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# Exercises

## 1. If light from a source more than 20 feet away comes to a focus 20 cm

behind a lens, what is
the power of the lens?
2. What is the focal length of a -4.50 D lens?
3. Where is the focal point in the above lens (in front of or behind the lens)?
4. Would the image in the above lens be real or virtual?
5. If an object is 33 cm from a +10.00 lens, where is the image (what
distance from the lens)?
6. What is the IR of a medium where light travels at 130,000 miles per
second?
7. What is the power of a prism that deviates light 4 cm at a distance of 1 m?
8. What is the power of a prism that deviates light 4 cm at a distance of 4 m?
9. Using Prentices rule, calculate the induced prism: lens power is +8.00 -
2.00 x 90 and the
optical center of the lens is decentered 3 mm nasally and 2 mm superiorly
from the patients
visual axis.
10. What is the power of a concave mirror with a 40 mm radius of
curvature?
11. Determine the amount of absolute, manifest, latent, and total hyperopia
in the following scenario:
the smallest amount of plus-powered lens that achieves best corrected acuity
is
+1.75 D, but the patient will accept an additional +2.50 D while maintaining
best corrected
acuity and will take another +1.00 D of plus during the cycloplegic
refractometry.
12. Match each type of astigmatism (1 to 5) with its definition (a to e).
1. Simple myopic astigmatism
2. Compound hyperopic astigmatism
3. Mixed astigmatism
4. Simple hyperopic astigmatism
5. Compound myopic astigmatism
a. One focal line in front of the retina and one focal line behind the retina
b. Both focal lines in front of the retina
c. One focal line in front of the retina and one focal line on the retina
d. Both focal lines behind the retina
e. One focal behind the retina and one focal line on the retina
1. +5.00 D. Explanation: Light from a source more than 20 feet away is
considered to be parallel
and has no vergence power. A focal point of 20 cm (0.2 m) is converted to D
(using the
formula D = 1 F); 1 0.2 = 5.00. The focal point is behind the lens, so it
must be pluspowered.
Hence, the lens is +5.00 D.

## 2. 0.22 m or 22 cm. Explanation: D = 1 F; therefore, 4.50 = 1 F; D and F

are interchangable
in this formula, so F = 1 4.50 = 0.22.

## 3. In front of the lens. Explanation: Minus-powered lenses cause light to

diverge behind the
lens, so the focal point must be in front of the lens.

4. Virtual. Explanation: The image is on the same side of the lens as the
object and, therefore,
cannot be focused on a screen (if a screen is put in front of the lens, the light
from the object
would be blocked and would not reach the lensresulting in no image).

## 5. 14.3 cm behind the lens. Explanation: Use the formula U + P = V. Light

from an object
33 cm away has 3 D of vergence (D = 1 F). Light from a source is always
divergent,
so U = -3.00 D. P = +10.00 (the power of the lens). Using simple math, -3.00
+ (+10.00) =
+7.00. Now, using D = 1 F to determine the focal length, +7.00 = 1 F, or
F = 1 7.00 =
0.143 m.

6. 1.43. Explanation: The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second. The
speed of light in the
medium is 130,000 miles per second. IR is equal to the speed of light
divided by the speed
of light in the medium, so IR = 186,282 130,000 = 1.43.
7. 4 prism D. Explanation: Prism diopters = deviation in centimeters
distance in meters from
the prism. Prism diopters = 4 1 = 4.

## 8. 1 prism D. Explanation: Prism diopters = deviation in centimeters

distance in meters from
the prism. Prism diopters = 4 4 = 1.

9. 1.8 base-in prism D and 1.6 base-up prism D. Explanation: Prentices rule
is: induced prism
= decentration in centimeters x lens power in diopters. Each meridian must
be considered
separately because of the cylinder power. If the cylinder axis is
perpendicular (opposite) to
the direction of decentration, the cylinder power must be algebraically added
to the sphere.
Therefore, for this question, when calculating the horizontally induced
prism, the cylinder
power must be considered; +8.00 + (-2.00) = +6.00. The horizontal
decentration was 3 mm
or 0.3 cm. Horizontal induced prism = 6.00 x 0.3 = 1.8 prism D. Plus-
powered lenses induce
prism with its base in the same direction as the decentration. The
decentration was inward,
so the horizontally induced prism is 1.8 prism D base-in. In this question, we
can disregard
the cylinder power for the vertically induced prism (the cylinder axis is
parallel to the direction
of decentration). Therefore, induced prism = 8.00 x 0.2 = 1.6 prism D. The
decentration
was upward, so the induced prism base must be up. Hence, 1.6 prism D
base-up.

10. +50.00 D. Explanation: The formula to be used for calculating the power
of a mirror is: 2
radius of curvature in meters. The radius of curvature is 40 mm or 0.04 m. 2
0.04 = 50. A
concave mirror has positive vergence, so this mirror has +50.00 D of
vergence.
11. 1.75 D of absolute hyperopia, 4.25 D of manifest hyperopia, 1.00 D of
latent hyperopia,
and 5.25 D of total hyperopia. Explanation: The minimum amount of plus to
achieve best
corrected visual acuity represents the absolute hyperopia (in this case, 1.75
D). The maximum
amount of plus accepted while maintaining best corrected visual acuity is the
amount of manifest hyperopia (in this case 1.75 + 2.50 = 4.25 D). The
difference between
the manifest and total hyperopia is the latent hyperopia (in this case 1.00 D).
The total
amount of plus used during cycloplegic refractometry is the total hyperopia
(in this case
+4.25 + 1.00 = +5.25 D).

12. 1. = c
2. = d
3. = a
4. = e
5. = b