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40 2 Geotechnical Properties of Soils Fundamentals

Table 2.9 Classification of clays based on mv

Type of soil mv (MPa1) Compressibility
Heavily overconsolidated clays <0.05 Very low
Very stiff or hard clays, tills 0.050.10 Low
Varved and laminated clays, firm to stiff clays 0.100.30 Medium
Normally consolidated alluvial clays 0.31.5 High
Organic alluvial clays and peats >1.5 Very high
After Bell (2000)

Table 2.10 Ranges of mv Soil type mv (MPa1)

values for different soils
Plastic clay 0.26 to 2.1
Stiff clay 0.13 to 0.26
Medium hard clay 0.069 to 0.13
Loose sand 0.052 to 0.1
Dense sand 0.013 to 0.021
Dense sandy gravel (0.1 to 5.2)  103
Jointed rock (0.33 to 6.9)  103
Sound rock 0.33  103
Water 0.44  103
After Domenico and Mifflin (1965)

1 1 4
D EK G 2:47
mv 1 1  2 3

where, Poissons ratio, E Youngs modulus, K bulk modulus, and G shear

modulus. From D or mv determined from the oedometer, assuming a value for the
Poissons ratio , the Youngs modulus E can be estimated. For 0.10.33,
D 1.01.5 E. E and are related to K and G by

K 2:48
31  2
G 2:49

In numerical modelling work, K and G are sometimes used as the elastic input
parameters than E and . E and can be expressed in terms of K and G as

E 2:50
3K G
3K  2G
33K G

The Youngs modulus of clays derived from in situ tests is often under undrained
conditions (i.e. Eu) when there is little or no drainage from the soil during the test.