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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 09 | March 2017

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue


And Traffic Signal Controller
Vignesh.M M.Ishwarya Niranjana
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Pollachi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore Pollachi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore

Manikandan.R Suganthan.S
UG Student UG Student
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Pollachi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore Pollachi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore

Malayandisamy.P
UG Student
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Pollachi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Coimbatore

Abstract
Traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of fatalities in the all places. An important indicator of survival rates after an
accident is the time between the accident and when emergency medical personnel are dispatched to the scene. One approach to
eliminating the delay between accident occurrence and first responder dispatch is to use in-vehicle automatic accident detection
and notification systems, which sense when traffic accidents occur and immediately notify emergency personnel. This project
aims at finding the occurrence of any accident and reporting the location of accident to the nearest ambulance, so that immediate
help can be provided by ambulance. And the ambulance reach the traffic signal the ambulance driver controls the signal.
Intimating the traffic control section regarding the direction of ambulance GSM technology is used to intimate the vehicle
position in the form of latitude and longitude coordinates through internet. The location spot is retrieved using Global
Positioning System which is a navigational system using a network of satellites orbiting the earth. Sensors such as vibration and
airbag detect signal in case of an accident occurrence and send a signal to the connected microcontroller. This paper describes the
accident detection and intimating the incident to ambulance services spontaneously and these in vehicle systems, however, are
not available in all cars and are expensive to retrofit for older vehicles. This project provides the result by Smartphone accident
detection system to prevent false positives.
Keywords: Ambulance, GPS, GSM, Microcontroller, Traffic control, Vibration Sensor
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION

In our daily life we are facing a lot of problems; main thing is traffic congestion which becomes more serious day after day. It is
said that high tome of vehicles, the scanty infrastructure and the irrational distribution of the development are the main reasons
for augmented traffic jam. The major cause leading to traffic jam is the large number of vehicles which is caused by the most
population and the development of economy. India is the second most populous country in the world and is a fast growing
economy. It is seeing terrible road congestion problems in its cities. Infrastructure growth is slow as compared to the growth in
number of vehicles, due to space and cost constraints. Also, Indian traffic is non-lane based and Chaotic. It needs a traffic control
solutions, which are different from the developed Countries. To unravel this problem, government should encourage people to
use public transport or make use of vehicles with small size as bicycles or make tax on personal vehicles. Particularly in some
Asian countries like Vietnam, the local authorities passed a law limiting the number of vehicles for each family. The methods
mentioned above is really efficient in the fact that inadequate infrastructure cannot handle the issue of traffic congestion. The
public conveyance is available and its quality is very bad, mostly in the establishing countries. Besides, the highway and roads
are incapable of meeting the requirement of increasing number of vehicles. Instead of working on the roads to accommodate for
the growing traffic various techniques have been devised to control the traffic on roads like embedded controllers that are
installed at the junction.

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Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue And Traffic Signal Controller
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 050)

II. EXISTING SYSTEM

Manual Controlling
Manual controlling the name instance it require man power to control the traffic. Depending on the countries and states the
traffic polices are allotted for a required area or city to control traffic. The traffic polices will carry sign board, sign light and
whistle to control the traffic. They will be instructed to wear specific uniforms in order to control the traffic.

Automatic Controlling
Automatic traffic light is controlled by timers and electrical sensors. In traffic light each phase a constant numerical value loaded
in the timer. The lights are automatically getting ON and OFF depending on the timer value changes. While using electrical
sensors it will capture the availability of the vehicle and signals on each phase, depending on the signal the lights automatically
switch ON and OFF.

III. PROPOSED SYSTEM

In proposed system if a vehicle has met accidents, immediately an alert message with the location coordinates is sent to the
Control center. From the control center, a message is sent to the nearby ambulance. Also signal is transmitted to all the signals in
between ambulance and vehicle location to provide RF communication between ambulance and traffic section. The vehicle
accident observed using vibration sensor and in the control section it is received by the microcontroller and then the nearby
ambulance is received from the PC and controller sends the message to the ambulance. The signal to Traffic signal section is
transmitted through RF communication. Also if any fire occurs, it is detected using fire sensor and an alarm message is directly
sent to the fire station.

IV. BLOCK DIAGRAMS

Block Diagram of Vehicle Unit


If a vehicle has met accident, vibration sensor or fire sensor gives the electric signal to microcontroller through Signal
conditioner. Then GPS provides latitude and longitude information about vehicle location to control section through GSM.

Fig. 1: Block diagram of vehicle unit

Vibration sensor
According to our system, every vehicle should have a vehicle unit. The vehicle unit consists of a vibration sensor,
Microcontroller, a user interface, GPS system and a GSM module. There is need to process the low level voltage signal properly
given by vibration sensor. We can use multiple sensors for detection of accident to avoid any error in detection. These sensors
can be installed in vehicle body at most vibration sensitive locations. A central system can be implemented inside vehicle to
process the signal coming from sensors and to detect the accident from the signals coming from multiple sensors.

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Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue And Traffic Signal Controller
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Fig. 2: Design of Vibration Sensor

The predefined data i.e. Peak voltage level or crash waveform data are used to decide whether an accident is occurred or
not.The vibration sensor used in the vehicle will continuously sense for any large scale vibration in the vehicle. The sensed data
is given to the controller GPS SYSTEM inside the vehicle. The GPS SYSTEM finds out the current position of the vehicle
(latitude and the longitude) which is the location of the accident spot and gives that data to the GSM MODULE. The GSM
MODULE sends this data to the control unit whose GSM number is already there in the module as an emergency number. We
can also use this vehicle unit for health monitoring of the patient using different sensors.

GPS (Global Positioning System)


It stands for Global positioning system. It is having 24 satellites it will transmit the coded information. These 24 satellites will
rotate one time over the earth in every 12 hours. In order to provide the information about velocity, time etc GPS will help us
identify the distance between the two different places on the earth and it will show the route to reach the required destination.
Figure 2 shows the GPS module. There are three different segments in GPS they are:
1) Space segment
2) Control segment
3) User segment
When satellites transmit information and each satellite will have a different code and it also transmit information at different
frequencies so that the GPS can discriminate with the different signal received by the different satellites. This condition will help
to calculate the time taken to travel the distance between the satellite and the GPS receivers and then the travel time is multiplied
by the light speed gives the distance between the satellite and the GPS receiver The control segment will identify the satellite and
it will guide with the proper orbit and proper time taken by the satellite to reach the GPS.

Fig. 3: GPS Module

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Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue And Traffic Signal Controller
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It is having four unmanned station with single master control station. These unmanned stations will receive the information
from different satellites and this information is send to the master station and this is send to the GPS satellite. The user segments
consist of users and the GPS receivers. Working of GPS: When a GPS receiver is started to work, firstly it will start to download
the orbit information about each and every satellite to download this information it will take around 12.5 min once this
information is completely downloaded it will be stored in the receivers in order to use further. The GPS knows the exact location
of the satellite but still it needs to know the exact distance between the satellite and the receiver. This distance can be calculated
by the receiver, by multiplying the time taken by the signal to reach the receiver and the velocity of the transmitted signal. But
the receiver already knows the velocity which is 18600 miles/ sec.

Block Diagram of Ambulance/Control Unit

Fig. 4: Block Diagram of Ambulance/Control Unit

In control section GSM modem receives message about accident and send it to PC. PC identifies the nearest ambulance and
ambulance is instructed to pick up the patient. Control section transmits the control signal to all the signals in between
ambulance and vehicle by RF transmission.

Block Diagram of Traffic Unit

Fig. 5: Block Diagram of traffic unit

Whenever the ambulance reaches near to the traffic signal(approximately 100m), the traffic signal will be made to green
through RF communication. Thereby the ambulance is recommended to reach the hospital in time.

V. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION

Our system consists of three main units, which coordinates with each other and makes sure that ambulance reaches the hospital
without any time lag. Thus our system is divided into following three units,
1) The Vehicle Unit
2) The Ambulance/control Unit
3) Traffic unit

Vehicle unit
The vehicle unit installed in the vehicle senses the accident and sends the location of the accident to the Controller According to
our system; every vehicle should have a vehicle unit. The vehicle unit consists of a vibration sensor, controller, siren, a user
interface, GPS system and a GSM module. The vibration sensor used in the vehicle will continuously sense for any large scale
vibration in the vehicle. The sensed data is given to the controller GPS SYSTEM inside the vehicle. The GPS SYSTEM finds out
the current position of the vehicle (latitude and the longitude) which is the location of the accident spot and gives that data to the

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Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue And Traffic Signal Controller
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 050)

GSM MODULE. The GSM MODULE sends this data to the control unit whose GSM number is already there in the module as
an emergency number.

Ambulance unit
The controller finds the nearest ambulance to the accident spot and also the shortest path between the ambulance, accident spot
and the nearest hospital. The controller then sends this path to the ambulance. Also using this information the controller controls
all the traffic signals in the path of ambulance and makes it ready to provide free path to ambulance, which ensures that the
ambulance reaches the hospital without delay. At the same time, the ambulance unit turns ON the RF transmitter. This will lead
to communicate with the traffic section.

Traffic unit
Whenever traffic signal section receives the information about accident, the RF receiver in this section is turned ON to search for
ambulance nearing the traffic signal. Whenever the ambulance reaches near to the traffic signal(approximately 100m), the traffic
signal will be made to green through RF communication. Thereby the ambulance is recommended to reach the hospital in time.

RF Transmitter and Receiver


In generally, the wireless systems designer has two overriding constraints: it must operate over a certain distance and transfer a
certain amount of information within a data rate. The RF modules are very small in dimension and have a wide operating voltage
range i.e. 3V to 12V.

Fig. 6: Pin Diagram of RF Transmitter and Receiver

Basically the RF modules are 433 MHz RF transmitter and receiver modules. The transmitter draws no power when
transmitting logic zero while fully suppressing the carrier frequency thus consume significantly low power in battery operation.
When logic one is sent carrier is fully on to about 4.5mA with a 3volts power supply. The data is sent serially from the
transmitter which is received by the tuned receiver. Transmitter and the receiver are duly interfaced to two microcontrollers for
data transfer. Figure 3 shows the Pin Diagram of RF Transmitter and Receiver.

VI. METHODOLOGY (FLOWCHART)

Fig. 7: Methodology (Flowchart)

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Automatic Accident Detection, Ambulance Rescue And Traffic Signal Controller
(IJSTE/ Volume 3 / Issue 09 / 050)

Automatic accident detection using sensors, location tracking using GPS, sending location coordinates to ambulance, finding
exact spot of accident using GPS viewer application, starting of rescue operation and traffic signal monitoring using RF
transmitter and receiver all these steps are executed according to response of the circuit.

VII. SIMULATION RESULTS

Automatic Accident Detection and Ambulance Rescue with Intelligent Traffic Light System are simulated using PROTEUS
SOFTWARE and their results are presented here. The circuit model of the above system is shown and sensors are connected to
measure output result in normal condition the vibration sensor will be less than the present value. If a vehicle has met accident,
vibration sensor gives the electric signal to microcontroller through signal conditioner. Then GPS provides latitude and longitude
information about vehicle location to control section through GSM. If a vehicle has met accident, fire sensor gives the electric
signal to microcontroller through signal conditioner. Then GPS provides latitude and longitude information about vehicle
location to control section through GSM Before ambulance reaching the traffic signal junction, the signal will be red. Control
section transmits the control signal to all the signals in between ambulance and vehicle by RF transmission. After ambulance
reaching the traffic signal junction the signal will turn into green with the help of the RF signal.

Fig. 8: simulation output

VIII. CONCLUSION

In this paper, a novel idea is proposed for controlling the traffic signals in favor of ambulances during the accidents. With this
system the ambulance can be maneuvered from the ITLS can be proved to be effectual to control not only ambulance but also
authoritative vehicles. Thus ITLS if implemented in countries with large population like INDIA can produce better results. The
ITLS is more accurate with no loss of time. But there may be a delay caused because of GSM messages since it is a queue based
technique, which can be reduced by giving more priority to the messages communicated through the controller. INDIA can
produce better results. The ITLS is more accurate with no loss of time. But there may be a delay caused because of GSM
messages since it is a queue based technique, which can be reduced by giving more priority to the messages communicated
through the controller.

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