Anda di halaman 1dari 24

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assalamualaikum readers, First and foremost, we would like to thank to all our group
members for giving cooperation in order to finish this case study report. We work together very
close as a team to complete our report and the presentation. All of us inspired greatly to work in
this group. Also I would like to thank to our interviewee, Mdm Hanim Binti Ramly, Director of
Tourism of Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur (DBKL) for her willingness to be interviewed by us
and also motivate us contributed tremendously to our assignment. We also would like to thank
him for teaching us some example that related to the topic of our presentation.

In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank to our beloved lecturer, Dr. Syed
Ahmad Qusoiri Bin Syed Abdul Karim for offering this topic presentation of case study. It gave us
an opportunity to participate and learn about the definition, functional requirement, method
statement and many more knowledge that necessary for this topic. It will be not nice if we not
included someone who really important in order to make our site visit a success whom which are
our classmate as giving us guidance in order to meet Mdm Hanim. Finally, an honorable mention
goes to our families and friends for their understandings and supports on us in completing this
case study. Without helps of the particular that mentioned above, we would face many difficulties
while doing this.

1
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete frames is one of the essential element of material in construction


industry. Basically, concrete can be defined as an artificial stone obtained by mixture of cement,
sand and aggregates. Any shape of building can be molded by fresh concrete, which give utmost
advantage rather than any other materials. However, by its limited tension resistance has
prevented its wide use in building construction even though concrete has become very popular
element in 19th century. In order for this weakness to be overcome, reinforced concrete has been
produced by embedding the steel bars in the concrete forming a composite materials. By the late
of 19th century, the modern reinforced concrete design has been developed with pioneering of
European engineers (Ahmed. Y, 2011)

Nowadays, reinforced concrete frame has been extensively used in a wide variety of
building applications for examples dams, bridges, buildings and skyscrapers. Reinforced concrete
frames is a specific type of construction elements that has had strong steel rebar or fibers added
to it while wet, creating a very strong type of concrete that is able to withstand almost anything
when it has dried. Because the result of using reinforced concrete frames are so good for the
strength of the building, most modern building today use reinforced concrete frames in the
construction process. By adding thin steel bars to concrete can increase the strength of the
concrete, making it better to use in variety of application. (Ozcebe et.al, 2004)

Today, many of the buildings located nations use reinforced concrete frames to make the
buildings stronger and better able to industrialize withstand the ravages of time and the weather.
Reinforcing the concrete that will be used on the buildings add tensile strength to the concrete,
making it much stronger and more flexible that regular concrete, which helps prevent cracking
and breakage. Reinforced concrete frames is a concrete in which steel reinforcement bars, plates
or fibers have been incorporated to build up a material that would otherwise be fragile. If a material
with high strength in tension, such as steel, is placed in concrete, then the composite material,
reinforced concrete frames, resists compression but also bending, and other direct tensile action.

2
A reinforced concrete frames section where the concrete resists the compression and
steel resists the tension can be made into almost any shape and size for the construction industry.
Functioning very clearly as essential in a building, reinforced concrete frames generally carry
loads in which dead loads and superimposed and transfer them to the substructure. The frames
which consists of superstructure and substructure must be designed to be operate as one unit.
The reinforced concrete frames itself may be classified according to its stiffness or rigidity of the
joints between any structural members especially columns and beams. The worldwide use of
reinforced concrete construction frames from the wide availability of reinforcing steel as well as
the concrete ingredients.

Unlike steel, concrete production does not require expensive manufacturing mills.
Concrete construction, does, however, require a certain level of technology, expertise, and
workmanship, particularly in the field during construction. The extensive use of reinforced
concrete construction, especially in developing countries, is due to its relatively low cost compared
to other materials such as steel. The cost of construction changes with the region and strongly
depends on the local practice. With the rapid growth of urban population in both the developing
and the industrialized countries, reinforced concrete has become a material of choice for
residential construction. It shows that reinforced concrete framed structures is the most
reasonable element that can be used widely in any construction types that is based on its large
availability in the world.

3
2.0 PROJECT BACKGROUND

The Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur, world headquarters for the Biggest Malaysia
Petroleum company named Petronas Corporation, were conceived and designed to be the
symbol of an economically and politically advanced Malaysia. Vision 2020: The Way Forward
was published by the office of the Fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia Tun Dr. Mahathir bin
Mohammad, clearly outlined an ambitious plan for the development of the country. In the opening
section, the document states, Hopefully the Malaysian who born today will be the last generation
of our citizens who will be living in a country that is called developing (Mahathir. M, 1991). The
ultimate objective that we should aim for is a Malaysia that is a fully developed country by the
year 2020.

International recognition and foreign investment are fundamental to this development


plan. The modernization of infrastructure in and around the capital city of Kuala Lumpur is critical
to assure the international presence of Malaysia as a stable and rapidly growing power. Aware
that Malaysias manufacturing base was too narrow, the prime minister made it clear in his vision
statement that new industries must be promoted and technological and managerial know-how
developed. Large-scale investment in the physical environment, which would involve a wide range
of foreign expertise, was a prime opportunity to import these technologies and skills as a way to
diversify the local economic base (Spiro. P, 2002).

It is within this environment of rapid growth and ambitious investment that the Petronas
Towers were conceived. Although, it was never formally stated that the towers should be the
tallest buildings in the world, the expansive program and limited footprint specified in the project
description signaled from the outset that this structure would be a contender for the title. The
Petronas Twin Towers are symmetrical office towers rising 88 stories. At just under 452 meters
(1,483 feet) in height, they currently sitting as the tallest twin towers in the world and 12th tallest
towers in the world. Each contains a gross building area of approximately 170,880 square meters
(1.84 million square feet). The net leasable area of each tower is approximately 130,000 square
meters (1.4 million square feet), totaling around 260,000 square meters (2.8 million square feet).

4
Tower 1 serves as Petronass headquarters, while Tower 2 is leased to other tenants.
Additional entertainment, recreation, and exhibition spaces are located within both towers and at
the podium levels. Suria KLCC, a highly successful shopping center, was planned and
constructed at the same time as the Petronas Twin Towers. The facility features 338 department
stores, shops, restaurants, and entertainment outlets within its 93,000-square-meter (1 million-
square-foot) net leasable area. Suria KLCC is an integral part of the overall project and draws
significant numbers of people to the development. Of particular interest is the construction of a
next-generation aquarium project occupying part of the basement that will be known as Aquaria
KLCC.

As is the case in many of the worlds larger cities, the location of Kuala Lumpurs city
center has shifted as the city has developed. The land now occupied by KLCC previously was the
site of the Selangor Turf Club, where horse races were held from 1896 until 1992. In the late
1970s, it became apparent that traffic congestion in and around the club was getting to be
unmanageable and that a racetrack was not the best use of land in this prime location. In the early
planning days, the site was earmarked as a green lung for the city, with little or no commercial
development. The 40.5-hectare (100-acre), irregularly shaped site is bordered by a major
thoroughfare and commercial belt (Jalan Ampang) to the north and west and a predominantly
residential belt to the south and east.

Ground conditions in and around the site which is an underground stratum containing
limestone, coupled with the presence of a nearby underground waterway which made
development there rather difficult. The owners recognized early on in the planning process that
geotechnical design would play an important role in the overall development plan. They also
realized early on that the large number of people forecast to use KLCC, both in the initial phases
as well as during the course of its development over the years, would necessitate significant
improvements to the areas infrastructure. Unlike in other Asian city-center sites of similar size,
there were no squatter issues to resolve, a situation that enabled easy clearance and demolition
of existing structures (Kribanandan. G,1995).

5
Project management was an enormous undertaking, especially since the developer chose
to use a fast-track method of design and construction. Several methods were employed to speed
up the projects progress. In particular, the developer set up an entire local architecture practice
to advance the work from a local standpoint as well as to facilitate a transfer of technology during
the development process. (The firm was subsequently dissolved after the completion of Phase I.)
After reviewing construction alternatives for the superstructure and engineering works, the
developer decided to select different contractors for the Twin Towers. While this increased the
amount of administration and management needed, the developer believes that the combined
forces of the dual contractors expedited the work overall.

The project was officially launched on September 15, 1992. In May 1993, piling and
foundation work commenced. The Petronas Twin Towers were topped out in March 1996 when
the spires were lifted in place, pushing the towers to a height of 451.9 meters (1,482.6 feet).
Petronas first occupied its premises in January 1997. Tower 2s first occupants moved in in
December 1997, while Suria KLCC opened its doors for shoppers on May 8, 1998. In hindsight,
the developer would have scaled back some redundancies built into the project. At present, for
instance, the development is served with a 100 percent backup for the air-conditioning plant,
which likely will not be fully used during the life of the project.

6
3.0 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT

Frame is built to transfer load whether live load and dead load to the substructure. Beside,
frame also act as a main skeleton in a building. If the skeleton is not strong enough to receive the
whole load, the construction cannot be proceed and consider to be fail. Once the frame is built, it
will be put through a series of performance-related tests to find out how it behaves as a whole
(Margo Cole 1998).

According to or fourth Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad also who is inspired
about this skyscraper, Petronas Twin Tower is Malaysian Landmark and a symbolize of courage,
ingenuity, initiative, and determination, energy, confidence, optimism, advancement and zest of
nation. In construction of Petronas Twin Tower, the reinforced concrete frame was used.
Reinforced concrete frame involve a few of main part of the building such as column and main
beam. The total floor for Petronas Twin Tower is 88 floor and the perimeter length is over one
kilometer from foundation to the highest point.

As we know, the primary function of frame is to carry all the loads safely and successfully
distribute to the substructure without facing any problem that can destroy the building. However,
a few things must be function efficiently in order to fulfil the functional requirement in the reinforced
concrete frame design such as fire resistance and strength and stability.

7
Typical PETRONAS Twin Tower Skeleton Frame

3.1 FIRE RESISTANCE

Fire resistance is the important thing that need to be consider in order to fulfil the functional
requirement of skeleton frame. The structural of frame whether column or beam must be highest
integrity to maintain in the fire event and to reduce the total burn-out at least enough time to permit
any occupants to escape from Petronas Twin Tower. Concrete is higher fire resistances rather
than steel, but the requirement of fire resistance must be added such as cover the concrete with
resistance fireboard.

Petronas Twin Tower has 88 floor for each building, and fire resistance for reinforced
concrete frame is needed so much even though concrete is the best insulator to prevent fire. If
fire occur in this skyscrapers, long period to permit all the occupant is needed. Hence, the
reinforced concrete frame for Malaysian landmark, Petronas Twin tower is specially design to
resist fire.

8
Concrete Fire Resistance Test

3.2 STRENGTH AND STABILITY

Second thing that need to be consider in order to fulfil the functional requirement is
strength and stability. The uses of materials must be appropriate materials and in suitable form of
the building design.

Petronas Twin Tower has problem in order to fulfil this strength and stability requirement.
The first problem is the foundation, this is because the site of Petronas Twin Tower project is not
suitable for the skyscraper. Next, the problem faces is Petronas Twin Tower is totally made from
reinforced concrete. So the loads are very heavy and building collapsed may be occur.

9
The frame must be use a suitable grade of concrete to prevent collapse. If the grade of
concrete cannot carry the loads, the structure will be crack or bending. Then, the jointing between
beams and column also need to be jointed carefully. Careless in jointing also can occur disaster.
Besides, not focusing in the loads of the building only, it also depending on the nature of structure.
The skeleton frame must be construct and necessary enough to receive the lateral wind pressure
to prevent overturning or building moving. To make sure the stability, all skyscrapers has the
pendulum ballast. Same goes to PETRONAS Twin Tower, the pendulum ballast was used to
stabilise both tower.

PETRONAS Twin Tower Construction

10
4.0 METHOD STATEMENT

4.1 CONSTRUCTION OF PETRONAS TWIN TOWER

The fast-track method of construction, advanced and accurate planning therefore was
imperative. The selection and ordering of equipment, materials, and finishes were timed to
coincide with the awarding of construction contracts. Many specialists were brought on board to
support the design and construction teams. At the height of construction, more than 7,000
workers, speaking many different languages, were on the site. Safety was one of the developers
major areas of emphasis; Petronass quality control and safety record was not to be blemished.
All persons entering the site had to adhere to the clients strict safety precautions, which were
more exacting than those typically enforced on other local building projects.

4.2 PRODUCTION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

The British standards are categorized as a basis high performance concrete was used
significantly in the project. The definition of high performance concrete utilized for the project
includes high performance concrete might be different country by country. The table 1 shown the
details about high performance concrete

ITEM DESCRIPTION
Strength (MPa) Age 28day > 700
Age 1day > 350
Workability Water-Binder <35%
Excellent workability
No segregation
Durability Durability coefficient >80%
(300 Freezing and Thawing cycle)
Table 1: Definition of High Performance Concrete

11
4.2.1 Selection of Raw Material

The materials usage for the high performance concrete were available in Kuala Lumpur
and the materials selected for the concrete mix design took into account durability, and workability
requirements. MASCRETE, the ready-mix product with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) and
PFA (Pulverized Fuel Ash) in 80:20 ratio were used to improve the workability, long-term strength,
and to reduce the hydration heat. Silica fume was added to G80 concrete to achieve the high
strength requirements. In order to increase the workability of the concrete and to achieve 22cm
slump in spite of the low water-binder ratio, water reducer P300N and superplasticizer R1000.

4.2.2 Selecting Aggregates

Aggregates selection was a very important role in production of the high durability of
concrete, therefore careful planning and material investigation was required to select the proper
aggregate types which is the aggregate strength, source of the aggregate, maximum size, grading
distribution shape, and the percentage of deleterious substances presents in the aggregate. The
maximum size of coarse aggregate used for G80 was 13mm; however, 25mm coarse aggregate
was used for G40 and G60 concrete.

4.2.3 The usage of Silica Fume

Silica fume was added for G80 to reduce the unit weight of cement and to reduce the heat
of hydration of concrete during the curing process. It is reported the most of silica fume particles
are adhered to the of cement particles, and the remainders mix with cement particle.

The usage silica fume

12
4.2.4 Water reducer and Superplasticizer

In order to make high performance concrete mix is proportioned on basis of low water-
binder ratio. For KLCC project, water reducer Pozzolith 300N and superplasticizer Rheobuild
1000 were used, and both are MASTER BUILDERS products. The addition of superplasticizer
for water reducer to achieve basic slump and superplasticizer to reach to the target slump.

4.2.5 Trial Mix

The high quality control programs that Samsung planned for the production of high
performance concrete, the concrete mix was design targeted to be 15 MPa higher for G40
concrete and below, and 20 MPa for G60 concrete and above. The design in order to allow for
the potential of strength loss in the production process at the batch plant or during the concrete
placement at the site.

4.3 QUALITY CONTROL OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

4.3.1 Concrete Production

PIONEER was choose as concrete supplier through strict pre-qualification process.


However the batching plant were built on site for easier and shorter transportation, which can
minimized the potential risk of producing the quality of the concrete that required.

4.3.2 Concrete Curing

Curing method was used in the KLCC and it was considered in the concrete mix design
that complies with the ambient temperature and moisture conditions. Surface if the columns and
the core wall as soon as formwork was removed, and the moisture curing was performed for the
slabs and beam, the curing compound was applied on the surface.

4.4 COLUMN SHORTENING

The design and construction of super high-rise buildings, most important factors are to
predict and choose plan for the decreasing aspect of the building height caused by the
deformation of the vertical structure. In the case of the Petronas Twin Tower, 610mm deformation
are used due to elastic contraction, shrinkage and creep of the concrete. For the each floor was
adopted as the construction progressed to get a designed floor elevation after 20 years.

13
5.0 ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY

Based on the readings of several research made on this case study, it can be analyses
that we have found that Kuala Lumpur Twin Towers (KLCC) reinforced concrete framed structures
consists of a dual system that lists an enormous two distinct structures which are reinforced
concrete core wall system and exterior reinforced concrete columns. Meanwhile, the floor framing
system is consists of composite steel framing system. It means that a composite metal deck
frames has been acted as composite between steel beams. In this mega project, reinforced
concrete has been selected to be the primary structural material for the lateral resisting system
as used extensively in the tower because of its wide availability of concrete in the region and the
availability of skilled labor in Malaysia in this particular method of construction.

It has been said that the utilization of reinforced concrete structures as primary structural
material for this skyscrapers mega project is due to the weather of conditions in Malaysia and its
blunt material supply especially concrete. Most of the material to make the high performance
concrete are available in Kuala Lumpur and the materials selected for the concrete mix design
took into account for its durability and workability requirement. The product of the concrete that
has been used in constructing the KLCC Twin Towers is MASCRETE. Mascrete is the ready mix
product of concrete with the ratio of ordinary Portland cement and pulverized fuel ash used
accurately on 80:20 ratio. The improvised concrete is used to improving the workability, long term
strength and to reduce the hydration heat.

In order for the reinforced concrete frames structures of KLCC twin towers to bare the
loads of 88th floor of skyscrapers, the engineers has decided to improve the grade of concrete on
a certain floors. In order to improve strengthens of the concrete, silica fume has been added to
the G80 of concrete in order to fulfil the requirements. It is also reported by the experts that most
of the silica fume particles are adhered to the surface of cement particles, and the remainders
mix with cement particles. Thus, it helps the concrete particles in reducing the weight of cement
used and the reduction of heat hydration during the curing process. The master builders products
also been used in producing the high strength concrete framed structures are water reducer
P300N and super plasticizer R1000. It helps the concrete mix workability increment and also
achieving 22cm slump in spite of the lower water binder ratio.

14
LOCATION FLOOR GRADE (MPa)
COLUMN B6-L22 80
L23-L60 60
L61-L84M2 40
CORE WALL B6-L14 80
L15-L44 60
L45-L84M3 40
RING BEAM B5-L23 80
L24-L61 60
L62-L84M3 40
SLAB ON METAL DECK - 30
C.I.P SLAB - 40
TABLE 1 shows the summary of the concrete material on each floor.

Based on the table above, the use of the high performance concrete in the reinforced
concrete framed structures in KLCC twin towers has shown its credibility as a mega skyscrapers
project. The use of high performance concrete in column and ring beam which is grade 80 starting
from basement level 6th until floor level 22nd for column and from basement level 5th until floor level
23rd is essential as a hardcore of the towers in bearing superimposed loads that will be imposed
once the project completed. In order to achieve the very high standards of the concrete grade
achieved, a high quality controls programs that has been planned for the production of high
performance concrete, it is targeted to be 15 MPa higher for G40 concrete and below, and 20
MPa for G60 concrete and above. This brilliant strategy has allow for the potential of strength loss
in the production process during the batching plant or during the transportation of concrete in the
mixer truck or during the concrete placement at the site.

Columns were cast in reusable steel forms and will be open to view at most floors after
chipping fins, filling voids and bug holes, and priming the surface for finish painting. The sixteen
tower columns vary along their height from 2.4m diameter to 1.2m. Five size increments
minimized the time and cost associated with formwork changes. Concrete varied from 80 Mpa to
30 Mpa in three steps. The twelve bustle columns step in size three times, from 1.4m to 1m
diameter. A half-round outside nosing holds the critical face of- column location for cantilever floor
trusses. The inside half-round gradually shifts inward by adding inroll panel forms at each floor.
Sloping concrete columns use round forms with modified formwork ends.

15
Perimeter frames at tower and bustle use tapered or haunched ring beams all around.
Beam depth varies from 1.15m at columns to a flat zone 725mm deep at tower beam midspan or
775mm at bustle midspan to pass ductwork. This works well for stiffness against sidesway,
providing 34% more stiffness than a uniform beam of the same average depth. Span variations
between floors due to column changes and setbacks (reduced building radius) are taken by the
midspan flats to maximize reuse of haunch forms. Beam concrete grades match column grades
to simplify tracking and concrete pumping. East and West outriggers link the core and perimeter
columns at levels 38th to 40th. Wind in this direction acts on a larger area due to the bustle. Three
levels of beams linked by midspan posts were sized to help resist wind overturning while
minimizing forces from differential shortening of core and columns. Thus, after analyzed this mega
project case study, it shows that the use of mixed construction materials and attention to dynamic
effects brought the PETRONAS Twin Towers to a successful realization when the impossible
become a reality.

16
6.0 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED AND HOW TO OVERCOME

Petronas Twin Towers construction process completed in 1997, each of the Petronas
Towers rises to 378 meters in 88 stories and contains over 4.6 million square feet. Because of
the pinnacles that sit atop each tower, their total height is 452 meters, surpassing Chicago's Sears
Tower by about 10 meters, thus giving the Petronas Towers the title of the tallest buildings in the
world on 2001.

Petronas Towers is well known as a first skyscrapers to build using reinforced concrete
for the super structure or frame. Normally tall building need to use a light material in order to
reduce the weight of the buildings but due to condition of Malaysia which has a lot sources of
concrete, the design team and Dr Mahathir Mohammad itself decided to use reinforced concrete
to build the tallest building in the world on that time and this is where the problems is start.

To build Petronas Towers frame they need to use the strong material to support the
building loads and the decision to use concrete to did a steel job is not the good choice in terms
of strength of that buildings, so the engineer need to create a new formula for the mixture of the
concrete to make sure concrete frame is possible enough to support the load and can provide the
flexibility that needed by skyscrapers. To overcome this big problems the design team take a rapid
action and hired CTL Group from Chicago which has the specialisation in concrete, CTL also has
the world largest concrete test lab and they are responsible to create a new formula to make sure
the Petronas Tower can standing on Malaysia land as a world tallest building.

CTL having a problem during a test of the concrete. This is because the material in
Malaysia is not same like their material at America. so they take a long time to study and done
some research about Malaysian concrete. Finally they succeed to create the formula to improve
the strength of Malaysian concrete, what they did is by using silica to avoid air sack in the concrete
to make sure its strong enough to support the loads of Petronas Towers.

Next problem happen in construction of superstructure for Petronas Towers is somebody


did not follow the specification of the concrete mixture. This problem start to happen when the
engineer did a lab test for the concrete that delivered by the concreters on site. The ultimate bad
issue is the concrete is already pour at tower 1 and the good news is only one floor is pour using
that concrete. So the team decide to stop the construction of tower 1 to make sure further action
can be taken to avoid this problem. They cannot proceed the construction of the tower1 using the
wrong concrete because it will cause big disaster happen in future especially for construction of
superstructure.

17
To overcome this problem they decide to demolish that floor to avoid more problems
happen in the future. Krish Krinashwami is a person who in charge of concrete mixture and the
instruction to demolish that floor also is made by him. When they need to demolish that floor it will
cause many problems such as cost problem and more disaster part is lack of time for the
contractor of tower 1. But the demolition process for that problem floor is needed and must. Tower
1 contractor itself did the demolition process and start to rebuild the floor like usual.

18
7.0 COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ON THEORY AND PRACTICAL

Reinforced concrete (RC) frames consist of horizontal elements (beams) and vertical
elements (columns) connected by rigid joints. Beams and columns are cast in a single operation
in order to act in unison. RC frames provide resistance to both gravity and lateral loads through
bending in beams and columns.

Theoretically, the selection of material is based on the production of the material, and
structural design. For the production consideration, the availability of the material should be
considered because it can increase the cost of the project if the materials must be imported. The
construction of Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC), type of material used for the frame of
the building is Reinforced Concrete frame. Factor influenced the used of concrete is because
during that time, Malaysia did not have big enough steel industry and importing the steel form the
other country will blow the budget into pieces. Therefore, the engineer decided to use concrete
which is available in Malaysia. (Naidu, 1995)

Concrete grade designation is important because it gives characteristic compressive


strength requirements of the concrete. The choice of type of cement depends upon the
requirements at hand. To make concrete there are four basic materials you need: portland
cement, sand, aggregate (stone), and water. The ratio of aggregate to sand to cement is an
important factor in determining the compressive strength of the concrete mixture. A concrete
mixture ratio of 1 part cement, 3 parts sand, and 3 parts aggregate will produce a concrete mix of
approximately 3000 psi. Mixing water with the cement, sand, and stone will form a paste that will
bind the materials together until the mix hardens. Usually for mass construction, low heat Portland
cement is used. Special case for KLCC construction, MASCRETE, the ready-mix product with
OPC and PFA in 80:20 ratio were used to improve the workability, long term strength, and to
reduce the hydration heat. Silica fume was added to G80 concrete to achieve the high strength
requirements (Jae Ho Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee, 2004)

19
Aggregates are inert granular materials such as sand, gravel, or crushed stone that, along
with water and Portland cement, are an essential ingredient in concrete. For a good concrete mix,
aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong particles free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay
and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete. Aggregates, which account
for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories--fine
and coarse. Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most
particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19
inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter. (Shakhmenko & Birsh, 1998)
For the construction of KLCC, the maximum size of coarse aggregate used for G80 was 13mm,
however,25mm coarse aggregate was used for G40 and G60 concrete. (Jae Ho Kim, Seung-
Hoon Lee, 2004)

The ratio of water-to-cement is the single most important parameter with to concrete
quality. Theoretically, about 0.22 to 0.25 is required for complete hydration. Reducing the water
for given amount of cement will move the cement particles closer together, which in turn densifies
the hydrated cement paste. For KLCC project, high performance concrete mix is proportioned on
basis low water binder ration. So it was necessary to add water reducer and superplasticizer to
get required workability. Water Pozzolith 300N and superplasticizer Rheobuild 1000 were used
and both are Master Builders products. Superplasticizer is added only to design high performance
concrete in some cases. But for this project, water reducer was used to achieve basic slump and
superplasticizer was added to reach to the target slump. (Jae Ho Kim, Seung-Hoon Lee, 2004)

20
8.0 CONCLUSION

In conclusion, Petronas Twin Tower is a skyscraper that act as a landmark of beautiful


Malaysia. This skyscraper officially launched on September 15, 1992 and finished in January
1997 with 451.9-meter height and also have 88 floor for each tower. Reinforced concrete was use
in Petronas Twin Tower and its become the largest quantity of concrete as a main material in its
construction.

A few things need to be consider in order to fulfill the functional requirement of skeleton
frame such as strength and stability and fire resistance. Although, the selection of raw materials,
the aggregate must be choosing wisely to make sure that the mixture is suitable for skyscrapers.
Petronas Twin Tower faces some problem such as poor of concrete strength and to much air
bubble in concrete. Then, design team encountered the problem with a few solutions such as
making a special mixture only for Petronas Twin Tower and also using silica fume in concrete to
reduce number of air bubble.

Lastly, the Malaysians skyscrapers, Petronas Twin Tower finally finished in January 1997
by using all the reinforced concrete frame for the structure. Until present, Petronas Twin Tower
inspired by fourth Malaysian Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad is the highest twin tower
in the world and become the symbolic of proudness for those Malaysians people.

21
9.0 REFERENCES

1) Ahmed Yakut (2004) Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction, Proceedings of the 13th
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, Paper No. 278.
2) Mahathir Mohamad. (1991). Malaysia: the way forward (Vision 2020). [Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia]
3) K.S. Yom et al. (1998) A study of monitoring and compensation for column shortening.
Journal of The Korea Concrete Institute
4) Ozcebe, G. Ersoy, U. Tankut, T. Akyuz, U., and Erduran, E., 2004. Rehabilitation of
existing RC structures using CFRP fabrics. Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on
Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, Paper No. 1393.
5) Spiro Pollalis (2002) International Cooperation and Information Transfer in the Realization
of the Worlds Tallest Buildings, Harvard Design School, Harvard University
6) Shakhmenko,Geenadij., Birsh,Juris.(1998) Concrete Mix Design and Optimization. 2nd
Int.PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering. 1658 (16).
7) Kim,J.H., Lim,S.H. (2004) Application of High Performance in Petronas Twin Tower, KLCC
8) Thornton, Charles H.,Hungspruke, U., Joseph, L. M. (1997)Design of the worlds tallest
buildings - Petronas Twin Tower at Kuala Lumpur City Centre. The Structural Design of
Tall Buildings. Vol.6 (245-262)
9) Concrete Mixing Ratios. Available from:http://www.everything-about-
concrete.com/concrete-mixing-ratios.html
10) Americas Cement Manufacturers. Available from: http://www.cement.org/cement-
concrete-basics/concrete-materials/aggregates
11) http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Petronas_Towers.html
12) http://www.structurae.net/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0000053
13) http://construction-greatopportunity.blogspot.my/2012/03/frames.html

22
10.0 SKETCHES AND PHOTOS

March 93 - Excavation work for the March 94 Construction began for


foundation began Tower One

April 94 Construction began for October 94 Construction began


Tower Two for both Tower

10 Aug 95 The sky bridge was 13 Feb 96 Pinnacles Construction


finally in place began
23
June 96 Cladding was completed

31 Aug 99 Official opening by


Malaysian fourth Prime Minister,
Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad

24