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6 Analyzing Consumer Markets Marketing Management, 13 t h ed

6

Analyzing Consumer Markets

Marketing Management, 13 th ed

Chapter Questions

Bagaimana karakteristik konsumen dan

pengaruhnya pada perilaku membeli?

Proses psikologis utama apa yang mempengaruhi konsumen dalam merespon

program pemasaran?

Bagaimana konsumen membuat keputusan pembelian?

Bagaimana pemasar menganalisis proses pengambilan keputusan konsumen?

Emerging Trends in Consumer

Behavior

Emerging Trends in Consumer Behavior Metrosexual – Pria ‗metropolitan‘ penikmat shopping dan produk (stylish)

Metrosexual

Pria ‗metropolitan‘

penikmat shopping dan produk (stylish)

perawatan (tubuh)

What Influences Consumer Behavior?

Faktor Budaya Faktor Sosial
Faktor Budaya
Faktor Sosial

Faktor Personal

Model of Factors Influencing

Consumer Behavior

Model of Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Budaya

Penentu fundamental dari keinginan dan perilaku

seseorang yang diperoleh

melalui proses sosial dengan

Keluarga dan lembaga-lembaga penting lainnya

Budaya

Karakteristik Budaya:

Budaya dapat dipelajari

Aspek-aspek tertentu dari suatu kebudayaan tidak pernah berubah

Pergeseran budaya menciptakan peluang

Sub budaya dapat menarik lebih besar untuk pemasar dari budaya itu sendiri.

Sub Budaya

Sub budaya adalah "budaya di dalam budaya" yang

mempunyai nilai dan gaya hidup berbeda

dan bisa didasarkan pada hal apa pun mulai dari usia sampai kelompok etnis

Model of Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

4-9

Sub Budaya

Nationalities Religions Racial groups Geographic regions
Nationalities
Religions
Racial groups
Geographic regions

Special interests

Marketing to Subcultures

Marketing to Subcultures Procter & Gamble menargetkan Hispanics melalui media cetak dan TV dengan kemasan berbahasa

Procter & Gamble menargetkan Hispanics melalui media cetak dan TV dengan kemasan berbahasa Spanyol

Fast Facts About

American Culture

The average American:

chews 300 sticks of gum a year

goes to the movies 9 times a year

takes 4 trips per year

attends a sporting event 7 times each year

Social Classes

Tatanan tingkatan/kelas dalam kehidupan

sosial seseorang, dapat dibagi menjadi:

Upper uppers

Lower uppers

Upper middles

Middle

Working

Upper lowers

Lower lowers

Major Social Classes in US

Major Social Classes in US Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-13

Characteristics of Social Classes

Pada kelas sosial yang sama, orang

cenderung berperilaku sama (nilai sama,

minat, dan perilaku pembelian)

Kelas sosial menyampaikan persepsi posisi

inferior atau superior

Kelas dapat diindikasikan oleh sekelompok variabel (pekerjaan, pendapatan, kekayaan)

• Kelas bersifat ‗mobile‘ dari waktu ke waktu

Social Factors

Reference groupsmemiliki pengaruh

langsung (tatap muka) atau tidak langsung

terhadap sikap atau perilaku mereka.

Familyorang tua atau saudara kandung

Social rolesekspektasi performansi

yang diharapkan dari seseorang pada suatu kegiatan sosial tertentu

Statusprestige

Reference Groups

Membership groups—direct influence Primary groups—family, friends, neighbors, co-workers Secondary
Membership groups—direct
influence
Primary groups—family,
friends, neighbors, co-workers
Secondary groups—religious,
professional, trade-union
Aspirational groups—
hope to join

Dissociative groups-- rejects

Family

Family of Orientation

(parents and siblings)

Religion

Politics

Economics

Family of Procreation (pasangan dan anak-

anak) - Perilaku belanja harian

• Politics • Economics • Family of Procreation (pasangan dan anak- anak) - Perilaku belanja harian

Apa yang Anda Pikirkan ?

Apa yang Anda Pikirkan ? Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-18
Apa yang Anda Pikirkan ? Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-18

Roles and Statuses

4-19

Roles and Statuses 4-19 Apa status dikaitkan dengan berbagai peran dalam pekerjaan?
Roles and Statuses 4-19 Apa status dikaitkan dengan berbagai peran dalam pekerjaan?

Apa status dikaitkan dengan berbagai peran dalam pekerjaan?

Roles and Statuses 4-19 Apa status dikaitkan dengan berbagai peran dalam pekerjaan?

Personal Factors

Age

Life cycle stage

Occupation

More women in Workplace

Wealth

Personality

Values

Lifestyle

Self-concept

Growth Trends Young and Old (birthrate is the number

of babies born per one thousand people in the population)

Key Trends
Key Trends

Population Growing,

but…U.S. is less

than 1% per year

Birthrate Boom (1946 to 1964) or

Bust (1975 to 1976)

Graying of America

(Baby Boomers enter middle age and senior citizenry)

Trends in US Households and

Families

Trends in US Households and Families “Traditional” Family Married Couple without children — married later Single
Trends in US Households and Families “Traditional” Family Married Couple without children — married later Single
Trends in US Households and Families “Traditional” Family Married Couple without children — married later Single
“Traditional” Family
“Traditional”
Family
in US Households and Families “Traditional” Family Married Couple without children — married later Single

Married Couple without childrenmarried later

Family Married Couple without children — married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%;
Family Married Couple without children — married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%;
Single Adult Households
Single Adult
Households
without children — married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%; 80% remarry Unmarried
without children — married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%; 80% remarry Unmarried

High Divorce

Rate50%;

80% remarry

— married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%; 80% remarry Unmarried Living Together
— married later Single Adult Households High Divorce Rate — 50%; 80% remarry Unmarried Living Together

Unmarried

Living

Together

The Cultural and Social

Environment

Time Poverty
Time
Poverty
Economic Power
Economic
Power
Career Opportunity
Career
Opportunity

Cultural Trend:

The Changing Roles of Women

Social Environment Time Poverty Economic Power Career Opportunity Cultural Trend: The Changing Roles of Women 4-11

4-11

23

The Cultural and Social

4-11

Environment

The Cultural and Social 4-11 Environment Cultural Trend: The Changing Roles of Women 24
The Cultural and Social 4-11 Environment Cultural Trend: The Changing Roles of Women 24
Cultural Trend: The Changing Roles of Women
Cultural Trend:
The Changing Roles of Women

24

Brand Personality

Sincerity--honest

Brand Personality Sincerity --honest Excitement — daring Competence — reliable 4-25 Sophistication — upper-class

Excitementdaring

Competencereliable

4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough
4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough
4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough
4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough

4-25

4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough

Sophisticationupper-class

4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough

Ruggednesstough

4-25 Sophistication — upper-class Ruggedness — tough

Core Values--the belief systems that

underlie attitudes and behaviors

Attitudessistem evaluasi, perasaan emosional, dan

kecenderungan tindakan terhadap beberapa objek atau

gagasan yang sifatnya diinginkan atau yang tidak diinginkan dari seseorang yang bersifat kekal/konsisten (misalnya, curiga; Pesimis)

Attitude towards a friend:

Cognitive --I think my friend is kind, charming, and humorous

Affective--I feel good when I am around my friend

Behavioral--I try to hang out with my friend whenever I get the chance

Beliefa descriptive thought that a person hold about something

You will have bad luck for 7 years if you break a mirror

Don't let a black cat cross your path, it will bring you bad luck

Opening an umbrella indoors will bring you bad luck

Find a penny, pick it up, all day long you'll have good luck

Rain on your wedding day is a good omen

Lifestyle (pattern of living)

Influences

Multi-taskingdoing two or more things at one time

Timestarved

Moneyconstrained

of living) Influences Multi-tasking — doing two or more things at one time Time — starved

LOHAS (Lifestyles of Health and

Sustainability) Market Segments

Sustainable Economy (e.g., green building and

industrial goods)

Healthy Lifestyles (e.g., natural, organics; nutritional products)

Ecological Lifestyles (e.g., ecological home and

office products)

Alternative Health Care (health and wellness solutions)

Personal Development (e.g., mind, body, and spirit

products such as CDs, books, tapes, seminars)

Self-Concept

Actual Self-Concepthow we

view ourselves

Ideal Self-Concepthow we

would like to view ourselves

Others’ Self-Concepthow

we think others see us

Model of Consumer Behavior

Model of Consumer Behavior 4-30

Key Psychological Processes

Motivationdrive to act

PerceptionProcess of selecting,

organizing, interpreting information to

create a world picture

Learningchanges in behavior or

insights arising from experience

Memoryinformation & experiences

Short-termtemporary

Long-termpermanent

Motivation

 

Maslow’s

Freud’s

Hierarchy of Needs

Theory

Behavior

Behavior

is guided by

is driven by

subconscious

lowest, unmet need

motivations

Herzberg’s

Two-Factor

Theory

Behavior is

guided by motivating and hygiene

factors

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

4-33

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 4-33

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

4-34

Herzberg’s Two -Factor Theory 4-34

4-35

Perception

4-35 Perception Selective Attention (notice) Selective Retention (remember) Selective Distortion (interpret

Selective Attention

(notice)

Selective Retention

(remember)

Selective Distortion (interpret information to fit preconceptions)

Subliminal Perception (embed covert messages)

Consumer Buying Process

Problem Recognition

Information Search

Evaluation

Purchase Decision

Post-purchase

Behavior

Sources of Information

Personal

(family, friends, etc)

Public (mass media, consumer-rating Organizations)
Public
(mass media,
consumer-rating
Organizations)

Commercial

(advertising, websites, salesperson, etc)

Experiential (handling, examining, product usage)
Experiential
(handling, examining,
product usage)

Non-compensatory Models of Choice

(positive and negative attributes consideration

do not necessarily net out)

Conjunctive Heuristic

minimum set of acceptable cutoff for each attribute and choose 1 st alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes (e.g., computer speed)

Lexicographic

Choose the best brand on the basis of its perceived

most important attribute (e.g., printer versatility)

Elimination-by-aspects

Compares brands on an attribute selected probabilistically (where the probability of choosing an attribute is positively related to its importance) and

brands are eliminated if they do not meet minimum

acceptable cutoff levels (e.g., cell phone memory)

Perceived Risk

Functionalproduct does not perform

Physicalproduct poses treat to physical well-being or health of the user or others

Financialproduct is not worth the price paid

Socialproduct results in embarrassment from others

Psychologicalproduct affects the mental well-being of the user

Timefailure of product results in an

opportunity cost of finding another satisfactory product

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6-39

Other Theories of

Consumer Decision Making

Involvement

Elaboration Likelihood Model

High and Low

Low-involvement marketing strategies

Link to some involving issues

Personal situations

Personal values

Add Important feature

Variety-seeking buying behavior

Encourage habitual buying

behavior by dominating

self-space.

Decision Heuristics (rules of thumb)

Availability

Quickness and ease with which a particular example of an outcome comes to mind (e.g., break failure of Toyota)

Representativeness

How representative or similar the outcome is to other examples (e.g., packaging)

Anchoring and adjustment

Consumers arrive at an initial judgment and then make

adjustments of that 1 st impression based on additional

information (e.g., initial service encounters)

Mental Accounting (manner which

consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial outcomes of choice)

Consumers tend to…

Segregate gains

Sum of parts maybe greater than the wholemultiple benefits

Integrate losses

House buyers more inclined to view additional

expenditures favorably given the high price of the house

Integrate smaller losses with larger gains

Withholding taxes from monthly paycheck than one

lump-sum payment

Segregate small gains from large losses

4-41

Rebate for purchasing an automobile

Study Question 1

A person‘s

that have a direct (face-to-face) or indirect influence

on his/her attitudes or behavior.

consist(s) of all the groups

A.Culture B.Subculture C.Psychographics D.reference groups E.demographics

Study Question 2

Consumption may be shaped by

(such as marriage, childbirth, or divorce).

A.the psychological life cycle B.the product life cycle C.the life/death life cycle

D.Post-puberty cycles

E.critical life events or transitions

Study Question 3

is a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively

consistent and enduring responses to

environmental stimuli.

A.Image

B.Personality

C.Beliefs

D.Heredity

E.Culture

Study Question 4

portrays the ―whole person‖

interacting with his or her environment.

A.Attitude B.Reference group C.Lifestyle

D.Culture

E.Subculture

Study Question 5

Consumers today are experiencing a time famine because of their busy lifestyles. One way to avoid

the difficulties of time famine, which is of particular

interest to marketers, is

A.to set fewer goals

B.to multitask C.to give in to personal burdens

D.to report frustration to management

E.to develop a callous attitude toward marketers