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ECE-305: Fall 2016

PN Junctions
Professor Peter Bermel
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN USA
pbermel@purdue.edu

Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals (SDF)


Chapter 4 (pp. 195-213)

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outline

1) PN Junctions qualitative

2) PN Junctions quantitative

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NP junction (equilibrium)

N P

-xn 0 xp

transition region

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NP junction

N r>0 r<0 P
N D+ N A-
VL > VR E

-
-xn 0 xp
transition region
electric field, electrostatic potential, n(x), p(x), rho(x)
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energy band approach

EC EC
EF
V = Vbi Ei qVbi Ei V =0
EF
EV EV

1) Fermi-level must be constant in equilibrium.

2) Positive electrostatic potentials lower the electron energy

3) Left side must develop a positive potential, Vbi.

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eq. energy band diagram

EF EF

1) Begin with EF
2) Draw the E-bands where you know the carrier density
3) Electrostatic potential by flipping E-band upside down.
4) E-field from slope
5) n(x), p(x) from the E-band diagram
6) rho(x) from n(x) and p(x)
7) diffusion current from (5) or from (6)

EC ( x ) = EC - ref - qV ( x )
1
E ( x ) = dEC ( x ) dx
q
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energy band diagram

EC
EF

Ei

EV

x
x = -xn x=0 x = xp
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read the e-band diagram

1) Electrostatic potential vs. position

2) Electric field vs. position

3) Electron and hole densities vs. position

4) Space-charge density vs. position

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electrostatics: V(x)

N P
V

qVbi

-xn xp x

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electrostatics: E (x)

N P
-xn xp x

r = q p0 ( x ) - n0 ( x ) + N D+ ( x ) - N A- ( x )

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carrier densities vs. x

log10 n ( x ) ,log10 p ( x )
n0 N = N D p0P = N A

n0 p = ni2 N A
p0 N = ni2 N D

N P
-xn xp x

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electrostatics: rho(x)

r
qN D
N P

xp
-xn x
-qN A

r = q p0 ( x ) - n0 ( x ) + N D+ ( x ) - N A- ( x )

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the built-in potential

EC EC
EFN
V = Vbi Ei qVbi Ei V =0
EFP
EV EV

n0 = ni e( EFN -Ei ) kBT p0 = ni e( Ei -EFP ) kBT

n0 kBT n0 p0 kBT N D N A
= e( EFN -EFP ) kBT = eqVbi kBT
Vbi = ln 2 = ln
p0 q ni q ni2

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outline

1) PN Junctions qualitative
2) PN Junctions quantitative

Using the depletion approximation

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the semiconductor equations
How do we calculate rho(x), E(x), and V(x)?

Three equations in three


unknowns:

In steady state equilibrium, we only need to solve the


Poisson equation
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NP junction (equilibrium)

k BT N D N A
Vbi = ln transition (depletion) region
q ni2

N P
V = Vbi V =0

-xn 0 xp

1) What is the width of the depletion region?


2) What is the maximum electric field?
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the Poisson equation

d dE r ( x )
(e SE ) = r ( x ) =
dx dx K S e 0

dE r ( x ) r ( x )
= =
dx eS K Se 0

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the depletion approximation

N r P
r = +qN D

dE r ( x) xp
=
dx K S e 0 -xn x
r = -qN A

qN D xn = qN A x p

N D xn = N A x p

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the electric field
E ( x) > 0
dE qN D
=
dx K S e 0 r

xp
N P
-xn x
r = -qN A
dE qN A
dE r ( x) =-
= dx KSe0
dx K S e 0

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the electrostatic potential
E
dE r ( x) dE qN D
= =
dx K S e 0 dx K S e 0

dV
E ( x) = -
dx
N P
-xn xp x
qN D
E (0) = xn W = xn + x P
KSe0
NA
xn = W N D xn = N A x P
NA + ND
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calculating ( ) from ( )

V ( x) E ( x) = -
dV
V = Vbi dx
xp

V ( x ) = - E ( x ) dx
xp
x
(0)
Vbi = E ( x ) dx
- xn
E V =0
-xn
P
xp x
1
Vbi = E ( 0 ) W
2

See Pierret, SDF, pp. 212-213

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summary
1/2
2K S e 0 NA + ND
W = N N Vbi 2Vbi
E (0) =
q D A W
1/2 E
2qVbi N D N A
E (0) = N + N
K e
s 0 A D

N P
-xn xp x
NA
W = xn + x P xn = W
NA + ND kBT N D N A
Vbi = ln
ND q ni2
N D xn = N A x P xp = W
NA + ND
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conclusions
Developed a qualitative procedure to
sketch , , , and for PN junctions
Used Poissons equation and depletion
approximation to quantify these values
This approach also gives us the width of
the depletion region on both sides of
the junction ( and ), plus the built-
in voltage

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