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CHAPTER 1 **work on formula sheet end of chapter 2 and excercise [HIDAYAT] The standing waves can be reduced, and

reduced, and the energy storage capacity of the line

minimized, by matching the impedance of the
An antenna a usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating or receiving antenna (load) to the characteris-tic impedance of
radio waves. the line.
the transmission line is represented by a line with characteristic impedance Zc,
and the antenna is represented by a load ZA [ZA = (RL + Rr ) + jXA] connected to the
transmission line.

Why we use wirless communication?

1. Wire Antennas
on automobiles, buildings, ships, aircraft, spacecraft, and so on. There are
various shapes of wire antennas such as a straight wire (dipole), loop, and
2. Aperture Antennas
very useful for aircraft and spacecraft applications,
kazanc yuksek
frekans araligi genis

pg. 1
3. Microstrip Antennas Single Wire
consist of a metallic patch on a grounded substrate. total charge Q withinvolume V is moving in the z directionwith a uniform
disadvantage velocity vz (meters/sec)
Complex calculation doing is hard current density Jz (amperes/m2)
No high gain until two years ago
Can be printed on PCB
Frequency range can be controlled
Wide range of frequency
Small size
Easy fabrication
Used in cell phone

4. Array Antennas
t is arrangemet of many antennas togather actually bringing antenna to create radiation, there must be a time-varying current or an acceleration
togather. (or deceleration)
Why we use arry antenna? Main aim is about gain to improve the gain

5. Reector Antennas
the need to communicate over great distances


6. Lens antenna

pg. 2


An antenna radiation pattern or antenna pattern is dened as a

mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation
properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates. Inmost cases,
the radiationpatternis determined inthe far-eld region and is represented as
a function of the directional coordinates. Radiation properties include
power ux density,
radiation intensity,
eld strength,
phase or polarization.
Radiation Patterns:
a. eld pattern(in linear scale) typically represents a plot of the magnitude
of the electric or magnetic eld as a function of the angular space.
b. power pattern(in linear scale) typically represents a plot of the square of
the magnitude of the electric or magnetic eld as a function of the
angular space.
c. power pattern(in dB) represents the magnitude of the electric or
magnetic eld, indecibels, as a functionof the angular space.
1. Radiation Pattern Lobes
Various parts of a radiationpatternare referred to as lobes, which may be
subclassied into major or main, minor, side,and back lobes.

A major lobe (also called main beam) is dened as the radiation lobe containing
the direction of maximum radiation.

pg. 3
A minor lobe is any lobe except a major lobe. all the lobes with the exceptionof Omnidirectional having an essentially nondirectional pattern in a given plane (in
the major canbe classied as minor lobes. this case in azimuth) and a directional pattern in any orthogonal plane (in this
A side lobe is a radiationlobe inany directionother thanthe intended lobe. case in elevation). An omnidirectional patternis thena special type of a
directional pattern.
A back lobe is a radiationlobe whose axis makes anangle of approximately 180 Like a ball at anydirection
with respect to the beam of an antenna. 4. Field Regions
Minor lobes usually represent radiation in undesired directions, and they should The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three regions: (a)
be minimized. reactive near-eld, (b) radiating near-eld (Fresnel) and (c) far-eld (Fraunhofer)
the magnitude of the total electric eld would be |E|= sqrt(|Er |2 +|E |2 +|E|2 )

5. Radian and Steradian (4r2/r2)

2. Isotropic, Directional, and Omnidirectional Patterns

An isotropic radiator is dened as a hypothetical lossless antenna having equal

radia-tion in all directions.
We dont have any can be made in library.
Directional anteenna sending power specific direction **like dish antenna
**istedi yone istedi dalga gondermek veya almak icin kullanilir.
pg. 4
Important for quiz



The power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle.

pg. 5
radiation intensity in a given direction over that of an isotropic source.

D = directivity (dimensionless)
D0 = maximum directivity (dimensionless)
U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
U0 = radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)
Prad = total radiated power (W)

For a spherical coordinate system, the total max-imum directivity D0 for the
orthogonal and components of an antenna can be writtena

pg. 6

Material (Yapisi)
Transmission matching SWR

pg. 7

Yonu elektrik alan belirliyor

pg. 8
Quiz question


The upper frequency is 10X bigger than lower

pg. 9
Polarization of a radiated wave is dened as that property of an electromagnetic
wave describing the time-varying direction and relative magnitude of the electric- Polarization Loss Factor and Efciency
eld vector;
a. Linear, Circular, and Elliptical Polarizations Note** verici ve alici antenlarin polarization farki olursa biraz kayip

polarization loss factor (PLF)

A. Linear Polarization

B. Circular Polarization

*Note** for circular polarization axial ratio shall be smaller than 3dB.
Disadvantage: design is very complex.
For long distance and many layers communication circular polarization is

C. Elliptical Polarization (Phase and amplitudes are not the same)

For elliptical polarization, the curve traced at a given position as a function of

time is, ingeneral, a tilted ellipse, as showninFigure 2.23(b). The ratio of the
major axis to the minor axis is referred to as the axial ratio (AR), and it is
equal to
pg. 10
INPUT IMPEDANCE If there is a mismatch between characteristic and input impedence we will
have SWR for reduction we need to calculate the input impedenece of
antenna and design an antenna with matching the input impedence,

ZA = antenna impedance at terminals a b (ohms)

RA = antenna resistance at terminals a b (ohms)
XA = antenna reactance at terminals a b (ohms)

Rr = radiation resistance of the antenna

RL = loss resistance of the antenna

Rg = resistance of generator impedance (ohms)

Xg = reactance of generator impedance (ohms)

where Vg is the peak generator voltage. The power delivered to the antenna
for radiation is givenby

Eger iletim hatiyal antenin giris impedence arasinda uyumsuzluk vars dalga
iltem hattan gecerken antene ulasamaz beli kisimi iletim hatin icine gider bu
duran dagla iletim kesip cok fazla oldu zaman iletim hata zarar verir. and that dissipated as heat by
Duran dalga icin anten giris impedence heslayip iletim hatin characteristic
impedence gore tasralamamiz lazim.

pg. 11
The remaining power is dissipated as heat on the internal resistance Rg of the
generator, and it is given by

*we will have a loss

The maximum power delivered to the antenna occurs when we have
conjugate matching; that is when
Rr + R L = R g
XA =Xg
Rule should matchted


(Rr + RL = RT and XA =XT )the powers delivered to RT ,Rr ,andRL are given,
respectively, by

pg. 12
Radiation efficiency can be written

For a metal rod of length l and uniform cross-sectional area A, the dc

resistance is givenby

pg. 13
ANTENNA VECTOR EFFECTIVE LENGTH AND EQUIVALENT AREAS scattering area Under conjugate matching this is written
a. Vector Effective Length
Voltage induced in open terminal * acik devre de terminalde gordumuz voltaj
The vector effective length le for an antenna is usually a complex vector
loss area Under conjugate matching
quantity represented by

eld Ea radiated by the antenna, with current Iin inits terminals,

capture area Under conjugate matching

open-circuit voltage Voc of receiving antennas. This relationcanbe e

Voc = open-circuit voltage at antenna terminals

Ei = incident electric eld
le = vector effective length
b. Antenna Equivalent Areas
**NOE** antenn is physically losing the power as heat (RL). And use a part of
it and give it to user (Rr) and apart is scattering after the crash (ve

Now that the equivalent areas have been dened, let us introduce the
Ae = effective area (effective aperture) (m ) aperture efciency of an antenna, which is dened as the ratio of the
PT = power delivered to the load (W) * avaliable power at termial maximum effective area Aem of the antenna to its physical area Ap
Wi = power density of incident wave (W/m2) *Power flux density

Under conditions of maximum power transfer (conjugate matching), Rr + RL =

RT and XA =XT , the effective area of upper reduces to the maximum effective
aperture given by

pg. 14
f lossy

Friis Transmission Equation *german

Bir alici ve bir verici varsa ikinci anten ne kadar guc aliyorsa, ne kadar guc


Only add polarizatio for loss

10 guc gondermek isityoruz 10RM

Radar Range Equation

pg. 15
is used to relate the received power to the input power, and it takes into
account only conduction-dielectric losses (radiation efciency) of the
transmitting and receiving antennas. It does not include reection losses
(reection efciency) and polarizationlosses

For polarization-matched antennas aligned for maximum directional


Antenna Radar Cross Section

pg. 16

pg. 17