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Definitions: Corrosion is the deterioration of metals and alloys in the presence of an

environment by chemical or electrochemical means.Corrosion processes involve reaction of


metals with environmental species.

Corrosion costs manifest in the form of premature deterioration of highways, bridges, buildings,
oil and gas, chemical processing, water and waste water treatment and virtually on all metallic
objects in use.

AS PER IUPAC, CORROSION IS AN IRREVERSIBLE INTERFACIAL REACTION OF A MATERIAL (METAL,


CERAMIC, POLYMER) WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT WHICH RESULTS IN ITS CONSUMPTION OR
DISSOLUTION INTO THE MATERIAL OF A COMPONENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT. OFTEN, BUT NOT
NECESSARILY, CORROSION RESULTS IN EFFECTS DETRIMENTAL TO THE USAGE OF THE MATERIAL
CONSIDERED. EXCLUSIVELY PHYSICAL OR MECHANICAL PROCESSES SUCH AS MELTING AND
EVAPORATION, ABRASION OR MECHANICAL FRACTURE ARE NOT INCLUDED IN THE TERM
CORROSION

The most important types are


- Uniform corrosion.
- Galvanic corrosion, concentration cells, water line attack
- Pitting.
- Dezincification, Dealloying (selective leaching)
- Atmospheric corrosion.
- Erosion corrosion
- Fretting
- Crevice corrosion; cavitation
- Stress corrosion, intergranular and transgranular corrosion, hydrogen cracking and
embrittlement
- Corrosion fatigue.

General Localized Metallurgically Mechanically Environmentally


Corrosion: Corrosion: Influenced Assisted Induced Cracking:
Corrosion: Degradation:

Corrosive attack High rates of Affected by alloy Corrosion with a Cracking produced
dominated by metal chemistry & heat mechanical by corrosion, in the
uniform thinning. penetration at treatment. component. presence of stress.
specific sites.
Atmospheric Intergranular Erosion Stress
corrosion Crevice corrosion corrosion Corrosion
Galvanic corrosion Dealloying Fretting Cracking (SCC)
corrosion Filiform corrosion corrosion Hydrogen
Stray-current corrosion Cavitation and Damage
corrosion Pitting water drop Liquid metal
General corrosion impingement embrittlement
biological Localized Corrosion Solid metal
corrosion biological fatigue induced
Molten salt corrosion embrittlement
corrosion
Corrosion in
liquid metals
High
temperature
corrosion

(Ref: Sully J R, Taylor D. W, Electrochemical Methods of Corrosion Testing, Metals Hand


Book. Vol 13, 1987.)

Atmospheric corrosion is the deterioration and destruction of a material and its vital
properties due to electrochemical as well as the other reactions of its surface with the
constituents of the atmosphere surrounding the material.

Galvanic corrosion (also called bimetallic corrosion) is an electrochemical process in


which one metal corrodes preferentially when it is in electrical contact with another, in the
presence of an electrolyte.

Stray current corrosion or stray current electrolysis refers to corrosion resulting


from stray current -current flowing through paths other than the intended circuit.
The process of stray current corrosion is electrolysis in nature. The extent of
damage or loss of metal is directly proportional to the magnitude of stray current
passing through the system. Underground pipelines and storage tanks without CP
systems are particularly susceptible to stray current corrosion. Stray current
corrosion tends to be localized, causing a concentration of pits that is not normally
observed at locations where the stray current leaves metal structure.
Stray current corrosion is different from natural corrosion because it is
caused by an externally induced electrical current and is basically independent of
such environmental factors as oxygen concentration or pH. Environmental factors
may enhance other corrosion mechanisms involved in the total corrosion process,
but the stray current

CORROSION FACTORS

Internal corrosion aspects include:


Different kind of water (wash water and desalination water, seawater,
industrial water, etc.);
Corrosion due to dissolved acid gases, CO2;
Sour Service H2S as applicable;
Erosion-corrosion;
Galvanic coupling effects
Corrosion resulting from dissolved oxygen;
Effect of any additional fluid either permanently or temporarily present (utility
fluids, drilling fluids, hydraulic fluids, etc);
Any other form of corrosion related to FSO fabrication, installation and
operation.

External corrosion aspects include:


Offshore environment;
Specific risk of stainless steel cracking due to saline atmosphere;
Galvanic coupling effects;
Aerial, submerged and buried environment, and interface zones between
these ones;
Microbiologically Induced Corrosion;
Corrosion under insulation.

CO2 CORROSION
The corrosion rate of carbon steel is mainly depending on the partial pressure of CO 2, pH,
presence of corrosion and scaling products, operating temperature, condensation rate, organic
acids and flow conditions (represented by pipe wall shear stress).

The NORSOK M-506 presents a recommended practice for calculation of corrosion rates in
hydrocarbon production and process systems where the corrosive agent is CO2.
The model is valid for temperature 5-150 C, pH 3.5-6.5, CO2 partial pressure 0.1-10 bar and
shear stress 1-150 Pa.

H2S CORROSION
Fresh water made from seawater by reverse osmosis will be used for desalination of oil on the
FSO. This fresh water will be re-injected together with the produced water. The oxygen content
in the fresh water shall be reduced to maximum 20 ppb before the water is used for desalination
of the oil on the FSO and subsequently mixed with produced water and injected in the reservoir.
Water management will be important to avoid excessive cycling and the resultant risk of SRB
(Sulphur Reducing Bacteria).

The major - and most severe problem caused by H2S is cracking as a result of hydrogen
induced in the metal (HIC), stress, sulphide or sulphur or a combination of these factors.

Metallic materials selected using ISO 15156 - parts 1, 2, 3 are resistant to cracking in
defined H2S- containing environments in oil and gas production.

General Corrosion
General corrosion will appear in:
Atmospheric, saline offshore environment;
Where carbon steel is not properly protected by coating;
Where stainless steel materials are contaminated on the surface or
insufficiently passivated.
General corrosion inside equipment and piping is normally related to carbon steel
materials. This type of corrosion is experienced in seawater systems, hydrocarbon
services, water injection systems, and other systems where water may be present.

In addition presence of organic acids will give corrosion on carbon steel materials under
condensing conditions. Use of stainless steel materials or more noble materials will
hence eliminate presence of general corrosion.
MICROBIOLOGICALLY INDUCED CORROSION (MIC)
MIC corrosion is initiated by activity of bacteria. The biofilm / deposit created by organisms
may initiate localized corrosion and pits on the metal surface. The type of corrosion can be
anaerobic or aerobic, where the SRB type is seen mostly in the offshore industries. MIC has
been experienced in water and hydrocarbon services.
MIC from SRB or other bacterias such as acid-producing bacteria and nitrate reducing
bacteria can lead to very high local corrosion rates. Low flow velocities in pipelines and vessels
increase the likelihood of MIC as well.
MIC is likely to occur in settling locations. Cleaning and chemical treatment (biocide) can be
used to prevent MIC. The need for sampling points and biocide injection facilities should hence
be considered in design if there is a risk for MIC to take place.
In general, the MIC corrosion is appearing on carbon steel materials, however there has been
identified several occasions with MIC corrosion also on stainless steels such as SS316L.
In general 22CrDS piping shall be selected for MIC exposed systems.

GALVANIC CORROSION
Galvanic corrosion may occur when two different metallic materials are connected together in
a conductive fluid. The electrochemical potential difference may cause an increased corrosion
rate of the less noble material. If neither of the two materials corrodes by itself in a service,
combination with the other will normally not cause corrosion in this service. At connections
between dissimilar materials without
an isolation / distance spool, it can be assumed that the local corrosion rate near the interface
is approximately 3 x higher than the average corrosion rate, decreasing exponentially away
from the interface within a length of ten pipe diameters
Galvanic corrosion between dissimilar materials may occur in seawater carrying systems. It
may also occur in process services containing water.

For these systems isolation / distance spools shall be installed when:


Carbon and low alloy piping is coupled to piping made of stainless steels, nickel based
alloys, titanium or copper based alloys
Copper based alloy piping is coupled to piping made of stainless steel, nickel based
alloys or titanium

Other mitigating actions to prevent galvanic corrosion may be:


Internal non-conductive coating of the noblest material from the connection point over
a distance of at least 10 pipe diameters
Corrosion allowance on the least noble material
Internal sacrificial anodes, e.g. resistor controlled cathodic protection.

For connections between aluminium and steel the following connection principles shall apply:
Bolts, nuts and washers shall be stainless steel type SS316
Direct contact between aluminium and carbon steel shall be avoided. The two materials
may be separated by a 1 mm stainless steel sheet, PTFE, or similar
If the environment can be defined as dry and non-corrosive, no special precautions are
necessary except when the carbon steel contact surface shall be coated
If stainless steel bolts or screws are threaded into aluminium, a suitable thread sealant
shall be applied on the threads to prevent ingress of water and corrosion of the threads.
Direct connection between aluminium and copper shall be avoided.

CHLORIDE INDUCED STRESS CORROSION CRACKING (CSCC)


CSCC may occur on some corrosion resistant alloys due to external or internal environment.
Parameters that influence the susceptibility to CSCC are:
Temperature
Presence of chlorides
Oxygen
H2S
CO2
Internally in the hydrocarbon system, negligible amount of oxygen is assumed (< 20 ppb) and
CSCC is therefore not normally regarded as a potential problem.
However, internal CSCC may occur on stainless steels in oil and gas production systems even
when H2S and dissolved oxygen are absent. This is due to local process conditions causing
water evaporation and deposition / concentration of chlorides in high, salinity waters and at
high temperatures. Systems where this can occur should be designed with water-injection
facilities to prevent concentration of chlorides.

PITTING AND CREVICE CORROSION


For seawater application, the temperature limits for use of materials given in NORSOK M-001
shall apply.
The produced water systems are assumed to be oxygen free (< 20 ppb). Crevice and pitting
corrosion is therefore not expected to occur internally in this system.
The flare and closed drain systems will be purged with inert gas (nitrogen which contains
approximately 3-5 vol % oxygen). It is, however, assumed that this will not have any significant
influence on the corrosivity.
Hence, no increased risk of pitting and crevice corrosion is expected for these systems.

MERCURY
The mercury content in the HILD gas may be up to 5.0 g / Nm3. This is higher than allowed
according to the export gas specification. A mercury removal unit is therefore required in the
gas export system.

Copper and aluminium alloys suffer from Liquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) due to mercury
and must not be used in the process system of HILD.

Carbon steel, alloy steel, martensitic stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, nickel based
alloys and titanium grade 2 do not suffer from mercury LME.

22 Cr DS stainless steel has been widely used in North Sea production applications where
mercury has been known to occur.
To date NO failures by LME has been observed even if failures have been observed in the
laboratory in slow strain rate tests in liquid mercury. No problems are however expected to
occur at the relatively small mercury concentration on the Martin Linge field.

SALT
The total amount of dissolved salt in the formation water in the Frigg oil and Brent gas is
56200 mg/l and 66800 mg/l respectively.

For gas streams with condensed water, a salt content of 1000 mg/l NaCl has been assumed
according to the recommendation in ISO 21457.

SAND EROSION AND EROSION CORROSION


CORROSION PROTECTION
1.1 GENERAL
Physical design, drainage and sealants will contribute to a corrosion friendly design.
Even if every precautions are made during design, the installation will corrode. It is therefore
vital to identify the corrosion causing elements:

Avoid insulation, if possible, to prevent collection of humidity under insulation. This will
also ease future access and inspection activities ;
Dead ends and injection point must be kept to a minimum ;
Avoid threaded connections ;
Avoid sharp edges ;
Reduce number of flanged connections ;
For mechanical (bolted) connections: Different materials shall be separated by suitable
insulation, i.e. rubber, teflon etc. and / or a sealing compound ;
Materials for in-line instruments shall at least equal the line which the instrument is
fitted in (with respect to corrosion resistance) ;
Reinforcement plates welded directly to pipe shall be of the same or compatible
material and meet the same requirements as the pipe itself ;
SS316 is used between aluminium and other materials to minimise corrosion.

1.2 SURFACE PROTECTION

Surface protection and selection of coating systems shall be in accordance with FSO Surface
protection specification NO-HLD-60-KNO1-000161. NORSOK M-501 is used as basis with
any stricter requirements from GSs amended, if not agreed otherwise.

Carbon steel shall always have external surface protection when exposed to external
atmospheric environment. Corrosion resistant alloys should not be coated, except under
insulation, under pipe clamps, and when submerged in sea water. Stainless steels may be
coated at elevated temperature to reduce the probability for chloride induced stress corrosion
cracking. FSO Surface protection specification NO-HLD-60-KNO1-000161 states the limits
for when stainless steel is to be coated.

The following areas/conditions shall be subject to special evaluation:


coatings for areas in the splash zone;
use of thermally sprayed aluminium coating for elimination of maintenance coating;
coatings for passive fire protection;
coatings for bolts and nuts, flanges, machined surfaces of valves, etc.;
coating and/or insulation when connecting materials where galvanic corrosion may
occur.

Coating systems that give the lowest possible Life Cycle Cost (LCC) shall be chosen. In
addition, no major painting campaigns shall be planned for the first 15 years of operation.
Health Safety Environment (HSE), experience data and LCC shall be evaluated and be
documented in a coating system selection evaluation report.
Selection and documentation of hazardous chemicals shall follow requirements in NORSOK
S-002 5.4 Chemical substances and products.
Products containing the following substances are prohibited:
Isocyanate based products releasing di-isocyanates when heated above 150C (e.g.
polyurethane)
Lead
Chromates
Cadmium
Mercury
Tarry substances
The below listed chemicals shall only be used if there are no technically acceptable
alternatives:
Products classified as very toxic or toxic
Allergenic substances
Hormone mimics
Carcinogenic substances
Substances leading to genetic defects
Chlorinated solvents
If it is not possible to eliminate or substitute the use of such chemicals shall be documented.

1.3 CORROSION UNDER INSULATION (CUI)


Corrosion under insulation is a major problem on offshore oil and gas facilities both on carbon
steel and CRAs. The saline and wet atmosphere combined with relatively high operating
temperatures or repeated heating and condensation on piping and equipment may cause
heavy corrosion. The following measures should be implemented to prevent corrosion under
insulation:
- Insulation should as far as possible be avoided. Personnel protection in the form of
screens and guards may be used instead of insulation in many cases;
- Selected insulation system on piping systems possibly subjected to CUI is Insuflex or
equivalent;
- Hygroscopic insulation materials, such as mineral wool, shall be avoided, except for
insulation systems where the insulation material is not in direct contact with the pipe or
separated by distance pieces;
- All insulation shall be covered with weather protection to prevent ingress of water during
normal operation;
- Drainage holes shall be included at low points to prevent accumulation of water;
- Heat tracing on 25CrDS (or 6Mo) seawater piping shall be designed with thermostats
and distance pieces to prevent the pipe wall to reach temperatures above 200C. Heat
tracing shall not be used when there is no risk for freezing of pipes;
- Insulation on heat traced lines shall be easily removed and replaced;
- TSA coating shall be used under insulation on piping and vessels;
- Insulation shall not be applied directly to pipe anywhere;
- Distance pieces between insulation and outer pipe walls shall be installed.

1.4 CATHODIC PROTECTION


Cathodic protection shall be in accordance with Hull cathodic protection and monitoring
specification NO-HLD-60-KNO1-000162 and Hull cathodic and monitoring CN NO-HLD-60-
KNO1-000163. These documents provide sacrificial anodes to be installed external of the hull
in the same places where they have been initially fitted on the shuttle tanker (being probably
consumed) and also inside ballast, slop, process and cargo tanks.

Design of the cathodic protection for underwater hull and ballast tanks shall comply with DNV-
RP-B401 Cathodic Protection Design. For slop tanks, process tanks and cargo tanks it shall
be according to GS CR COR 101 Design of internal cathodic protection of equipment and
storage tanks.

The cathodic protection system shall have a design life of 12 years.

Sacrificial anodes

In addition to coatings, the rudder flap, the thruster tunnels, pump room sea chests shall be
fitted with sacrificial anodes for external protection from corrosion, having the following
characteristics:

type : Aluminium base, welded, 3 kg minimum;


mean design current density: 0.100 A/m2;
final design current density: 0.130 A/m2;
anode electrochemical capacity: 2000 Ah/kg;
a potential of - 0.80 V relative to the Ag/AgCl/seawater
reference electrode is accepted as the design protective
potential Ec (V) for carbon and low-alloy steels

A double protection by coating and by fitting sacrificial anodes shall be provided in ballast
tanks, slop tanks, process tanks and cargo tanks. The anode will have the following
characteristics:

type: Zinc Alloy Tank Anodes, welded type;


for ballast tanks:
ballast ratio: 20% of time;
design current density: 0.100 A/m2;
anode electrochemical capacity: 780 Ah/kg;
for slop, process and cargo tanks :
design current density:
0.115 A/m2 in slop tank;
0.125 A/m2 in process tanks;
0.055 A/m2 in cargo tanks;
anode electrochemical capacity: 780 Ah/kg;
The sacrificial anode weight shall be increased by 25% to take into account any decrease of
the efficacy of the anodes (due to bacteria, etc.)
Sacrificial anodes shall be supplied in accordance with GS EP COR 201.

Antifouling protection

An electrolytic antifouling and corrosion suppression system is fitted in the machinery space
sea chests. The system is provided with both copper and iron anodes. System has been
designed based on condition of maximum SW flow passing through a single sea chest. The
existing installation shall be checked and kept after new anodes should have been provided.
Impressed currents protection

The underwater hull surfaces and appendages, below the designed summer load line, is
protected by an automatically controlled impressed current cathodic protection system, in
addition to the hull coating. The existing installation shall be checked and kept.

The system was designed to supply the following current densities:


Wetted bow surface: 120 mA/m2
(Within forward 0.15 LOA).

20% of the remaining wetted surface: 12.0 mA/m2


80% of the remaining wetted surface: 40 mA/m2
Propeller: 600 mA/m2
Rudder: 120 mA/m2

The potential was considered not being more negative than - 850mV (vs. Cu/CuSO4 or
silver/silver chloride) to avoid coating damage due ver-protection.
The power supply units and controls are provided in the engine room and forward electrical
room.
Remote hull potential and ammeter for both fore and aft systems, and shaft-hull millivoltmeters
are installed in the Engine Control Room.

1.5 CORROSION MONITORING


A corrosion monitoring program shall be defined, aiming at:
Verifying the proper application and the efficiency of mitigation actions, if any
Verifying that corrosion is low, when no mitigation action is deemed necessary.

Installation and location of any probes:


The location of all probes of any type shall be in agreement with COMPANY
The probes are to be installed through access fittings, which shall be of the same
material and shall meet the same requirements, as the pipes they will be welded onto
The probes shall be located at a point of the circumference of the pipe where there is
high probability of corrosion taking place. Forming of (oil) films onto the probes, risk
and consequence of turbulence and requirement for pigging must also be considered
when location of the access fittings is decided.

Corrosion monitoring shall be installed for:


Carbon steel lines in general
All carbon steel and low alloy lines where chemicals are added for corrosion protection
In tanks where sacrificial anodes are mounted for corrosion protection, installation of
monitoring systems should be considered. This can include installation of reference
anodes for potential measurement and monitored anodes for current determination.

The minimal requirements and equipment needed for the corrosion monitoring, as well as its
positioning shall be according to GS EP COR 202 and GS EP COR 161.

1.6 SAND MONITORING


The preferred sand monitoring equipment is a density profiler capable of measuring and
monitoring the following:
The thickness of sand buildup inside tank
The dense phase zone (DPZ)
The maximum level in the Wash System Tanks

The required frequency for sand removal in the tanks and how it shall be performed is not
possible to predict at this stage of the project. The sand production monitoring and system
design have to be further investigated when information on the selected tanker cargo tanks is
available and in the Detail Engineering phase of the project. This specifically relates to the
elevation of the heating coils, distributors and pump impellers compared to sand buildup in
Wash and Desalting Tanks. Sand buildup monitoring is not foreseen in the Produced Water
Tanks but density profilers are installed for level monitoring. If required, these can be utilised
for sand monitoring.

1.7 CORROSION PROTECTION OF THE TURRET


Corrosion protection of the Turret shall meet the guidelines and requirements of DNV-RP-B101
Corrosion
Protection of Floating Production and Storage Units April 2007 and DNV-RP-B401 Cathodic
Protection
Design April 2011 as well as GS requirements.

Corrosion protection shall be by a combination of material selection, corrosion allowance,


coating and cathodic protection.

HISC shall be taken into consideration when designing the Cathodic Protection for the turret.

Material under cathodic protection shall comply with GS EP COR 100 requirement (Section 5)
in term of Hardness values in order to limit the risks of HISC. As a guidelines GS EP SPS 029
can also be used.

Turret structural systems particularly those located in areas subject to high levels of corrosion
in the splash zone and wet zones shall be designed with corrosion allowances as defined the
requirements. The turret structural design corrosion allowance for these areas shall be
performed over the full operational draft range for the FSO.

Submerged turret structural areas, which are inaccessible for inspection, maintenance and
repair of coatings, and where anodes cannot be fitted due to danger of clashing or where
anodes will not function as intended (due to shadow effects etc) shall be protected by
Thermally Sprayed Aluminium (TSA). Such areas may be inner surface of riser guide tubes,
mechanical components of riser and mooring line attachments and interface areas with the
FSO hull.

The cathodic protection system for the submerged or partly submerged parts of the turret shall
be designed for the full operational life of the turret and account for:
Effect of current loss to Mooring lines (chain or wire).
Effect of current loss to bare metal surfaces (e.g. bearing surfaces and any weld overlay
etc)
Effect of current loss if any to Risers.
Influence of hull cathodic protection system.
Electrical connectivity between all mechanical parts.

The coating and the cathodic protection of the turret will be provided by the vendor depending
on the existence of enough clearance. (see Appendix B)
NON METALLIC MATERIALS
Use of non metallic materials are limited to gasket materials (mostly graphite and Teflon)
and low pressurized piping systems (GRP) carrying corrosive fluid like sea water. Graphite
is an effective cathode and shall not be used in sea water or in direct contact with base
metals like aluminium or zinc. Special care must be taken during GRP production, installation
and piping design. Compliance with process fluids and potential chemical used must be
ensured.

INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS
Surface cap of first welds downstream wellhead and choke, including at least the
two first bend welds, are to be ground flush with parent material;
Welding of flow lines and other main piping possibly containing corrosive liquids should
be carried out with a method with limited or no internal protrusion and smooth / even /
low capping;
Areas requiring frequent inspections to be accessible from fixed access.
Preferred volumetric inspection method to be UT Phased Array for construction, hook-
up and production phases;
Min. 200 mm clearance between piping/piping and piping / structural components to
ensure proper inspection access.