrupted power supply. Through these actions, the
storage system also helps to increase the smart Grid stability and thus
helps to improve the power quality.
There are four types of energy storage methodologies have been
developed so far and these are:
a. Chemical battery and fuel cell.
b. Electrical superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) and
super or ultra-capacitor.
c. Mechanical - pumped hydro, ywheels and compressed air energy
storage (CAES) systems.
d. Thermal energy storage - super-heated oil or molten salts.
The most commonly used and suitable storage devices for smart Grid
are batteries, ywheels, fuel cells and super-capacitors. Therefore, a
brief description of these storage systems is presented below.

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Table 1

Table 2

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Battery
Batteries store energy in chemical form during charging. When connected to
the load it discharges that stored energy in electrical form. Storage in a
smart Grid system can be mounted on the DC bus of each micro-source
separately or can be used as a central storage system. Batteries are
comparatively cheaper than other storage devices and it has the extra benet
of being able to reserve energy for future demand. That is why it is quiet
popular as smart Grid storage system. Lead-acid batteries usually provide a
large current for a short time interval and thus it is the most suitable storage
option for smart Grid applications.

Flywheel
Flywheels stores kinetic energy in a rotating mass and releases it by
converting the kinetic energy to electrical energy as required, thus reducing
the speed of rotation. Their application has mainly been for power quality
improvement and to provide energy for UPS. There are very few examples
of ywheels in demonstration smart Grid system. They can be used as
central storage for the whole system.

Super-capacitor
Super-capacitors store energy in the form of their electrostatic eld. Due to
their structure of liquid and porous electrodes, an extremely high specic
surface area is obtained. Furthermore, extremely short distance exists
between the electrode and electrolyte (less than 1 m). These two factors
help to develop a very high capacitance per unit of volume, which is
between hundreds to thousands times larger than electrolytic capacitors.
The main advantages of super-capacitor are as follow:
a. No moving parts.
b. Requires neither cooling nor heating.
c. No internal chemical changes during operation.
d. Robust and very efficient and thus reaching a cycle efciency of
95% or more.
Unfortunately, the most important disadvantages of super capacitor are:
a. The high cost.
b. Limited capacity.

Fuel cells

26
Fuel cells could be another option for energy storage as they directly
convert chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy. Due to higher
efciency and lower fuel oxidation temperatures, fuel cells emit less CO 2
and NOx per kilowatt of power generated. As there is no moving part, they
are almost free from noise and vibration and are robust and require low
maintenance. The output of the generator is 1 kW to 10 MW. Electrical
efciency is 3060% and overall efciency is 8085%. This makes fuel
cells suitable for urban and suburban locations. Moreover, they can use a
variety of fuels such as natural gas, propane, landll gas, anaerobic digester
gas, diesel, naphtha, methanol and hydrogen. Another innovative energy
storage has introduced by the RAPS Pty Ltd, based on highly pure graphite
blocks. These blocks can be heated by the DG sources or the grid and can
be used later. Furthermore this energy can be used to produce steam
through embedded heat.

D- Communication systems

For power control and protection, communication systems are very


important. The basic communication methods with their characteristics are
given in Table 4. From the following table it is observed that the
communication systems commonly applicable in the smart Grid systems are
GSM, GPRS, 3G, WiMax, PLC, ZigBee. Among the systems mentioned,
3G and WiMax have fast data transfer rate and long coverage range. But the
limitation is that spectrum fees are costly. In PLC communication systems,
data rates are in the range of 2-3 Mbps and coverage ranges between 1 and 3
km. For long distance communication, WiMax and 3 G are used and for
short distance communication PLC and ZigBee systems are preferable.

27
28
29
1.2.5 Protection issues of Power Systems
Modification in fault current level:
When large number of small distributed generation units that uses synchronous or
induction generator units are connected to distribution network or grid it changes fault
current level as both types of generators contribute towards fault currents. When
inverter interfaced DG units are used, fault current is limited to a lower value. As fault
current is not high as compared to load current, some of the relays do not trip, others
that respond to fault operate with the time delay. The undetected fault spreads out in
the system and can damage the equipment. Fault impedance also decreases when DG is
connected into network in parallel with the other devices. When faults occurs
downstream of the point of common coupling, both the main source and DG
contributes fault current. Relay placed at upstream of DG measure fault current
supplied by upstream source
1- Device discrimination:
In the power system network that has generation sources at the end of network,
fault current decreases with increase in distance as the impedance increases. The
variation in magnitude of fault current is used for discrimination. In case of
islanded micro grid with inverter interfaced distributed generation units , fault is
limited to a lower value ,fault level at the locations of feeder will be almost
constant .The traditional current protection scheme which uses the variation in
magnitude of fault current for discrimination does not work properly. New
protection system for device protection is require

30
2- Reverse Power flow :
Main challenge for protecting the micro grid arises because power can flow in
both the directions in each feeder of micro grid. Sources are located in both
sides of load due to which power flows in opposite direction from two sources
towards the load. Power flow also changes its direction in case of distribution
network with embedded generation when local generation exceeds local
consumption. The reverse power flow can also cause power quality problems
resulting in variation of voltage.
3- Sympathetic Tripping :
This occurs when protective device operates for faults in an outside protective
zone. DG contributes towards the fault; relay operates along with another
relay, which actually sees the fault resulting in malfunctioning of protective
scheme.
4- Islanding :
The DG creates a problem when part of distributed network with DG unit is
islanded. Islanding is due to fault in the network. If generator continues to
supply power despite the disconnection of utility, fault might persist as fault is
fed by DG . If the control for the voltage is not provided, it results in
unexpected rise in voltage levels in case of islanded operation.
5- Single phase connection :
Some DG sources inject single phase power into the distribution grid, for
example PV systems. This affects balance of three phase currents, due to
unbalance current in the neutral conductor increases which also results in flow
of stray currents to earth. This current should be limited to prevent
overloading.

31
Protection issues of Micro grid:
The disconnection of distributed generators (DGs) from a distribution network
for every abnormal condition drastically reduces the DG benefits and system
reliability when DG penetration level is high. The DGs can be used to supply
the load demand in the absence of grid supply if DGs are allowed to operate in
islanded mode. Protection strategies are proposed to allow islanded operation
and to restore the system performing auto-reclosing maintaining as many DG
connections as possible. An over current relay based protection scheme is
proposed for a converter based DG connected radial feeder to operate either in
grid-connected or islanded mode maximizing the DG benefits to customers.
Moreover, an effective method is proposed to restore the system with DGs using
auto-reclosers.
1- Changes in the short-circuit level:
Micro grid ability to operate in two normal and islanded modes is an important
challenge for designing an appropriate protection plan. This issue is due to the
significant difference found in short- circuit levels in these modes. In the normal
operation mode a micro grid is connected to a MV network, and hence, both the
network and DGs contribute to supplying fault currents. The contribution of DGs might
increase the network short-circuit level over its rated value, causing the necessity for
changing circuit breakers (CBs). On the contrary, in the islanded mode, the micro grid
is separated from the MV network. Therefore, only the DGs supply fault current during
fault events .Since the value of fault current supplied by a DG is limited, the total level
of fault current in the islanded mode is significantly lower than that of the normal
mode. This level might be so low that the traditional protection systems, which are
configured based on the magnitude of fault current, might not detect the faults. This
issue high- lights necessity of a method which is able to protect micro grid in both
normal and islanded mode.
2- False tripping:

32
False tripping occurs when the fault current occurring in a feeder is supplemented by
the fault current generated by a DG in a neighboring feeder attached to the same
substation. In such circumstances, the protective equipment of the neighboring feeder
might disconnect the circuit, causing a problem called unnecessary outage of feeder
or false tripping.

3- Blindness of protection:
Operating region of over current relay is identified by pick up current which depends
on the feeder impedance. Pickup current is configured in a way that it is more than
rated current of feeder and less than minimum short-circuit current of the protected
region. When DG is connected to a network, the feeder equivalent impedance is
increased and as a result, fault current detected by over current relay is decreased. This
issue decreases operation zone of relay and relay cannot cover end of its protected line.
4- Prohibition of automatic reclosing:
Distributed network is radial without DG. Therefore, when a recloser operates, its
downstream part disconnects to clear the transient fault. In existence of DG, both MV
network and DG supply fault. However the recloser disconnects MV network, DG still
sup plies the fault current until it results in recloser defect and in this situation the
transient fault changes into permanent fault.
5- Unsynchronized reclosing:
When a DG is connected to a network, a recloser connects the two energized systems.
If the connection is done without considering synchronism, it may cause serious
damages to sensitive equipment as well the DG. It is worth noting that none of the
above problems is observed in the case of a single wire earth return distribution
network which supplies electricity to remotely located customers at low cost, using
only one conductor with the return path through earth .

33
1.2.6 Protection relays connected to power system:
1- Instantaneous Relay(50):
The stator currents RMS values are measured and compared with the threshold value.
The output of the relay is send to the circuit breaker to disconnect the generator
instantaneously from the grid when the stator phase current is higher than pickup value
as shown in Fig. The instantaneous relay setting is 3 pu to avoid mal operation during
grid transients and control system dynamics.

2- Time Delay Over current Relay (51) :

The trip signal of the relay is sent to the circuit breaker to disconnect the generator
from the grid when the stator phase current is higher than pickup value as shown in Fig
2.17. The International Electro-technical commission (IEC) is the world's leading
organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical,
electronic and related technologies. IEC225 standard built in model in PSCAD
program is used for modeling of the time delay over current relay (51). It provides
three modes for this relay which are standard inverse, very inverse and extremely
inverse. The setting values are I pickup = 1.5 pu with time dial of 1.

3- Ground Instantaneous Relay(50G):

The RMS values of the stator ground currents are measured and compared with the
setting value. The trip signal of the relay is sent to the circuit breaker to disconnect the
generator from the grid when the stator ground current is higher than pickup value as
shown in Fig. The ground instantaneous over curent relay setting is 0.5 pu to avoid mal
operation during grid transients and control system dynamics.

34
35
4- Ground Time Delay Over current Relay (51G) :
The trip signal of the relay is sent to the circuit breaker to disconnect the
generator from the grid when the stator ground current is higher than pickup
value as shown in Fig 2.19. The IEC225 standard built in model in PSCAD
program is used for modeling of the ground time delay over current relay
(51G). It provides three modes for this which are standard inverse, very
inverse and extremely inverse. The setting values are I pickup = 0.1 pu with
time dial of 1.

5- Balance Relay(46):
The phase balance relay sums the three phase instantaneous current values,
when the phases currents are equal in magnitude with correct phase shift the
summation will be zero. With currents imbalance in magnitude or in phase
shift the summation will not be zero. If the summation is higher than pickup
value the relay will operate and give a trip signal to operate the circuit breaker
to isolate the generator from the grid.

6- Over /Under Frequency Relay (81OU) :


The over& under frequency relay setting is selected from the Egyptian grid
codes (ETGC) frequency ranges as shown in Fig 2.21. The relay consists of
different frequency deviation values with specified delay times as shown in
Fig.

36
37
7- Directional Over current Relay(67):
The construction of the directional over current relay is shown in Fig. It
consists of two elements the directional element and over current element.
When the directional element detects reverse fault, it give a trip signal and the
relay output still zero until the current exceed predetermined setting value of
0.1 pu. When the over current element gives trip signal then the AND gate
output will be one and the relay trip signal is sent to the circuit breaker to
isolate the generator from the grid.

8- Reverse Power Relay (32) :


The construction of the reverse power relay is shown in Fig. It consists of two
elements the directional element and power level element. When the
directional element detect reverse fault, it gives a trip signal and the relay
output still zero until the power exceed predetermined setting value of 0.1 pu.
When the power level element gives trip signal then the AND gate output will
be one and the relay trip signal is sent to the circuit breaker to isolate the
generator from the grid.

38
1.2.7 Synchronization
One of the most important problems in renewable energy and smart grid
integration is how to synchronize the inverters with the grid
There are two different scenarios: one is before connecting an inverter to the
grid and the other is during the operation.
If an inverter is not synchronized with the grid or another power source, to
which it is to be connected, then large transient currents may appear at the time
of connection, which may cause damage.
During normal operation, the inverter needs to be synchronized with the source
it is connected to so that the system can work properly. In both scenarios, the
grid information is needed accurately and in a timely manner so that the inverter
is able to synchronize with the grid voltage. Depending on the control strategies
adopted, the information needed can be any combination of the phase, the
frequency and the voltage amplitude of the grid

Overview of grid synchronization methods


The injected current into the utility network has to be synchronized with the grid
voltage as the standards. Therefore, grid synchronization algorithms play an
important role for DPGSs (Distributed Power Generation Systems).

A- Zero crossing method

39
Among all the techniques, the zero-crossing method has the simplest
implementation; however, poor performances are also reported when using it,
mainly if grid voltages register variations such as harmonics or notches.

B- Filtering of grid voltage


Improved performance over the zero-crossing method is
reported, but still, the filtering technique encounters difficulty
to extract the phase angle when grid variations or faults occur
in the utility network [32]. The method requires the use of the
arctangent function to obtain the phase angle of the utility
voltage. It is well known that using filtering, a delay is
introduced in the processed signal. In the case when it is used
for extracting the grid voltage angle, this is unacceptable.
Thus, a proper filter design is a necessity
In the case when the current controller is implemented in
the stationary reference frame, as shown in Fig. 6, the
knowledge of the grid voltage angle is not needed; hence,
it is not necessary to calculate the arctangent function. In
fact, the filtered components can be directly used as a
template for the reference current signal to be synchronized

40
C-PLL Technique

Nowadays, the PLL technique is the state-of-the-art method to extract the phase
angle of the grid voltages
The PLL is implemented in dq synchronous reference frame, and its schematic
is illustrated in Fig. 13. As it can be noticed, this structure needs the coordinate
transformation form abc dq , and the lock is realized by setting the reference
Ud to zero. A regulator, usually PI, is used to control this variable, and the
output of this regulator is the grid frequency. After the integration of the grid
frequency, the utility voltage angle is obtained, which is fed back into the
dq transformation module to transform into the synchronous rotating reference
frame.
This algorithm has a better rejection of grid harmonics, notches, and any other
kind of disturbances, but additional improvements have to be done to overcome
grid unbalance.
In the case of unsymmetrical voltage faults, the second harmonics produced by
the negative sequence will propagate through the PLL system and will be
reflected in the extracted phase angle. To overcome this, different filtering

techniques are necessary such that the negative sequence is filtered out. As a
consequence, during unbalanced conditions, the three-phase dq PLL structure
can estimate the phase angle of the positive sequence of the grid voltages.

41
This chart shows the difference between the three ways in terms of strengths
and weaknesses of each method

42
Chapter [2] Protection Coordination:

Introduction:
The disconnection of distributed generators (DGs) from a distribution network for
every abnormal condition drastically reduces the DG benefits and system reliability
when DG penetration level is high. The DGs can be used to supply the load demand in
the absence of grid supply if DGs are allowed to operate in islanded mode. Protection
strategies are proposed to allow islanded operation and to restore the system
performing auto-reclosing maintaining as many DG connections as possible. An
overcurrent relay based protection scheme is proposed for a converter based DG
connected radial feeder to operate either in grid-connected or islanded mode
maximizing the DG benefits to customers. Moreover, an effective method is proposed
to restore the system with DGs using auto-reclosers.

Protection issues of Microgrid:


Changes in the short-circuit level.
Micro-grid ability to operate in two normal and islanded modes is an important
challenge for designing an appropriate protection plan. This issue is due to the
significant difference found in short- circuit levels in these modes. In the normal
operation mode, a microgrid is connected to a MV network, and hence, both the
network and DGs contribute to supplying fault currents. The contribution of DGs might
increase the network short-circuit level over its rated value, causing the necessity for
changing circuit breakers (CBs) . On the contrary, in the islanded mode, the microgrid
is separated from the MV network. Therefore, only the DGs supply fault current during
fault events .Since the value of fault current supplied by a DG is limited, the total level
of fault current in the islanded mode is significantly lower than that of the normal
mode. This level might be so low that the traditional protection systems, which are
configured based on the magnitude of fault current, might not detect the faults. This
issue high- lights necessity of a method which is able to protect microgrid in both
normal and islanded mode.

43
1- False tripping:
False tripping occurs when the fault current occurring in a feeder is supplemented by
the fault current generated by a DG in a neighboring feeder attached to the same
substation. In such circumstances, the protective equipment of the neighboring feeder
might disconnect the circuit, causing a problem called unnecessary outage of feeder
or false tripping.

2- Blindness of protection:
Operating region of over current relay is identified by pick up current which depends
on the feeder impedance. Pickup current is configured in a way that it is more than
rated current of feeder and less than minimum short-circuit current of the protected
region. When DG is connected to a network, the feeder equivalent impedance is
increased and as a result, fault current detected by over current relay is decreased. This
issue decreases operation zone of relay and relay cannot cover end of its protected line.

3- Prohibition of automatic reclosing:


Distributed network is radial without DG. Therefore, when a recloser operates, its
downstream part disconnects to clear the transient fault. In existence of DG, both MV
network and DG supply fault. However the recloser disconnects MV network, DG still
sup- plies the fault current until it results in recloser defect and in this situation the
transient fault changes into permanent fault.

4- Unsynchronized reclosing:
When a DG is connected to a network, a recloser connects the two energized systems.
If the connection is done without considering synchronism, it may cause serious
damages to sensitive equipment as well the DG. It is worth noting that none of the
above problems is observed in the case of a single wire earth return distribution
network which supplies electricity to remotely located customers at low cost, using
only one conductor with the return path through earth .

Distribution System Protection

1- Objective of Distribution System Protection:

The main objectives of distribution system protection are:

44
I. To minimize the duration of a fault
II. To minimize the number of consumers affected by the fault

The secondary objectives of distribution system protection are:

I. To eliminate safety hazards as fast as possible


II. To limit service outages to the smallest possible segment of the system
III. To protect the consumers apparatus
IV. To protect the system from unnecessary service interruptions and
disturbances
V. To disconnect faulted lines, transformers, or other apparatus.

Overhead distribution systems are subject two types of electrical faults, namely,
transient (or temporary) faults and permanent faults. Depending on the nature of
the system involved, approximately 7590% of the total number of faults are
temporary in nature. Usually transient faults occur when phase conductors
electrically contact other phase conductors or ground momentarily due to trees,
birds or other animals, high winds, lightning, flashovers, and so on. Transient
faults are cleared by a service interruption of sufficient length of time to
extinguish the power arc. Here, the fault duration is minimized and unnecessary
fuse blowing is prevented by using instantaneous or highspeed tripping and
automatic reclosing of a relaycontrolled power circuit breaker or the automatic
tripping and reclosing of a circuit recloser. The breaker speed, relay settings,
and recloser characteristics are selected in a manner to interrupt the fault current
before a series fuse (i.e. the nearest sourceside fuse) is blown, which would
cause the transient fault to become permanent.

Permanent faults are those which require repairs by repair crew in terms of:

I. Replacing burneddown conductors, blown fuses, or any other damaged


apparatus
II. Removing tree limbs from the line
III. Manually reclosing a circuit breaker or recloser to restore service

Here, the number of customers affected by a fault is minimized by properly


selecting and locating the protective apparatus on the feeder main, at the tap
point of each branch, and at critical locations on branch circuits. Permanent
faults are cleared by fuse cutouts installed at sub-main and lateral tap points.
This practice limits the number of customers affected by a permanent fault and

45
helps locate the fault point by reducing the area involved. In general, the only
part of the distribution circuit not protected by fuses is the main feeder and
feeder tie line. The substation is protected from faults on feeder and tie lines by
circuit breakers and/or reclosers located inside the substation.

Most of the faults are permanent on an underground distribution system,


thereby requiring a different protection approach. Although the number of faults
occurring on an underground system is relatively much less than that on the
overhead systems, they are usually permanent and can affect a larger number of
customers. Faults occurring in the underground residential distribution (URD)
systems are cleared by the blowing of the nearest sectionalizing fuse or fuses.
Faults occurring on the feeder are cleared by tripping and lockout of the feeder
breaker.

2-Equipment:

A wide variety of equipment is used to protect distribution networks. The


particular type of protection used depends on the system element being
protected and the system voltage level, and, even though there are no specific
standards for the overall protection of distribution networks, some general
indication of how these systems work can be made.

The devices most used for distribution system protection are:

I. Overcurrent Relays
II. Reclosers
III. Fuses
2.1 Reclosers:

A recloser is a device with the ability to detect phase and phase-to-ground


overcurrent conditions, to interrupt the circuit if the overcurrent persists after a
predetermined time, and then to automatically reclose to reenergize the line. If
the fault that originated the operation still exists, then the recloser will stay open
after a preset number of operations, thus isolating the faulted section from the
rest of the system. In an overhead distribution system between 75 to 95 per cent
of the faults are of a temporary nature and last, at the most, for a few cycles or
seconds. Thus, the recloser, with its opening/closing characteristic, prevents a

46
distribution circuit being left out of service for temporary faults. Typically,
reclosers are designed to have up to three openclose operations and, after these,
a final open operation to lock out the sequence. One further closing operation
by manual means is usually allowed. The counting mechanisms register
operations of the phase or groundfault units which can also be initiated by
externally controlled devices when appropriate communication means are
available. The operating time/current characteristic curves of reclosers normally
incorporate three curves, one fast and two delayed, designated as A, B and C,
respectively. Figure 1 shows a typical set of time/current curves for reclosers.
However, new reclosers with microprocessorbased controls may have
keyboardselectable time/current curves which enable an engineer to produce
any curve to suit the coordination requirements for both phase and ground
faults. This allows reprogramming of the characteristics to make an
arrangement to a customer's specific needs without the need to change
components.

47
Coordination with other protection devices is important in order to ensure that,
when a fault occurs, the smallest section of the circuit is disconnected to
minimise disruption of supplies to customers. Generally, the time characteristic
and the sequence of operation of the recloser are selected to coordinate with
mechanisms upstream towards the source. After selecting the size and sequence
of operation of the recloser, the devices downstream are adjusted in order to
achieve correct coordination. A typical sequence of a recloser operation for a
permanent fault is shown in Figure 2. The first shot is carried out in
instantaneous mode to clear temporary faults before they cause damage to the
lines. The three later ones operate in a timed manner with predetermined time
settings. If the fault is permanent, the timedelay operation allows other

48
protection devices nearer to the fault to open, limiting the amount of the
network being disconnected.

Ground faults are less severe than phase faults and, therefore, it is important
that the recloser has an appropriate sensitivity to detect them. One method is to
use CTs connected residually so that the resultant residual current under normal
conditions is approximately zero. The recloser should operate when the residual
current exceeds the setting value, as would occur during ground faults.

Reclosers can be classified as follows:

I. Singlephase and threephase;


II. Mechanisms with hydraulic or electronic operation;
III. Oil, vacuum or SF6.

Singlephase reclosers are used when the load is predominantly singlephase. In


such a case, when a singlephase fault occurs the recloser should permanently
disconnect the faulted phase so that supplies are maintained on the other phases.
Threephase reclosers are used when it is necessary to disconnect all three
phases in order to prevent unbalanced loading on the system. Reclosers with
hydraulic operating mechanisms have a disconnecting coil in series with the
line. When the current exceeds the setting value, the coil attracts a piston that
opens the recloser main contacts and interrupts the circuit. The time
characteristic and operating sequence of the recloser are dependent on the flow
of oil in different chambers. The electronic type of control mechanism is
normally located outside the recloser and receives current signals from a CT
type bushing. When the current exceeds the predetermined setting, a delayed
shot is initiated that finally results in a tripping signal being transmitted to the
recloser control mechanism. The control circuit determines the subsequent
opening and closing of the mechanism, depending on its setting. Reclosers with
electronic operating mechanisms use a coil or motor mechanism to close the
contacts. Oil reclosers use the oil to extinguish the arc and also to act as the
basic insulation. The same oil can be used in the control mechanism.

Vacuum and SF6 reclosers have the advantage of requiring less maintenance.
Reclosers are used at the following points on a distribution network:

I. In substations, to provide primary protection for a circuit;

49
II. In main feeder circuits, in order to permit the sectioning of long lines and
thus prevent the loss of a complete circuit due to a fault towards the end of the
circuit;
III. In branches or spurs, to prevent the tripping of the main circuit due to faults
on the spurs.

When installing reclosers it is necessary to take into account the following


factors:

I. System voltage.
II. Shortcircuit level.
III. Maximum load current.
IV. Minimum shortcircuit current within the zone to be protected by the
recloser.
V. Coordination with other mechanisms located upstream towards the
source, and downstream towards the load.
VI. Sensitivity of operation for ground faults

The voltage rating and the shortcircuit capacity of the recloser should be equal
to, or greater than, the values that exist at the point of installation. The same
criteria should be applied to the current capability of the recloser in respect of
the maximum load current to be carried by the circuit. It is also necessary to
ensure that the fault current at the end of the line being protected is high enough
to cause operation of the recloser.

2.2 Fuses:
A fuse is an overcurrent protection device; it possesses an element that is
directly heated by the passage of current and is destroyed when the current
exceeds a predetermined value. A suitably selected fuse should open the circuit
by the destruction of the fuse element, eliminate the arc established during the
destruction of the element and then maintain circuit conditions open with
nominal voltage applied to its terminals, (i.e. no arcing across the fuse element).

The majority of fuses used in distribution systems operate on the expulsion


principle, i.e. they have a tube to confine the arc, with the interior covered with
deionizing fiber, and a fusible element. In the presence of a fault, the interior
fiber is heated up when the fusible element melts and produces deionizing

50
gases which accumulate in the tube. The arc is compressed and expelled out of
the tube; in addition, the escape of gas from the ends of the tube causes the
particles that sustain the arc to be expelled. In this way, the arc is extinguished
when current zero is reached. The presence of deionizing gases, and the
turbulence within the tube, ensure that the fault current is not reestablished
after the current passes through zero point. The zone of operation is limited by
two factors; the lower limit based on the minimum time required for the fusing
of the element (minimum melting time) with the upper limit determined by the
maximum total time that the fuse takes to clear the fault.

There are a number of standards to classify fuses according to the rated


voltages, rated currents, time/current characteristics, manufacturing features and
other considerations. For example, there are several sections of ANSI/UL 198
1982 standards that cover low voltage fuses of 600 V or less. For medium and
high voltage fuses within the range 2.3138 kV, standards such as ANSI/IEEE
C37.40, 41, 42, 46, 47 and 48 apply. Other organisations and countries have
their own standards; in addition, fuse manufacturers have their own
classifications and designations.

In distribution systems, the use of fuse links designated K and T for fast and
slow types, respectively, depending on the speed ratio, is very popular. The
speed ratio is the ratio of minimum melt current that causes fuse operation at
0.1 s to the minimum melt current for 300 s operation. For the K link, a speed
ratio (SR) of 68 is defined and, for a T link, 1013. Figure 3 shows the
comparative operating characteristics of type 200 K and 200 T fuse links. For
the 200 K fuse a 4400 A current is required for 0.1 s clearance time and 560A
for 300s, giving an SR of 7.86. For the 200T fuse, 6500A is required for 0.1 s
clearance and 520A for 300s; for this case, the SR is 12.5.
The following information is required in order to select a suitable fuse for use
on the distribution system:

I. Voltage and insulation level.


II. Type of system.
III. Maximum shortcircuit level.
IV. Load current.

The above four factors determine the fuse nominal current, voltage and short
circuit capability characteristics.

51
3-Criteria for Coordination of Time/Current Devices in
Distribution Systems:

1. The main protection should clear a permanent or temporary fault before


the backup protection operates, or continue to operate until the circuit is
disconnected. However, if the main protection is a fuse and the backup
protection is a recloser, it is normally acceptable to coordinate the fast operating
curve or curves of the recloser to operate first, followed by the fuse, if the fault
is not cleared.

2. Loss of supply caused by permanent faults should be restricted to the


smallest part of the system for the shortest time possible.

3.1 Fuse-Fuse Coordination :


The essential criterion when using fuses is that the maximum clearance time for
a main fuse should not exceed 75 per cent of the minimum melting time of the
backup fuse, for the same current level, as indicated in Figure 4. This ensures
that the main fuse interrupts and clears the fault before the backup fuse is
affected in any way. The factor of 75 per cent compensates for effects such as
load current and ambient temperature, or fatigue in the fuse element caused by
the heating effect of fault currents that have passed through the fuse to a fault
downstream but were not sufficiently large enough to melt the fuse.

The coordination between two or more consecutive fuses can be achieved by


drawing their time/current characteristics, normally on loglog paper as for
overcurrent relays. In the past, coordination tables with data of the available
fuses were also used, which proved to be an easy and accurate method.
However, the graphic method is still popular not only because it gives more
information but also because computerassisted design tools make it much
easier to draw out the various characteristics.

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3.2 Recloser-Fuse Coordination:

The criteria for determining recloserfuse coordination depend on the relative


locations of these devices, i.e. whether the fuse is at the source side and then
backs up the operation of the recloser that is at the load side, or vice versa.
These possibilities are treated in the following paragraphs.

Fuse at the Source Side:


When the fuse is at the source side, all the recloser operations should be faster
than the minimum melting time of the fuse. This can be achieved through the
use of multiplying factors on the recloser time/current curve to compensate for
the fatigue of the fuse link produced by the cumulative heating effect generated
by successive recloser operations. The recloser opening curve modified by the
appropriate factor then becomes slower but, even so, should be faster than the
fuse curve. This is illustrated in Figure 5.

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The multiplying factors referred to above depend on the reclosing time in cycles
and on the number of the reclosing attempts. Some values proposed by Cooper
Power Systems are reproduced in Figure 6. It is convenient to mention that if
the fuse is at the high voltage side of a power transformer and the recloser at the
low voltage side, either the fuse or the recloser curve should be shifted
horizontally on the current axis to allow for the transformer turns ratio.
Normally it is easier to shift the fuse curve, based on the transformer tap that
produces the highest current on the high voltage side.

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Fuses at the Load Side:
The procedure to coordinate a recloser and a fuse, when the latter is at the load
side, is carried out with the following rules:

1. The minimum melting time of the fuse must be greater than the fast curve
of the recloser times the multiplying factor, given in Figure 7 and taken from
the same reference as above;
2. The maximum clearing time of the fuse must be smaller than the delayed
curve of the recloser without any multiplying factor; the recloser should have at
least two or more delayed operations to prevent loss of service in case the
recloser trips when the fuse operates.

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The application of the two rules is illustrated in Figure 8.

Better coordination between a recloser and fuses is obtained by setting the


recloser to give two instantaneous operations followed by two timed operations.
In general, the first opening of a recloser will clear 80 per cent of the temporary
faults, while the second will clear a further 10 per cent. The load fuses are set to
operate before the third opening, clearing permanent faults. A less effective
coordination is obtained using one instantaneous operation followed by three
timed operations.

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3.3 Recloser-Recloser Coordination:

The coordination between reclosers is obtained by appropriately selecting the


amperes setting of the trip coil in the hydraulic reclosers, or of the pickups in
electronic reclosers.

Hydraulic Reclosers:
The coordination margins with hydraulic reclosers depend upon the type of
equipment used. In small reclosers, where the current coil and its piston
produce the opening of the contacts, the following criteria must be taken into
account:

I. Separation of the curves by less than two cycles always results in


simultaneous operation;
II. Separation of the curves by between two and 12 cycles could result in
simultaneous operation;
III. Separation greater than 12 cycles ensures nonsimultaneous operation.

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With large capacity reclosers, the piston associated with the current coil only
actuates the opening mechanism. In such cases the coordination margins are as
follows:

I. Separation of the curves by less than two cycles always results in


simultaneous operation;
II. A separation of more than eight cycles guarantees nonsimultaneous
operation.

The principle of coordination between two large units in series is based on the
time of separation between the operating characteristics, in the same way as for
small units.

ElectronicallyControlled Reclosers:
Adjacent reclosers of this type can be coordinated more closely since there are
no inherent errors such as those that exist with electromechanical mechanisms
(due to overspeed, inertia, etc.). The downstream recloser must be faster than
the upstream recloser, and the clearance time of the downstream recloser plus
its tolerance should be lower than the upstream recloser clearance time less its
tolerance. Normally, the setting of the recloser at the substation is used to
achieve at least one fast reclosure, in order to clear temporary faults on the line
between the substation and the load recloser. The latter should be set with the
same, or a larger, number of rapid operations as the recloser at the substation. It
should be noted that the criteria of spacing between the time/current
characteristics of electronically controlled reclosers are different to those used
for hydraulically controlled reclosers.

3.4 Recloser-Relay Coordination:

Two factors should be taken into account for the coordination of these devices;
the interrupter opens the circuit some cycles after the associated relay trips, and
the relay has to integrate the clearance time of the recloser. The reset time of the
relay is normally long and, if the fault current is reapplied before the relay has
completely reset, the relay will move towards its operating point from this
partially reset position.

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For example, consider a recloser with two fast and two delayed sequence with
reclosing intervals of two seconds, which is required to coordinate with an
inverse timedelay overcurrent relay that takes 0.6 s to close its contacts at the
fault level under question, and 16 s to completely reset. The impulse margin
time of the relay is neglected for the sake of this illustration. The rapid
operating time of the recloser is 0.030 s, and the delayed operating time is 0.30
s. The percentage of the relay operation during which each of the two rapid
recloser openings takes place is (0.03 s/0.6 s) x 100 per cent= 5 per cent. The
percentage of relay reset that takes place during the recloser interval is (2 s/16
s) x 100 per cent 12.5 per cent. Therefore, the relay completely resets after
both of the two rapid openings of the recloser.

The percentage of the relay operation during the first timedelay opening of the
recloser is (0.3 s/0.6 s) x 100 per cent=50 per cent. The relay reset for the third
opening of the recloser12.5 per cent, as previously, so that the net percentage
of relay operation after the third opening of the recloser = 50 per cent 12.5 per
cent = 37.5 per cent. The percentage of the relay operation during the second
time delay opening of the recloser takes place = (0.3 sec. /0.6 sec) x 100 per
cent = 50 per cent, and the total percentage of the relay operation after the
fourth opening of the recloser = 37.5 per cent + 50 per cent = 87.5 per cent.
From the above analysis it can be concluded that the relay does not reach 100
per cent operation by the time the final opening shot starts, and therefore
coordination is guaranteed.

Protection Device Coordination in Radial


Distribution Networks In Classical & Smart
Methods

Coordination is the arrange of taking actions of the protection devices if a fault


occur at any part of the network to apply the right consequences of the tripping
devices.

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In radial distribution system, we use radial feeders because of its simplicity and
as a result, it uses a simple protection scheme with simple protection devices
such as Recloser, Fuses and Over Current Relays (51).

We should make a fully integrated Coordination to these devices to apply a trip


as soon as possible the fault occurs to minimize and allocate the damage.

In Classical order it is easy to operate the protection devices with no obstacles


but in the smart this coordination may be hampered due to DG, in this project
we will proposed some solution to argue about some solutions and to determine
the different between the classical and smart protection coordination.

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Information Required for Coordination Studies:

It was stated that whether the coordination is done manually or by computer, it


is necessary for the engineer to describe the system. The information needed
to perform a coordination study is a single line diagram showing the following:

Protective device manufacture and type


Protective device ratings
Trip settings and available range
Short-circuit current at each system bus (three-phase and line-to-ground)
Full load currents of all loads
Voltage level at each bus
Transformer kVA, impedance and connections (delta-wye, etc.)
Current transformer (CT) and potential transformer (PT) ratios
Cable size, conductor material, and insulation
All sources.

A special attention is given to:

Source / transformer neutral connections and resistance ratings


CT arrangements, ratio and accuracies

Methods of Identify the Optimum Time Coordination:

The intersection of the characteristic curves of min/max fault range of over


current relay which cause the problem of miss co-ordination in the radial
network has been solved by a mathematical method with help of some software
programs, using the assistance of graphical of the relays after adjustment the
setting and this could make by "ETAP".

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As shown every protection device has a curve which describe it's action and the
backup current and operational time according to the value of current.

For example:

The green curve of protective relay the pickup current is 10KA at 1.1 sec and
this called definite inverse time relay.

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Description of mathematical solution for mis-coordination
problem:

This objective function is converted from multi-objective to single objective


with specific goals:

1. The minimization of active and reactive power losses and voltage


deviation.
2. To find feasible solutions to minimize PDC violations.

We will concentrate on the second goal it divides in to 3 categories with its


solution based on the feasibility of the choose solution and the less cost and
easy feasible will have its weight and priority to achieve it.

Changing the feature of the existing protective device.


(Most feasible & less cost)
Modification to the existing protective devices wiring.
(Makes the protection scheme more interlocked)
At last the least feasible and most expensive is to change the existing
protective device with a new one.

Now we have the three solution we must evaluate mathematically which one of
them we will be able to use it according to the cost constrains so we have an
objective function.

The objective function

() = [ () + ()]

This mean that the new objective function () equal to the minimum of the
primary + the PDC objective.

() = + +

Where:

, is the active reactive power loss.

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Is the cumulative voltage deviation.

(,,) Is the weight of active, reactive, voltage respectively.


() =

Where is maximum number of PDC violations among 3 scenarios:

= ( + + )

Where:

( + + ) n = 1

, ,

The probability of violation of Reclosers, Relays of Distributed generators &


Fuses respectively which in constrains must be less than 100 %.

, ,

Number of Reclosers, DG relays and Fuses violation in each Category


respectively.

The previous objective function has already made in constrains of equality and
inequality.

Primary constrains: which concentrate on how to choose the optimum


locations and sizes of "Distributed generators" which will be entered to the
classic network such as: Buses voltage limit values, active & reactive power
losses & power flow balance.

PDC Constrains: which insure that the PD has the perfect & optimum setting
and co-ordinations.

This set of setting include: pick up current of the relays, time dial & the
backbone of this thesis time co-ordination.

1) Pick up current:

Each relay has a minimum & maximum value which defined consequently on
the maximum load current which connected to this relay.

< <

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2) Time dial:

Is based on time delay (TMS) of the relay's operation has also min & max based
on its characteristic curve

3) Time interval co-ordination:

If we have a relay which is very near to the fault it must be able to make its
action (issue a trip command) faster than any of others near relays and if it
failed, the following relay will take an action according to the coordination

The next this is the co-ordination to make the protection scheme more
reliability, safety & selectivity.

So upon the operation time we will be able to define as the time dial of the
relays.

= [ ]
( )

=

Where:

B & a is a relays constants.

Is the operating time of the primary relay.

Time delay of this relay.

The operation time of the primary relay must be less than the backup relay in
another meaning there should be a time delay between the operation of the
primary protection and backup protection with about

= + + +

Is the tolerance of the relay operating time which is about 200 ml sec.

Is the time operation of circuit breaker.

Is the retardation time of the relay after operating which is 300 ml sec.

Is a safety margin.

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Notes on Coordination Studies:
a. Note motor horsepower, full load current, acceleration time and locked
rotor current.
b. For each protective device: note short circuit current, full load current,
and voltage level at each device. List device manufacturer and type, and
program file name for device.
c. For each low-voltage breaker, indicate long time, short time,
instantaneous. Note settings if existing device.
d. For each fuse, note rating.
e. For each relay, note tap range. CT ratio, tap and time dial, if known, and
whether relay has instantaneous setup.
f. For each transformer, note KVA, fan cooled rating, impedance, and
transformer connection.
g. For cable damage curves: note cable size, conductor material and cable
insulation.

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Chapter [3] ETAP; Case Study and Data
Application:

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