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2022-ISC/ISL CM2150 Shop Talk

Term Definition
Absolute Pressure Pressure reading that does not read "0" at atmospheric pressure.
Active Regeneration ECM initiated regeneration.
Actuator Control Valve The Actuator Control Valve controls the air pressure to the
turbocharger actuator.
Adjustable Parameters Selections made in the engine ECM from an INSITE imposed range.
Advanced Timing Injection that occurs earlier in the compression stroke when
compared to base timing. With advanced timing the start of injection
occurs at a crank angle before top dead center (BTDC).
Aftertreatment A method of controlling exhaust emissions with the use of a catalyst,
filter or trap installed in the exhaust system.
Aftertreatment Interface The Aftertreatment Interface Connection is a SCR 14-pin Connector.
Aftertreatment Systems Exhaust system components used to reduce harmful emissions from
diesel engines.
Algorithm Software stored in the ECM that is used to establish a step-by-step
procedure to determine a value based on inputs from engine sensors.
This value is used to provide output to various devices on the engine.
Ambient Air Pressure The Ambient Air Pressure Sensor allows the ECM to determine the
Sensor atmospheric pressure.
Ash The minute amount of particulate matter that is left after oxidation.
Barometric Pressure See Ambient Air Pressure Sensor
Block Heater An electric resistance heater installed in the cooling system and used
to provide for easier starting in cold weather. Also called a coolant
Block Stiffener Plate Device mounted to the bottom of the engine block to provide
additional strength and rigidity to the block casting. This plate is
typically mounted using shoulder bolts to provide optimum stiffening
Breakout Harness Service tool used to check circuit voltage with electrical components
connected to the ECM.
CAC (Charge Air Cooler) Air-to-air cooler mounted in front of the engine radiator used to lower
the temperature of the intake air after it has passed through the
Camshaft Position Sensor Hall-effect sensor supplying a signal based on the position of
machined surfaces in the camshaft. The signal from this sensor is
used by the ECM to determine the camshaft position.
Camshaft Tone Wheel The rotation of the tone wheel teeth allows the secondary/backup
engine speed sensor to measure camshaft speed.
CARB California Air Resources Board
Catalyst A device installed in the exhaust system that causes harmful
emissions to be converted into harmless ones.
Charge Air Cooler (CAC) Air-to-air cooler mounted in front of the engine radiator used to lower
the temperature of the intake air after it has passed through the
Check Valve Valve designed to prevent the reverse flow of fluid.
CLS Coolant Level Sensor
CM2150 An electronic control module used on Cummins engines with the
HPCR fuel system
Common Rail Rail used to store the high pressure to the injectors.
Compression Brake See Engine Brake
Coolant Heater An electric resistance heater installed in the cooling system and used
to provide for easier starting in cold weather. Also called a block
Coolant Temperature The Coolant Temperature Sensor allows the ECM to determine the
Sensor coolant temperature.
CPL (List) Control Parts List
Crankcase Breather Device used to allow excess pressure in the engine crankcase to exit
the engine. Crankcase pressure is typically a result of combustion
gas flowing past the piston rings (blowby).
Crankshaft Tone Wheel The rotating tone wheel teeth allow the engine speed sensor to
measure engine speed.
Crossflow Cylinder Head Cylinder head design where the intake air flows into the cylinder and
the exhaust gas flows from the cylinder from opposite sides of the
Crosshead A device that allows one rocker arm to open two valves
CTS Coolant Temperature Sensor
Cummins Accumulator A Fuel system that stores fuel at pressures high enough for injection
Pumping System in an accumulator. The ECM signals a control valve to release the
proper amount of fuel from the accumulator and a rotary distributor
directs the fuel to the proper injector.
Datalink a) The electrical connection that allows an external electronic device,
such as INSITE, to be connected to the ECM. This connection is used
for communication and data transfer. b) Communication system that
allows the vehicle's control ECM to communicate
Dataplate Plate that is on the engine containing identifying information for an
engine or vehicle.
Dataplate - Electronic The information contained on the engine dataplate that is stored
electronically in the ECM.
Deaerating Cooling Cooling system utilized on many Cummins engines that aids in
System purging air from the cooling system during initial coolant fill and during
operation. This system also provides a positive flow of coolant at the
water pump during all engine operating condition
Dedicated Oil Fill Boss Mounting location for Oil Dip Stick.
Diagnostic Lamp The light used to alert the operator of certain faults in the system.
This light will flash, indicating stored fault code information.
ECM (Electronic Control The engine control computer that is responsible for engine control,
Module) diagnostics, and user features. This component receives signals from
engine sensors and OEM switches. It uses software containing base
control algorithms and diagnostic information.
ECM Cooling Plate Plate mounted under the ECM and uses air low or fuel flow to protect
the ECM from heat produced by the engine.
ECM Power Connector The ECM Power Connector is a 4-pin power connector on the ECM.
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Electronic Control Module The electronic control module (ECM) dataplate displays information
(ECM) dataplate about the ECM.
Engine Brake An optional component that enhances the engines ability to slow the
vehicle in coasting situations. It works by opening the exhaust valve
when the piston is at the top of the compression stroke. Any energy
stored in the compressed air is released into the
Engine Connector The Engine Connector is a 60 pin engine harness connector on the
Engine Speed Sensor Hall-effect sensor supplying a signal based on a tone wheel on the
crankshaft. The signal from this sensor is used by the ECM to
determine the engine speed and crankshaft position.
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
Exhaust Emissions The various chemical compounds released into the atmosphere after
combustion has taken place.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Process that takes a portion of the exhaust gas, cools it, combines it
with fresh air, and returns it to the combustion chamber.
Firing Order The order in which the cylinders, beginning with cylinder #1, deliver
the power stroke.
Fleetguard Manufacturer of quality filtration and diesel engine related products.
(Customer Assistance Center 1-800-223-4583)
Fracture Split Manufacturing technique where the connecting rod and rod cap are
manufactured as a unit and then mechanically split apart.
Framatome Connector Electrical connector used for some sensors on the CM85 engines.
These connectors provide positive engagement with a double locking
Fuel Control Valve The Fuel Control Valve is used to shut off the fuel flow to the fuel rail.
Fuel Pump Actuator The fuel pump actuator controls fuel to the high pressure pump as
directed by the software calibration.
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor Monitors pressure in the fuel rail. Also known as an "Accumulator
Pressure Sensor".
Full Floating Piston Pin A piston pin that is assembled together with the rod and piston at
room temperature.
Gauge Pressure Pressure reading adjusted for atmospheric pressure so that the
gauge will read "0" when just the atmospheric pressure is acting on it.
Gerotor Pump Located at the rear of the high pressure pump. Supplies fuel at
approximately 5-7 bar through the ECM cooling plate, stage 2 filter,
and high pressure pump.
Grid Heater An electric resistance heater mounted in the intake air system to heat
the air for easier starting at low temperatures.
Hall-Effect Sensor A type of electronic sensor used to determine motion and proximity.
From this signal, the ECM calculates engine speed and position.
High Pressure Common A Cummins fuel system that uses a common rail as an accumulator
Rail to store fuel at pressures high enough for injection. The ECM controls
the electronic injectors, each of which is connected to the rail.
High Pressure Fuel Lines The high-pressure fuel lines are used to connect the fuel rail to the
individual fuel connectors.
Horsepower A unit of power equal to 746 Watts
HPCR High Pressure Common Rail
Hydrocarbon An organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen.
Hydromechanical System using hydraulics, or fluid flow, and mechanical action to
control motion of a component.
IAT Sensor Intake Air Temperature Sensor
IMP Sensor Intake Manifold Pressure Sensor
IMT Sensor Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor
Injector Flow Limiter Uses a ball-type check valve to prevent excess fuel flow in the case
of a malfunctioning injector.
INLINE II J1587, J1708, and J1939 protocol communications tool used to
connect the ECM to a PC.
INSITE The PC based electronic service tool used to diagnose and calibrate
Cummins electronically controlled engines.
Intake Manifold The Intake Manifold Pressure/Temperature Sensor is used for air/fuel
Pressure/Temperature control, engine protection and for fan clutch control.
J1587 An SAE communications protocol that uses J1708-style hardware.
J1708 An SAE standard that describes the datalink conversion hardware
and the lower layers of the communications protocol.
J1939 An SAE communication protocol that enables an engine to be
controlled by J1939 devices. This communication standard allows
service tools and some other vehicle controllers, such as
transmission shifting systems, braking systems, and traction control
systems to communicate with the ECM.
J1939 Backbone Datalink bus in which service tools and other J1939 devices
communicate with the ECM. This bus can be extended 150 feet with
minimal outside interference to communication data. The Main Bus is
constructed with twisted pair wires and a shield.
J1939 Node Any device sending signals over the J1939 communications datalink.
J-Jet Cooling Nozzles J-Jet Cooling Nozzles are used to deliver lubrication to the pistons
Keystone Profile Angled top and bottom surface of the piston ring and ring groove.
Lash The distance between the crosshead and the rocker arm.
Lift Pump An electric fuel pump controlled by the ECM through a relay. Each
time the key is turned on the ECM turns on this pump for thirty
seconds to insure adequate fuel supply for easy starting and shorter
cranking times.
Magnetic Pickup Speed sensing device utilizing a target passing through a magnetic
field to generate a signal that is sent to the ECM.
Manometer A device used to measure pressure or pressure differences.
Micron Unit of measurement equal to one thousandth of a millimeter.
Mid-stop Liner Style of cylinder liner where a ledge, toward the middle of the liner,
seats on a shoulder in the block. This seat establishes the amount of
liner protrusion above the surface of the engine block.
Multiplexing The use of one circuit to provide signals from multiple components to
the ECM.
Negative twist A notch or bevel on the inside bottom of a piston ring that causes the
ring to flex or twist.
NOx Various combinations of Nitrogen and Oxygen.
Nozzle Ring The sliding portion of the turbocharger that changes the size of the
volute exit area. Changing the exit area affects both boost pressure
and exhaust backpressure.
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer.
OEM Connector The OEM Connector is a 60-pin OEM harness connector on the
Oil Cooler Petcock A petcock is a device used to drain the coolant from the system.
Oil Level Sensor The Oil Level Sensor advises the operator of low or overfilled oil
levels when the engine is static.
Oil Pressure Switch The Oil Pressure Switch indicates the pressure of the oil as an input
to the engine protection system.
Oxides of Nitrogen Differing combinations of oxygen and nitrogen.
Oxidize To combined with oxygen.
Parent Bore Design Cylinder design that contains no sleeves or liners.
Particulate Matter All solid and liquid material in cooled, diluted diesel exhaust.
Pass Through Connector Wiring harness connection used to transition the harness from
outside the engine through a casting to the interior of the engine.
Passive Regeneration Regeneration without user interaction.
PC Personal Computer
Piston Cooling Nozzle A device that sprays oil onto the underside of the piston head. This oil
helps to cool the piston and provides some lubrication for the piston
Piston Protrusion The distance that the crown of the piston is raised above the deck
surface of the cylinder block when it is at top dead center.
Pneumatic Actuation A method of controlling the variable geometry turbocharger's exit
volute area by using air pressure.
Poly-Vee Belt A drive belt with a multiple vee shaped inside surface that fits into a
mating pulley containing multiple grooves.
Positive Flow Deaeration System using pressurized coolant flow to remove trapped air from the
Positive twist A notch or bevel on the inside top of a piston ring that causes the ring
to flex or twist.
Power Take Off A device mounted to the engine or transmission that provides power
for accessories such as hydraulic pumps.
PTO Power Take Off
QuickServe Online Cummins online service information system.
Regeneration The oxidation of soot trapped on the walls of the particulate trap.
Retarded Injection Timing Injection that occurs later in the compression stroke when compared
to base timing. With retarded timing the start of injection occurs at a
crank angle before top dead center (BTDC).
RTV Room Temperature Vulcanizing Compound - material used for form-
in-place gaskets.
Rubber Damper A vibration damper used to reduce vibration and noise.
Saddle Jet Style of piston cooling nozzle used on lower horsepower engines.
SCA (Supplemental Additive package used in diesel engine cooling systems to prevent
Coolant Additive) scale, corrosion, and pitting of cooling system components.
Secondary Position The secondary/backup engine speed and position sensor takes its
Sensor measurement from the camshaft tone wheel.
Serpentine Belt Compound curve drive belt that uses both sides of the belt to drive
engine components.
Solder Bloom Corrosion of the soldered joints in a radiator or oil cooler caused by
antifreeze with depleted corrosion inhibitors. Solder bloom can cause
the tube-to-header joints to become weakened and corrosion can
restrict coolant flow.
Stationary Regeneration Regeneration initiated by user interaction.
Stiffener Plate Plate mounted to the skirt of the block to provide for increased block
STOR (Straight Thread O- Type of fitting used to seal many of the access ports in the block. This
Ring) style fitting provides improved sealing capabilities when compared
with tapered pipe-thread fittings.
STORM (Straight Thread Type of Metric fitting used to seal many of the access ports in the
O-Ring - Metric) block. This style fitting provides improved sealing capabilities when
compared with tapered pipe-thread fittings.
StrataPore Filter Media Multi-layered filter media which provides improved durability and
filtration capability.
Stub The J1939 Datalink connection from service tools or other vehicle
controllers that attaches to the J1939 backbone. The stubs are
restricted to approximately 1 meter in length to minimize interference.
The stub is constructed with shielding and twisted pair wires.
TDC Top dead center. The engine position where the number one cylinder
piston is at the uppermost point in the travel.
Tensioner Pulley Spring loaded, self adjusting pulley used to maintain a drive belt at
the desired belt tension.
Termination Resistor One of the two 120 ohm resistors connected in parallel in the J1939
backbone circuit.
Thermistor A type of resistor containing semiconductors, which vary predictably
and rapidly with changes in temperature.
Thermocouple A device that uses the electrical potential created by dissimilar metals
to measure temperature.
Thermostat An automatic temperature sensing device utilizing a mechanical valve
to regulate the flow path of a fluid.
Tier 3 Government emission regulations applicable to diesel engines used
in off-road applications.
Tier 4 Government emission regulations applicable to diesel engines used
in off-road applications.
Tone Wheel Notched ring, commonly installed on the crankshaft or camshaft. The
notches are used as "targets" for a speed or position sensor.
Torque Plus Angle/Torque A tightening procedure that provides a more consistent clamping
Plus Turn force than torque only. This is accomplished by torquing to a
specification and then rotating an additional specified number of
TPS (Throttle Position Part of the accelerator pedal assembly that sends a pedal position
Sensor) signal to the ECM. This device is a potentiometer that produces a
varying voltage as it is moved through the operating range.
Turbocharger Centrifugal air pump or blower driven by exhaust gas. It fills the
engine cylinders with fresh air at a higher pressure than the
atmospheric pressure.
Turbocharger Control The valve that controls the air flow to the variable geometry actuator.
Valve This valve receives a signal from the ECM.
Turbocharger Drain Line The Turbocharger Drain Line drains oil back to the oil pan
Turbocharger Oil Supply The Turbocharger Oil Supply Line carries oil to the turbocharger.
Turbocharger Speed This sensor measures the rotational speed of the turbocharger shaft
Sensor and helps the ECM determine that the system is functioning and
prevents over-speeding of the turbo.
TVS (Trapped Volume Fuel passage that relieves fuel pressure in the injector cup after
Spill) Port injection. Fuel flow enters the TVS from the cup and returns to the
fuel tank through the drain line.
Valve Seats Create a seal between valves and the intake and exhaust ports.
Variable Geometry A style of turbocharger that has an adjustable exit volute area.
Turbocharger Adjusting this exit volute area quickly increases or decreases the
backpressure in the exhaust system.
Venturi Filter Provides lubrication filtration for the bypass flow and utilizes the
venturi flow concept to promote flow through the bypass filter.
VGT Actuator The electronic actuator that controls the position of the variable
geometry turbocharger nozzle ring. This actuator receives a signal
from the ECM.
Viscous Damper A vibration damper used to reduce vibration and noise.
Water-In-Fuel Sensor Sensor mounted in the bottom of the fuel filter/water separator. This
(WIF) sensor signals the ECM if too much water is contained in the bottom
of the filter.